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  • 51.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    National speaking tests in English: Does group size matter?2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, Vol. 3, p. 3p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 52.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Speaking about speaking: English teachers' practices and views regarding Part A of the English national test2015In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blogpost about Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden.2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Extramural English in teaching and learning: From theory and research to practice2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is unique in bringing together theory, research, and practice about English encountered outside the classroom – extramural English – and how it affects teaching and learning. The book investigates ways in which learners successfully develop their language skills through extramural English and provides tools for teachers to make use of free time activities in primary and secondary education. The authors demonstrate that learning from involvement in extramural English activities tends to be incidental and is currently underutilized in classroom work. A distinctive strength is that this volume is grounded in theory, builds on results from empirical studies, and manages to link theory and research with practice in a reader-friendly way. Teacher-educators, teachers and researchers of English as a foreign language and teachers of English as a second language across the globe will find this book useful in developing their use of extramural English activities as tools for language learning.

  • 55.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fritidsspråk i femman: framtidens studenter formas2011In: Språk för framtiden. Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Falun, 12-13 november, 2010.: Language for the future. Papers from the ASLA Symposium in Falun, 12-13 November, 2010 / [ed] A. Ylikiiskilä & M. Westman, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2011, p. 186-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    How Swedish children learn English through gaming2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden2014In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N=76, aged 10–11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners’ L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their use of computers and engagement in playing digital games in particular. A comparison is made between language-related activities in English, Swedish, and other languages. Another purpose was to see whether there is a relationship between playing digital games and (a) gender, (b) L1, (c) motivation for learning English, (d) self-assessed English ability, and (e) self-reported strategies for speaking English. In order to do so, the sample was divided into three digitalgame groups, (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate, and (3) frequent gamers (>4 hours/week), based on diary data (using self-reported times for playing digital games in English). Results showedthat YELLs are extensively involved in extramural English (EE) activities (M=7.2 hrs/w).There are statistically significant gender differences, boys (11.5 hrs/w) and girls (5.1 hrs/w; p < .01), the reason being boys’ greater time investment in digital gaming and watching films.The girls, on the other hand, spent significantly more time on pastime language-relatedactivities in Swedish (11.5 hrs/w) than the boys (8.0 hrs/w; p < .05), the reason being girls’greater time investment in facebooking. Investigation of the digital game groups revealed that group (1) was predominantly female, (2) a mix, and (3) predominantly male. YELLs with an L1 other than Swedish were overrepresented in group (3). Motivation and self-assessed English ability were high across all groups. Finally, regarding the self-reported strategies, code-switching to one’s L1 was more commonly reported by non- and moderate gamers than frequent gamers.

  • 58.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Unveiling the force of learner-initiated informal language learning: Extramural learning2018In: Language Magazine, ISSN 1537-7350, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Gamers and girls: Avancerad vokabulär i engelska uppsatser (årskurs 9)2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Learning by playing: Relations between out-of-school digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between digital gameplay and language learning is a growing field of interest within SLA. Gee (2007) was among the first linguists to highlight the affordances offered by digital games for learning and literacy; subsequent empirical studies have proved him right as regards L2 learning. The present study is grounded in sociocultural theory (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978) where social interaction is fundamental; likewise, social interaction is central in many games (see e.g. Peterson, 2012). The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the relation between digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency, vocabulary in particular, as well as on the relation between gameplay and learners’ attitudes towards English. To this end, a sample of 80 L2 English learners (aged 15–16) were divided into three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) based on frequency of out-of-school digital gameplay activity: (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate gamers, and (3) frequent gamers (≥ 5 hours/week). Due to the gendered distribution of non-gamers (predominantly female) and frequent gamers (predominantly male), these three DGGs are also partially defined by gender. The study attempts to answer the following research questions: (1) Are there any correlations between out-of-school digital game play and (a) L2 proficiency, (b) vocabulary, (c) attitudes towards English, and (d) outcomes in terms of various grades? (2) What is the role of gender in any correlations observed? For the present study, we use datasets originally collected for Author1 (year), comprising questionnaire data, vocabulary tests, essays, assessment data, and school subject grades. The data were analyzed quantitatively using Pearson’s chi-squared and Cramér’s V for tests of association between nominal variables, and t-tests, ANOVA, and classical eta squared for tests of variance with numeric variables. Results show a medium to large effect of gameplay, but also gender, on vocabulary. Further, DGG 3 had the most advanced vocabulary, the highest rated essays, and the highest final English grades, closely followed by DGG 1, while DGG 2 trailed behind. Attitudes varied between the groups, but DGG 3 tended to have the most positive attitudes towards English. One conclusion is that both gaming and gender are connected with L2 English proficiency.

     

     

    Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Revised and updated edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Peterson, M. (2012). Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis. ReCALL, 24(3), 361-380.

    Vygotsky, L. (1978). Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., and Souberman, E. (Eds.) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

     

  • 61.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes2015In: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

  • 62.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization2018In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 217-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

  • 63. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in extracurricular/extramural contexts2017In: CALICO journal, ISSN 0742-7778, E-ISSN 2056-9017, Vol. 34, no 1, p. i-ivArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 64. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Extramural English in relation to CLIL: Focus on young language learners in Sweden2015In: CLIL in action: Voices from the classroom / [ed] David Marsh, María Luisa Pérez Muñoz och Juan Ráez Padilla, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Needed: A vocabulary test for young learners of English2014In: Conference Proceedings from Early Language Learning: Theory and Practice 2014 / [ed] Janet Enever, Eva Lindgren, Sergej Ivanov, Umeå: Umeå University , 2014, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Validation of a test measuring young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge2016In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present the validation of a test designed to assess young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge, the Young Learner Vocabulary Assessment Test (YLVAT). YLVAT consists of 37 items selected from the K1–2 frequency levels of the Productive and Vocabulary Levels Tests. In the study, Swedish learners (N = 52, age 12) took YLVAT and filled out an evaluation; scores from the national test of English (readingand listening comprehension) were also collected. Four validity measurements were used: the spread of YLVAT scores, correlation with the national test – reading, correlation with the national test – listening, and evaluation responses. YLVAT results point to a sufficient spread of scores (M = 18.9, SD = 6.5). There were significant correlations between YLVAT and (i) reading (r = .597**), (ii) listening (r = .541**), (iii) perceived test difficulty (rs = -.538**), and (iv) how fun it was to take the test (rs = .683**). An ANOVA showed that learners who found YLVAT “easy” or “very easy” scored significantly (p = .000) higher (26.1) than those who found it “difficult” (18.3) or “very difficult” (12.9). Finally, teachers found YLVAT to correlate with their own assessment of learners’vocabulary.

  • 67.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Förenklad debatt om katederundervisning2014In: Svenskläraren. Tidskrift för svenskundervisning., ISSN 0346-2412, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Ska jag skriva det.: Lärares och elevers interaktion vid bänkarbete2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med mitt avhandlingsprojekt är att bidra med kunskap om lärares och elevers interaktion i skrifthändelser i vardagliga skriftpraktiker på mellanstadiet. Med utgångspunkt i fältet New Literacy Studies (Street, 1984; Barton, 2007; Gee, 2008) samt dialogiska och multimodala perspektiv på språk och kontext (Linell, 2009; Goodwin& Duranti, 1992; Prior& Hengst, 2010) studerar jag på vilket sätt mellanstadiets undervisning konstitueras i s.k. bänkinteraktioner, dvs. tillfällen då elever arbetar självständigt med olika skriftliga uppgifter och läraren främst intar en handledande roll. Metodologiskt använder jag mig av samtalsanalys, CA, (eng. conversation analysis) för att studera lärarens deltagande i dessa bänkinteraktioner och hur det kan förstås i relation till undervisning och lärande (Melander & Sahlström, 2010; Sahlström, 2011).

     

    Två mellanstadieklasser från olika skolor har följts periodvis under ett läsår, där vardagliga skriftpraktiker i ämnena svenska, geografi och textilslöjd har dokumenterats genom videoinspelning och fältanteckningar. En videokamera har följt lärarens arbete i klassrummet när denne rör sig mellan olika elevers bänkar, kompletterat med en fast kamera som dokumenterat helklassperspektivet. Från det rika videomaterialet görs ett urval av relaterade sekvenser i undervisningens förlopp då läraren bemöter olika elever kring en och samma arbetsuppgift, vilket möjliggör analys av hur lärarens deltagande i undervisningens interaktioner med eleverna förändras över tid med användande av olika semiotiska resurser såsom verbalt tal, gester, blickar och artefaktuella texter.

     

    Preliminära resultat synliggör hur både tidigare och projicerade skrifthändelser remedieras i de situerade bänkinteraktionerna och används som interaktionella resurser av deltagarna. Lärarens deltagande förändras successivt genom de olika bänkinteraktionerna, en förändring som inrymmer aspekter av både rutinisering och variation.

  • 69.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Taking interaction in literacy events seriously: A conversation analysis approach to evolving literacy practices in the classroom2017In: Language and Education, ISSN 0950-0782, E-ISSN 1747-7581, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 400-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I examine the relation between literacy events and literacy practices in classroom interaction and add to ongoing discussions in the field of NLS about the transcontextual nature of literacy and how local literacy events are linked to broader literacy practices. It specifically focuses on how the link between literacy events and literacy practices are maintained in the institutionally shaped classroom interaction. Conversation analysis (CA) is used to explore the interactional resources and social knowledge relied upon as teachers and students orient to literacy practices in everyday classroom interactions. The analysis focuses on a frequent type of teacher–student interaction during seatwork, desk interaction, i.e. interactions that occur as students work individually at their desks while the teacher moves around in the classroom to help and supervise them. The result shows how teachers and students refer to and use previously shared experiences of institutionally shaped literacy practices in the desk interactions, using both verbal and non-verbal resources. Thus, the literacy events in these interactions are shown both to be embedded in and contributing forward to the progressive shaping of classroom literacy practices that to a large extent seem to be practices of selfregulation and responsibility in individual assignments.

  • 70.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    The teacher’s pathway through the classroom.: Learning and literacy in desk-interactions in the middle years.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, I take an interest in how teaching and learning as social actions have to be actively accomplished in interactions between teachers and students in the institutional setting of the classroom. More precisely I focus on learning trajectories between teachers and students within subsequent situations over time and the practices relied upon for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in individual deskwork to these changing understandings.

    Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012; Goodwin, 2013). This focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011). Here, I explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on interactional resources such as epistemic topicalizations and reoccurring semiotic fields.

    Analyzed data comes from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning and literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 year in two Swedish schools.  Within this material, trajectories of learning in desk-interactions between teachers and students, i.e. when students work individually while the teacher moves around in the classroom to support them, have been traced. In the analysis I compare learning trajectories from two different perspectives. First I analyze examples where a teacher repeatedly meets the same student in interactions about the same learning content. Secondly I focus on changes in the teacher’s epistemic stance as he/she meets different students about the same learning content in repeated desk-interactions.

    The varying functions in participants’ use of epistemic topicalizations and reoccurring semiotic fields are shown to be crucial resources to maintain, in different ways, the “sameness” in a certain constituted content through repeated learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content. When comparing trajectories from the student’s and teacher’s perspective it becomes clear that learning in desk-interactions is constituted in the dynamic interplay between teacher’s and student’s learning, where the main feature of the teacher’s learning could be described as trying out a routine. The teacher’s pathway through the classroom could from this be described as an infrastructure for learning characterized of both differentiation and routinization (Schegloff, 2006). This in turn can simultaneously both enable and constrain student learning in these situations.

     

    References

    Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8-23.

    Heritage, J. (2012). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 30-52.

    Lee, Y. (2010). Learning in the contingency of talk-in-interaction. Text & Talk, 30(4), 403-422.

    Melander, H. (2009). Trajectories of learning : Embodied interaction in change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Uppsala University Library

    Sahlström, F. (2011). Learning as social action. In J. K. Hall, J. Hellermann & S. P. Doehler (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development . Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Schegloff, E. (2006). Interaction: The infrastructure for Social Institutions, the Natural Ecological Niche for Language, and the Arena in which Culture is Enacted (70-96). In N.J. Enfield & S.C. Levinson, Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition and Interaction. Oxford: Berg.

    Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 71.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Helsingfors universitet.
    How content becomes routine.: Teacher learning in desk interactions.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on classroom interaction between teacher and students in desk interactions, and on how attitudes towards knowing and learning are demonstrated in so called epistemic stances. The aim is to explore how the teacher’s epistemic stance changes through a series of desk interactions with different students and how this can be understood as learning in a situated activity. The analysis is grounded in empirical data consisting of video recordings where one teacher assists five different groups of students with the same question during a geography lesson. In the analysis we highlight how the teacher orients to the learning activity, and how his participation in this activity changes in the situationally unfolding contingency of interaction. In the studied example, the construal of a list with three examples becomes an interactional resource for the organization of both participation and content. Through changes in epistemic stance, a learning trajectory evolves as the teacher tries out a routine. These subsequent changes can be understood as professional learning in on-going teaching. In the studied classroom, the main feature of this learning can be described as routinization.

  • 72.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    "...When It Is Us the Tests Are Made for". Students' Argumentations in a Performative Education System2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to analyse how policy decisions about assessment practices influence what it means to be a student in a performative system. We examine an occasion where a previously mandatory national test became optional, and how students took the opportunity to try to change the school's decision about this. The study is based on student group interviews in year 6, and uses Conversation Analysis to examine how they use discursive resources to co-construct fabrications of the ideal student. The findings show how neoliberal rhetoric has worked its way into the students' everyday lives, and how they display a deep knowledge about how to use arguments that work inside the system. We argue that there is a need for more knowledge about contemporary education policies from a student perspective.

  • 73.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Same and different.: Epistemic topicalizations as resources for cohesion and change.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we take an interest in how teaching and learning as social actions have to be actively accomplished in interactions between teachers and students in the institutional setting of the classroom. More precisely, we focus on the practices relied upon by teachers and students for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in individual deskwork to these changing understandings, both within teaching instances and in subsequent situations occurring over longer periods of time.

    Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction  (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012b; 2012a; Goodwin, 2013; Koole, 2012). The focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Martin, 2004; Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Seedhouse, Walsh, & Jenks, 2010). Drawing on these and other studies on learning from a participationist perspective (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Sfard, 1998), the paper takes a view on learning as a social action; as something people are literally doing, accomplished in part through changes in epistemic stance. The issue of cross-situational relevance has proved to be a challenge for CA studies. Here, we explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on epistemic topicalizations as resources for the shaping of cohesive learning trajectories.

    The analyzed material consists of data from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning in literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 year in two Swedish schools.  Within this material, trajectories of learning in desk-interactions between teachers and students when students work individually while the teacher moves around in the classroom to supervise and support their work have been traced. We analyze how the verbal and non-verbal resources (Goodwin 2007; 2013) for epistemic topicalizations used by teachers and students come to construct the interaction as oriented to learning and change.

    In the analysis we contrast two different examples where teachers in two or more desk-interactions subsequently meet the same student in interactions about the same learning content in a school assignment. In the first case, we show how the teacher’s epistemic stance changes through and between the desk-interactions in relation to how the studentbecomes more and more certain of how to make use of a map in a geography assignment. The teacher and the student use epistemic topicalizations to explicate the changed epistemic status of the students, and to remind each other of previous experiences, which thus become available to them in the learning activity. By making the previous learning experiences available, the teacher does not have to be as thorough in her explanations in the second interaction compared to the first. This makes it possible to redefine the learning content with more complexity. In the second example, the student shows that despite the teacher’s previous support in a writing activity during a series of Swedish lessons, he still cannot fulfill an assignment. Also in this case, epistemic topicalizations are used to position the student’s epistemic status, and to remind each other of previous experiences. However, in this second instance, this results in more thorough explanations from the teacher using similar semiotic resources as before but with a higher degree of scaffolding, rather than the progressivity of the first instance.

    In conclusion, we show how epistemic topicalizations play an important role in the learning trajectories as means to maintain, in different ways, the “sameness” in a certain constituted content through several learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content in relation to successive changes in the student’s epistemic status. Hence, epistemic topicalization is demonstrated to be a primary resource in establishing a shared understanding of the evolving epistemic status of the students, and consequently, as a primary resource for adapting and changing teaching and instruction. Epistemic topicalizations represent crucial resources both for the contingent organization of learning as social action within and beyond situated interactions, and for the situated construction of differentiation and mutual adaption of teaching and learning in relation to displayed needs and requests from various students.

     

    References

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8-23. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.09.003

    Heritage, J. (2012a). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 30-52. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646685

    Heritage, J. (2012b). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 1-29. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646684

    Koole, T. (2012). The epistemics of student problems: Explaining mathematics in a multi-lingual class. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(13), 1902-1916. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.006

    Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning : Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Lee, Y. (2010). Learning in the contingency of talk-in-interaction. Text & Talk, 30(4), 403-422. doi:10.1515/TEXT.2010.020

    Martin, C. (2004). From other to self : Learning as interactional change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Universitetsbiblioteket [distributör].

    Melander, H. (2009). Trajectories of learning : Embodied interaction in change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Uppsala University Library [distributör].

    Sahlström, F. (2011). Learning as social action. In J. K. Hall, J. Hellermann & S. P. Doehler (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development (). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Seedhouse, P., Walsh, S., & Jenks, C. (2010). Conceptualising "learning" in applied linguistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13. doi:10.3102/0013189X027002004

    Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 74.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Borgström, Eric
    Lötmarker, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Skar, Gustaf B.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Walkert, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Wikberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Likvärdig bedömning av elevers språkförmågor: Preliminära resultat från ett ämnesdidaktiskt forskningsprojekt2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Interventionsforskning om läsning och läsundervisning.2013In: Tionde nationella konferensen i svenska med didaktisk inriktning.: Genre / [ed] Chrystal, J-A & Lim Falk, M., Stockholm: Stockholms universitet. , 2013, p. 159-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Torsmats, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Kärlek i undervisningen: En analys av hur kärlek framställs i några läromedel inom ämnet svenska2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    von Kogerer, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Texturval hos svensklärare i relation till kursplanens ”centrala verk”2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with text selections of nine Swedish teachers in the upper secondary school, and their interpretation of the curriculum’s formulation “key works”. The author of this essay also addresses, apart from the selection of printed literary texts, multimodal texts and tries to examine what kind of texts the interviewed teachers prefer to use in their teaching. The aim is to try to get an insight in how upper secondary school teachers’ text selections can be done, in relation to the syllabus’ concept “key works”.

    Nine Swedish teachers who work in upper secondary school were interviewed via email. The teachers have answered questions that concern their literary text selection, together with how they interpret the concept “key works” in the syllabus. 

    The result shows that most of the teachers interviewed in this essay preferably, or usually, select printed traditional texts rather than multimodal texts. It is also several different factors that affect the teachers’ text selections, for instance the students, time and the teachers’ professionalism and didactic goals.

    The teachers’ interpretations of the concept “key works” mainly differ. The concept can therefore be seen as ambiguous (or unclear). However, several of the interviewed teachers describe a literary canon in their interpretation of the concept. Some of them even connect “key works” to classical works, while others express uncertainty in how to interpret the concept. One conclusion drawn is that “key works” can’t be said to have a concrete and unambiguous meaning that is widely accepted by practicing teachers.

  • 78.
    Wijkmark, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Female Monstrosity and Madness: Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s The Yellow Wallpaper and Selma Lagerlöf’s Spökhanden2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Wijkmark, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Culture and Gender studies.
    Selma Lagerlöf and the Gothic-fantastic Short Story2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nonpology unaccepted: Insincere apologies in social media discourse2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot study of how social media interactants construct a notion ofnonpologies. Nonpology is a neologism sometimes found in social media discussions of what research has called, e.g., “non-apologies” or “quasi-apologies” (Kampf, 2009). Such concepts often relate to a socially recognized genre of “public apologies” (An- carno, 2015) by politicians, celebrities, or corporate spokespersons. Public apologies that rate as nonpologies may either lack an explicit moment of apologizing, or come across as insincere or self-serving in some way. This study focuses on how Twitter in- teractants construe public apology-framed events, for instance in wake of the #MeTooawareness raising campaign of late 2017. The material is a collection of Twitter conver- sations in which at least one interlocutor refers to an event specifically as a nonpology. This material is analyzed in a microanalytic framework with a focus on the emic (i.e., discourse participants’) construction of the concept. For example, talking about come- dian James Corden’s apology for a rape joke, two Twitter users orient to the apology as insufficient and insincere:

    1. A:  Ugh his apology is so shit. SNL did Weinstein jokes that ripped Weinstein. It can be done. Corden just acted like rape is hilarious.

    2. B:  Yup. He punched right down.

    B: And it’s a nonpology; I’m sorry IF you were offended.

    Here, A dismisses Corden’s apology as “so shit,” suggesting that the apology was inad- equate to make up for the transgression of the rape joke. B replies to A’s tweet twice. First, B aligns with A’s criticism of the rape joke itself. Second, B expands on A’s dis- missal of the apology by labeling it a nonpology. B elaborates on the nonpology concept by constructing a paraphrase of Corden’s apology. In the paraphrase, B conceptualizes the nonpology as being focused on the taking of offense rather than on the transgression itself, and as being conditional (B emphasizes “IF”).

    Through analysis of such instances, the pilot study aims to contribute to the develop- ment of a larger project on non-apologies in mediated interaction. Since the focus is on everyday interaction, the project will contribute to linguistic/interactional scholarship on the structure and felicity conditions of apologies in general. Further, since the con- cepts of nonpologies are formulated in response to events of critical political signifi- cance in the public’s view, the project will contribute to our understanding of everyday, micro-level, political participation in the context of digitally-mediated publics.

    Ancarno, C. (2015). When are public apologies “successful”? Focus on British and French apology press uptakes. Journal of Pragmatics, 84, 139–153.

    Kampf, Z. (2009). Public (non-) apologies: The discourse of minimizing responsibility. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(11), 2257–2270.

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