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  • 51.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ethanol from lignocellulose: Alkali detoxification of dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates by treatment with Ca(OH)2 (overliming) efficiently improves the production of fuel ethanol, but is associated with drawbacks like sugar degradation and CaSO4 precipitation. In factorial designed experiments, in which pH and temperature were varied, dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates were treated with Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH. The concentrations of sugars and inhibitory compounds were measured before and after the treatments. The fermentability was examined using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with reference fermentations of synthetic medium without inhibitors. The treatment conditions were evaluated by comparing the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the degradation of sugars and the ethanol production into account. Treatment conditions resulting in excellent fermentability and minimal sugar degradation were possible to find regardless of whether Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH was used. Balanced ethanol yields higher than those of the reference fermentations were achieved for hydrolysates treated with all three types of alkali. As expected, treatment with Ca(OH)2 gave rise to precipitated CaSO4. The NH4OH treatments gave rise to a brownish precipitate but the amounts of precipitate formed were relatively small. No precipitate was observed in treatments with NaOH. The possibility that the ammonium ions from the NH4OH treatments gave a positive effect as an extra source of nitrogen during the fermentations was excluded after experiments in which NH4Cl was added to the medium. The findings presented can be used to improve the effectiveness of alkali detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and to minimize problems with sugar degradation and formation of precipitates.

  • 52.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ethanol from lignocellulose: Management of by-products of hydrolysis2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic materials, such as residues from agriculture and forestry. The polysaccharides of lignocellulose are converted to sugars by hydrolysis and the sugars can then be fermented to ethanol using microorganisms. However, during hydrolysis a wide range of by-products are also generated. By-product formation can affect ethanol yield and productivity. Management of by-products of hydrolysis is therefore important in the development of commercially viable production of cellulosic ethanol.

    Detoxification of inhibitory dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates by treatment with Ca(OH)2 (overliming) efficiently improves the fermentability, but is associated with drawbacks like sugar degradation and CaSO4 precipitation. In factorial designed experiments, in which pH and temperature were varied, dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates were treated with Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH. The concentrations of sugars and inhibitory compounds were measured before and after the treatments. The fermentability was examined using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with reference fermentations of synthetic medium without inhibitors. The treatment conditions were evaluated by comparing the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the degradation of sugars and the ethanol production into account. Treatment conditions resulting in excellent fermentability and minimal sugar degradation were possible to find regardless of whether Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH was used. Balanced ethanol yields higher than those of the reference fermentations were achieved for hydrolysates treated with all three types of alkali. As expected, treatment with Ca(OH)2 gave rise to precipitated CaSO4. The NH4OH treatments gave rise to a brownish precipitate but the amounts of precipitate formed were relatively small. No precipitate was observed in treatments with NaOH. The findings presented can be used to improve the effectiveness of alkali detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and to minimize problems with sugar degradation and formation of precipitates.

    Overexpression of different S. cerevisiae genes was investigated with the aim to engineer a biocatalyst with increased inhibitor tolerance. Overexpression of YAP1, a gene encoding a transcription factor, conveyed increased resistance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors as well as to a dilute-acid hydrolysate of spruce.

    Recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was cultivated on spent lignocellulose hydrolysate (stillage). The fungus simultaneously removed inhibitors present in the stillage and produced higher amounts of endoglucanase than when it was grown in a standard medium with comparable monosaccharide content. The concept can be applied for on-site production of enzymes in a cellulose-to-ethanol process and facilitate recycling of the stillage stream.

  • 53.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rose, Shaunita, H
    Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    van Zyl, Wilhelm, H
    Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates with Recombinant Aspergillus niger.2009In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 2366-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Optimal conditions for alkaline detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates.2006In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 129-132, p. 599-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkaline detoxification strongly improves the fermentability of dilute-acid hydrolysates in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. New experiments were performed with NH4OH and NaOH to define optimal conditions for detoxification and make a comparison with Ca(OH)2 treatment feasible. As too harsh conditions lead to sugar degradation, the detoxification treatments were evaluated through the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the ethanol production and the loss of fermentable sugars into account. The optimization treatments were performed as factorial experiments with 3-h duration and varying pH and temperature. Optimal conditions were found roughly in an area around pH 9.0/60 degrees C for NH4OH treatment and in a narrow area stretching from pH 9.0/80 degrees C to pH 12.0/30 degrees C for NaOH treatment. By optimizing treatment with NH4OH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2, it was possible to find conditions that resulted in a fermentability that was equal or better than that of a reference fermentation of a synthetic sugar solution without inhibitors, regardless of the type of alkali used. The considerable difference in the amount of precipitate generated after treatment with different types of alkali appears critical for industrial implementation.

  • 55.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor and multidrug resistance genes conveys enhanced resistance to lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors.2010In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56. Altun, Z.
    et al.
    Andersson, L.I.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Some factors affecting the performance of microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS)2008In: submitted to Analyt. Chim. ActaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Altun, Zeki
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    New Techniques for Sample Preparation in Analytical Chemistry: Microextraction in Packed Syringe (MEPS) and Methacrylate Based Monolithic Pipette Tips2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample preparation is often a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate and develop new techniques to address some of the shortcomings of current sample preparation methods. The goal has been to provide full automation, on-line coupling to detection systems, short sample preparation times and high-throughput.

    In this work a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) is a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that is miniaturized and can be fully automated. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of sorbent material is inserted into a gas tight syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. Evaluation of the technique was done by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using MEPS on-line with LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). MEPS connected to an autosampler was fully automated and clean-up of the samples took about one minute. In addition, in the case of plasma samples the same plug of sorbent could be used for about 100 extractions before it was discarded.

    A further aim of this work was to increase sample preparation throughput. To do that disposable pipette tips were packed with a plug of porous polymer monoliths as sample adsorbent and were then used in connection with 96-well plates and LC-MS-MS. The evaluation of the methods was done by the analysis of local anaesthetics lidocaine and ropivacaine, and anti-cancer drug roscovitine in plasma samples. When roscovitine and lidocaine in human plasma and water samples were used as model substances, a 96-plate was handled in about two minutes. Further, disposable pipette tips may be produced at low cost and because they are used only once, carry-over is eliminated.

  • 58. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    New trends in sample preparation: On-line microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) for LC and GC applications. Part III Determination and validation of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using a cation-exchange sorbent and MEPS-LC-MS-MS2004In: J. Chromatogr. B, 813 (2004) 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Lars I.
    AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, DMPK & BAC, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Some Factors Affecting the Performance of Microextraction in Packed Syringe (MEPS)Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 60. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Use of carbon dioxide and ammonia as nebulizer gases in mass spectrometry2002In: Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrometry, 16 (2002) 738-739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    AstraZeneca R & D, , Sweden.
    Increasing Sample Preparation Throughput Using Monolithic Methacrylate Polymer as Packing Material for 96-Tip Robotic Device2006In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, ISSN 1082-6076, E-ISSN 1520-572X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1477-1489Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Hjelmström, Anette
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Surface Modified Polypropylene Pipette Tips Packed with a Monolithic Plug of Adsorbent for High Throughput Sample Preparation2007In: J. Sep. Sci., 30 (2007) 1964-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Hjelmström, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Surface modified polypropylene pipette tips packed with a monolithic plug of adsorbent for high-throughput sample preparation2007In: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1964-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Hjelmström, Anette
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Evaluation of monolithic packed 96-tips for solid-phase extraction of local anesthetics from human plasma for quantitation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2008In: J. Liq. Chromatogr. & Relat. Technol , 31 (2008) 743-751Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Jagerdeo, E.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Drug screening using microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) / LC-MS utilizing monolithic-based sorbent material,2006In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 29 (2006) 829-839Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Aman, Zaeem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Efficiency of Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Pigment Coatings2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to study the addition of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) for efficient use on pigment coating of paper substrates with low grammage and the goal was to achieve high optical response by using low amount of FWAs. A commercial light-weight coated (LWC) paper grade was provided by Stora Enso Corbehem Mill and isotropic laboratory sheets were produced at Stora Enso Research Centre using PFI sheet former. Optical properties such as brightness, whiteness and L, a* and b* colour space values were evaluated using Minolta spectrophotometer with D65 illuminant for both types of substrate using different types and amounts of FWA while the effect of the addition of dye was evaluated in both isotropic sheets and as well as in the coating. The results showed that brightness and whiteness of double-coated paper increased by increasing the amount of fluorescent whitening agent in the coating layer. Also, higher brightness and whiteness was achieved by introducing a higher amount of fluorescent whitening agent in the top coating rather than in a pre-coating. The addition of a shading colorant in the paper substrate had a positive influence not only on the brightness but also on the whiteness of coated paper.

  • 67.
    Amin, Kanar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Energikravnivå för småhus med EU:s nya regler som utgångspunkt: En studie av ekonomiska konsekvenser för ägare av miljöanpassade hus när byggandet anpassas till EU:s nya regler.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction Engineering, Building Construction, House Engineering, Building Engineer.

  • 68.
    Anderson, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Rheological changes at the air-liquid interface and examining different kind of magnetic needles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective in this work was to learn how the instrument, the Interfacial Shear

    Rheometer (ISR400), worked and to investigate how the rheological properties, storage

    modulus (elasticity), G' and loss modulus (viscous), G'', changes when the surface

    pressure at the air-liquid interphase changes. The second objective were to examine the

    different kind of magnetic needles used in the experiments and to conclude which type of

    needle is best for its specific field of analysis.

    It was concluded that the relative heavy needle with mass 70.6 mg and length 50 mm

    was best for systems where the viscous and elastic components are significantly large,

    where the inertia of the needle is not dominant. It also worked of using the heavier needle

    for a system of phospholipids.

    For the hydroxystearic acid (HSA) experiment that were tested on NaCl sub-phase there

    was a clear improvement after switching from the heavy needle (mass 41.5 mg; length 51

    mm) to the relative lighter needle (mass 6.94 mg; length 34.7 mm). The values for the

    dynamic modulus therefore had a better agreement with reference literature.

    A spread layer of class II hydrophobins (HFBII) could be compressed to a surface

    pressure of 46 mNm-1. The G' and G'' values from the frequency sweep were discarded

    because the monolayer turned into a very viscous-like liquid, and the oscillating needle,

    after compression, was kind of stuck in the sub-phase and moved very staggering during

    a frequency sweep.

    The needle comparison experiment with silica particles 10 wt% Bindzil CC30 (BCC30),

    at pH 3.5 was done to see if there was any difference in the sensitivity for the needles at

    the interface which consisted of a pure 10 mM NaCl solution or a 10 mM NaCl solution

    with BCC30 added to it. The differences were negligible in terms of surface tension but

    there was a clear difference between the heavy needle and the light needle, when

    oscillating at higher frequencies (>≈6 rad/s).

    With this study, the understanding of ISR400 has increased largely. Several issues have

    been addressed and the results provide a good basis for further studies within the many

    areas the instrument can be used for. Despite the project's time limit, and the fact that the

    instrument was new and untested where the project was carried out, focus areas were

    prioritized so good results could be achieved within reasonable goals.

  • 69. Anderson, L. G.
    et al.
    Björk, G.
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kattner, G.
    Koltermann, P. K.
    Jones, E. P.
    Lindegren, R.
    Rudels, B.
    Swift, J.
    Water masses and circulation in the Eurasien Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition1994In: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 99, No. C2: 3273-3283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Björk, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Jutterstrom, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Box 530 21, S-40014 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Morth, Carl Magnus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Geosci, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Semiletov, Igor
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.;Russian Acad Sci, Far Eastern Branch, Pacific Oceanol Inst, Vladivostok 690041, Russia.;Natl Res Tomsk Polytech Univ, Tomsk, Russia..
    Stranne, Christian
    Ctr Coastal & Ocean Mapping, Joint Hydrog Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Stoven, Tim
    GEOMAR, Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany..
    Tanhua, Toste
    GEOMAR, Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany..
    Ulfsbo, Adam
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Div Earth & Ocean Sci, Durham, NC 27704 USA..
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea2017In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 349-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180 degrees E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140 degrees E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150 degrees E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to similar to 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170 degrees E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of similar to 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity similar to 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  • 71. Anderson, Leif G.
    et al.
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ohlson, Mats
    Lindegren, Roger
    The transport of anthropogenic carbon dioxid into the Weddell sea1991In: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 96, No. C9: 16,679-16,687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Andersson, Albin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Ett tjänstedesignprojekt för bättre handhygien i vården: "Att göra en Albin"2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been a first attempt by the student to use service design in a real project. The problem was that in the health care today exists big problems due to bacteria and viruses such as winter vomiting disease strikes entire wards and forces the hospitals to close them which in turn causes huge financial loses. Winter vomiting disease is highly contagious and all it takes is someone to forget to wash his or her hands properly for the virus to spread to the entire ward.

    In this project service design methodology has been used to find out why contagious infections exist on the orthopedic clinic at Central hospital in Karlstad and also what can be done to improve hand hygiene and reduce the risk for further spread of contagious infections at the orthopedic clinic.

    Observations were made at the clinic from the view of patients, nurses and doctors. Service design methods such as customer journeys and desktop walkthroughs were used to visualize patients’ journeys and create solutions together with doctors and nurses to create the possibilities for better hand hygiene.

    The result was a concept that increases the visibility of the hand rub stations and a proposition on how these stations shall be positioned at the clinic.

    The name “To do an Albin” was coined due to the field studies that were done at an orthopedic clinic by one of the projects contacts at Värmland County Council.

    Research was also made into how service design has been part of health care development both nationally and internationally, and how service design can contribute to better health care.

    Employer has been Tomas Edman at Innovationsslussen Vivan.

    The work was made in the course Degree Project for Degree of Bachelor of Science In Innovation and Design Engineering (MSGC12) at the University of Karlstad. Monica Jacobsson has supervised the project and Fredrik Thuvander has been examiner. 

  • 73.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kostnadseffektivisering av bärcylinder2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report intends a thesis work within the machine engineer program at Karlstad University, the employee is Metso Paper Karlstad AB

    Metso Paper produces tissue machines for the paper industry and also performs service and development of these products. Tissue is soft paper which includes hygiene paper and table napkins. Focus in the task is to reduce the cost of the reel drum, which is a detailed component in a tissue machine. The reel drum is a drum which is assembled in the end on the paper machine, in the area where the paper is rolled up on spools. The analyzed items have the dimensions; diameter 900mm with the length 2825 mm and diameter1100 mm with the length 5550mm.

    Initially, the reel drum’s main functions were analyzed, which can be summarized:

    • That with vacuum transport the point (narrow paper chute) from the point swindle groove to the surface between the reel drum and the reel spool

    • To support paper during winding on the reel spool

    • To create a pressure against the reel spool so that a driven torque arises. The torque is required because the reel spool has no own power supply.

    The task was divided in two parts for a simpler procedure,” new structure” and ”improvement and efficiency improvement of existing structure”

    New structure treats calculations concerning the thickness of the shell and choices of alternative materials. Improvement and efficiency concerns how the current structure can be simplified and the production process improved. The result demonstrates that today's structure is unnecessary thick, the shell thickness l can be reduced with maintained function properties. To produce the shell in steel instead of cast iron gives lower purchase cost of materials for reel drums in diameter 900mm, buying to shells at the time almost reduces the material cost with 50%

    In order to make the existing structure and the production process more effective must certain parts of the casting be carried out with higher precision, criteria such as: thickness, roundness and presence of rest products should be taken into consideration. Higher casting precision makes the following machine work easier.

    Finally there exists a big potential to reduce the cost of the reel drum. Important criteria’s that is to be considered are: dimensions, materials and more effective processing.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Fransson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Användning av CAD-data vid NC-programmering2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The degree project is performed at Metso Kamfab. The production is aimed on machines everything from handling of fiber to paper pulp. Metso Fiber and Kamfab are using Pro/Engineer for design and blueprint production. The processing department types the NC-programs in notepad on the basis of the blueprints, the CAD-dates that already is there are not used. The aim with the work is to study if Kamfab can use CAM-system for processing and production of programs for their NC-machines. The objective in this project is to make NC-programs that functions in three special machines.

    CAD/CAM forms the link between design and production. In a CAD/CAM-system the geometry is created in CAD and can be used directly in CAM for processing. In CAM CL-data is created and after that translated with a postprocessor to NC-code. The postprocessor is used also as a watch over function.

    Three machines were chosen as experiment items for introducing of CAD/CAM. These are a 7-axis mill, a combined mill/turn and a 3-axis mill. The 7-axis mill and the mill/turn were chosen because they are the most advanced machines. The 3-axis mill was chosen because there was available time in it. Products that were tested were trough, pillar, housing and a part for a toolchanger.

    When processing the trough ”Surface-Mill” was chosen and a lead-angle was set in the parameters. It was most drilling and a little face milling on both the pillar and the housing.

    In order to test programs a postprocessor was borrowed that translated CL-data to Heidenhain code. During the test run errors were detected in the programs. This depends on that the postprocessor not where customized for the machine. A postprocessor developed by ourselves was also tested, this one didn’t work because the machine's NC-system couldn’t read ISO standard code.

    A study visit was done at Structo in Kristinehamn where EdgeCAM is used for NC-processing. It works well and it allows quicker and safer programming.

    Pro/Engineer is powerful and has a lot of possible adjustments. This makes it complex and takes time to learn. To use Pro/Engineer´s CAM-part it is necessary to have basic knowledge about the CAD-part. Depending on this many companies uses for example EdgeCAM that almost is a pure CAM-system.

    The processing of the three components functioned well in Pro/Engineer, we could process the components after demands. The problem was to get working programs. An advantage with using CAM is that you can simulate toolpaths. Through this you can see if the tool collides and it also makes it possible to optimize toolpaths. Today, it is a lot of waiting time in the milling machine FPT34 because programs are not completed. This waiting time would be reduced or even eliminated with the aid of CAM.

  • 75. Andersson, Caisa
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Water-vapour permeability of barrier dispersion coating2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 76.
    Andersson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Förstudie för förbättrad problemlösning och förbättringsarbetet hos Mastec Stålvall2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Analys av elbasnivå för Vålbergsskolan, Karlstads Kommun: Kartläggning av elanvändning nattetid samt undersökning av energieffektiviserande åtgärder.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this final thesis has been to find out why some schools in the municipality of Karlstad (Karlstads Kommun), uses different levels of electric power during evenings, weekends and nights. The differences can vary significantly. Because of this, a new concept, called the electricity base level has been defined. The electric base level is the power used during periods of time when there is no activity in the building.

    After a ranking of the electricity base level made with a self developed excel-model, for an assortment of 15 schools in Karlstads kommun, two of them were selected for further investigation. One school with low electricity base level and one with high electricity base level were selected. Frödingskolan was the school with the lowest electricity base level and was therefore chosen to serve as a reference-building. The other school is Vålbergsskolan and was chosen though it had one of the highest electricity base levels in the ranking. Common for both schools is that there is no electric heating in either building. Furthermore, no major seasonal variation in the school’s electricity consumptions was found. For Frödingskolan an electricity base level at 2.0 W/m2 (0.19 W/ft2) was measured. For Vålbergsskolan the electricity base level was 4.55 W/m2 (0.42 W/ft2). That is almost twice as high as for the first school.

    Through field studies and extensive measurements, the electricity usage in the two schools was identified. From the obtained results, several measures to reduce the electricity baseline have been developed. This has been done for both of the schools even though Frödingskolan had a low electricity base level from the beginning. It was to be found that even there a lowering of the electricity base level was possible.

    Proposed measures for Frödingskolan:• Policy to turn off computers after working-hours, approx. 1 kW.• Turning the corridor lights of at night, approx. 1 kW.

    Proposed measures for Vålbergsskolan:• Conversion from a radiant floor to a radiator system, approx. 5 kW.• Turn the frequency drivers off when no ventilation are running, approx 7.5 kW

    If the proposed measures are implemented, the electricity base level can be lowered to 1.2 W/m2 (0.12 W/ft2) for Frödingskolan, and 2.0 W/m2 (0.19 W/ft2) for Vålbergsskolan. For the latter, this is almost the half off the current electricity base level

  • 78.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennät: Underlag för framtida åtgärder i Fengersfors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater contains elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus which the treatment plants are forced to deal with. If the purification in the plant are substandard these substances is emitted in lakes and streams, which can lead to eutrophication. The small village of Fengersfors, in the province of Dalsland, uses two small stabilization pounds to cleanse their wastewater. These stabilization pounds do not meet the authorities’ treatment requirements, which have led the municipality to upgrade the facility. Before expanding the treatment plant, today’s volumes of extraneous water must be reduced to be able to dimension the new pounds, in proportion to the size of Fengersfors. Extraneous water is clean water that reaches the treatment plants in addition to water from baths, showers, washing machines and toilets. Examples of additional water can be storm water and groundwater. It is desired to minimize the percentage of extraneous water in wastewater systems to avoid costly purification processes.

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the flow of extraneous water which transports to the stabilization pounds. What sources to extraneous water is there in Fengersfors and which actions should the municipality take to achieve their goal of reduced flow of extraneous water to the stabilization pounds?

    To identify seepage of extraneous water in wastewater systems is a time consuming job. To address the problem, without being forced to duplicate the system, it is important to first build an image of the area. In this study this is done by four examinations: field inventory of residential areas, field inventory of transfer schemes, investigation of groundwater levels and dye tracing of bad connections. These steps are easy to preform, requires no large financial means and need not to be performed by individuals with special skills. The survey is completed in two overview maps, Fengersfors Norra and Fengersfors Södra. These are then used for basic calculations to point out areas which are contributing large volumes of groundwater, trough foundation drainage, to the treatment plant.

    Several properties in Fengersfors have their roof surfaces connected to the wastewater system. Simple measures, such as switching to drain spouts with dense water deflector, can reduce the volume of rainwater that reaches the stabilization pounds. General for the area is that ditches have been neglected for a long time, resulting in drums and wells clogged. A functioning ditch system is necessary for transport of storm and drainage water to the recipient. During the dye tracing process parts of previously unknown storm water systems were found. Sewer system maps can now be updated and become an important part of future actions. The study provides an indication of which areas need to be addressed or further investigated by the municipality.

  • 79.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kjerstad, Synnöve
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Vattentäta cykelväskor2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a degree project accomplished by Erika Andersson and Synnøve Kjerstad at the Innovation- and designengineer program at Karlstad University, spring term 2006. The degree project includes a product development process, 15 points and a study of literature, 5 points. The assigner was Ulf Odderbø from the leisure and outdoor company Beacon Products AS. Instructor at Karlstad University was Lennart Wihk.

    The goal was to present prototypes of four different models of bike bags with fastenings which will be part of Beacon Products’ assortment. The main target groups for the bags are; the adventure cyclist who needs a complete package and the city biker who brings his laptop to the office.

    To please the needs of these target groups a exhaustive research was carried out where interviews were made with users, sellers and repairers of bike bags. The main requirements was set up and several solutions was generated. This resulted in two concept. A number of models and CAD constructions were made from the two concepts and were used as direction of production.

    A study of literature has been carried out to adopt knowledge of textile design and product development. The study also included training in the CAD program Solid Works.

    Prototypes of fastenings were carried out in rapid prototyping by Alphaform in Gothenburg. These along with the direction of production were sent to Beacon Products’ factory in China.

    The result is four bag models; a backbag for the parcel carrier, a front bag for lowrider at the front wheel, a handlebar bag and a PC-bag for attachment on the parcel carrier.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Uggla, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nya Orangeriet - En länk mellan staden och vattnet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad is a city with an interesting history. After the great fire in 1865, the new Karlstad began to take its form. The cultural heritage that the city carries must be managed with care. Therefore, objectives and guidelines for the city were created to help preserve it. These are summarized by the township in three words: manage, improve and innovate. 

    South of the railway is the Stadsträdgården, a well preserved historic park with rich flora. The park has an English Victorian style with protective vegetation, which separates the garden from the city. A few buildings are found in its vicinity. One that is called the Orangery has a particularly interesting heritage. It’s a grand building with elements of carpentry and contemporary decoration. Up until 1876 the Orangery was conducting plant related activities, but then the extent at which the activities were committed decreased. 

     In close proximity to Stadsträdgården is the lake Vänern. Despite the park's central location and the city's close relationship with water in the other directions; there is no obvious link to the south. Such interlocking functions, would be filled if the park would provide a greater variety of attractions. 

    The purpose is to link Karlstad’s central core to Vänern in the south and thus broaden the city and expand its capabilities. The goal is to find a natural meeting place that connects the center parts of Karlstad with the more southern located residential areas and at the same time linking the water with the city.  The work process includes literature studies, visits to relevant activities, SWOT analysis and modeling in Revit. The results are presented in the form of a proposal including a potential meeting place and additional measures for the given area. 

    The orangery in Stadsträdgården exhibit particularly good qualities regarding recreation. With some changes, the building can be used to attract people from the city and create the needed link between the city and the water. A proposal for such development is visualized in 3-dimensional models with associated explanatory text.  The result is illustrated in the form of the Orangery building; a proposal on an extension on this house, greenhouses in Stadsträdgården, a stage and a new plan for the park. These are presented in the form of 3-dimensional images. 

    In the conclusion to be reached, it appears that Stadsträdgården is the area best suited as a natural meeting place, as well as to connect the city with the water and its more southern neighborhoods. To achieve the set goals, some changes are required to the park. The extension of the Orangery is meant to compose as the entrance to Stadsträdgården and act as a main attraction for the area. Complementary works in the form of the greenhouse, stage and multi-functional furniture are meant to create a varied environment that appeals to a wide variety of people.

  • 81. Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    van Elst, Henk
    Lim, Woei Chet
    Uggla, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Asymptotic silence of generic cosmological singularities2005In: Phys.Rev.Lett. 94 (2005) 051101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter we investigate the nature of generic cosmological singularities using the framework developed by Uggla et al. We do so by studying the past asymptotic dynamics of general vacuum G2 cosmologies, models that are expected to capture the singular behavior of generic cosmologies with no symmetries at all. In particular, our results indicate that asymptotic silence holds, i.e., that particle horizons along all timelines shrink to zero for generic solutions. Moreover, we provide evidence that spatial derivatives become dynamically insignificant along generic timelines, and that the evolution into the past along such timelines is governed by an asymptotic dynamical system which is associated with an invariant set -- the silent boundary. We also identify an attracting subset on the silent boundary that organizes the oscillatory dynamics of generic timelines in the singular regime. In addition, we discuss the dynamics associated with recurring spike formation

  • 82. Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    van Elst, Henk
    Uggla, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gowdy phenomenology in scale-invariant variables2004In: Class.Quant.Grav. 21 (2004) S29-S57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of Gowdy vacuum spacetimes is considered in terms of Hubble-normalized scale-invariant variables, using the timelike area temporal gauge. The resulting state space formulation provides for a simple mechanism for the formation of ``false'' and ``true spikes'' in the approach to the singularity, and a geometrical formulation for the local attractor

  • 83.
    Andersson, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Evaluation of biosand filter as a water treatment method in Ghana: An experimental study under local conditions in Ghana2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The availability to clean drinking water is something a lot of people take for granted today. Daily, there are about 1.8 billion people around the world that drinks water from a contaminated water source. Unfortunately, the deficiency is a fact, and about 361 000 children under the age of five die each year because of diarrheal disease (WHO, 2016a). 

    Earlier studies show that a biosand filter is an easy and efficient water purification method that cleans the water both physically, biologically and chemically. A biosand filter is often built using local material and is filled with sand, which makes the construction cheap and easy to repair is needed. Earlier studies have shown that this purification method can reduce waterborne disease by 99,9% with the help of a biofilm layer which develop in the top layer of the sand if the conditions are meet (CAWST, 2009).

    The purpose with this study was to build and evaluate a biosand filter as a water treatment method in Ghana. In total, three biosand filters was built with local material, each with different sand heights. The evaluation was done by studying the waters physical, biological and chemical properties before and after the filtration, which then was compared to the water quality standards from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Sweden. The results show that none of the three filters could produce water which met the standards for drinking water, which might be caused by the high flow of water through the filter which prevented the biofilm to grow. With the help from the results in Ghana, a new design of a water filter has been made to reduce the flow of water through the filter. Which gave a new biosand filter design with a diameter of 42 cm that, sand height of 80 cm and gravel height of 15 cm.  

  • 84.
    Andersson, Lotta Spetz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Att välja variationsrik matematikundervisning.: En enkätstudie av lärares undervisning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Lu, B.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, S.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Capillary electrophoresis methods for the separation of the basic compound lidocaine and its metabolites2004In: Rapid Commun. Mass Spectr., 18 (2004) 2612-2618Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Characterization of Lidocaine and its Metabolites in Human Plasma using Capillary Electrophoresis,1999In: J. Microcol. Sep., 11, (1999) 620-626Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förändring av layout och materialflöde i färdigvarulager hos AnVa Polytech AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this work has been to develop a new layout in the finished goods stock at AnVa Polytech AB in Sunne, Sweden. In this new layout the target was a single-order-flow using a roller conveyor. In the current situation there are two employees working on two different orders at the same time.

    The objective of the work was to create a better working environment, better flow of material, minimize the numbers of unnecessary transports and to minimize the risk of disturbance.

    By carrying out a number of observation of activities and drawing spaghetti charts over the workers movements during an compilation during a couple of weeks, you could see on what activity and where the workers spend the most time and see where there were most unnecessary movements. The observation of activities made clear that it was on compilation and movement the worker spend the most time. The spaghetti chart showed that the worker made a lot of small, unnecessary movements when going in and out of the forklift for different activities. Those activities were when they had to; print labels and flags to put on the compiled order, repacking or filling a box of material and wrap or string an order.

    The design of the roller conveyor was made through a discussion with the supervisors at AnVa Polytech AB to find a solution that would shorten the length of the conveyor and create a smooth flow of material. The two machines that would be a part of the conveyor were placed right next to each other to minimize the length and avoid unnecessary transportation. The roller conveyor was also set to work as an interim storage. It was mad longer in the beginning and in the end of the roller conveyor to ease the stress for the employee working at the conveyor.

    The new layout of the storage was made using a method of concept choice. The first part of the method was creating a number of concepts. The second part of the method was based of using two different matrices, one called elimination matrix and the second one relative decision matrix.

    In the elimination matrix the different concept was put against each other comparing criterias. The base value of each criteria was set by the current layout of the storage. The ones with the best results proceeded to the relative decision matrix.

    The relative decision matrix puts the best concepts from previous matrix against each other but with more in depth criteria. The one with the best result was the one being continued on.

    The chosen layout was a configured version of the best concept from the matrices. This layout saved lots of space on the floor to create a safe working environment, good and a good flow of material. The storage shelves were placed to create a smooth flow for the truck without being disturbed by pedestrians from other parts of the facility moving in the storage. The roller conveyor was placed to facilitate the communication between the two workers in the storage to avoid any kind misunderstanding while compiling an order.

    A measured drawing was created of the layout to make it easy to see were all the important parts in the storage were being placed to create the layout.

  • 88.
    Andersson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Materialflödesanalys och layoutförslag Volvo Penta AB: Avdelning: Montering D4/D6 och D32013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Volvo Penta i Vara tillverkar diselmotorer för marint bruk. Nya materialfilosofier har ändrat förutsättningarna för materialflödet ute i produktionen. Även ökade krav på miljö och säkerhet gör att Volvo Penta i Vara vill se över sin layout för att kunna effektivisera de interna transporterna och därmed göra fabriken säkrare.

    Detta arbete avser monteringen på Volvo Penta och har skett parallellt med Marcus Nordberg som tittat på bearbetningen och målning/pack.

    Syftet med arbetet är att ta fram ett förslag på en ny layout som kan gynna fabriken med hänsyn till de nya förutsättningarna som gäller för materialflödena och bidra till en renare och säkrare miljö. Genom att kartlägga materialflödet i fabriken kan en nulägesbeskrivning sammanställas och med denna kan en ny layout tas fram. En jämförelse med nuläget ger faktaunderlag för att visa vad en ny layout kan medföra.

    En frekvensanalys gjordes på de artiklar som i dag körs av gaffeltruckar för att skapa en uppfattning om materialflödet. Frekvensstudion kompletterades med layoutdiagram för att kunna mäta upp sträckan artiklarna färdas i genomsnitt per dag. En enklare simulering på fabrikens interna transporter gjordes i syfte att visa Volvo Penta användningen av en simulering. Denna gav även en bättre uppfattning om truckkörningen i form av avstånd. Nulägesbeskrivningen sammanställdes och brister identifierades innan arbetet med den nya layouten började.

    Sammanställningen av nulägesbeskrivningen visade att dagens materialflöde var väldigt rörigt och gick genom produktionen där rörelsen av människor är som störst. Lösnigen som togs fram på detta var att lägga till ytterligare en godsmottagning på motsatt sida. Andra brister som identifieras är materialhanteringen av tillförelsematerial till monteringen och åtkomligheten till grunddelen för truckar. Alternativa förslag på materialhanteringen och vad de ger för fördelar togs fram. En ny layout föreslås på grunddelen för att öka åtkomligheten.

    Jämförelsen med den nya layouten visade att den totala sträckan transporter kunde reduceras med 4,1 km vilket motsvarar en minskning på 30 %. Tidsminskningen på ett skift med dagens takt skulle bli 30 min.

    Den nya layouten med den nya godsmottagningen skulle bidra till effektivisering av de interna transporterna och minska dessa genom produktionen kraftigt vilket skulle ge en säkrare miljö. 

  • 89.
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nivågruppering i matematik: vad tycker eleverna?2008Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Ett problem som alla lärare ställs inför är hur man ska anpassa undervisningen till varje elevs individuella behov.

    För att belysa denna fråga har jag valt att undersöka ett specifikt fall där en skola har valt att, under en begränsad tid, nivågruppera matematikundervisningen i åk 9. De deltagande eleverna har besvarat en enkät med frågor kring hur de ser på denna organisationsform.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att en stor majoritet av eleverna har en positiv inställning till nivågruppering i detta specifika fall. Eleverna är även positiva till att deras fortsatta undervisning ska bedrivas nivågrupperat.

    Nyckelord: Nivågruppering, Matematik.

  • 90.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Scalar fields on star graphs2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     A star graph consists of a vertex to which a set of edges are connected. Such an object can be used to, among other things, model the electromagnetic properties of quantum wires. A scalar field theory is constructed on the star graph and its properties are investigated. It turns out that there exist Kirchoff's rules for the conserved charges in the system leading to restrictions of the possible type of boundary conditions at the vertex. Scale invariant boundary conditions are investigated in detail.

  • 91.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Yang-Baxter equations for systems with boundaries and defects2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Yang-Baxter equation appear in various situations in physics and mathematics. For example it arises as a consistency condition in integrable models. The reflection equation (boundary Yang-Baxter equation) is a generalization of the Yang-Baxter equation to systems with a boundary. A further generalization to systems with defects which admits both reflection and transmission can be made, which results in reflection-transmission Yang-Baxter equations.In this thesis the Yang-Baxter equation and the reflection equation are presented. Representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra and the blob algebra are used to construct matrices which solve the respective equations. For the reflection-transmission Yang-Baxter equations, steps toward a solution are taken by using a similar approach as for the first two cases, namely by finding an algebra whose representations can be used to construct matrices which solve the equations.

  • 92. Andersson, M.B.O.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Electric field-assisted micro-packed HPLC,2001In: J. Sep. Sci. 24 (2001) 304-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93. Andersson,, M.B.O.
    et al.
    King, J.W.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Synthesis of fatty alcohol mixtures from oleochemicals in supercritical fluids,2000In: Green Chemistry, (2000) 230-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Andersson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Bygga hus i traditionell härjedalsstil2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 95.
    Andersson, My
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Theolin Palmell, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    SOT Solution: Optimering av operationsmodul2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SOT Solution is a thesis project conducted by two students, My Andersson and Lovisa Theolin Palmell, from the innovation and design engineering program at Karlstad University. The thesis includes 22.5 points and was completed during spring 2011.

    Commissioned for the project is the company Swedish Operating Theatres AB. Together with Projektengagemang and Swedish Modules AB they have been providing information and knowledge to the project participants. These three companies have jointly developed the world's first ISO rated and modular-built operating room known as the M5-OP.

    The aim of SOT Solution has been to develop the next-generation of operation module, an updated version of the M5-OP. The challenges for the project participants have been to reduce material weight and also to optimize the modular units in terms of layout and production costs.

    Outer dimensions and main interior dimensions of the module were used for the design of the layout. Used dimensions are based on future layout requirements for surgical operations. The operating room and the adjoining rooms thus meet the requirements for premises which are used in medical and surgical operations. The most important requirement is that the operating room has a dimension of 60 m2.

    The next step was to design the steel frame which depends on the module's size, layout and stress calculations in the form of FEM analysis. The design of the steel frame made it possible to select a material to the floor that did not have to support the steel frame.

    The main results of the project are a new designed layout, and adapted steel construction and a suggestion for an alternative solution for the floor.

  • 96. Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Ljungqvist, Carl-Henrik
    Thuvander, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Determining the strain to failure for constrained pulp fibres by means of single-fibre2002In: Appita Journal, Vol. vol 55 no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97. Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Ljungqvist, Carl-Henrik
    Thuvander, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Determining the strain to failure for constrained pulp fibres by means of single-fibre fragmentation2002In: Appita Journal 55(2002)3, 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    BTG Instruments AB.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments AB.
    Biazzo, Tom
    BTG Americas Inc. .
    van Fleet, Rick
    BTG Americas Inc. .
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    A new sensor and a novel control concept for optimized fiberline operation2013In: 2013 PEERS Conference, Co-located with the 2013 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference, TAPPI Press, 2013, p. 190-215Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99. Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    Wilson, David
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    An improved kinetic model structure for softwood kraft cooking2003In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, Vol. vol 18 no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 100. Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    Wilson, David
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Model based kraft cooking optimisation2003In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, Vol. vol 18 no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
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