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  • 501.
    Aiello, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att trivas på jobbet: En kvantitativ studie om trivsel och sociala relationer på ett svenskt callcenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research have concluded that social relations are an important factor that counteracts stress and increase comfort levels at the workplace. The purpose for this study has been to examine how, and if, different background factors affect the employee’s social relationships and job satisfaction but also if social relationships affect job satisfaction. The survey was conducted as an exploratory survey in which the dependent variables were studied on the basis of gender, age, period of employment and project. It turned out that no statistically significant relationship was found between background variables and job satisfaction. However, a statistically significant relationship was discovered between respondents' social relationships and job satisfaction level. Age and period of employment are factors that affect social relations inside the company.  In summary, the study provides support to theories that strong social support in the workplace improves job satisfaction. Age and period of employment create the conditions for social relationships between its employees and managers. There are also some indications in the data to suggest that age affects the employees job satisfaction.

  • 502. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Hilhorst, D.
    Mimura, M.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Preface2012In: Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems. Series S, ISSN 1937-1632, E-ISSN 1937-1179, discrete and cont, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 503.
    Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Japan Womens Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Math, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo.
    Hulshof, J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Sci, Dept Math, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kenmochi, N.
    Bukkyo Univ, Sch Educ Math, Kita Ku, Kyoto.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci,.
    Analysis of non-equilibrium evolution problems: Selected topics in material and life sciences2014In: Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems. Series S, ISSN 1937-1632, E-ISSN 1937-1179, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 504. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci.
    A free-boundary problem for concrete carbonation: Front nucleation and rigorous justification of the root t-law of propagation2013In: Interfaces and free boundaries (Print), ISSN 1463-9963, E-ISSN 1463-9971, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 505. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Existence and uniqueness of solutions to a mathematical model predicting service life of concrete structures2009In: Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications, ISSN 1343-4373, Vol. 19, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 506.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Gifu University, Japan.
    Anthonissen, Martijn
    Eindhoven University Technology, Netherlands.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University Technology, Netherlands.
    On a one-dimensional shape-memory alloy model in its fast-temperature- activation limit2012In: Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems. Series S, ISSN 1937-1632, E-ISSN 1937-1179, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 507.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Gifu University, Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Large time behavior of solutions to a moving-interface problem modeling concrete carbonation2010In: Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis, ISSN 1534-0392, E-ISSN 1553-5258, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1117-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 508.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Tokyo Womens University.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Netherlands.
    Large-time asymptotics of moving-reaction interfaces involving nonlinear Henry’s law and time-dependent Dirichlet data2013In: Nonlinear Analysis, ISSN 0362-546X, E-ISSN 1873-5215, Vol. 93, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the large-time behavior of the free boundary position capturing the one-dimensional motion of the carbonation reaction front in concrete-based materials. We extend here our rigorous justification of the t-behavior of reaction penetration depths by including nonlinear effects due to deviations from the classical Henry's law and time-dependent Dirichlet data.

  • 509. Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Large-time behavior of a two-scale semilinear reaction-diffusion system for concrete sulfatation2014In: Mathematical methods in the applied sciences, ISSN 0170-4214, E-ISSN 1099-1476, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1451-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 510.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Large-time behavior of solutions to a thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions2017In: Journal of Differential Equations, ISSN 0022-0396, E-ISSN 1090-2732, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 3009-3026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove the large time behavior of solutions to a coupled thermo-diffusion arising in the modeling of the motion of hot colloidal particles in porous media. Additionally, we also ensure the uniqueness of solutions of the target problem. The main mathematical difficulty is due to the presence in the right-hand side of the equations of products between temperature and concentration gradients. Such terms mimic the so-called thermodynamic Soret and Dufour effects. These are cross-coupling terms emphasizing in this context a strong interplay between heat conduction and molecular diffusion.

  • 511.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Gifu University, Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    On uniqueness of a weak solution of one-dimensional concrete carbonation problem2011In: Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, ISSN 1078-0947, E-ISSN 1553-5231, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1345-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our previous works we studied a one-dimensional free-boundary model related to the aggressive penetration of gaseous carbon dioxide in unsaturated concrete. Essentially, global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to the model were obtained when the initial functions are bounded on the domain. In this paper we investigate the well-posedness of the problem for the case when the initial functions belong to a  class. Specifically, the uniqueness of weak solutions is proved by applying the dual equation method.

  • 512.
    Aikio Englund, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    A study of calculation models for fatigue life prediction: A thesis accomplished together with GKN Aerospace2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan don’t use the latest ANSYS version and need to upgrade their life analysis models. The aim with this thesis is to do a study of the new models and investigate the times required for the calculations. A flight mission were chosen and this mission together with different life analysis models were run in the GKN in house program Life Analysis System. The results were analyzed and depending on the results additional runs were made or the problem were sent to the life management group at GKN Aerospace. Strain levels versus time were also plotted for the runs with the new models to get a perception where any problems occurs. The results from the model 4.10.149 had no variations between equal runs for the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine but there was a variation between the results when equal runs was made with the high pressure compressor. The results from model 4.10.157 and 4.10.124 and 4.10.160 and 4.10.173 had variations in the fatigue life for equal runs. The variations can depend on that the calculations converges to different solutions, the reason for this can depend on the non-linear contact elements. The variation in the results between equal runs occurs when the model uses two or more cores. The time required for the calculation becomes faster with the use of more cores. The longest duration had model 4.10.173 because of the many requirements for the calculations in this model. The problem with the variation in the results is sent to ANSYS.

  • 513.
    Aikio, Felix
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Alvin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sjuksköterskestudenters upplevelser av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En empirisk studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 514. Aili, C.
    et al.
    Blossing, Ulf
    Tornberg, U.
    Läraren i blickpunkten: Olika perspektiv på lärare liv och arbete2008Book (Refereed)
  • 515.
    Aili, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Karlsson, Christian
    Karlstad University.
    Havöysund: En studie om hälleflundraturismen2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 516.
    Aimal, Pir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Mohsin, Main
    Analyzing Voltage control and reactive power support from full power converter wind turbine2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 517. Ainali, Jan
    et al.
    Andersson, Anna
    Berger, Annika
    Advertising impact1999Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av RELS Media Group AB har vi under vårt examensarbete behandlat mobil storformatsreklam. Mobilt på så sätt att det ska bara stå uppe i tvåveckorsperioder innan man tar ner den. Storformat innebär i detta fall 50-100 m2. Vi har i arbetet gått igenom hela designprocessen, vilket har resulterat i två förslag redo för produktion och användning. Det ena baseras på användning av befintliga byggställningsdelar som hyrs in vid varje tillfälle. Det andra bygger på användning av segelbåtsmaster.

  • 518. Ainers, Linda
    et al.
    Knutson, Sofia
    Lärares och elevers syn på aga i Lingelihle Sydafrika2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We choose to investigate physical punishment because we think that it is relevant and almost always a current subject in our role as teachers. A part of our purpose with our degree project was to win an increased understanding for other people’s situation in life and culture. Our main question is the following: - What are the pupils and teachers views on physical punishment in Lingelihle, South Africa? Our other questions: - How does physical punishment affect children? - What kind of parents beat their own children for upbringing purposes? To get our questions answered we choose literature studies and interviews as our investigation method. During our journey with the University of Karlstad to a township called Lingelihle, in South Africa, we held lessons in a school in the township and it was also where we did our interviews. During our stay in the township we lived with a family and we got to see physical punishment in action. Our report resulted in very interesting and frightening facts about the South African school. Even though physical punishment is illegal in South Africa it is still practiced in the school where we did our interviews. In the conclusion section it is clear that the teachers at this school have very different understandings of what occurs and what does not occur at the school concerning physical punishment. In the interviews certain facts came to light, for instance that poverty and abuse of drugs and alcohol contributes to physical punishment in the homes and that this leads to that pupils, who live under these conditions, act out at school and causes problems there as a cry for help. During our interviews with the pupils it became clear that physical punishment is a fact at this school. The interviews also showed that it is more common for male pupils to be exposed to physical punishment than female pupils.

  • 519. Airiman, Lorelei
    Musikens användning i förskola och språkskola2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 520.
    Airola, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hager, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Image Classification, Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Frameworks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine learning and specifically neural networks is a growing trend in software development, and has grown immensely in the last couple of years in the light of an increasing need to handle big data and large information flows. Machine learning has a broad area of application, such as human-computer interaction, predicting stock prices, real-time translation, and self driving vehicles. Large companies such as Microsoft and Google have already implemented machine learning in some of their commercial products such as their search engines, and their intelligent personal assistants Cortana and Google Assistant.

    The main goal of this project was to evaluate the two deep learning frameworks Google TensorFlow and Microsoft CNTK, primarily based on their performance in the training time of neural networks. We chose to use the third-party API Keras instead of TensorFlow's own API when working with TensorFlow. CNTK was found to perform better in regards of training time compared to TensorFlow with Keras as frontend. Even though CNTK performed better on the benchmarking tests, we found Keras with TensorFlow as backend to be much easier and more intuitive to work with. In addition, CNTKs underlying implementation of the machine learning algorithms and functions differ from that of the literature and of other frameworks. Therefore, if we had to choose a framework to continue working in, we would choose Keras with TensorFlow as backend, even though the performance is less compared to CNTK.

  • 521.
    Aitenbichler, Erwin
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Behring, Alexander
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Bradler, Dirk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Hartmann, Melanie
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Mühlhäuser, Max
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Ries, Sebastian
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Schnelle-Walka, Dirk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Schreiber, Daniel
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Steimle, Jürgen
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Strufe, Thorsten
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Shaping the Future Internet2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd International CompanionAble Workshop IoPTS, Brussels, 2. December 2009., The CompanionAble , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Services (IoS) are two well-knownexemplars of the emerging ‘Internet variants’. These variants will be tightlyinterwoven yet specific with respect to the supporting technologies needed. Thepresent paper discusses the five variants identified as essential by the authors: IoT,IoS, Internet-of-Humans, Internet-of-Crowds, and Internet-of-Clouds. For eachvariant, a non-comprehensive set of research challenges is cited and related to thestate of the art and to ongoing projects of the lab.

  • 522. Aitman, Therese
    Fördrag om upprättande av en konstitution för Europa - en demokratisering av EU?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 523.
    Aitman, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med terminal oro: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Terminal oro är i denna litteraturstudie en beteckning för en samling av symtom som utgör en särskild form av lidande i livets slutskede, sprunget ur fysisk, emotionell och existentiell utsatthet. Reversibla orsaker endast kan påvisas i uppskattningsvis hälften av fallen, vilket gör terminal oro till ett renodlat omvårdnadsproblem där sjuksköterskans roll är central.

    Syfte: Att belysa sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med terminal oro.

    Metod: Polit och Becks (2017) niostegsmodell. Litteratursökningar i Cinahl och PubMed resulterade i elva artiklar som kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades enligt Colaizzis (1978 refererad i Polit & Beck 2017) fenomenologiska metod.

    Resultat: Under databearbetningen framkom fem underkategorier (Att stå utanför, Att känna sig otillräcklig, Att söka samförstånd, Att vårda i relationen, Att skydda patienten), två huvudkategorier (Avstånd, Närhet) samt en övergripande kategori (Strävan efter att trösta).

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar utmaningar i omvårdnaden samt strategier för att hantera dessa. Medvetenhet och kompetens om terminal oro, tydliga rutiner för uppföljning av dess symtom samt reflektion tillsammans med arbetskamrater gav sjuksköterskorna större möjligheter att utföra omvårdnaden på ett tillfredsställande sätt. Närvaro i den dagliga omvårdnaden och ett respektfullt bemötande etablerade en tillitsfull relation med patienterna. När sjuksköterskorna hade god kännedom om patienterna kunde multidimensionella behov mötas och välbefinnande uppnås.

  • 524. Aitman, Therese
    et al.
    Hanes, Ann-Sofi
    Irak-konflikten - en jämförande innehållsanalys av en morgontidnings respektive kvällstidnings rapportering om Irak-konflikten hösten 20022003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Iraq conflict has been around for a while. During the autumn of 2002 the problem was brought to the fore and received a large amount of coverage in the media. Due to the influence the media has over how we perceive the world, the need for them to be objective and matter of fact, when reporting the news, is crucial. We thought it would be interesting to see if the media does rapport certain news objectively. Because the choice of media formats is so large we choose to examine newspaper articles. We choose to compile a quantity and quality content analysis of the Svenska Dagbladet and Aftonbladet. We chose these two newspapers because of several factors, firstly one is a broadsheet and the others a tabloid. Secondly they do not share the same political bias. The aim of the study was to examine how the two newspapers presented the Iraq conflict, if there were any differences in the reporting and if so which. As a base for the study we have used Hvitfelts different points for newsrapporting of crises and Westerståhls Objectivity Concept. The result of the study showed no real difference in the reporting of the conflict. What we did notice however was that it appeared that the newspapers did give a misleading picture of the conflict. Both newspapers lost some of their objectivity by using emotive language, something that shouldn’t be found in news reporting. The biggest difference between the publications was their standpoint on the issue. With such limited material no general conclusions can be drawn about the reporting of the Iraq conflict. We are however of the opinion that it shows the general tendencies of the Svenska Dagbladets and Aftonbladets reporting of the conflict.

  • 525. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

  • 526.
    Akaka, Melissa A.
    et al.
    Daniels College of BusinessUniversity of Denver.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Shidler College of BusinessUniversity of Hawai’i at Mānoa.
    Further Advancing Service Science with Service-Dominant Logic: Service Ecosystems, Institutions, and their Implications for Innovation2019In: Handbook of Service Science, Volume II / [ed] Maglio, P. P., Kieliszewski, C. A., Spohrer, J. C., Lyons, K., Patricio, L. & Sawatani, Y., New York: Springer, 2019, Volume II, p. 641-659Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-dominant (S-D) logic has been recognized as a theoretical foundation for developing a science of service. As the field of service science advances the understanding of value cocreation in service systems, S-D logic continues to evolve as well. Recent updates and consolidation of the foundational premises establish five core axioms of S-D logic and outline a pathway for understanding the role of institutions in value cocreation in general, and innovation in particular. This chapter overviews the evolution of S-D logic and its service ecosystems view, which can contribute to the furthering the development of service science and advancing the study of innovation in service systems. Future research directions are proposed.

  • 527.
    Akermo, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns möjligheter till lek i en sydafrikansk förskola: En studie från en sydafrikansk kåkstad2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to find out how South African preschool teachers regard play and its relationship to learning, development and influence in play. What teachers think about children’s learning and development, and if children have any influence in their preschool play, according to the preschool teachers.The empirical material consists of interviews with six South African preschool teachers. The analysis has been conducted according to a thematic content of analysis focusing two themes; play, learning and development as one theme and children’s influence on their play as a second theme.The preschool teachers considered that play is beneficial for children in their learning and development. Play is about everything in children’s life; through play children discover the world, learn and develop in a general sense. Play also contributes to children’s learning about interaction with others.A conclusion from the study is that play is considered as an essential part in children’s lives, both in literature and in the interviews. The result shows that the preschool teachers wanted what is best for the children. As the Convention on the rights of the Child states about play: it’s about survival and development, which the teachers considered was a priority.

  • 528. Akervall, Anton
    et al.
    Iivonen, Joakim
    Ledarskapet i FöreningsSparbanken - lokal bank Karlstad2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats beskriver ledarskapet i FöreningsSparbanken i Lokal Bank Karlstad hos fem intervjuade chefer. Uppsatsen tar sin början hos intervjuer med lokalbankschefen och fyra kontorschefer och utifrån insamlat material identifieras olika teman vilka uppsatsen därefter förankrar teoretiskt. Teman uppsatsskrivarna identifierar innefattar bland annat Könsperspektiv på ledarskap, Nyckeltalsstyrning, Mentorskap, Motivation och Konflikt. Eftersom könsstrukturen på kontoren är snedfördelad intresserar sig uppsatsen för hur ledarskapet påverkas. Nyckeltalsstyrning visade sig vara en återkommande del i vardagen för cheferna och nyckeltal som styrmetod är därför något uppsatsen reflekterar över teoretiskt. Då det visade sig att en av kontorscheferna hade en mentor blev det intressant att reflektera teoretiskt över hur det kan gagna chefskapet och organisationen. En annan vardagsfråga för kontorscheferna var hur de skapar motivation och hanterar konflikter av olika slag. Empirin analyseras därefter utifrån teorin och i uppsatsens slutsatskapitel besvaras uppsatsens syfte. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva ledarskapet i Lokal Bank Karlstad utifrån genomförd omorganisation och vald teori. Uppsatsen hittar ledarskapets olika beståndsdelar och sammanfattar dem i en figur i slutsatskapitlet. Ledarskapet i Lokal Bank Karlstad illustreras med en ledarskapsstjärna vilken strålar ut i fem aktiviteter. Aktiviteterna är Mål, Konflikthantering, Coachning, Motivation och Lyssna. Centralt för nämnda aktiviteter är Samtal och Dialog, kontorscheferna lägger mycket tid till att samtala och lyssna på sina medarbetare. En viktig del av chefens vardag består även av mål och måluppföljning. Aktiviteten konflikthantering kan handla om att få medarbetarna att arbeta mot satta mål och genom aktiviteten coachning hjälper kontorschefen medarbetarna att utveckla sig. Kontorschefen ser också till att medarbetarna hålls motiverade och ytterliggare en viktig aktivitet är arbete kring mål och hur målen skall nås.

  • 529. Akervall, Anton
    et al.
    Iivonen, Joakim
    Sjöqvist, Sven-Olof
    Bärgningsföretagets köpprocess2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har VM-Fordonsteknik i Karlstad AB som uppdragsgivare. Företaget sysslar bland annat med att bygga på bilbärgningsutrustning på lastbilschassi. Undersökningen är gjord bland företag som ägnar sig åt bilbärgning. Syftet med arbetet är att försöka beskriva och förstå bärgningsföretagens köpprocess vid köp av bärgningsfordon. Arbetet har sin utgångspunkt i teoretiska modeller om köpprocessen och den insamlade empirin har jämförts med teorin. Huvuddelen av det empiriska materialet består av ett antal telefonintervjuer med representanter från bärgningsföretag runt om i Sverige. Slutsatserna från arbetet är att bärgningsföretagens köpprocess är betydligt mer komplex än de sekventiella modeller som använts som utgångspunkt. Köpprocessen är istället en ständigt pågående process där de olika stegen går in i varandra och där det inte går att urskilja vare sig början eller slut.

  • 530.
    Akervall, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Engström, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Copingstrategier hos patienter med kolorektalcancer: en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 531.
    Akin, Serdar
    Karlstad University.
    Aggregerad konsumtion: En ekonometrisk studie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the real aggregated consumption and empirically determine its exogenous variables. A multiplicative analysis is done in the context of government stabilization policy to find out how policymakers can execute a stimulus package that will bring the best multiplicative effect to the economy The conclusion of the study is that real income, net financial assets and real-estate price index are all statistically significant. An effective expansive fiscal policy is a public-financed investment in the private sector. Coordination is going to be crucial when stimulus package is developed due to the fact that leakage in the form of imports will prevent the expected multiplicative effect.

  • 532.
    Akintola, Abayomi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hiring Discrimination in Racially Diverse Labour Markets:A Cross Country Study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is to determine if hiring managers are sensitive to racial background ofapplicants during hiring process. The author determined hiring discrimination using twoperspectives, first what did the hiring managers know about hiring discrimination? Second,correspondence testing was conducted to quantitatively determine if employers discriminateagainst certain names during resume screening. A cross country study was done betweenSweden and Canada. The results revealed that hiring managers in both countries are wellaware of negative impact of hiring discrimination on a firm or an organisation and all therespondents condemned it. However, correspondence testing showed that hiringdiscriminations occur in both countries. 1009 jobs were applied in Sweden while 1326 jobswere applied in Canada. The aggregate results for Sweden shows that applicants with foreignnames receive a call back rate of 66.3% while applicants with Swedish names receive a callback rate of 77.2%. The results for Canada show that applicants with foreign names receiveda call back rate of 73.5% while applicants with English names receive a call back rate of74.6%. Probit estimation was used to estimate the probability of applicants being invited forinterview. The results indicate that hiring discrimination against foreign names is morepronounced in Sweden compared to Canada.

  • 533.
    Aknooni, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University.
    Carlsson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vilken bank väljer du?  : - en nyckeltalsanalys av de fyra storbankerna i  Sverige 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Which bank do you choose? – A ratio analysis of the four major banks in Sweden 

     

    Background and problem: In 2008 the world was hit by an economic crisis. The crisis 

    has affected the major Swedish banks, mainly through increased credit losses. The 

    increase in credit losses incurred due to various factors but mainly due to banks' 

    exposures in the Baltic’s. The study should be considered whether any bank fared better 

    than the others, but even if some deterioration due to the economic crisis. This should be 

    investigated by using various financial ratios selected for this study. 

     

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the four main banks in Sweden, 

    Handelsbanken, Nordea, SEB and Swedbank, based on some selected indicators. We also 

    want to study how they influenced by the current economic crisis by studying a five-year 

    period between 2004 and 2008. 

     

    Methodology: For the collection of information, we mainly rely on banks' annual 

    reports, literature in finance and business valuation, and external information.  

    By studying the ratios for the years concerned, we shall compare the banks with each 

    other and study the extent of the crisis. 

     

    Results and conclusions: The results of the study's indicators show deterioration in 

    values for all of the banks in 2008 and the first quarter of 2009. The reason for these 

    declines is based in the current economic crisis. The most obvious change that is visible is 

    the increased credit losses that affect net income, which in turn affect many of the 

    selected ratios. The key figure shows the most visible changes is the credit loss rate, return 

    on equity and earnings per share. Furthermore, the economies of the banks are expected 

    to decrease further in 2009. 

     

    Proposal for further study: Our proposal for a further study is to follow the banks of 

    the current crisis and to study further about the indicators to get a deeper understanding 

    of what influenced the banks. A further proposal is to study how the banks are recovering 

    after the crisis during 2008. 

  • 534.
    Akrawi, Alberz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Petersson, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Resurshantering av personer i multiprojektmiljöer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important task for project managers in multi-project environments is to effectively choose the right people to the project team. For organizations, it means being able to prioritize and plan human resources among the various projects running in parallel. The purpose of this paper is to describe how a project manager in multi-project environments looks at the allocation of people in their projects. We did our research through literature reviews and interviews with seven project managers.

    The research shows that the studied organizations highlight both the expertise and the personal factors in an election. They do not use any specific personality test to identify their staff. The most important thing for them is instead the area of competence, although personality is seen as something important to complete the project. Why then don´t the different personality models have any impact in the selection? The organizations believe that they are already satisfied and think that the choice of simple manageable methods work well. One obstacle may be that they perceive the instep too high in the form of courses, training, purchasing models, etc., and the investment is perceived as being more costly than the estimated profit.

    A follow-up question to our main research question was how the project managers perceived the need for IT support system for resource management to help the business improve and streamline their processes of allocation of resources. We have, through our literature studies looked at the importance of using a more advanced IT support system for resource management in large organizations, but in the businesses we studied, they are not used. For example, it may be that IT support can mean large economic costs, large rearrangements and extensive training for staff.

    It turned out that those simpler IT support systems as MS Excel in combination with active internal communication is perceived as a sufficiently effective method of resource management particularly for the smaller businesses. Especially in these businesses, it is easier to get background information about potential project members' skills and personal qualities.

  • 535. Akre, Ida
    Pedagogers sätt att bemöta barnens initiativ i förskolan2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to develop a better understanding of how preschool-teachers respond to children in preschool, when they show that they want to have some influence. I have concentrated this study on how the preschool-teachers respond to the children in the gatherings and when the children are playing freely indoors, where the questions at issue are:

    How do the preschool-teachers respond to the children’s initiative for participation in the gathering and while playing freely?

    There have been four preschool-teachers and 14 children who have taken part in this study. The children who took part are in the ages of three to five. The study was done at a section in a preschool in middle Sweden.

    The method used in this study is unstructured observations. The collecting of material has been concentrated on how the preschool-teachers respond to children while they are playing freely and during the gatherings. Is the response positive or negative, and if there are any obstacles that might have caused the preschool-teachers’ choice of response. The result shows that the preschool-teachers are more eager to a positive response towards the children’s initiative for participation while the children are playing freely compared to the gatherings. It shows that the preschool-teachers have more control and are stricter with the content in the gatherings. During the daily routines (e.g. cleaning), at the morning gatherings and when the preschool-teachers are occupied with something else, the children tend to receive either a negative response or the word “wait” as an answer.

    Keywords: Preschool, preschool-teachers, response, participation

     

  • 536. Akrin, Catrine
    Asfaltsblomma: En studie om vilka barn som omplacerades på barnhem och i fosterhem i Karlskoga under åren 1918-19252014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 537.
    Akrin, Catrine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Varför ökar förskrivningen av antidepressiva till barn och ungdomar?: En litteraturstudie om farmakologisk behandling för barn och ungdomar med psykisk ohälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 538.
    Aksell, Marina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det akuta löser jag snabbt, men det är akut hela tiden": En kvalitativ studie om lärares och rektorers hantering av arbetsuppgifter under stress.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Den offentliga sektorn har under de två senaste decennierna förändras genom att New Public Management har implementerats vilket medfört att många reformer har genomförts. Det har inneburit att den offentliga sektorn har effektiviserats och slimmats. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer de intervjuade lärarna och rektorerna upplever stressande samt hur de hanterar sin arbetssituation vid arbetsrelaterad stress. Mitt intresse för ämnet kommer av att jag själv arbetar som lärare på en gymnasieskola och därmed har ett inifrån perspektiv av hur lärare men även rektorer påverkas av stress.

    Jag valde en kvalitativ metod med en hermeneutisk ansats som innebär tolkning och reflektion. Metoden för att inhämta empiriskt material till min studie skedde genom öppna halvstrukturerade intervjuer som innebär en flexibilitet vid intervjutillfället. Analysen av mitt material gjordes genom att jag kontinuerligt rörde mig mellan delar och helhet i en process.

    Enligt Eriksson och Larsson (2011) innebär socialt stöd att relationerna till kollegor och chefer är mycket betydelsefulla. Detta bekräftar informanterna i studien. Samtidigt visar också studien att positiva interaktionsritualer var grundläggande och viktiga för lärarna och rektorerna. Collins (2004) och Olsson (2008) menar att positiva interaktionsritualer ger emotionell energi som medverkar till att individer och grupper kan hantera stressade situationer lättare. Resultatet visade även att lärarna och rektorerna använder sig av liknande strategier för att hantera sin arbetssituation vid stress och att de inom strategierna gör prioriteringar för vad som är viktigast. Det övergripande som studien visar är att det kontinuerligt råder en tidsbrist i informanternas arbete som de försöker att hantera genom olika strategier. 

  • 539.
    Akselsen Andersson, Carmitha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En studie om hur skolgårdsmiljöns utformning påverkar barns leklust2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact on children's development around playing and how significance the formation of the schoolyards is focusing on how it inspire and calls to play within the children's. The study will also show how the youth workers experience the schoolyards and how they can incorporate the playground in their work to inspire the children's play and activities. The methods used in this study is based on both real conversations and by mail with educated youth workers and observations. The results shows that the schoolyard environment is very important for the children's play and development. The study reveals the importance of having nature like forest nearby and that the environment should be suited for everyone. The children need spaces on the schoolyard and in the nature to evolve their ways of free playing, and also their needs for suited playground equipment.

  • 540.
    Aktas, Burcu
    Karlstad University.
    Språkstimulering: Hur stimulerar pedagoger språkinlärning när barn har ett annat modersmål än svenska?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 541.
    Akyol, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Khalid, Labar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Segregation och dess inverkan på Akalla, Spånga och Tensta: En fallstudie om inkludering kring ungdomar i förorten2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och jämföra om segregationen har någon inverkan på ungdomar i kranskommunerna Akalla, Spånga och Tensta. En kvalitativ undersökning utfördes och fem informanter från Akalla, Tensta och Spånga intervjuades. Segregationen finns mer eller mindre i dessa områden och det bekräftades genom intervjuerna, där en närmare bild på verkligheten målades fram. Ungdomarna känner ett utanförskap och som att de ignoreras av staten. Denna studie är baserad på teorierna “Vi och dem” och “Diskriminering” eftersom de var mest lämpliga i denna fallstudie, samt två tidigare forskningar som är skrivna av Jon Loit och Hörnqvist & De los Reyes.

    Materialet och resultatet sammanställdes och korrelerades vilket resulterade i en diskussion. I diskussionen diskuterar författarna resultaten av intervjuerna samtidigt som de kopplas till teorierna. Det som vi kan se som påverkar effekten av segregation på ungdomarna är att de inte känner sig inkluderade i samhället samt att de inte blir bemötta på samma sätt som en person från innerstaden blir. Slutsatsen besvarar vår frågeställning förenklad med en sammanfattning om hur samhällsplaneringen kan åstadkomma med.

  • 542.
    Al Amin, Jasin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Statuskod 451 ur ett IT-organisationsperspektiv: En explorative kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att internetinfrastrukturen växer har internet fått en allt större betydelse för människors liv och vardag. Vilket har orsakat ett problem för brottsförebyggande myndigheter och IT-organisationer att justera vad som är lagligt och olagligt på Internet då det inte existera rätt verktyg för justeringar. Tidigare forskning är framtagna ur ett allmänt perspektiv. Detta har medfört att blockera webbsidor i dagsläget är en utmaning då det inte finns något tekniskt stöd i form av http kod i Sverige, utan bara lagar och regler som ger anvisningar för ITorganisationerna. Med detta i åtanke blev det intressant att undersöka hur det allmänna perspektivet kan stödja Sveriges kamp mot illegala webbsidor. Frågeställningarna för denna studie är: Hur kan Sverige motverka och förebygga illegala webbsidor med och utan statuskod 451 och vilken arbetsgång/besultsprocess kan rekommenderas för svenska förhållanden för att motverka illegala webbsidor? Framtagningen av empiri har gjorts med hjälp av att intervjua berörda aktörer som rör området internet, det vill säga en internetleverantör, en expert om statuskoden 451 samt en person som har nyckel till .Se och .Nu. Det studien har kommit fram till är att det kommer vara en utmaning för Sveriges kamp mot illegala webbsidor, tills man har åtgärdat de juridiska grunderna för statuskod 451. Då de juridiska grunderna ligger i grunden till hur beslutsprocessen ska gå till när man ska geoblockera webbsidor, därefter kan man fördela rollerna i processen för ISP och webbhotellen samt brottsförebyggande myndigheterna. Skulle Sverige inte använda sig av statuskoden 451, kan man använda sig av tre olika metoder. Den första metoden är att varje land i världen samarbetar så att man förhindrar att webbsidorna dyker på Internet igen. Den andra metoden är att det bör finnas starkare samband och förklaring mellan brottsförebyggande myndigheterna om ISP och webbhotellens om deras roller. Sista metoden är att enbart webbhotellen och ISP är noga med att se till att varje kund verkligen följer upp villkoren. När d

  • 543.
    Al- Askery, Akram
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Förskrivningen av antineoplastiska monoklonala antikroppar i Sverige: En registerstudie över förskrivningsskillnaden mellan de olika delarna av landet mellan åren 2000–20162018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 544.
    AL RADAIDEH, PERNILLA
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    En resa i turismen: Jämförande text- och bildtolkning av två värmländska turistbroschyrer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Swedish essay deals with a study of two tourist brochures of Värmland from two different years, 2005 and 2007. The purpose is to examine what their differences and similarities are through a comparison. My focus is put on what tourist categories the brochures mainly turn to. I want to se if they turn to all tourists or if they lean towards a special group of people.

    To guide me I have used both textual and picture interpretation.

    I have created my own tourist categorization as a tool for my study, named The matter tourist-related categorization. It contains six categories which all have some common denominator where tourists will fit in.

    The result shows that all tourist categories are mentioned even if some are more frequently mentioned than others.

    Key words: Tourism, brochures, categorization, interpretation, nature and culture.

  • 545. Al Rawi, Mohammed
    Developement of a power spectrum based method for Doppler estimation in mobile radoi communications2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of efficient mobile radio receivers requires knowledge of statistical parameters of the transmission channel, such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spread, associated with multipath fading. In this work, a spectrum based Doppler spread estimator is proposed and evaluated. The work is conducted in Matlab. The objectives: 1. Estimate the power spectrum of the multipath channel by using a periodogram based method, either Bartlett or Welch and relate the power interval/bandwidth to an estimate of the Doppler spread. The variance of the noise is assumed to be known. 2. Compare the performance of the power spectrum based Doppler spread estimator with covariance based methods. 3. Estimation accuracy of ±10 Hz within 95% confidence interval, for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR’s) between 0 to 15 dB and maximum Doppler frequencies up to 200 Hz. 4. Study the impact of a frequency deviation and a line-of-sight (LOS) parameter on the performance of the evaluated Doppler spread estimator.

  • 546.
    Al- Robeyi, Zainab
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Att uppleva naturen med alla sina sinnen: Hur undersöker och upplever förskolebarnen naturen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This project discusses various aspects of children's way to explore nature with their senses. Therefore I conducted a study in two preschools, one nature-oriented and another preschool. This study was carriedout usien the three metods, interviews, observations and surveys. Interview four children from each preschool, observations of each group outdoors during four different occasions and question forms to teachers.

     

    The result of the study showed that both teachers and children have a great interest in being outdoors in nature, but it is not always possible to take out all children's groups. The reason is large groups and inadequate staff. When you are out in the forest according to teachers, it is important to be attentive, present, and meet the children’s interests. They need to be stimulated with questions and inspire them about what is happening and what might happen in nature plus take natural materials as help in the creative activities of the preschool.

     

    Keywords: Biology, children's perceptions, exploring, outdoor environment

  • 547.
    Al Ubeidi, Dina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effekter av lignin och cellulosa som additiv vid pelletering av träpellets2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using renewable energy sources, such as wood fuel pellets, can create conditions for sustainable development. Wood pellet production is increasing globally and the increase is expected to continue in the future. This means that the pellets industry must start to increase their raw material base, for an example by using by-products as bark. In order to improve the pellet properties and the pelleting process, additive can be used. The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge of how lignin and cellulose as additives affect pelleting properties on pellets produced from spruce-and birch sawdust and aspen bark. The aim was to find out what effects lignin and cellulose have on the density of the pellets, hardness, moisture absorption, and energy for compression and friction.

    Lignin and cellulose were tested as additives in the amount of 0, 1, 2.5 and 4% for pelletizing spruce-and birch sawdust as well as aspen bark in a single pellet press. The pellets were produced at a die temperature of 120, 100oC and 100, and a moisture content of 12, 10 and 14%.

    For pellets produced by spurce sawdust and aspen bark, the addition of lignin resulted in improved pellets, without the compression and friction energy changing. In the case of pellets produced by birch sawdust, the addition of lignin and cellulose did not change the pellet properties, on the other hand, it increased the energy for compression and friction. Both lignin and cellulose reduced the moisture absorption capacity of pellets. 

  • 548.
    Al-abuhalje, Afrah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Al-abuhalje, Sanaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Översikt och tillämpning av XML2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    HTML is not powerful enough to handle the increasing demands on Internet applications of today, which is one of the reasons to why a new markup language called XML has been introduced. In this report we describe the basics as well as more advanced parts of XML like DTD, XML Schema and XSLT.

    XML combines the simplicity of HTML and the possibilties of SGML. One of the premier strengths of XML is that it may be used to store any type of data without any considerations to how it will be presented later. The content and the presentation are separated completely. Another important property is that XML documents are stored as

    ordinary text files, which means that XML is system and platform independent.

    In this report our aim consists of two goals. One goal is to create a suitable format for storing configuration data using XML. The configuration data is to be used by a network emulator. In order to emulate the conditions present in a real network the emulator is

    capable of emulating things as bit errors, packet losses, bandwidth limitation and delay, all of which are examples of configuration data. The other goal is to describe the basics as well as more advanced parts of XML in general. As we describe XML, we continuously show how we apply this knowledge to our application. In this way, the reader achieves a good insight into how XML works.

  • 549.
    Alaeddine, Ahmed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    Varumärkesintrång på internet och regeln om forum delicti2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trademarks are territorially limited. The trademarks legal protection applies only within the territory of the state. The consequence of the principle of territoriality is that there may be multiple trademarks owner for the same brand but in different countries. In the analog world, the coexistence of the same brands in different countries hasn’t caused any significant problems. Internet's increasing use as a commercial marketplace has resulted that a brand has becomes more widely on the Internet than in the analog world. It has become increasingly difficult to control the spread of their brands on the Internet, and the explanation is that the Internet lacks the natural geographic boundaries as in the analog world. For that reason the probability that a Swedish brand may come into collision with a similar mark in another country will increase. Therefore, cross-border disputes concerning trademark infringement has grown more and more.

     

    A trademark violation could only have happened if the brand use can be linked to the territory in which the trademarks rights exist. The location of where an infringement has taken place is difficult to establish on the Internet. The same problem arises in the international private and procedural law. In order for a court to have jurisdiction over a claim, there must be a connection to the forum. Therefore it’s necessary that action can be linked to the territory in which the trademark right is registered. The aim of this paper was to analyze the rules of the jurisdiction of the Brussels I Regulation, and how these rules shall apply to trademark infringement on the Internet.

     

    In my paper, I have concluded that the rules of jurisdiction must be given a stricter application, due to the risk that the jurisdiction rules can be abused. In the essay, I have suggested that a requirement on commercial effect must be demanded if the court should have jurisdiction to hear a proceedings for trademark violation. By requiring commercial effect it be can determined if there is an enough connection with the forum state. The positive aspect of a stricter requirement is that the defendant shouldn’t have to face proceedings in foreign countries. A stricter application is in line with the requirement of legal certainty and that there must be a close link between the court and the proceedings.

  • 550.
    Ala-Häivälä, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Batch-digitalisering och GIS-anpassning av analoga enkätdata2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with utilizing and adapting data from a visitor poll for use in a GIS. The poll was performed by the Municipality of Karlstad and the Swedish Forest Agency to survey peoples visit patterns in the I2-Forest, a former military training field which is now used as a recreation area. The poll consists of a number of questions about the visitor’s activities, age, opinions etc, and a map on which the visitor has drawn his or her path through the forest. Source data is a database containing poll answers, and the original maps with the drawn information. The task is partly to investigate if the maps can be batch-digitalized through scanning and vectorization, and partly to normalize the database.

    A method for digitalizing has been developed and tested on a selection of the maps. The method consists of a number of steps, including image processing, classification and vectorization. According to lack of batch-possibilities in the used GIS software, macros have been created by programming in VBA. The method works well on the selected maps and the conclusion is that it is possible to digitalize the drawn lines automatically. However, there are some shortages regarding accuracy and usability. Furthermore, the selection is relatively small and some adjustments on the settings for classification and vectorization might be necessary when applying the method on a larger part of the data.

    The database has been normalized as far as reasonable with consideration of performance and usability. To enable reliable searches, several attributes has been interpreted and modified through categorization and classification.

    The result is a geodatabase consisting of all poll answers, and the selected data from the digitalization test. To show how the database can be used, two simple examples of analyses have been made.

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