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  • 51.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

    Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Background music as part of the servicescape: A study of the effect of music on the shopping experience2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53. Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Björkehed, J.
    Wiberg, A.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Ta till vara kritiken2006In: Värmlands Folkblad (06-09-08)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway..
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway.;Norwegian Business Sch, Oslo, Norway..
    Parasuraman, A.
    Univ Miami, Sch Business, Coral Gables, FL 33124 USA..
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Colurcio, Maria
    Univ Magna Graecia Catanzaro Italy, Catanzaro, Italy..
    Linking service design to value creation and service research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding service design and how service design relates to central concepts within service marketing. Design/methodology/approach - For companies, service design is growing in importance and has become a crucial capability to survive in the service-dominant economy. Service design increases the capacity to improve not only service experiences but also organizational design. On this premise, the authors propose a conceptual framework. Findings - By relating service design to research efforts within service marketing, dual value creation can be enhanced. As such, the conceptual framework portrays service design as an enhancer of customer experience and organizational performance. Originality/value - To the authors knowledge, service design has not been discussed in the service marketing literature. Thus, this is the first attempt to see service design in light of well-established service marketing models such as SERVQUAL and an updated version of the Service-profit-chain.

  • 55.
    Angel, Henriette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Beteende i gruppsammanhang2012Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 56.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management2012In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

  • 57.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Usable Transparency with the Data Track: A Tool for Visualizing Data Disclosures2015In: CHI EA '15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] Bo Begole, Jinwoo Kim, Kori Inkpen, Woontack Woo, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 1803-18098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a prototype of the user interface of a transparency tool that displays an overview of a user's data disclosures to different online service providers and allows them to access data collected about them stored at the services' sides. We explore one particular type of visualization method consisting of tracing lines that connect a user's disclosed personal attributes to the service to which these attributes have been disclosed. We report on the ongoing iterative process of design of such visualization, the challenges encountered and the possibilities for future improvements.

  • 58.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management: The PrimeLife Approach2011In: Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance / [ed] Steven Furnell, Plymouth: University of Plymouth , 2011, p. 108-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 60.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Identity Management for online transactions - Using ‘Profiles’ to segregate personal information2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gullberg, Peter
    Gemalto, Gothenburg.
    Kling, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tavemark, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use2012In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

  • 62.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Att leva som nykter alkoholist: En fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of what it is like to live as a recovering alcoholic and what happens to the person in the process of change taking place. To fulfill this purpose interviews with sober alcoholics where made where they as free as possible could talk about their experience of living sober and the changes it entails, both mentally, spiritually and in everyday life. Literature and previous research on the topic was studied in order to deepen understanding and make connections to the performed study.

    A qualitative study using inductive approach was considered most appropriate for the query, which intends to clarify and interpret the respondents' experiences. Therefore, a phenomenological approach was chosen to explore the experience of living sober. The empirical data was analysed using the IPA method (interpretative Phenomenological Analysis).

    Based on the analysis of the material four themes emerged that were common to the respondents' experiences of living sober: Acceptance and recognition, Alone is not strong, Personal Development, Reflection and life values. These themes combine to form a whole which gave a better understanding of the experience of living sober.

    The results of this study concludes that the experience of living sober can be summarized with a sense of serenity and gratitude. It further concludes that the perception of self changed and strengthened in line with the on going process of change and personal development. Also an analogy between the twelve-step program, mindfulness as well as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could be ascertained by the results 

  • 63. Bamberg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Behaviour Theory and Soft Transport Policy Measures2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to propose a theoretical grounding of soft transport policy measures that aim at promoting voluntary reduction of car use. A general conceptual framework is first presented to clarify how hard and soft transport policy measures impact on car-use reduction. Two different behavioural theories that have been used to account for car use and car-use reduction are then integrated in a self-regulation theory that identifies four stages of the process of voluntarily changing car use: setting a car-use reduction goal, forming a plan for achieving the goal, initiating and executing the plan, and evaluating the outcome of the plan execution. A number of techniques are described that facilitate the different stages of the process of voluntary car-use reduction and which should be used in personalized travel planning programs.

  • 64.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sociala relationer och ohälsa2005In: I Kalander Blomqvist, M & Janson, S (red), Värmlänningarnas liv och hälsa 2004, Karlstad, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sociala relationer och ohälsa2005In: Värmlänningarnas liv och hälsa 2004 / [ed] Marina Kalander Blomqvist och Staffan Janson, Karlstad: Landstinget i Värmland och Karlstads universitet , 2005, p. 118-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 66. Bergman, A.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Anonyma Hösäckar lever i skuggan av det oidentifierade. Psykologiska aspekter på fysisk inaktivitet2005In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 14 (1), 26-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 67. Bergman, A.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hay sacks Anonymous: Living in the shadow of the unidentified. Psychological aspects of physical inactivity from a phenomenological perspective2005In: The Qualitative Report, 10, 795-816Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Bergman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T
    Constancy of personality traits and efficiency of a training program in improving coping strategies2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69. Bergsten, P.
    et al.
    Eriksson, M.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Tillverkningsledning vid ökad marknadsanpassning1990Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 70. Bergsten, P.
    et al.
    Eriksson, M.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Uddeholm Strip Steel AB1989Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Billinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms: a specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior2011In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 2, article id 122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11-13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) were not (non-symbolic), based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post-test performances (p < 0.05). Surprisingly, non-symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the operational definition used in the present study may be useful in further studies relating the capability to show symbolic behavior and students' activity and participation in classroom settings.

  • 72.
    Björk, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    The What, Who, When, Where, and How of Idea Assessment.2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary innovation management literature there is limitedcomprehensive understanding regarding how different domains andfactors affect and bias early assessment of new product/service ideas.This paper aims at reviewing domains that previous research hasidentified affecting the evaluation of an idea and compiles them into aconceptual framework, and to test this framework among leading expertsand practitioners in the field of idea management. Empirical findings fromtwo workshops indicate that the identified domains in the framework areindeed relevant, but that additional aspect are highlighted and recognized by practitioners. We note that a proactive and deliberate approach to idea assessment needs to be carefully designed, attending to all factors in the presented framework in a comprehensive manner, while taking the organization's specific innovation needs and demands into account.

  • 73. Björlin-Lidén, Sara
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Revealing the recovery paradox: how the use of a service guarantee influence customer satisfaction2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Boe, Ole
    et al.
    School of Behavioural Sciences and Education, Borås University College.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Selart, Marcus
    School of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Does the Use of Decision Heuristics Influence Impulse Buying?2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study a survey was performed in order to investigate if the use of heuristics in decision-making has an influence on the impulse buying tendency. Another aim of the study was to see if there were any age differences with regard to the use of heuristics and the impulse buying tendency. The study was conducted with students from Göteborg University and Karlstad University in Sweden (n = 69), with different educational backgrounds. Participants filled out a booklet of questions divided in two parts. One part measured impulse buying tendencies, and the second part measured the use of heuristics in decision-making. One hypothesis was that impulse buyers would use heuristics to a higher degree than planned buyers. It was also hypothesized that young participants would be more impulsive buyers because they use heuristics more than older participants. The results gave no support to the hypothesis that impulse buyers would use heuristics to a higher degree than planned buyers. Support for the second hypothesis was received as 20-24 year old high achievers on the heuristics test were found to be significantly more impulsive buyers than low achievers in the same age group.

  • 75.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Affective personality in relation to general personality, self-reported stress, coping and optimism2004In: Individual Differences Research, 2, 26-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sundequist, U.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on stress related muscle pain: What makes the difference in therapy, attention-placebo or the relaxation response?2005In: Pain Research and Management, 10, 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sundequist, U.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, L.
    Nordenström, K.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Eliciting the relaxation response with the help of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in patients with stress-related ailments2006In: Internation journal of Stress Manage. 2006;13:154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Klinisk barnpsykologi: Utveckling på avvägar2003Book (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Institutionen för psykologi, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Almqvist, Linnea
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Cater, Åsa
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Örebro Universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Institutionen för sociologi, Uppsala Universitet.
    Stöd till barn som bevittnat våld mot mamma: Resultat från en nationell utvärdering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Linnea
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Cater, Åsa
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Institutionen för sociologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Forssell, Anna
    Örebro universitet.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sharifi, Karin
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt våld mot mamma: Preliminära resultat från en nationell utvärdering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Socialt stöd: En explorativ faktoranalys av ett frågeformulär för urvalet till Försvarsmakten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study presents an exploratory factor analysis of a questionnaire regar­ding military recruits’ social support from friends and family (i.e., Social support) for their voluntary enlistment, and participation in the basic military training. The participants consisted of the 1290 (1133 men and 157 women) who had been accepted to and started the first rounds of basic military training in the new Swedish Armed Forces All-volunteer Force in 2011. The exploratory factor analysis (Principal Component Analysis, with Oblique-rotation) yielded a simple structure where 11 of the original 13 statements loaded on four related factors. Two of the fac­tors consisted of the statements which were common to all participants, that is, all participants were able to answer them. These two factors re­garded an articulated support for family and friend, and an unspoken dis­approval, respectively. The remaining two factors where specific for the participants who had either been deployed on international operations previously, or were in (or had recently ended) a relationship. The study also explores the relationships between the emerging four factors and two questions regarding the participants’ rating of the importance of social support for their well-being (i.e., Importance of social support), and the prevalence of previous relationship problems (i.e., Relationship problems). However, the structure, and in particular the two latter factors need to be evaluated further, and the results should therefore be interpreted with caution. In addition, the introduction to this study presents a theoretical background to the field of social support, and its importance for military populations.

  • 82.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Military capacity and Civil adjustment: Assessments of the "re-usable" peacekeeping soldier for development of a selection system2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether “re-usable” soldiers, that is, those who performed well during operations (Military capacity), and were able to readjust post-deployment (Civil adjustment), could be identified pre-deployment. Participants were 364 UN peacekeeping soldiers. Three hypotheses were posed: (a) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with low Military capacity, (b) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with poor Civil adjustment after deployment, and (c) the two aspects of “re-usability” (Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment) would be intertwined. Results showed that the selection system for conscripts was unable to identify soldiers’ Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment. Results also showed that these two aspects were unrelated, and did not interact. Indications on possible consequences, and improvements were discussed.

  • 83.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    ME01: Beskrivning och uppföljning av deltagarnas psykologiska status före, under och efter insatsen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Standardiserade beskrivningar för nya psykologiska urvalsinstrument: Separata beskrivningar för antagningsprövningen (AP) och den grundläggande militära utbildningen (GMU)2012Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    Försvarsmaktens HR Centrum.
    Utvärdering av officersurvalet till Officersprogrammet vid Militärhögskolan Karlberg: Det psykologiska urvalet betydelse för studieprestationen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Conde, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Yoga - ett självhjälpsverktyg för stressade individer: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    A modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for Anorexia Nervosa – a case study2012In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study illustrates the treatment of an adult woman who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). For approximately 10 years, the client had suffered from various forms of eating disorders and had had several unsuccessful encounters with the health care services. In this study, she was treated with a modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). CBT-E is a relatively new treatment guide with a transdiagnostic perspective on eating disorders. In all, the treatment consisted of 14 sessions where most sessions were held on a weekly basis. Thereafter, a maintenance and follow-up was conducted via email and with the aid of self-help literature. Treatment time lasted for 8 months followed by a follow-up of 4 months. In this study, the content of each session is described, as are the modifications that were made. The modifications were made to increase motivation and self-esteem, as well as perceived control of eating, which, in itself, is a contribution to increased efficiency and a clarification of important treatment components. Apart from a description of treatment interventions, the study shows the weight gain and other clinically significant components regarding eating disorders that concern, among other things, self-esteem and general mental health. The results of this study demonstrate that this treatment, with the proposed modifications, has been highly effective for this client and hence provides a positive anticipation that this might be a more effective treatment in general for people with AN.

  • 88. Edebol, H.
    et al.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Case studies on chronic whiplash associated disorders and their treatment using flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation technique)2008In: Qualitative Health Research, 18, 480-488Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing. Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

    Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder. Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms). Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with diconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms. In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

    The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

     

     

  • 90.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring Cardinal Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Examining objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to examine measures of ADHD in adult persons. An instrument that reports objective measures of cardinal symptoms of ADHD in adult persons is used for this purpose. The instrument is called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus and records motor activity by means of an infrared motion tracking system and cognitive deficits with a continuous performance test. Paper I investigates sensitivity and specificity for the test with regard to ADHD in a clinic-referred sample. When the test was compared to clinical assessments, results yielded 83 % sensitivity and 57 % specificity. The high level of comorbid psychiatric disorders motivates continuous search for a composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms and better understanding of normative behavior in healthy participants. In Paper II, a composite measure of ADHD called the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) is developed. WCS integrates measures of ADHD cardinal symptoms on a ten point scale. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on the scale (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of healthy normative participants has high points on the scale (indicating low levels of symptoms). Levels of sensitivity and specificity for the test were examined with a measure called Prediction of ADHD (PADHD), and results yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. The measures developed in Paper II are tentative and needs to be tested in further studies in order to better understand behavior manifestations of ADHD in adult persons.

  • 91.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    NU health care.
    Holmberg, Ebba
    NU health care.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Arne
    NU health care.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    In search for objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2011In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical assessment tools for adult ADHD such as rating scales, interviews and behavior observations are often based on subjective judgments which enhance the risk of overlooking or misinterpreting symptoms. In search for objective measures of adult ADHD, the present study investigated levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus, in adult patients (N = 19) awaiting clinical assessment for ADHD. QbTest-Plus report objective measures of ADHD core symptoms using an infrared motion tracking system and a continuous performance test. The measures were collected and evaluated previous to clinical assessment and compared regarding the diagnosis of ADHD. Sensitivity for detecting ADHD with QbTest-Plus was 83 % and specificity was 57 %. The results, possibly affected by confounding factors, suggest further examination of calibrated and objective measure for the QbTest-Plus with regard to ADHD in adults.

     

  • 92.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Department of Psychiatry, NU-health care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Evidence Research and Development Center Göteborg Sweden.
    Measuring Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, occurs in about 5 % of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine sensitivity, specificity and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants.

    Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity with a continuous performance test and hyperactivity with a motion tracking system.

    A predictive variable for detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD, PADHD, yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed with a Weighed Core Symptoms scale, WCS, that indicates the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100.

    The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential gender and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments.

  • 93.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    The NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Objective measures of behavior manifestations in adult ADHD and differentiation from participants with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline personality disorder, participants with disconfirmed ADHD as well as Normative participants2012In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 8, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants.

    Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD.

    Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD.

    Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

  • 94.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Enhanced independence and quality of life through treatment with flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique of a patient with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome: a case report2009In: Cases Journal, ISSN 1757-1626, Vol. 2, no 6979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The objective of this qualitative case report was to describe experiences of flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique from the perspective of a woman with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aspergers syndrome and experiences of depression and distress.

    Case presentationThe respondent is a 36-year-old woman from Sweden, assessed and diagnosed by a neuropsychological multi-professional team in 2006. The 19-session flotation series prolonged during almost one year.

    Conclusion

    The positive development of arousal control, activity regulation, sensory integration and interpretation, cognitive functioning and emotional maturity created experiences of personal independence and quality of life. Flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique was experienced as a meaningful treatment. Additional studies of treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid disorders in adults using the flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique are strongly encouraged.

  • 95. Edvardsson, B.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, A.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, P.
    Matthing, J.
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006Book (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Critical Incidents: A study of Göteborg´s municipal bus service1996Report (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kollektivtrafik i ett tjänsteperspektiv - studier av kundklagomål och kundmissnöje1996Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kritiska händelser. En studie inom Göteborgsregionens Lokaltrafik AB1996Report (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Emotions and Stability in Telecom-customer Relationships2009In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Quality Grounded in Customer Experiences, Affect and Relationships2007In: Service Excellence als Impulsgeber, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
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