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  • 4951.
    Bernhoff, Niclas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Bobylev, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Weak Shock Wave Solutions for the Discrete Boltzmann Equation2007In: Rarefied Gas Dynamics: 25th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, July 21-28, 2006 (M.S. Ivanov and A.K. Rebrov, eds), Novosibirsk: Publishing House of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , 2007, p. 173-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytically difficult problem of existence of shock wave solutions is studied for the general discrete velocity model (DVM) with an arbitrary finite number of velocities (the discrete Boltzmann equation in terminology of H. Cabannes). For the shock wave problem the discrete Boltzmann equation becomes a system of ordinary differential equations (dynamical system). Then the shock waves can be seen as heteroclinic orbits connecting two singular points (Maxwellians). In this work we give a constructive proof for the existence of solutions in the case of weak shocks. We assume that a given Maxwellian is approached at infinity, and consider shock speeds close to a typical speed , corresponding to the sound speed in the continuous case. The existence of a non-negative locally unique (up to a shift in the independent variable) bounded solution is proved by using contraction mapping arguments (after a suitable decomposition of the system). This solution is then shown to tend to a Maxwellian at minus infinity. Existence of weak shock wave solutions for DVMs was proved by Bose, Illner and Ukai in 1998 [1]. In their technical proof Bose et al. are following the lines of the pioneering work for the continuous Boltzmann equation by Caflisch and Nicolaenko [2]. In this work, we follow a more straightforward way, suiting the discrete case. Our approach is based on results by the authors on the main characteristics (dimensions of corresponding stable, unstable and center manifolds) for singular points [3] to general dynamical systems of the same type as in the shock wave problem for DVMs. Our proof is constructive, and it is also shown (at least implicitly) how close to the typical speed , the shock speed must be for our results to be valid. All results are mathematically rigorous. Our results are also applicable for DVMs for mixtures. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The support by the Swedish Research Council grant 20035357 are gratefully acknowledged by both of the authors.REFERENCES[1] C. Bose, R. Illner, S. Ukai, Transp. Th. Stat. Phys., 27, 35-66 (1998) [2] R.E. Caflisch, B. Nicolaenko, Comm. Math. Phys., 86, 161-194 (1982)[3] A.V. Bobylev, N. Bernhoff, Lecture Notes on the Discretization of the Boltzmann Equation, World Scientific, 2003, pp. 203-222

  • 4952.
    Bernhoff, Niclas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Bobylev, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Weak shock waves for the general discrete velocity model of the Boltzmann equation2007In: Communications in Mathematical Sciences, ISSN 1539-6746, E-ISSN 1945-0796, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 815-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the shock wave problem for the general discrete velocity model (DVM), with an arbitrary finite number of velocities. In this case the discrete Boltzmann equation becomes a system of ordinary differential equations (dynamical system). Then the shock waves can be seen as heteroclinic orbits connecting two singular points (Maxwellians). In this paper we give a constructive proof for the existence of solutions in the case of weak shocks. We assume that a given Maxwellian is approached at infinity, and consider shock speeds close to a typical speed c, corresponding to the sound speed in the continuous case. The existence of a non-negative locally unique (up to a shift in the independent variable) bounded solution is proved by using contraction mapping arguments (after a suitable decomposition of the system). This solution is shown to tend to a Maxwellian at minus infinity. Existence of weak shock wave solutions for DVMs was proved by Bose, Illner and Ukai in 1998. In this paper, we give a constructive proof following a more straightforward way, suiting the discrete case. Our approach is based on earlier results by the authors on the main characteristics (dimensions of corresponding stable, unstable and center manifolds) for singular points to general dynamical systems of the same type as in the shock wave problem for DVMs. The same approach can also be applied for DVMs for mixtures

  • 4953.
    Bernhoff, Niclas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Vinerean (Bernhoff), Mirela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Discrete Velocity Models for Mixtures Without Nonphysical Collision Invariants2016In: Journal of statistical physics, ISSN 0022-4715, E-ISSN 1572-9613, Vol. 165, no 2, p. 434-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of constructing discrete velocity models (DVMs) for the Boltzmann equation is to obtain the right number of collision invariants. It is a well-known fact that DVMs can also have extra collision invariants, so called spurious collision invariants, in plus to the physical ones. A DVM with only physical collision invariants, and so without spurious ones, is called normal. For binary mixtures also the concept of supernormal DVMs was introduced, meaning that in addition to the DVM being normal, the restriction of the DVM to any single species also is normal. Here we introduce generalizations of this concept to DVMs for multicomponent mixtures. We also present some general algorithms for constructing such models and give some concrete examples of such constructions. One of our main results is that for any given number of species, and any given rational mass ratios we can construct a supernormal DVM. The DVMs are constructed in such a way that for half-space problems, as the Milne and Kramers problems, but also nonlinear ones, we obtain similar structures as for the classical discrete Boltzmann equation for one species, and therefore we can apply obtained results for the classical Boltzmann equation.

  • 4954. Bernhult, Linus
    Ledarskap - vilka egenskaper behövs för att bli en framgångsrik ledare?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om ledarskap och inleds med en grundlig framställning över hur ledarskapet förändrats från att först ha varit väldigt opersonligt till att så småningom glida över till bli mer individinriktat. Den fråga som jag valt att fokusera på är om det finns några specifika ledaregenskaper som är nödvändiga för att bli framgångsrik som ledare och i så fall vilka? Efter detta skildrar jag några av de mest elementära ledarskapteorier som finns och som jag stött på vid ett flertal tillfällen under min studietid. Dessa teorier ligger sedan till grund för en fantombild över hur en bra ledare bör vara. Denna fantombild var sedan en hjälp för mig då jag skulle utforma intervjuguiden. Sammanlagt genomförde jag sex intervjuer. De intervjuade är en chef på en administrativ avdelning inom landstinget, en egen företagare som driver en livsmedelsbutik, en personalchef inom ett brandförsvarsområde, samt tre styrkeledare inom samma brandförsvarsområde som personalchefen. Det är således relativt stor spridning på de personer som medverkat i undersökningen vilket torde vara intressant. Dock kan det sägas vara lite negativt att tre personer av de intervjuade har i princip samma befattning. I uppsatsen skildras dessa personer, deras utbildning, arbetsuppgifter och de svar de kom med på mina frågor relativt utförligt. Efter detta skildrar jag de resultat som framkom och gör en ny fantombild över hur en bra ledare bör vara. Vid en jämförelse mellan dessa fantombilder ser man att vissa egenskaper tillkommit och att vissa fallit bort vid den bild som grundar sig på intervjuerna. Den största upptäckten är att det mer eller mindre är ett måste att skapa ett gott arbetsklimat för att alla anställda skall trivas. Detta framkom inte i litteraturstudierna vilket kan bero på att litteraturen mestadels härstammar från 90-talets början eller ännu tidigare. Man kan således dra slutsatsen att individen mer och mer hamnar i fokus i dagens samhälle.

  • 4955.
    Bernmark-Ottosson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Demokratins stöttepelare. En studie av lärarstuderandes demokratiuppfattningar2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 4956.
    Bernmark-Ottosson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Division for Educational Sciences.
    Demokratins Stöttepelare: En studie av lärarstuderandes demokratiuppfattningar2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse and describe the way prospective teachers of social science understand democracy and its conditions, and, on the basis of these descriptions, to discuss the actual and possible forms and contents of teaching democracy both in upper secondary school and in teacher training.

    The assumption is that students’ conceptions of democracy are influenced by the society they live in and the education they receive. To contextualize students’ conceptions of democracy the theories of Habermas and Dewey as well as some central concepts of contemporary democratic theory are drawn upon. The study primarily focuses on the content of education in democracy. The teachers’ conceptions of their own subject influence the content of their teaching and thus what their students learn. If teachers are aware of various ways of conceiving democracy, and the critical differences between them, their teaching practices may enable students to experience different aspects of democracy and, as a consequence, reach a fuller understanding of it.

    The empirical data consists of interviews with eight students of political science and eight teacher-students of social sciences. These interviews were carried out before and after they had studied theories of democracy. The study also includes interviews with eight teacher-students who had already finished their theoretical studies in social science and were at the end of their teacher training. In total, 40 interviews were carried out. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. A phenomenographic analysis of the students’ conceptions of democracy was performed, along with a thematic content analysis of their ideas of the conditions of democracy.

    Three main categories of conceptions of democracy were constituted. In the first democracy was viewed as a possibility to influence political decisions through institutionalized forms. In the second category democracy was seen as a feeling of participation in processes of political decision. In the third category democracy was understood as the possibility to take part in all decisions that concern one’s life. The thematic content analysis showed that the students’ reasoning about the conditions of democracy concerned three main themes: the values of democracy, the individual conditions and societal conditions. Several teacher-students regarded it as their duty to maintain the prevalent forms of democracy in Sweden. Students of political science on the other hand, focused more on developing these forms.

    Finally, the possible didactic consequences of these different views for the education in democracy in upper secondary schools and in teacher training are discussed.

  • 4957.
    Bernmark-Ottosson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Samhällskunskapslärare2009In: Ämnesdidaktiska insikter och strategier: berättelser från gymnasielärare i samhällskunskap, geografi, historia och religionskunskap / [ed] Schüllerqvist, B. & Osbeck, C., Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4958.
    Bernmark-Ottosson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Tänkbara didaktiska konsekvenser av lärarstuderandes demokratiuppfattningar2009In: Ämnesdidaktiska brobyggen: didaktiska perspektiv inom lärande och forskning, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2009, p. 90-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4959.
    Bernsand, Veronica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Strömberg, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur intensivvårdssjuksköterskor skapar trygghet för lätt sederade patienter vårdade i respirator2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of caring for today’s intensive care patient is to have the patient sedated so light as possible. This can induce a sense of panic, fear and insecurity for the patient, when cared for in a mechanical ventilation. It is therefore very important that the intensive care nurse has the ability to create a sense of security for the patient, thus reducing feelings of fear and panic. Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate how the intensive care nurses creates a sense of security when caring for light sedated patients in mechanical ventilation. Method: A qualitative method was selected and data collected through interviews with 14 intensive care nurses at 3 different hospitals. The data was processed by using Elo and Kyngäs qualitative content analysis. Main Results: The result of the study presents with four main categories; Being there, Through repeating and adapting information, Through a good climate and outer resources as well as Through individually modified care. Conclusions: It showed that the intensive care nurses created a sense of security through involve the patients and their near ones in the care of the patient through good communication and information. The environment also played a critical role through minimizing distracting noise and not to appear stressed themselves. To create sense of security for light sedated patients in mechanical ventilation is important, as when the patients experience a sense of security they could be more quickly weaned of the sedation and yet still experience a sense of wellbeing.

  • 4960. Bernsmed, Karin
    et al.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Secure IT Systems: 19th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2014, Tromsø, Norway, October 15-17, 2014, Proceedings2014 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 4961.
    Bernspång, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Rasmusson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Färgad av det vanligaste: En kvalitativ studie om hur socialtjänsten arbetar med våldsutsatta i samkönade relationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread problem and the The National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden describes that IPV has serious physical, psychological and social consequences for those who are exposed to it. The Social Services Act reveals that the social welfare committee has a special responsibility regarding IPV. The National Board of Health and Welfare's constitution regarding IPV says that all who are exposed to IPV, regardless of gender or gender identity, are entitled to support and assistance. IPV affects women as well as men and occurs in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the social services work with IPV in same-sex relationships. The study is qualitative and based on six interviews with social workers. The empirical material was analyzed based on content analysis where meaningful units, codes and categories were identified. What dominated the result was a perception of being colored by the common, which also became the overarching theme of the essay. The results showed, among other things, that there is a lack of knowledge about the violence in same-sex relationships in general, but also that the overall theme affects the ability to detect violence and the problems that can arise when it comes to providing services. The conclusion of the study show that there is a heteronormative view of IPV that affects the image of violence in same-sex relationships, but also that knowledge of the phenomenon is vital for the social services to be able to offer support and assistance to all victims of IPV. 

  • 4962. Bernström, Annelie
    Leksaker baserade på teknik sedda ur ett genusperspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 4963.
    Bernström, Annelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Leksaker baserade på teknik sedda ur ett genusperspektiv: En studie om 6-åringars preferenser och användande av könsstereotypa konstruktionsleksaker2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through interviews with children in preschool class and through inquiries by questionnaire with their teachers, I have received answers of my question at issue about boys, girls and their choices of technical toys. The purpose was to see if there were any differences in choosing and using these toys, and also to find out if and why the children have different preferences.

    The results indicate that for the children in this preschool class the choice of construction toys is common in the activities. All the children play with these toys, but still there are different preferences among girls and boys, both at home and in preschool class. There are differences in opinion among earlier researchers what causes boys and girls to differ in preferences of toys, but the main theory is still that gender differences depend on the family and the community.

    Pedagogical conclusions are that as a teacher of young children, you have to work with awareness when it comes to toys and gender. You must never forget the important role toys play in the development of the children.

    Keywords: gender, technical, toys, preferences

  • 4964. Bernström, Birger
    Omvårdnad av ungdomar med depression inom primärvården: - en systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4965.
    Bernström, Birger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Omvårdnad av ungdomar med depression inom primärvården: - en systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4966.
    Bernström, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    Williamsson, Pauline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    Snabbkrediter: Orsakerna till den svårbotande skuldsättningen för såväl konsument som samhälle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4967.
    Bernström, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Laborativ matematik: Några lärares inställning och erfarenhet av laborativ matematik2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4968.
    Bernström, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    JavaScript-ramverk för HTML5 Canvas med fokus på rendering och dokumentation: En jämförande studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är baserad på ett uppdrag av företaget Dise och jämför tre olika JavaScript ramverk för HTML5 Canvas. En rekomendation lämnas om vilket ramverk som bör användas vid utveckling baserat på hur väl ramverken är dokumenterade och hur snabbt de presterar vid rendering. Valet av ramverk är baserat på dess funktionalitet och relevans. För att mäta hur väl ramverken är dokumenterade används kraven från IEEEs standard för mjukvarudokumentation och för att mäta deras renderingsprestation används experiment i form av ett prestandatest. Ramverken som behandlas i studien är Pixi.js, Fabric.js och Easel.js. Restultet visar att Pixi.js bör användas om renderingshastighet är efterfrågad, men om dokumentation prioriteras högre bör Easel.js användas.

  • 4969. Berntsen, Andreas
    Politisk konsumtion bland ungdomar2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 4970. Berntsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Johansson, Erik
    Kampen om framtiden2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 4971. Berntsen, Lars Viggo
    Rom for alle? - etiske dilammaer for skoleledelsen i en flerkulturell grunnskole2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 4972.
    Berntson, Annie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Jarnemo, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Philipson, Minna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Branding and Gender: - How adidas communicate gender values2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses how adidas differentiate their communication to reach women and make the adidas brand more appealing to females. The adidas brand has always had their main focus on sportswear for men. This has led to the brand being perceived as masculine and it makes it hard for the female consumer to identify with adidas. We have analysed six adidas adverts from the last five years to see what adidas have communicated to women. The main purpose of this thesis is to understand why adidas have not succeeded in communicating with women in the last five years.

    The theoretical chapter is divided into three parts; Brands, Communication and Consumer Behaviour. The first part describes what a brand is, how it is built and continues with how a brand can be gendered. A brand is not very likely to keep a strong position if the values connected with the brand are not reinforced through communication. When forming a communication strategy, companies have to understand how consumers behave. When selling a gendered product, companies have to understand the distinction between men and women and how they differ in consumption.

    Our discussion is based on the qualitative method of collecting data. The qualitative method was carried out through two panel interviews and one personal interview, and we also performed picture analysis on adidas’ advertisements. Ten open-individual interviews with ten different women were conducted; to get their opinions on the six adverts.

    Adidas have presented five different identities over five years, each with diverse focus and with different brand associations. This has led to a lack of consistency and therein lies a part of the reason why adidas have not been successful in appealing to women.

    Since 2005 adidas have a collaboration with Stella McCartney. This is an attempt to add design to adidas functional clothes and to make their brand more appealing to women. This collaboration will continue until 2010 and this could provide adidas with the uniformity they need.

  • 4973. Berntson, Annie
    et al.
    Lindström, Camilla
    Oscarson, Gustaf
    Studenters beteende och attityder vid köp av dator2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag ingen utbredd forskning som behandlar studenters beteende och attityder i köpprocessen. Apple, som marknadsför sig till denna målgrupp, är intresserade av att veta mer om studenters beteende vid köp av dator och deras attityder till företagets datorer, Mac. Syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka dessa problem och ge rekommendationer på hur företaget ska nå denna målgrupp med passande marknadsföring. I avsikt att uppnå vårt syfte har vi genomfört en kvantitativ undersökning via två enkätvarianter; en personligt utdelad och en via e-post. Den personligt utdelade enkäten besvarades av 439 studenter och enkäten via e-post av 298 studenter. För att få en representativ bild av studenterna har vi undersökt universiteten i Stockholm, Uppsala och Karlstad. För att kortfattat redogöra för vad vi kommit fram till i vår undersökning kan följande nämnas: Studenter använder sig i hög grad av vänner och bekanta när de söker information vid datorköp. Internet, ofta prisjämförelsesidor, används också frekvent och speciellt Pricerunner lockar många studenter. Vår undersökning tyder också på att studenter har en mer positiv attityd till Internethandel idag än tidigare. Priset och prestandan är de egenskaper studenterna värdesätter högst när de ska köpa dator. Många studenter har dock dålig kunskap om Mac men den snygga designen är något de flesta känner till hos Apples datorer. Studenterna vid de olika universiteten skiljer sig åt på vissa punkter och vi har även märkt skillnader mellan respondenterna i de olika enkätundersökningarna. Våra slutsatser har givit oss idéer om hur Apple kan förbättra sin marknadsföring till denna målgrupp. Dessa går i huvudsak ut på att få studenter att i högre grad komma i kontakt med Mac vilket kan ske genom fler Macdatorer på universiteten och bättre information om exempelvis kompabiliteten.

  • 4974.
    Berntsson, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Moberg, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser i samband med närståendes insjuknande i utmattningssyndrom2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4975. Berntsson, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Erik
    Distributionssystem för kvalitetssäkringsinformation2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver dels framtagandet av ett informationspaket för kvalitetssäkring, dels utvecklingen av ett system för att behandla och distribuera informationen åt Volvo Cars Customer Service (VCCS). Anledningen till projektet var att VCCS inte hade något standardiserat informationspaket och att informationen behandlades på ett omständligt och ålderdomligt sätt. Projektet har innefattat allt från förstudie och analys av krav till konstruktion och implementation. Slutresultatet blev ett framtaget informationspaket som uppfyller de krav som var ställda samt ett system som behandlar och distribuerar denna information.

  • 4976. Berntsson, Linnea
    Jungfrun, tre bröder och månfärd - en analys av sagomönster i Eyvind Johnsons roman Hans nådes tid2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Eyvind Johnsons roman Hans nådes tid finns ett mönster från sagan. Författaren har som berättartekniskt grepp inflikat sagan i sin roman. Detta fann jag intressant och syftet med mitt uppsatsarbete blev att undersöka sago- och mytmönster i romanen. Min frågeställning blev, vilka sago- och mytmönster kunde uttydas i romanen Hans nådes tid och hur kunde de tolkas? För att begränsa undersökningsområdet valde jag att se på tre händelser som rubricerades som: Tre bröder, Månfärd samt Jungfrun. Det metodiska tillvägagångssättet blev att med stöd av litteratur från olika författare som skrivit om sagans och mytens betydelse för den enskilde individen, tolka de utvalda händelserna. Som stöd för tolkningen fanns också en tidigare undersökning gjord utifrån romanen Hans nådes tid.

  • 4977. Berntsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Söderström, Jacob
    Aktiekursreaktioner på oväntade VD-byten - en eventstudie2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4978. Berntsson, Monika
    Fyra buddhistiska traditioner i Sverige2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4979. Berntsson, Monika
    Magi, realism och vetenskap i Majgull Axelssons Aprilhäxan2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4980. Berntsson, Monika
    "Man får helt enkelt vara lite av en MTV-kanal"2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 4981. Berntsson, Therese
    et al.
    Leifsdotter, Marie
    Coping strategier efter traumatisk ryggmärgsskada2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4982. Bernunger, Henric
    et al.
    Mattson, Gabriella
    Why Swedes study abroad2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4983.
    Bernunger, Henric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Mattsson, Gabriella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Die Bedeutung des Internetmarketing in der Baumarktbranche2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Vår uppsats handlar om marknadsföring på Internet. Vi har undersökt fyra företag inom samma bransch, byggvarubranschen. Företagen säljer byggvaror till både hem och företag. Vi har bestämt oss för att studera fyra företag på den svenska marknaden med liknande produkturval och målgrupper, för att ta reda på hur de använder sig av Internet för att informera om sin verksamhet, samt de produkter och tjänster som de erbjuder.

    Internet har snabbt blivit ett verktyg som används av många människor och verksamheter för att kunna kommunicera med varandra. Internet växer i snabb takt, och fler och fler människor ser betydelsen av att använda sig av Internet. Eftersom så många dagligen använder sig av Internet har företag insett vikten av att marknadsföra sig på nätet.

    Vi har undersökt ett svenskt företag och tre utländska företag aktiva på den svenska marknaden. De tre utländska företagen är väl etablerade på den svenska marknaden och i många andra länder i Europa.

    Vi har valt att fokusera på följande fyra frågor i vår uppsats.

    - Hur viktigt är Internet för företagen inom byggvarubranschen?

    - Varför, varför inte, väljer de att marknadsföra sig själva på Internet?

    - Vilka metoder/strategier använder de sig av?

    - Hur ser framtiden ut för företagen när det gäller marknadsföring på Internet?

    För att komma till en slutsats och ta reda på vikten av Internet och marknadsföring på Internet för företagen, har vi varit i kontakt med marknadscheferna på de utvalda företagen. Vi har intervjuat dem per e-mail och telefon. I början av vår studie kände vi inte till hur företag i denna bransch använde sig av Internet som ett marknadsföringsverktyg. Genom att studera de fyra företagen och deras hemsidor hjälpte det oss att få en uppfattning om Internet är ett viktigt kommunikationsverktyg som de använder sig av för att skapa och bevara en relation med sina konsumenter.

    Vi har studerat många olika teorier kring marknadsföring på Internet för att senare koppla ihop dessa med de teorier som företagen använder sig av. Vi kom till slutsatsen att Internet har en betydande roll för företagen i denna bransch. Internet är ett viktigt verktyg som företagen använder för att marknadsföra sig själva och sina produkter och tjänster till konsumenterna.

  • 4984. Bernvik, Helena
    et al.
    Åkeson, Angela
    Arbetsminne - kön och ålders påverkan2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4985. Bernäng, Lina
    Shringar - the annual decoration of minor temples in Assi2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4986. Bernäng, Lina
    Widowhood in change - interviews with 10 widows in Varanasi2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 4987.
    Berrstrå, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Utemiljöns inverkan på barns motoriska utveckling i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskolans utemiljö främjar barns motoriska utveckling ur ett pedagogperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the purpose was to explore the preschool teacher´s experience of their preschool yard and the nearby environment related to children's motor development, based on two issues. In what way do the educators consider that the schoolyard´s design promotes children's motor development and movement needs? Does the preschool teacher take advantage of the nearby environment and how does it promote children´s motor development?

     

    The study is based on Reggio Emilia as a theoretical framework where the environment has a great importance to promote the children´s motor development.

     

    The method used in this study was qualitative in terms of interviews, where six preschool teachers from three different preschools located in a smaller society in the middle of Sweden attended. A compliment to the interviews was also observations of the preschool yard preformed without preschool teachers and children, to be used at the analysis.

     

    The result shows that the preschool teacher´s consider that the preschool yard and nearby environment are important for the children’s motor development. It also emphasizes that the material, mainly the fixed one has big impact. The result also shows that the preschool teacher´s consider themselves to have an important role to support the children in the exploration of the outdoor environment.

  • 4988. Bertgård, Lukas
    et al.
    Bäckman, Stefan
    Databaser under Linux för moderna affärssystem - kartläggning och utvärdering2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 4989.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmö högskola.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Vad händer med arbetsmiljön när man inför aktivitetsbaserade kontor inom akademin?2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4990. Bertheussen, Caroline
    Hur påverkas barns lekar av den yttre miljön?2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4991.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Inter-temporal Privacy Metrics2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Informational privacy of individuals has significantly gained importance after information technology has become widely deployed. Data, once digitalised, can be copied, distributed, and long-term stored at negligible costs. This has dramatic consequences for individuals that leave traces in the form of personal data whenever they interact with information technology, for instance, computers and phones; or even when information technology is recording the personal data of aware or unaware individuals. The right of individuals for informational privacy, in particular to control the flow and use of their personal data, is easily undermined by those controlling the information technology.

    The objective of this thesis is to study the measurement of informational privacy with a particular focus on scenarios where an individual discloses personal data to a second party which uses this data for re-identifying the individual within a set of other individuals. We contribute with privacy metrics for several instances of this scenario in the publications included in this thesis, most notably one which adds a time dimension to the scenario for modelling the effects of the time passed between data disclosure and usage. The result is a new framework for inter-temporal privacy metrics.

  • 4992. Berthold, Stefan
    Linkability of communication contents2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 4993.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Linkability of communication contents: Keeping track of disclosed data using Formal Concept Analysis2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A person who is communication about (the data subject) has to keep track of all of his revealed data in order to protect his right of informational self-determination. This is important when data is going to be processed in an automatic manner and, in particular, in case of automatic inquiries. A data subject should, therefore, be enabled to recognize useful decisions with respect to data disclosure, only by using data which is available to him.

    For the scope of this thesis, we assume that a data subject is able to protect his communication contents and the corresponding communication context against a third party by using end-to-end encryption and Mix cascades. The objective is to develop a model for analyzing the linkability of communication contents by using Formal Concept Analysis. In contrast to previous work, only the knowledge of a data subject is used for this analysis instead of a global view on the entire communication contents and context.

    As a first step, the relation between disclosed data is explored. It is shown how data can be grouped by types and data implications can be represented. As a second step, behavior, i. e. actions and reactions, of the data subject and his communication partners is included in this analysis in order to find critical data sets which can be used to identify the data subject.

    Typical examples are used to verify this analysis, followed by a conclusion about pros and cons of this method for anonymity and linkability measurement. Results can be used, later on, in order to develop a similarity measure for human-computer interfaces.

  • 4994.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    The Privacy Option Language: Specification & Implementation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The data protection laws in Europe require that data controllers provide privacy policies to inform individuals about the prospective processing of their personal data. The ever growing expressiveness of privacy policy languages allows to specify policies in a growing number of details. This and new options for policy negotiations transformed rather general privacy policies into specific privacy contracts between the data controller and the individual.

    In this report, we specify a privacy contract language and call it the Privacy Option Language. It is modelled after the analogy between financial option contracts and data disclosures which has been presented in previous work and led to the Privacy Option notion. The language specification provides privacy by design through its data minimisation provisions, i.e., all contracts are automatically reduced to their canonical form so that individual differences in the contract formulation are inherently normalised. The language specification is extensible in two ways. First, hooks are specified in the core language and can be used to connect sublanguages. The freedom to choose any suitable sublanguage allows to specify language details independent of the core language. Second, the Privacy Option Language itself can be used as a sublanguage within a more general-domain language. We give examples for both types of extensions. Additionally, we provide tools for evaluating semantics such as human-readable presentations of Privacy Options and contract management. The definitions of the semantics are kept simple and serve as templates for more practical ones.

    All functionality can be checked by interactive tests in a standard multi-purpose programming language interpreter, since the Privacy Option Language is specified as an embedded domain-specific language within Haskell. Hands-on examples are provided along with the language specification.

  • 4995.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards a Formal Language for Privacy Options2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Simone Fischer-Hübner, Penny Duquenoy, Marit Hansen, Ronald Leenes & Ge Zhang, Springer, 2011, p. 27-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4996.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards Inter-temporal Privacy Metrics2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Informational privacy of individuals has significantly gained importance after information technology has become widely deployed. Data, once digitalised, can be copied and distributed at negligible costs. This has dramatic consequences for individuals that leave traces in form of personal data whenever they interact with information technology. The right of individuals for informational privacy, in particular to control the flow and use of their personal data, is easily undermined by those controlling the information technology.

    The objective of this thesis is the measurement of informational privacy with a particular focus on scenarios where an individual discloses personal data to a second party, the data controller, which uses this data for re-identifying the individual within a set of others, the population. Several instances of this scenario are discussed in the appended papers, most notably one which adds a time dimension to the scenario for modelling the effects of the time passed between data disclosure and usage. This extended scenario leads to a new framework for inter-temporal privacy metrics.

    The common dilemma of all privacy metrics is their dependence on the information available to the data controller. The same information may or may not be available to the individual and, as a consequence, the individual may be misguided in his decisions due to his limited access to the data controller’s information when using privacy metrics. The goal of this thesis is thus not only the specification of new privacy metrics, but also the contribution of ideas for mitigating this dilemma. However a solution will rather be a combination of technological, economical and legal means than a purely technical solution.

  • 4997.
    Berthold, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Böhme, Rainer
    Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory2010In: Economics of Information Security and Privacy / [ed] Tyler Moore, David Pym, and Christos Ioannidis, New York: Springer , 2010, p. 187-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modelled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched

  • 4998.
    Berthold, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Böhme, Rainer
    Berkley Business College, Oviedo, Spain.
    Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory2010In: Economics of Information Security and Privacy / [ed] Tyler Moore, David Pym, Christos Ioannidis, London: Springer , 2010, p. 187-210Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4999.
    Berthold, Stefan
    et al.
    Technische Universität, Dresden.
    Böhme, Rainer
    Technische Universität, Dresden.
    Köpsell, Stefan
    Technische Universität, Dresden.
    Data Retention and Anonymity Services: Introducing a New Class of Realistic Adversary Models2009In: The Future of Identity in the Information Society, Springer , 2009, p. 92-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5000.
    Berthold, Stefan
    et al.
    Teknische Universistät, Dresden, Germany.
    Clauss, Sebastian
    Teknische Universistät, Dresden, Germany.
    Linkability Estimation Between Subjects and Message Contents Using Formal Concepts2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Workshop on Digital identity management (DIM), New York: ACM , 2007, p. 36-45Conference paper (Refereed)
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