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  • 51.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Sardqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agcy, Lund, Sweden..
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Fire-related mortality in sweden-temporal trends 1952-20132016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A151-A152Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Characterizing the experience of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A phenomenological study2017In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 12, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is currently the most treatment resistant, suggesting that treatment protocols could be enhanced. A promising treatment of GAD is flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique), which in earlier studies has been shown to alleviate symptoms in GAD. Although, research on flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has shown promising results no study has explored how the treatment is experienced. By applying a phenomneological perspective the present study aims to characterize the experience of undergoing flotation-REST treatment while suffering from GAD. Nine participants with GAD, as defined with self-report measures, participated. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews that were conducted after the completion of a twelve session treatment profram with flotaiton-REST. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological (EPP) method was usedfor gathering and analyzing the data. The analysis resulted in six themes that characterize the experience of undergoing a flotation-REST treatment while having GAD: (1) obstacles in treatment, (2) a relaxed and safe vantage point, (3) non-ordinary states of consciousness, (4) connecting with oneself, (5) new attitudes and coping strategies, (6) enhanced life-quality. The results highlights that flotation-REST treatment of GAD was experienced as a comprehensive processes that were both challenging and pleasant. The results indicated that the method positively affected symptoms and the core issue associated with GAD on an experiential level. The present study also genereated some initial understanding regarding potential mechanisms that migh mediate and maintain positive treatment effects when flotation-REST is applied as an intervention of GAD. 

  • 53.
    Jönsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Myndigheten för samhällskydd och beredskap.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    "Har man kanelbullens dag så kan man väl ha en dag för individanpassat brandskydd också?": En kvalitativ kartläggning av individanpassat brandskyddsarbete i Skåne och Värmland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning: Sverige strävar sedan 2010 mot en nollvision där ingen ska omkomma eller skadas allvarligt till följd av brand (MSB, 2009). Detta till trots omkommer varje år drygt 100 människor som ett resultat av just bränder, där framförallt äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning är särskilt riskutsatta. För att främja arbetet mot nollvisionen publicerade MSB vägledningen Brandsäker bostad för alla, under 2013. Vägledningens tilltänkta syfte är att fungera som en metodhandbok för hur en individanpassad brandskyddsverksamhet kan bedrivas på kommunnivå. I vilken utsträckning som ett sådant arbete bedrivs samt vilket genomslagskraft vägledningen har fått är emellertid oklart. Avsikten med denna studie är därmed att undersöka just detta.  

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där sammanlagt tio semistrukturerade intervjuer har utförts i Skåne och Värmland. Därefter har data analyserats med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Totalt har följande tre kategorier genererats: Den första kategorin, Individanpassat brandskydd är utmanande, konkretiserar problematiken kring individanpassat brandskydd och identifierar riskgrupper och huvudaktörer. Andra kategorin, Kommunerna antar utmaningen, presenterar hur de utvalda kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, och vilka aktörer som är verksamhetsutövare. Avslutningsvis beskriver Saker och ting kan förbättras hur MSBs roll i sammanhanget ser ut samt hur vägledningen har tagits emot på kommunnivå.

    Slutsats: Sammantaget visar resultatet att de granskade kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, om än i olika utsträckning. Det påtalas även att det uteslutande är vård- och omsorgsförvaltningen samt räddningstjänsten som är verksamhetsutövare på lokal nivå. Detta medför att identifieringsprocessen av riskindivider är begränsad till ovan nämnda förvaltningars verksamheter. Det nuvarande individanpassade brandskyddsarbetet är därmed initierat, men har ännu inte uppnått sin fulla potential. Ett antal övriga aktörer, däribland socialförvaltningen, har identifierats som nödvändiga för att verksamheten ska kunna utvecklas och bli mer effektiv, men de tycks inte inbegripas i den nuvarande arbetsprocessen.  

  • 54.
    Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Belin, Matts-Ake
    KTH Stockholm.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swedisch Vision Zero Policies For Safety: A Comparative Policy Content Analysis2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. A74-A74, article id PW 1702Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    Trafikverket & Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swedish Vision Zero Policies for Safety: A Comparative Policy Content Analysis2018In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 103, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Action 32014In: The Baltic Everyday Accidents, Disaster Prevention and Resilience Project: BaltPrevResilience, Task 1 – Action 2, 3 and 4, Karlstad: MSB Swedish civil contingencies agency , 2014, p. 57-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Förgiftningar: en översikt - statistik och analys2014Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Via Spatiosa: Festschrift to Ragnar Andersson on his 67th birthday2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk management is a comparatively new, and most definitely complex, research field, combining knowledge from several other disciplines such as medicine, engineering, economics and psychology, to name a few. Consequently, risk management is important in a variety of subjects and disciplines, clearly illustrated in this festschrift. Professor Ragnar Andersson has played an important roll in not only promoting the importance of risk management and injury prevention, but also developing a deeper understanding of the field through always actively choosing a broad, multi-disciplinary perspective. In other words, he has always chosen “via spatiosa”. Or in Swedish, “den breda vägen”

  • 59.
    Nilsen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Forskning kring personsäkerhet2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Nilsen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Utvärdering av interventioner för ökad personsäkerhet2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik / [ed] Ragnar Andersson, Per Nilsen, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Personsäkerhetens begrepp, teorier och modeller2015In: Personsäkerhet – teori och praktik / [ed] Ragnar Andersson, Per Nilsen, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, p. 25-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, RagnarKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Riskbedömning av kokande kranar2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of the transition from the ninth to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases on external cause registration of injury morbidity in Sweden2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 189-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) have previously been shown to cause dramatic effects with regard to injury mortality data when implemented. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects on the coding of external causes of injury morbidity, despite this being an important aspect with regard to injury prevention.

    Method Hospitalised injuries in Sweden were studied using time series intervention analysis to observe the effect of the ICD change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 in 1997 on external cause coding.

    Results The results would suggest considerable coding issues with a large spike in the proportion of injury admissions registered without an external cause code in 1997, with continuing, although gradually diminishing, problems up to 2002. The coding change seems to have had an immediate effect on all external cause of injury categories, although the categories that were not directly convertible from ICD-9 to ICD-10 were seemingly more greatly affected.

    Discussion The study illustrates the potential issues associated with changes between ICD revisions and the importance of data quality control both during surveillance and collection of data, but also when presenting injury trends across ICD versions.

  • 64.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007–20162018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the last decade, an increasing popularity of marathons has been seen. Although running has been shown to have considerable positive health effects, the risk of sudden death, most often due to sudden cardiac arrests, is also a risk runners expose themselves to. Whilst there are some studies on the mortality amongst long-distance runners, much of the evidence is dated. Given the increased popularity in running during the 21st century as well as the improvements in medical care at marathons, more knowledge is required on the mortality risk. Materials and method Publicly available racing and news databases were used to identify the number of entrants and finishers in half to full marathons in Sweden between 2007 and 2016 and the number of deaths that occurred in conjunction with the races. Results A total of 1,156,271 runners entered a long distance (21-42km) running race in Sweden between 2007 and 2016, and 834,412 runners finished the races (72.2%). A large majority of the finishers (677,050 (81%)) competed in distances under a full marathon. Two deaths occurred during the time period, meaning that the death rate was 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.79) per 100,000 finishers. Conclusions This study can show that death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies. When added to the existing literature, the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s. 

  • 65.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jonsson, Anders
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.
    Elolyckor i Sverige2019Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Palm, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lundgren, Linnea
    Ersta Sköndahl.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Khorram‐Manesh, Amir
    University of Gothenburg.
    Carlström, Eric
    University of Gothenburg.
    Can participants predict where ambulance‐requiring cases occur at a half marathon?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2760-2766Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palm, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundgren, Linnea
    Ersta Skondal.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Khorram-Manesh, Amir
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Carlström, Eric
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Testing a novel method for identifying where serious medical encounters occur at marathons in order to improve medical preparedness and runners’ safety2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. A29-A29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Sundström, Kaj
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Cykelolyckor i Karlstads kommun 2007-20112013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Att cykla är hälsosamt och miljövänligt, men tyvärr också ganska farligt. Även om forskning tyder på att hälsovinsterna överstiger skaderiskerna, krävs åtgärder för att minska de cykelrelaterade skadorna i samhället.

    Genom att studera och sammanställa uppgifter om olyckor som hänt finns möjlighet att hitta utsatta grupper, typiska olycksmönster eller farliga platser inom en avgränsad befolkning eller geografiskt område. Denna statistikrapport använder sig av data som insamlats av hälso- och sjukvården och polisen i Värmland inom datasystemet STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) kring cykelskadade i Karlstads kommun mellan 2007 och 2011. Mellan dessa år skadade sig 857 cyklister så pass allvarlig att de var tvungna att uppsöka akutmottagningen på Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad.

    Cykelskador inträffar oftare under sommarhalvåret, mellan klockan 14.00 och 21.00 samt på fredagar. Män är något mer representerade i hela skadebilden och åldrarna 10-14 och 40-65 år är överrepresenterade.

    Trots lagliga krav var det en stor andel av 10-14 åringarna som inte bar hjälm vid skadetillfället (flickor; 60 procent och pojkar; 45 procent).

    Geografiskt följer cykelolyckorna i Karlstads kommun befolkningstätheten i stora drag, men särskilda kluster kan identifieras på vissa platser och sträckor som därmed framstår som särskilt olycksdrabbade. Bland annat syns anhopningar av olyckshändelser kring ett antal broar och tunnlar och på dessa platser behöver djupare olycksanalyser genomföras. Rapporten ger också exempel på hur statistiken kan användas för att utvärdera gjorda trafiksäkerhetsförbättringar.

  • 69.
    Olsson, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Gustasson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Systematiskt skadeförebyggande arbete inom grundskolan -: Kartläggning av arbetssätt, utvecklingsbehov och behov av stöd2013Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Schyllander, Jan
    et al.
    MSB.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Elolyckor i Sverige: En studie grundad i befolkningsövergripande datakällor2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elsäkerhetsverkets vision att skapa trygg och störningsfri el är ännu inte uppnådd. Föreliggande studie visar att trots preventiva insatser på elolycksområdet skadas fortfarande ett stort antal personer – såväl lindrigt som svårt – till följd av kontakt med el. Antalet elolyckor med dödlig utgång har dock minskat under senare decennier. Det är i huvudsak män mellan 20 och 50 år som drabbas av såväl skador som dödsfall till följd av elolycka, delvis i samband med förvärvsarbete. För närvarande skadas årligen cirka 1 500 personer i elolyckor, varav 200-250 så allvarligt att det blir inlagda på sjukhus och 3-6 avlider.

    Två grupper som särskilt framträder i den nu redovisade statistiken, vid sidan av de yrkesverksamma, är barn och lekmän. Gruppen lekmän utgörs till stor del av "hemmafixare". En slutsats av studien är att preventiva insatser riktade mot dessa två målgrupper är av största vikt på vägen mot trygg och störningsfri el.

    Den databearbetning som ligger till grund för resultaten i denna rapport, skiljer sig på ett par väsentliga punkter från Elsäkerhetsverkets tidigare kartläggningar. Myndighetens egen skadestatistik är till stor del baserad på rapportering av skador inom förvärvsarbete. Denna datamängd omfattar cirka 300 individer per år vilket jämfört med våra siffror tyder på en kraftig underrapportering.

    Rapporten bygger på elrelaterade personskador som sammanställts utifrån Sveriges tre befolkningsövergripande register där personskador återfinns; dödsorsaksregistret (DOR), patientregistret (PAR) samt Injury Database (IDB).

  • 71.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    The diverse reasons for using Novel Psychoactive Substances - A qualitative study of the users' own perspectives2018In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 52, p. 71-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users’ self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively.

    Methods

    The self-reported reasons of a self-selected sample of 613 international NPS users were collected via an online survey promoted at the international drug discussion forum bluelight.org and later analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis.

    Results

    The analysis showed that the participants used NPS because these compounds reportedly: 1) enabled safer and more convenient drug use, 2) satisfied a curiosity and interest about the effects, 3) facilitated a novel and exciting adventure, 4) promoted self-exploration and personal growth, 5) functioned as coping agents, 6) enhanced abilities and performance, 7) fostered social bonding and belonging, and 8) acted as a means for recreation and pleasure. The consumption of NPS was also driven by 9) problematic and unintentional use.

    Conclusion

    The present study contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the users’ own and self-reported reasons for using NPS, which needs to be acknowledged not only in order to minimize drug related harm and drug user alienation but also to improve prevention efforts and reduce the potentially counter-intuitive effects of strictly prohibitive policies.

  • 72.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Alarming attitudinal barriers to help-seekingin drug-related emergency situations: Results from a Swedish online survey2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: New troublesome drug trends constitute a challenge for public health. Sweden has the second highest drug-related mortality rate in Europe. This calls for an investigation into the help-seeking attitudes of young adults to early middle-aged individuals asking how they would act in acute drug-related emergency or overdose situations. Methods: In total, 1232 individuals com- pleted an online survey promoted on Sweden’s largest discussion forum Flashback.org. Their free- text responses were analysed according to inductively generated categories. Results: Around 60% of the sample would act as expected and contact emergency care without hesitation. However, approximately 32% of the sample showed palpable resistance and would put off seeking help and use emergency care only as a last resort due to, for example, fear of legal repercussions and stigma. Moreover, 8% displayed a total lack of confidence in public healthcare and would avoid it at all costs or entirely disregard it as an option due to the alleged risk of negative consequences and expe- rienced restrictions on their personal freedom. Conclusions: While the inevitable criminalisation and stigmatisation associated with Sweden’s “zero tolerance” drug policy putatively serve as deterrents to drug use, our results demonstrate that these measures may also contribute to attitudes which discourage help-seeking. Such attitudes may at least partly explain the growing and comparatively high number of drug-induced deaths. Therefore, attitudinal and structural barriers to acute help-seeking in drug-related emergency situations should be acknowledged and investigated further in order to minimise harm.

  • 73.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sundström, Kaj
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Poisoning Casualties: Alcohol, Pharmaceuticals or “Legal Highs”?: Poisoning Cases at Emergency Rooms in The Swedish County Värmland in 2007-20132015In: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, ISSN 2161-0711, Vol. 5, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The growing number of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also labelled as “legal highs”, constitutes a challenge to public health. It is uncertain whether this trend is related to the increase in number of poising cases reported by emergency rooms. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NPS in acute cases of poisoning in the Swedish county Värmland. The numbers of NPS casualties were correlated with poisoning by other substances. Both, the gender and age distribution of the reported cases were recorded.

    Method: Records classified as poisoning casualties at the emergency rooms in Värmland during 2007- 2013 were collected and analyzed.

    Results: NPS and illicit drugs constituted only a small part (1.67% and 7.84% respectively) of the total poisoning casualties. The results also revealed that alcohol and pharmaceuticals were present in the majority of cases (91.2%), and were to a larger extent involved in polydrug abuse and suicide attempts. Furthermore, the results uncovered an alarming poisoning problem among women who had taken pharmaceuticals and for suicidal young people.

    Conclusions: It is unclear whether the comparatively low prevalence of NPS and illicit drug related poisoning casualties reflect the real prevalence of injury cases or a possible under-reporting. 

  • 74.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Do home fire and safety checks by on-duty firefighters decrease the number of fires?: Quasi-experimental evidence from Southern Sweden2019In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 70, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fire and rescue services Syd, in the south of Sweden, started to conduct home fire and safety checks on a large scale in 2010. The goal was to reduce the damages from residential fires. Method: We estimate the effects of the intervention on the incidence of residential fires and evaluate its economic effect. We use a difference-in-kinks design to analyze time-varying intervention effects and conduct a cost–benefit analysis for the economic evaluation. Results: The results demonstrate that fires and developed fires decrease by a maximum of approximately 6% and 8% per year (assuming 100% causality)and that the intervention has positive economic effects, with the benefits estimated to be maximum 8–11 times higher than the costs. Practical applications: The results should be valuable as input when deciding whether to implement home fire and safety checks elsewhere.

  • 75.
    Svee, A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitetssjukhus.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Sjöberg, F
    Linköping University.
    Huss, F
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Burns in Sweden: temporal trends from 1987 to 2010.2016In: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters, ISSN 1121-1539, E-ISSN 1592-9558, Annals of burns and fire disasters, ISSN 1592-9558, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 85-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of burned patients admitted to hospitals in Sweden, and to examine temporal trends during the last three decades. Our hypothesis was that there has been an appreciable decline in the number of patients admitted. Retrospective data about burned patients treated at Swedish hospitals 1987 - 2010 were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Patients with primary or secondary ICD diagnoses of burns were included, reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of sex, age, incidence, mortality in hospital and duration of stay. A total of 30,478 patients were admitted to hospitals with burns. The absolute number of admissions declined by 42% (95% CI 39 to 44). There was a highly significant reduction of 45% (95% CI: 38 to 51) in the ageadjusted incidence (admissions/million population) over the years, and the reduction was significant for both sexes. Children aged 0-4 years (n=8308) were most likely to be admitted to hospital (27%). The median duration of stay shortened over time (p < 0.0001). There was an overall significant reduction in deaths at hospital/100 admissions over time (p <0.0001). We think that the improvements are the result of a combination of preventive measures, improved treatments and greater use of outpatient facilities. If we understand these trends and the relations between age-adjusted incidence and actual number of admissions, we can gain insight into what is needed for future provision of emergency health care.

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