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  • 51.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Brottseghets- och Lågcykelutmattningsegenskaper hos PM 12% Cr-stål1991Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Properties of Plasma Sprayed FeCrAlY Coatings on High Temperature Alloys1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    A study of plasma sprayed FeCrAlY coatings after various posttreatments1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Fe-Cr-Al-Y Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection1986Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed and posttreated FeCrAlY coatings1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Residual Stress Measurement in Advanced Ceramics1989In: S. Denis (ED) Residual Stresses, Elsevier Applied ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Kvernes, I.
    Lindblom, Y.
    A Comparison Between Different Compounds Improving Corrosion Protection of FeCrAlY Coatings on Superalloys1988In: Proc 15th Conf on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego 1988Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Kvernes, I.
    Lindblom, Y.
    Coatings with lenticular oxides preventing interdiffusion1987In: Surface and Coatings Technology, 32 (1987)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59. Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Lindh, Jörgen
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Programmerbart konstruktionsmaterial i undervisningen. Delrapport 12002Report (Other academic)
  • 60. Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Lindh, Jörgen
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Programmerbart konstruktionsmaterial i undervisningen. Slutrapport2003Report (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Cederlöf, Magdalena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Retractable Boarding Step for Scania Crew Cab: Concept Generation, Design and Materials selection2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 62.
    Chaudron, Tjalling
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ökad arbetstrivsel och bättre resultat genom tjänstedesign: Att skapa möjlighet för distansarbete i naturen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains a survey on telecommuting in nature and how concepts around that information could look like. The client for the project is Lars Sandberg, Dotank AB in Karlstad. The project is implemented in the course Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design, MSCG22 of the faculty of health, science and technology at Karlstad University in the spring of 2014.

    Working flexibly and remotely in the so-called knowledge based professions is growing. That nature is an important source of recovery is a fact. The literature search in this report shows that there are factors that create both physical and psychological stress on most office workers while nature is a source of recovery and inspiration. Telecommuting is more and more accessible to the worker today. More and more companies are adapting their systems to remote work. At the same time municipalities around the country constantly look to find new or improved ways to create an attractive environment for residents and companies to live and work in.

    On this basis, potential users and municipalities were interviewed in order to find the important aspects that should be taken into account in such a concept. These requirements and wishes were compiled. Based upon them, concepts were created with product and service design methods.

    The final concepts are: an introduction lecture to the buyer (municipalities), which presents the advantages of the concept and how it would work in reality, an inventory package, and a survey of the important aspects of the concept in the municipality, which results in proposals for implementing the Work in Nature (WiN) concept. Information on the physical place to reach out to the user has been created. One WiN - cabin, a conceptual cottage, which is developed after the project requirements, has been modelled in CAD. Finally, it has been studied which infrastructure is required and which is usually not available today in public recreation places, such as Wi-Fi and electricity supply.

    The literature survey, interviews with lead users, and a survey have shown the need for the Work in Nature concept. The services and products that are developed during the project can be used to implement the concept.

  • 63.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Credibility of Simulation Results – a Philosophical Perspective on Virtual Manufacturing2012In: Proceedings of the 13th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] R.Scheidl & B. Jakoby, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, p. 784-791Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the factors that play a role in credibility of simulation results. It focuses on virtual manufacturing and in particular resource simulation as an example. However, a simulation model can be used in a number of different ways. Verification and validation of models is amongst other factors important for credibility. In this area, much work has been carried out in defense research. There are also some striking similarities between virtual manufacturing and information fusion, in particular in the field of human competence development related to credibility of simulations.

  • 64.
    de Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Feature-based process planning for sheet metal components revisited2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The concept of form features in design and manufacturing is not new, but has in recent times received renewed attention in industry and academia. Manufacturing features play an important role in process planning. There are different ways to extract these manufacturing features from a product model, depending on how the model was generated. Problems related to feature extraction and reasoning include feature interactions and tolerances. For sheet metal components, some additional issues exist as the base material is flat sheet whereas the completed product is usually a three-dimensional structure. Feature abstractions can be used to avoid problems in manufacturing and increase flexibility in decision making. Compared to machining, some additional functions exist in sheet metal process planning such as flat wrap generation and nesting

  • 65.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Form-Feature Based Process Planning: Part 1 : Overview2011In: IMC-28 : Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th international manufacturing conference, 2011, p. 236-245Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Form-Feature Based Process Planning: Part 2: Sheet Metal Examples2011In: IMC-28 : Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th international manufacturing conference, 2011, p. 246-255Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    On the Suitability of the Information Fusion JDL-U Model as a Reference Model for Virtual Product and Production development2009In: 19th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing 2009 (FAIM 2009): Proceedings of a meeting held 6-8 July 2009, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom / [ed] Nabhani, F., Curran Associates , 2009, p. 1348-1355Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Process Planning Issues in Air Bending of Sheet Metal2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS '09, Göteborg, 2009, p. 334-341Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Virtual Manufacturing Practice and Advanced Applications2010In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Machine Design and Production: UMTIK 14 / [ed] Akkök, M. et al, Güzelyurt: Middle East Technical University , 2010, p. 19-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This keynote gives a general description of simulation and its associated system of interest. In the context of virtual manufacturing, three domains can be distinguished; product domain, process  domain  and  resource  domain.  Examples  of  simulation  in  these there  domains  are given, as well as some examples of simulation across these domains. Typical steps/phases in  a  simulation  project  are  described,  as  well  as  common  pitfalls.  In  industrial  simulation projects, usually a number of stakeholders are involved with different maturity/experience in the  field  of  simulation.  It  is  described  how  such  industrial  simulation  projects  can  be supported by a handbook, developed in close collaboration with a group of companies. As one example of advanced applications, simulation-based remote monitoring and diagnostics is  described.  The  other  example  of  advanced  applications  given  in  the  paper  is  that  of simulation-based optimisation.

  • 70.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Virtual manufacturing: Theory and Practice2012In: Manufacturing Engineering / [ed] Savarese, Anthony B., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a general description of simulation and its associated system of interest. In the context of virtual manufacturing, three domains can be distinguished; product domain, process domain and resource domain. Examples of simulation in these there domains are given, as well as some examples of simulation across these domains. Typical steps/phases in a simulation project are described, as well as common pitfalls. In industrial simulation projects, usually a number of stakeholders are involved with different maturity/experience in the field of simulation. It is described how such industrial simulation projects can be supported by a handbook, developed in close collaboration with a group of companies. As one example of advanced applications, simulation-based remote monitoring and diagnostics is described. The other example of advanced applications given in the paper is that of simulation-based optimisation. Many simulation tools and projects aim at providing decision support to a human decision maker. High level information fusion, a development originating from defence research, also aims at providing decisions support. A comparison between virtual manufacturing and information fusion reveals that a popular reference model for information fusion called JDL-model is very apt to serve as a reference model for virtual manufacturing.

  • 71.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Virtual Manufacturing Theory and Practice2011In: Manufacturing Engineering / [ed] Anthony B. Savarese, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 1-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives a general description of simulation and its associated system of interest. In the context of virtual manufacturing, three domains can be distinguished; product domain, process domain and resource domain. Examples of simulation in these there domains are given, as well as some examples of simulation across these domains. Typical steps/phases in a simulation project are described, as well as common pitfalls. In industrial simulation projects, usually a number of stakeholders are involved with different maturity/experience in the field of simulation. It is described how such industrial simulation projects can be supported by a handbook, developed in close collaboration with a group of companies. As one example of advanced applications, simulation-based remote monitoring and diagnostics is described. The other example of advanced applications given in the paper is that of simulation-based optimisation. Many simulation tools and projects aim at providing decision support to a human decision maker. High level information fusion, a development originating from defence research, also aims at providing decisions support. A comparison between virtual manufacturing and information fusion reveals that a popular reference model for information fusion called JDL-model is very apt to serve as a reference model for virtual manufacturing.

  • 72.
    De Vin, Leo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Solding, Petter
    Swecast.
    Ng, Amos
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Approaches to Energy Efficiency Assessment: A State of the Art Study2009In: Energy Efficient and Low Carbon Manufacturing, Dublin: Trinity college , 2009, p. 9-16Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Dunby, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Spänningsanalys & upphängning av ett ångrörsystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har gjorts på uppdrag av Sweco Industry AB i samarbete med Cambrex Karlskoga AB som en avslutning på Högskoleingenjörsprogrammet inom Maskinteknik.

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att förstå hur värmeutvidgning påverkar en konstruktion och vilken hänsyn ingenjören måste ta vid konstruktionen.

    Målet med projektet har varit att genomföra en spänningsanalys av ett förprojekteratångrörsystem och analysera/utvärdera resultaten mot gällande regler och standarder. Målet var också att utifrån resultatet av spänningsanalysen ta fram underlag för upphängningspunkter. Det var också önskvärt att ta fram ett lämpligt förslag på sekundärstöd för glidstöd anpassattill detta projekt.

    Utvärderingen fastslår att den maximala spänningen orsakad pga. expansion uppgår till 38 % under tillåten spänning. Precis enligt teorin uppstår den maximala spänningen i punkter därförskjutningarna på ett eller sätt förhindrats. Förskjutningarna ligger också inom tillåtnaintervall utan att komma i kontakt med omgivningen. Slutligen överstiger inte hellerstödlasterna de tillåtna gränserna varken vid statisk last och eller under drift.

    Framtagningen av lämpligt sekundärstöd började med ett antal koncept som sedan sålladesoch där de kvarvarande analyserades i en FEM-analys. Resultatet blev två sekundärstöd somklarade lasterna från rörsystemet. Det mest lämpliga förslaget var stödet med minst ingåendedelar, men fortfarande 34 % marginal mot tillåten spänning

  • 74.
    Ejnermark, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Mjukglödgning av ett plastformsstål2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 75.
    Ekberg, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Investeringsförslag till slipstation för servicearbete av skruvmatare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project ”Investment proposal for grinding station for service work of screw feeders” has been performed during the spring semester 2014 for the course Bachelor’s thesis for degree of  Bachelor of science in machine engineering at Karlstad’s University. The project has been performed in cooperation with Fiber Workshop which is a service department in the company Valmet AB. Valmet AB is a company that develops and manufacture soft paper tissue machines. The screw feeder is a part that is used to feed, and squeeze out the water out of woodchips. The service work of the screw feeder mostly consists of service work on two major parts, namely the feeder screw and the split pipe, which the feeder screw is mounted in.

     

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the service work, namely the grinding in a working environment point of view. Another goal of the project was to present some improvements for this process.

     

    The working environment which has been evaluated is primarily the risk of vibration damage in arm and hand, the risk of ergonomic musculoskeletal disorders and even a dust measurement has been performed, with the help of Hans-Olov Karlsson from the company Clarahälsan.

    The result from the working environment survey suggests that the operator exceed the work environment limits in regards to the risk of suffering damages from vibrations in the hand and arm. The grinding work of the split pipe is considered to be a bigger problem in regards to ergonomics than the grinding on the feeder screw. The split pipe requires the operator to stand in a posture that takes more concentration and precision than for the feeder screw. The results from the dust measurements indicate that the levels of dust in the air, during the grinding, are within the approved limits. The safety equipment used by the operator is adequate, there has however been a desire of the client to find a solution that manages the dust.

     

    One of the improvement proposals consists mainly of a number of accessories for the grinder to help improve the problems with vibration and the dust. The possibilities to circumvent the grinding work for the screw pipe altogether have been examined. It is possible to begin to mill the screw pipe in the lathe, which has a powered tool. For it to be possible to mill the split pipe instead of grinding, the lathe machine is in need of an extension arm, to be able to reach down the whole split pipe. This arm has been designed and developed in this project.

  • 76.
    Ekegren, Patric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Fixed bolted propeller (FBP): Concept study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A propeller for marine use transforms rotational motion to propulsive thrust by producing a difference in pressure between the two surfaces of each propeller blade. The water is accelerated away from the propeller when it is rotating and a force is created which moves the ship forward. There are a lot of different propellers on the marine market, but all works according to this phenomenon.

    Rolls-Royce AB in Kristinehamn has been supplying propellers for ship propulsion systems since 1937. There are four different main types of propellers which they construct and provide; Controllable Pitch Propellers (CPP), Fixed Pitch Propellers (FPP), Fixed Bolted Propellers (FBP) and Adjustable Bolted Propellers (ABP).

    FBP’s are propellers with fixed pitch and are built-up by several parts and thereafter bolted together. In the origin of propeller construction, FBP’s were the most common ones, but during the last century the FPP’s (mono-block moulded propellers with fixed pitch) and the CPP’s (controllable pitch) has been the most frequently used. FBP’s have been and are still very rare on marine market, but Rolls-Royce believes that the market for FBP’s will grow during the upcoming years. This is due to demands of quick replacement of a damaged propeller underwater and easier transport conditions and back-up storage on ships and vessels, where a FBP is superior to a FPP. Electric propulsion systems are also more commonly used today which favours propellers with fixed pitch in contrast to CPP’s.

    This thesis work is a concept study of FBP’s and will be a pre-study for future research and development projects atRolls-RoyceAB.The overall goal of this thesis work is to scan the market for different solutions of FBP’s and to evaluate, compare and rank different concepts. Secondary goals are to develop new concepts and analyze the suitability of the concepts in different marine segments.

    A competitor analysis and a literature survey were carried out, which scan the marine market of potential FBP’s designs and performed scientific research around the subject. New concepts were generated and all designs were thereafter collected in a body of ideas. A list of requirements was made with the important demands of a FBP and Olsson’s criteria matrix was used to get a solution neutral and measurable criterion.

    Methods and matrices by Pahl and Beitz and by Pugh were used to eliminate bad ideas and to screen all the concepts. Weighted matrices by Kesselring were used to compare, score and rank the concept designs in three different segments; merchant, offshore and naval. A deeper comparison of benefits and disadvantages were also carried out between the best concepts and they were also all modelled in PROEngineer for better explanation and 3D-viewing.

    The strength of two different concepts (Concept 1 and Concept 21) was also analyzed deeper and compared in a finite element analysis (FEA). Concept 21 is a new, odd and interesting design with “custard slice-shaped” blade flanges bolted together without any need of a hub. Concept 1 is the existing design used by Rolls-Royce and was chosen for comparison and was during this study considered to have a general design and acceptable strength.

    The investigation was performed in ABAQUS and was simplified to a static problem, representing a propeller operating in a steady state. Cyclic symmetries were used and a resulting force (centrifugal and thrust force) was applied to the propeller blade. The screw joints were modelled by “tying” the threaded interfaces, defining contact interactions and applying pre-tension forces.

    The result from the FEA showed that the overall strengths of the two analyzed concepts are comparable and the critical points were in both concepts the guiding/dowel pins.

    A conclusion from this study is that there are only a few different FBP-designs provided on the marine market today. This study has however collected the existing designs and generated many other concepts and ideas which can be used for further research and development of FBP’s. After the screening process were nine concepts selected for deeper analysis. Seven out of the nine concepts (Concept 1-6 and Concept 21) showed very good qualities in general and should be considered as potential designs of FBP’s. Concept 18 can also be a prospect if the problem with shear stresses in the screws can be sorted out.

    Summarizing this thesis work leads to a suggestion to Rolls-Royce to continue with the design of Concept1 ingeneral and continue with designs of Concept2 inmore advanced and specialized operating conditions. The other appropriate concepts needs to be investigated deeper and can maybe be used in the future, where Concept 5 and Concept 21 seems to be the most promising ones.

  • 77.
    Ekengren, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Estimating inclusion content in high performance steels2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Ekengren, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Estimating inclusion content in high performance steels2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-metallic inclusions in steel pose a major problem for the fatigue resistance, especially regarding fatigue at very long lives corresponding to low cyclic stress levels, as well as being detrimental to material toughness and polishability.

    The largest inclusions are quite rare, which makes conventional detection methods timeconsuming if reliable results are to be obtained. Based on surface scanning using light or electron microscopes, these methods provide results that have to be converted to reflect the statistical volume distribution of inclusions.

    Very high cycle fatigue (in the order of 109 cycles or more) using ultrasonic fatigue at 20 kHz has been found efficient at finding the largest inclusions in volumes of about 300 mm3 per specimen. The inclusions found at the fatigue initiation site can then been used to estimate the distribution of large inclusions using extreme value statistics.

    In this work, a new method for estimating the volume distribution of large inclusions is presented as well as a suggested ranking variable based on the volume distribution.

    Results from fatigue fractography and area scanning methods are compared to the endurance limit at 109 cycles for a number of batches from two high performance steels.

    In addition, the extreme value distributions of fatigue initiating inclusions in six high performace steels, produced by different routes, are presented. It is shown that all modes of the Generalized Extreme Values distribution can be found in different materials. This result shows that the assumption of mode I distribution, also known as Gumbel or Largest Extreme Value distribution, must be substantiated.

  • 79.
    Ekengren, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Finding non-metallic inclusions in clean steel2008Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Ekengren, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Large and rare: An extreme values approach to estimating the distribution of large defects in high-performance steels2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of different types of defects is an important reality for manufacturers and users of engineering materials. Generally, the defects are either considered to be the unwanted products of impurities in the raw materials or to have been introduced during the manufacturing process. In high-quality steel materials, such as tool steel, the defects are usually non-metallic inclusions such as oxides or sulfides.

    Traditional methods for purity control during standard manufacturing practice are usually based on the light optical microscopy scanning of polished surfaces and some statistical evaluation of the results. Yet, as the steel manufacturing process has improved, large defects have become increasingly rare. A major disadvantage of the traditional quality control methods is that the accuracy decreases proportionally to the increased rarity of the largest defects unless large areas are examined.

    However, the use of very high cycle fatigue to 109 cycles has been shown to be a powerful method to locate the largest defects in steel samples. The distribution of the located defects may then be modelled using extreme value statistics.

    This work presents new methods for determining the volume distribution of large defects in high-quality steels, based on ultrasonic fatigue and the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The methods have been developed and verified by extensive experimental testing, including over 400 fatigue test specimens. Further, a method for reducing the distributions into one single ranking variable has been proposed, as well as a way to estimate an ideal endurance strength at different life lengths using the observed defects and endurance limits. The methods can not only be used to discriminate between different materials made by different process routes, but also to differentiate between different batches of the same material.

    It is also shown that all modes of the GEV are to be found in different steel materials, thereby challenging a common assumption that the Gumbel distribution, a special case of the GEV, is the appropriate distribution choice when determining the distribution of defects.

    The new methods have been compared to traditional quality control methods used in common practice (surface scanning using LOM/SEM and ultrasound C-scan), and suggest a greater number of large defects present in the steel than could otherwise be detected.

  • 81.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Detecting large inclusions in steels: evaluating methods2009In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 80, no 11, p. 854-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distributions of large non-metallic inclusions in two steel grades have been investigated using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ultrasonic fatigue testing in the gigacycle range. The different methods have inherently different capabilities for finding inclusions in different size ranges. A measure of the distribution of large inclusions is proposed as the size S at which half of the fatigue specimens are expected to contain at least one inclusion of size S or larger, corresponding to 50% failure probability. Values of S are obtained using the volume distribution estimated by the three methods. Extrapolation from microscopy measurements on surfaces agree with fatigue fractography results regarding density of large inclusions, as measured by the proposed ranking variable S

  • 82.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Estimating the volume distribution of large defects using Generalized Extreme Values2011In: Extremes, ISSN 1386-1999, E-ISSN 1572-915XArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of defects, such as oxides and other non-metallic inclusions, is an important factor in determining the properties of steels. Due to improvements in the manufacturing of high-quality steels, the amount of large defects has decreased and therefore it has become increasingly difficult to accurately determine their distribution using conventional methods. Previously, a method for estimating the distribution of large defects using a conversion from the Gumbel distribution has been presented. However, it has been shown that the Gumbel distribution is not always appropriate for modelling the sizes of the largest defects and that the Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) distribution should be used instead. In this work a more general method for the estimation of the total volume distribution of large defects isproposed, showing how the volume distribution may be calculated from the estimated parameters for the GEV distribution. The new method is applied to the results of a series of specimens made from high-quality tool steel tested in ultrasonic resonance fatigue. Possible methods for obtaining the confidence limits of thevolume distribution are also discussed.

  • 83.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Extreme value distributions of inclusions in six  steels2012In: Extremes, ISSN 1386-1999, E-ISSN 1572-915X, Vol. 15, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a prevailing assumption that the largest inclusions in steel volumes follows mode I of the Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) distribution. In this work, the GEV distributions of non-metallic inclusions in six different high performance steels, of different grades and processing routes, were investigated by means of fractography of inclusions causing failure in ultrasonic fatigue testing to one billion cycles and all three modes of the GEV were found for the different steel grades. Values of the shape parameter ξ of the GEV distribution as high as 0.51 (standard deviation 0.11) were found in one steel grade. Thus, the present results show that the assumption of GEV-I (Gumbel, LEVD) distribution has to be substantiated before being used to estimate the size of the largest inclusions.

  • 84.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Extreme value distributions of inclusions in six steels2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Influence of life length on estimated defect  distribution in a low defect steel material2011In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Very High Cycle Fatigue / [ed] C. Berger and H.-J. Christ, 2011, p. 177-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on results of very high cycle fatigue tests on a steel with a relatively low number of defects per unit volume. Two series of newly designed dog-bone specimens, with low stress gradients, were tested at two constant stress levels, aiming at providing fatigue life lengths of 106–108 cycles and 107–109 cycles, respectively. Fatigue-initiating defects on the fracture surfaces were measured and the corresponding size distributions were analysed to investigate the influence of the elevated stress level needed to achieve shorter life lengths.The presented results indicate a difference between the distribution of initiating defects in the long and shorter life length test series. The main conclusion is that fixed stress level fatigue testing to life lengths around 107 cycles may be a suitable method to estimate the content of large defects in low defect steel materials, provided a suitable test specimen geometry with low stress gradients is used.

  • 86.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Kazymyrovych, Vitaliy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Assessment of strength and inclusions of Tool Steels in Very High Cycle Fatigue2009In: Proceedings of the 8th International Tooling Conference, Vol 1 / [ed] P. Beiss, C. Broeckmann, S. Franke, B. Keysselitz, Verlag Mainz, Wissenschaftsverlag , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue strength is an important material property for many tooling applications, particularly in high performance applications. The research in Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) has demonstrated that the traditional fatigue limit may not be valid for many materials subjected to 107 or more load cycles. Presently, both materials data and mechanism knowledge is missing on VHCF applications, even though many components are run at these life lengths. The fatigue strength is commonly controlled by different defects initiating failure, as in well controlled laboratory experiments may be internal inclusions. In this paper VHCF experimental testing was accomplished by the use of ultrasonic fatigue testing run at 20 kHz allowing long life evaluation within reasonably short test time. Fatigue strength, failure mechanisms and inclusion content were accordingly assessed. Fatigue strength data on H13 tool steel are presented, as well as a statistical approach considering available defect distribution and load distribution in the critically stressed volume, important to both steel supplier and end-user.

  • 87.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Kazymyrovych, Vitaliy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Relating gigacycle fatigue to other methods in evaluating the inclusion distribution of a H13 tool steel2007In: Fourth International Conference on Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF-4) / [ed] John E. Allison, J. Wayne Jones, James M. Larsen & Robert O. Ritchie, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) , 2007, p. 45-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusions play a crucial role for the fatigue properties of high strength steel, but to find the largest inclusions by microscopy measurements large areas have to be examined.In this study ultrasonic gigacycle staircase fatigue testing has been used to find large inclusions in an H13 tool steel. The inclusions have been examined in SEM and their size distribution modeled using methods from extreme value statistics. The inclusion distribution obtained from the fatigue crack surfaces is compared to distributions acquired by microscopy study of cross sections as well as ultrasound immersion tank measurements and to the corresponding staircase fatigue data via the Murakami √Area model.It is shown that the fatigue method more effectively finds large inclusions than the other methods. It is also shown that the correlation between predictions of inclusion sizes by the √Area model from stress levels and fatigue initiating inclusions is weak forthis material.

  • 88.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Kazymyrovych, Vitaliy
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    RELATING GIGACYCLE FATIGUE TO OTHER METHODS IN EVALUATING THE INCLUSION DISTRIBUTION OF A H13 TOOL STEEL2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusions play a crucial role for the fatigue properties of high strength steel, but to find the

    largest inclusions by microscopy measurements large areas have to be examined. In this study ultrasonic gigacycle staircase fatigue testing has been used to find large inclusions in an H13 tool steel. The inclusions have been examined in SEM and their size

    distribution modeled using methods from extreme value statistics. The inclusion distribution obtained from the fatigue crack surfaces is compared to distributions acquired by microscopy study of cross sections as well as ultrasound immersion tank measurements and to the corresponding staircase fatigue data via the Murakami \sqrt{Area} model. It is shown that the fatigue method more effectively finds large inclusions than the other methods. It is also shown that the correlation between predictions of inclusion sizes by the \sqrt{Area} model from stress levels and fatigue initiating inclusions is weak for this material

  • 89.
    Elfving, Filip
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Simulation of laser welding in sandwich rocket nozzle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been carried out at GKN Aerospace. GKN is a member of European Space Agency, designing and manufacturing rocket-nozzles for the Ariane rockets. The manufacturing process entails many welds. Weld-simulations have been made to investigate stresses and plastic strains on simplified geometries. Plastic strains have been evaluated parallel and normal to the weld for plate geometries of shell-elements with rectangular cross-section and sandwich-cross-section, using the FEM-program MSC.marc. Results shows that plate width and length have negligible effect on the plastic strains when one weld is made. A comparison between a sandwich-sector cone and a sandwich plate was made, to investigate how plastic strains and stresses were affected of geometry. Plastic strains and stresses parallel the weld are the same. Plastic strains and stresses normal the weld are affected by changing geometry. Studies on differences in stresses between solid and shell elements propose use of solid elements near the weld region, if stresses are of interest.

  • 90.
    Elschich, Ahmed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Thermo-mechanical Fatigue of Electrical Insulation System in Electrical machine2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical machines in electrified heavy-duty vehicles are subjected to dynamic temperature loadings during normal operation due to the different driving conditions. The Electrical Insulation System (EIS) in a stator winding is aged as an effect of these dynamic thermal loads. The thermal loads are usually high constant temperatures and thermal cycling. The high average constant thermal load is well-known in the electrical machine industry but little is known about the effect of temperature cycling. In this project, the ageing of the EIS in stator windings due to temperature cycling is examined.

    In this project, computational simulations of different simplified models that represent the electrical insulation system are made to analyse the thermo-mechanical stresses that is induced due to thermal cycling. Furthermore, a test object was designed and simulated to replicate the stress levels obtained from the simulations. The test object is to ease the physical testing of electrical insulation system. Testing a complete stator takes time and has the disadvantage of having a high mass, therefore a test object is designed and a test method is provided. The results from the finite element analysis indicate that the mechanical stresses induced will affect the lifetime of the electrical insulation system.

    A sensitivity study of several thermal cycling parameters was performed, the stator core length, the cycle rate and the temperature cycle amplitude. The results obtained indicate that the stator core length is too short to have a significant effect on the thermo-mechanical stresses induced. The results of the sensitivity study of the temperature cycle rate and the temperature cycle amplitude showed that these parameters increase the thermo-mechanical stresses induced.

    The results from the simulations of the test object is similar to the results from the simulations of the stator windings, which means that the tests object is valid for testing. The test method that is most appropriate is the power cycling test method, because it replicates the actual application of stator windings. The thermally induced stresses exposing the slot insulation exceeds the yield strength of the material, therefore plastic deformation may occur only after one thermal cycle. The other components in the stator are exposed to stresses below the yield strength.

    The thermally induced stresses exposing the slot insulation are high enough to low cycle fatigue the electrical insulation system, thus thermo-mechanical fatigue is an ageing factor of the electrical insulation system.

  • 91.
    Emanuelsson, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Utformning av förvaringar för kapslar: För kaffe te och choklad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 92.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Sliding wear performance of electroplated hard chromium and autocatalytic nickel-phosphorus coatings at elevated temperatures2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was written for a Swedish valve manufacturer to find out in what temperature regimes it was possible to replace electroplated hard chromium with autocatalytic electroless nickel-phosphorus. In this work the dry sliding wear properties of electroplated hard chromium and autocatalytic electroless nickel-phosphorus(10% P) were compared. All tests and investigations were done by using available equipment at Karlstads University. The tests were made to find out how the wear of these coatings behaved at different temperatures, how different substrates influence the wear of these coatings and how the roughness of the substrate surface influence the wear properties of these coatings.

    The method used for the wear tests was block-on-ring with a counterformal contact mode. The tests were executed in room temperature, 300C and 400C; with a normal load of 100N, sliding speed was 150rpm and duration of the tests were 15 minutes. All tests were done in an argon gas atmosphere. The coatings was deposited onto the cylinders with a thickness of 30µm. The different substrates used were an austenitic stainless steel(1.4404) and an austenitic-ferritic(duplex) stainless steel(1.4460). Half of the austenitic cylinders had a machined surface and all the others(including duplex cylinders) were machined and grinded to achieve a smoother surface. The blocks used as countersurface were made out of austenitic-ferritic(duplex) stainless steel(1.4460).

    Equipment used to investigate the wear tracks were stereo microscopy, profilometer, microhardness tester and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The coatings were investigated in matter such as wear depth, wear mode, wear mechanism, chemical composition, topography, morphology, cross-section and hardness.

    The results of this work showed that the nickel coating wear tracks maximal depth were less deep than those of hard chrome, at room temperature. At elevated temperatures the performance varies. The coatings deposited onto cylinders made out of duplex stainless steel performed better than those deposited onto austenitic cylinders. The nickel coating performed better deposited onto the substrates with smooth surface and the chrome coating performed better deposited onto the substrates with rough surface

  • 93.
    Eriksson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Undersökning av svetsegenskaper för svetsning med rörtråd kontra homogen tråd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Welding is a common method for joining of metal or plastic construction parts. This report describes several different weld methods in general terms. The report focuses on the GMAW method, specifically MAG welding.

    A case study has also been performed for the company Wenmec. The task received from the company was to compare the mechanical properties of joints welded with the tube electrode called Nittetsu SM-3A and joints welded with the homogenous electrode called ESAB Aristorod 12.63. Both types of weld joint were welded with the MAG method with an Argon based shielding gas with 18% CO2. The final task of this study is to compare the cost of these electrodes and then help Wenmec to decide which electrode that is the most cost effective.

    Tensile testing, impact testing and fatigue testing were performed on the weld joint samples. The hardnesses, microstructures, failure zones and chemical composition were examined with optical microscopy and SEM.

    The weld time, the amount of consumed electrode and the weld energy was measured during welding. These properties were similar and the differences between the different joints could be ignored.

    Both weld joint types showed similar microstructures and hardnesses. The microstructure was ferrite with carbides or perlite at the grain boundaries. Some silicon oxides were found in the grains.

    The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and cycles to fatigue failure were similar in the two joint types, but the Aristorod weld joint showed higher impact strength and elongation at break.

    The chemical composition showed that the SM-3A electrode was a metal cored electrode with some additions of deoxidizing elements and a Copper coating. The Aristorod 12.63 electrode also showed the presence of deoxidizing elements and likely had a Titanium based coating. The sheet metal used as the work pieces are called Ruukki Laser 355 MC and is steel with low Carbon content, some Manganese and some impurities.

    The SM-3A electrode was costlier than the 12.63 electrode. This work concluded that the 12.63 electrode was a better alternative for Wenmec due to the lower cost, higher impact strength and higher elongation at break

  • 94.
    Eriksson Röhnisch, Kasper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    FEM Analytisk studie av kilar för riktverk: FEM Analytisk studie av konstruktionsändringar för delkomponenten kilkasset i riktverk 1, Formatsträcka 4 SSAB Borlänge2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 95.
    Ferreira Neto, Luiz Benicio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Vertikaltransportör: Till pappersrullar2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project includes a thesis performed at Karlstad University in spring 2013. The thesis is included in the mechanical engineering program and contains 22.5 university points, which is equivalent to 480 hours of work including self-study.

     

    This work has implemented by the student Luiz Ferreira in cooperation with the firm Camatec Industriteknik AB in Karlstad.

     

    The purpose of this project has been that the company Camatec wants to offer their customers a standard vertical transporter. This transporter must be able to transport paper rolls, which can weigh up to 5 tons, between two floors. The objective with this project has been to prepare a complete set of drawings for a vertical transporter and a price estimate of all its components. This transporter must fit into a given elevator shaft but also be able to adapt into different dimensions.

     

    A vertical transporter has been developed with help of different methods including 3D-modeling, Finite Element Method and strength calculations.

     

    The total development of the transporter has been divided into several areas of constructions:

    • Receiver for paper rolls

    An existing receiver for paper rolls has been redesigned and adapted into the new construction.

    • Frame

    A frame has been developed including I-beams, flat bars and hollow structural sections which have been connected with welding and bolts to hold the receiver.

    • Mechanism

    A mechanism of shaft and bearings, which allow the receiver to rotate so the paper rolls can relief in a facility way, has been designed.

    • Guiding

    A guiding section has been developed, in which t-grids have been used to guide the transporter along the given elevator shaft.

    • Vibration damper

    Two ANB 100 vibration dampers with a hardness of 70 Shore have been used to suppress one side of the receiver so it can rotate.

    • Hoist

    An appropriate rope hoist for this transporter has been discussed with the firm ABUS Kransystem AB in Karlstad. This hoist carries almost the entire transporter.

     

    Standard components are used through the entire project and these have been estimated at an amount of about 306 000 Swedish crowns, where prices for the existing solution of receiver, processing and installation are not included.

  • 96.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge and How it Affects Tool Steels1994Report (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge Machining and its influence on Forming Tools1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge Machining and the properties of Tool Steels1996Report (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Influence of EDM: Post treatments and coatings on mechanical porperties of cold work steels1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a presentation of results from the laboratory tests of the project Electrical Discharge Machining of Tools in Cold Work Applications. Two high speed steels, two cold work ingot cast and forged steels, and one powder metallurgical cold work steel at hardness from 51 to 66 HRc were included in the study. In the first part of the report differences between the various tool steels in how they respond to electrical discharge machining (EDM) are discussed. Surface alterations, defect distributions, static and fatigue strength are included as well as wire and die sinking EDM, both rough and fine. In the second part some post EDM treatments are examined. The effect of tempering and shot peening after EDM on mechanical properties of the tool steel is shown and a comparison of mechanical polishing and electrochemical polishing (ECP) is given. Since cold work tool steels are being used at increasing hardness, the third part is a study where the hardness of two tool steels has been varied in order to see how important this is to the effect of EDM on mechanical properties of the steel. In the last part the combination of EDM, mechanical or electrochemical polishing and thin ceramic surface coatings are studied, one CVD and one PVD coating

  • 100.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Inverkan av temperatur, dielektrikum och elektrodmaterial på ytegenskaperna hos gnistarbetat varmarbetsstål1992Report (Refereed)
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