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  • 47951.
    Yang, Z.
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby.
    Mohammed, A.
    School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby.
    Wireless Broadband Communication Access and Applications from High Altitude Platforms2008In: Proceedings of The 1st Workshop on Broadband Access for Communities and Rural Developing Regions (WIRELESS'08, co-located with M4D 2008), Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2008, p. 211-217Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47952.
    Yang, Zhe
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby.
    Khamit, Saltanat
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Mohammed, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby.
    Larson, P.
    Strategic Dev. Affärsverken Karlskrona AB.
    An Investigation of the Business Model in the Karlskrona Municipal Wireless Network in Sweden2008In: Proceedings of The 1st Workshop on Wireless Broadband Access for Communities and Rural Developing Regions (WIRELESS4D'08, co-located with M4D 2008), Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2008, p. 30-38Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47953.
    Yang, Zhenkun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Alternatives to hard chromium plating on piston rods2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47954.
    Yasaman, Amel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Källsortering och återanvändning i förskolan: - En jämförande studie om pedagogers kunskap och arbetssätt i traditionella och miljöinriktade förskolor2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47955.
    Yasir, Irshad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics, Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    A study of a stochastic differential equation based model for wireless channels2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An autoregressive (AR) first order model is often used for modelling wireless channels. This is done in spite of the fact that a satisfactory physical explanation for this model has been missing. However, in the recent paper [Feng, Field and Haykin. 2007] derive a model in form of a first order stochastic differential equation (SDE) from a stochastic description of the scattered electric field. After discretizing this SDE, a physically motivated first order AR model is obtained.

  • 47956. Yasseri Blomqvist, Shahram
    Trygga gymnasieelever? - elevuppfattningar av en skolas sociala klimat och miljö2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats redovisar resultatet av en enkätundersökning som genomfördes på en svensk gymnasieskola under höstterminen 2003. Undersökningen hade som syfte att försöka kartlägga hur gymnasieeleverna på den aktuella skolan upplevde sin studiesociala situation. Fokus har i arbetet lagts på begreppet trygghet vilket jag menar är grundläggande för en sund studiesocial miljö. Jag har i min definition av begreppet trygghet och i undersökningen ringat in tre områden som jag anser har avgörande betydelse för hur den sociala atmosfären på en skola ter sig: 1. Den fysiska miljön 2. Den elevsociala situationen 3. Skolpersonalens sätt att finnas tillhands vid konflikter och problem Jag hävdar att dessa tre områden tillsammans i stort formar hur elever på en skola upplever sin studiesociala situation. Min enkät är därav utformad på så sätt att den täcker in dessa tre områden. Resultatet av min undersökning har i viss mån varit svårbedömt då en del av mina enkätfrågor varit möjliga att tolka på olika sätt. Trots detta så tycker jag mig ändå se vissa mönster i mitt resultat. Överlag så är eleverna ganska nöjda med den fysiska miljön. Dock med några undantag som i stort troligen beror på att skolan i sig är något underdimensionerad i förhållande till antal elever. Den elevsociala situationen verkar vara den som eleverna är mest nöjda med, även om det utifrån svarssammanställningar och kommentarer verkar som om mobbing är något som eleverna haft svårt att definiera och ta ställning till om det förekommer på skolan. Då det gäller skolpersonalens sätt att finnas tillhands vid konflikter och problem så är det helt klart det område som eleverna har uttryckt starkast känslor inför, något som liksom svårigheten att definiera mobbing känns igen från tidigare forskning . Eleverna uttrycker åsikter som att lärare och annan personal inte ser, eller väljer att inte se konflikter, vilket jag hävdar kan bero på att lärare i gymnasieskolan sällan möter eleverna utanför klassrummet. Jag menar att gymnasielärare sällan är fysiskt närvarande i de miljöer som eleverna nyttjar för elevsocial kontakt så som elevfik, uppehållsrum etc. och att detta kan vara en del av förklaringen till den negativa elevupplevelsen av detta problemområde.

  • 47957.
    Ydemar, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Zachrisson, Marie
    Karlstad University.
    Sociala faktorer och föräldrars attityder till karies bland yngre barn: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Av alla barn i världen drabbas 60-90 procent av karies, som är den vanligaste sjukdomen under barndomen mellan åldern två till elva år. Munhygien- och kostvanor är båda faktorer som är kopplade till beteenden och vanor som styrs av sociala faktorer, kunskaper och attityder. Vanor som etableras tidigt ligger till grund för munhälsan senare i livet. Föräldrarna utgör en viktig modell för sina barn gällande munhälsan och munhygienvanor förs över från föräldrar till barn.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva föräldrars attityder till kariesassocierade faktorer bland yngre barn och eventuella samband mellan sociala faktorer och karies.

    Metod: Litteraturstudien baserades på vetenskapliga artiklar från PubMed.

    Resultat: Stor variation fanns bland föräldrarnas attityder, kunskaper och vanor till kariesassocierande faktorer bland yngre barn. Föräldrars attityder var sammankopplat med kariesassocierande faktorer bland yngre barn. Sociala faktorer som låg klasstillhörighet, inkomst- och utbildningsnivå hos föräldrarna ökade kariesprevalensen bland barnen.

    Konklusion: Barns munhälsovanor var kopplade till föräldrarnas attityder. Attityderna präglades av varifrån föräldrarnas kunskap kom och hur starkt rotad den traditionella synen var. Yngre barns kariessituation var starkt förknippad med sociala faktorer som påverkade familjen. Det fanns en tendens att högre klasstillhörighet, inkomst- och utbildningsnivå hos föräldrarna minskade kariesprevalensen bland barnen.

  • 47958.
    Ydesen, Christian
    et al.
    Aalborg university, Denmark.
    Ludvigsen, Kari
    Unievrsitet i Bergen.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Creating an Educational Testing Profession in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 1910-1960.2013In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 120-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, Sweden and Denmark national testing communities advocating the introduction and expanded use of standardised educational tests in the national educational systems emerged around World War I. Using international research and cross-border networking activities, these coteries were able to gain power and thus establish and promote a new profession, the educational psychologist, along with instituting practices of alleged scientific tests in the following decades.

    This article presents a historical analysis of the central processes and developments constituting the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish testing communities. The aim is to understand the workings of these professionalization movements rooted in the creation of an international fellowship of like-mindedness and a knowledge monopoly connected with standardised educational tests. Viewed from a contemporary perspective, this type of analysis is relevant, because specialised knowledge and experts with knowledge monopolies remain prevalent in the modern-day field of education policy and practice. Thus, the roots of this inherent tendency towards expert knowledge in modern welfare state educational settings can be more adequately grasped through a better understanding of the historical precursors.

    The article discusses the importance and actual impact of the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish testing communities on national educational practices, the significance of the international interplay, and how and to what extent national political and educational climates were shaped by new experts and knowledge.

    It is argued that the testing communities were able to gain authority in the national educational fields through the creation and maintenance of organisations, knowledge, and practices, as well as in the forming of alliances with politicians, universities, and teachers’ unions in a joint endeavour that promoted educational psychology and testing in the three Scandinavian educational fields.

  • 47959. Ydén, Jenny
    et al.
    Forsberg, Ann-Catrin
    Polishandräckning - en studie om ett eventuellt behov av en lagändring i LUV 43 §2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 47960.
    Ye, Panming
    et al.
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Zhou, Yong
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Distributed Cross-layer Monitoring in Wireless Mesh Networks2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless mesh networks has rapid development over the last few years. However, due to properties such as distributed infrastructure and interference, which strongly affect the performance of wireless mesh networks, developing technology has to face the challenge of architecture and protocol design issues. Traditional layered protocols do not function efficiently in multi-hop wireless environments. To get deeper understanding on interaction of the layered protocols and optimize the performance of wireless mesh network, more recent researches are focusing on cross-layer measurement schemes and cross-layer protocol design. The goal of this project is to implement a distributed monitoring mechanism for IEEE802.11 based wireless mesh networks. This module is event-based and has modular structure that makes it flexible to be extended. This project results a novel Cross-Layer Monitoring Module, CLMM, which is a prototype that monitors each layer of the nodes locally and dynamically, calculates the average values of the metrics, compares these values with thresholds and handles the cross-layer messages of each node. The CLMM also has a routing module structure that can be extended to distribute the metrics to its neighbors.

  • 47961.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Evaluating and Reducing Multipath Transport Latency2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to the Internet is a very significant part of everyday life with increasing online services such as news delivery, banking, gaming, audio and high quality movies. Applications require different transport guarantees with some requiring higher bandwidth and others low latency. Upgrading access link capacity does not guarantee faster access to the Internet as it offers higher bandwidth but may not offer low latency. With increasing number of mobile devices supporting more than one access technologies (e.g., WLAN, 3G, 4G,..), there is a need to analyse the impact of using multiple such technologies at the same time. Legacy transport protocols such as TCP or SCTP are only able to connect to one access network at a time to create an end-to-end connection. When more than one access technology is used, there may be a large difference in the data rate offered by each technology. This asymmetry might impact latency sensitive applications by creating out of order delivery. In this thesis, we focus on the latency aspect of multipath transport protocol performance. We consider CMT-SCTP and Multipath TCP as available multipath protocols that were designed for exploiting multiple paths for better throughput and reliability. We consider various real world traffic scenarios such as Video, Gaming and Web traffic to measure end-to-end latency. We perform simulations, emulations and experiments using heterogeneous network settings involving access networks with different bandwidth, delay and loss characteristics. MPTCP performs better in terms of latency than CMT-SCTP and TCP in certain scenarios where available paths are symmetric. However, MPTCP does not perform well in asymmetric scenarios with latency sensitive traffic. This analysis provides insights in to various areas of improvement in MPTCP such as scheduling and loss recovery to achieve low latency. We further focus on packet loss recovery in MPTCP for specific cases of tail losses to reduce latency. Tail losses are the losses that occur at the end of a packet stream. Recovering such losses is of higher significance to latency sensitive applications. We propose a modification to the use of TLP, a mechanism in TCP for tail loss recovery. We evaluate the performance of proposed TLP modification, first using emulations and with real world network experiments. Our results show significant improvements in latency for specific loss scenarios in emulations and up to 50% improvement in experiments.

  • 47962.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic2019In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER, SciTePress, 2019, p. 111-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic is comprised of data flows from various applications with unique traffic characteristics. For many cloud applications, end-to-end latency is a primary factor affecting the perceived user experience. As packet losses cause delays in the communication they impact user experience, making efficient handling of packet losses an important function of transport layer protocols. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a modification to TCP that enables simultaneous use of several paths for a TCP flow. MPTCP is known to improve throughput. However, the performance of MPTCP is not optimal when handling certain loss scenarios. Efficient packet loss recovery is thus important to achieve desirable flow completion times for interactive cloud-based applications. In this paper we evaluate the performance of MPTCP in handling tail losses using traffic traces from various cloud-based applications. Tail losses, losses that occur at the end of a flow or traffic burst, are particularly challenging from a latency perspective as they are difficult to detect and recover in a timely manner. Tail losses in TCP are handled by using a tail loss probe (TLP) mechanism which was adapted to MPTCP from TCP. We investigate the performance of TLP in MPTCP, comparing the standard implementation to a recently proposed, less conservative approach. Our experimental results show that a less conservative implementation of TLP performs significantly better than the standard implementation in handling tail losses, reducing the average burst completion time of cloud based applications when tail loss occurs by up to 50% in certain cases.

  • 47963.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Multipath TCP: Can it Reduce Transport Latency for Web Traffic?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47964.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Probe or Wait: Handling tail losses using Multipath TCP2017In: 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packet losses are known to affect the performance of latency sensitive Internet applications such as media streaming and gaming. Transport protocols recover from packet loss in order to provide reliable end-to-end communication and improve user experience. The efficiency of loss recovery mechanisms influences the completion time of flows, and thus also the application performance as perceived by the end user. In this paper we focus on state-of-the-art loss recovery mechanisms for TCP and Multipath TCP. We use controlled tail loss scenarios to evaluate the performance of loss recovery mechanisms and, based on the observations, we propose an enhanced tail loss recovery mechanism for Multipath TCP, to improve the loss recovery time. Our experiment results, using the Linux Multipath TCP implementation, show consistent end-to-end latency performance improvement in considered scenarios.

  • 47965.
    Yedugundla, Venkata Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ferlin, Simone
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Dreibholz, Thomas
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Kuhn, Nicolas
    IMT Télécom Bretagne, IRISA, Cesson-Sévigné, France.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Is Multi-Path Transport Suitable for Latency Sensitive Traffic?2016In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 105, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses whether multi-path communication can help latency-sensitive applications to satisfy the requirements of their users. We consider Concurrent Multi-path Transfer for SCTP (CMT-SCTP) and Multi-path TCP (MPTCP) and evaluate their proficiency in transporting video, gaming, and web traffic over combinations of WLAN and 3G interfaces. To ensure the validity of our evaluation, several experimental approaches were used including simulation, emulation and live experiments. When paths are symmetric in terms of capacity, delay and loss rate, we find that the experienced latency is significantly reduced, compared to using a single path. Using multiple asymmetric paths does not affect latency - applications do not experience any increase or decrease, but might benefit from other advantages of multi-path communication. In the light of our conclusions, multi-path transport is suitable for latency-sensitive traffic and mature enough to be widely deployed. 

  • 47966.
    Yenge Massa, Noela
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The factors influencing students’ career choices towards the accounting profession in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This thesis aimed at investigating students’ beliefs influencing their personal attitudes and subjective norms not to choose the accounting profession by using the simplified Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model.

    Theoretical framework – This study used the simplified TRA model to investigate the beliefs that influence students not to choose the accounting profession. From an accounting context, prior research has indicated that, there are intrinsic and extrinsic factors that determine the behavioural beliefs of students about the accounting profession. Likewise, normative beliefs are another construct of the simplified TRA model that influences students’ intentions towards the accounting profession.

    Methodology – Through a quantitative approach, questionnaires were sent electronically to first and second year students at five major universities in Sweden. In total, 323 students replied to the questionnaire. Since this study focused on students intending to choose business administration, non-business administration students were deleted from the sample giving an actual sample size of 228. The data collected was analyzed in two steps using multiple regression analysis.

    Findings – The findings of the study confirmed the simplified TRA model. The results showed that both behavioural and normative beliefs influenced students’ intentions not to choose the accounting profession. For behavioral beliefs, no personal interest in accounting, the belief that accounting is boring and the belief that other occupations (for instance, marketing and management) negatively influenced students’ attitudes not to choose the accounting profession. Similarly, for normative beliefs, teachers and peers influenced students’ subjective norms not to choose the accounting profession.

    Practical implications – The practical implications of this study are two-folded. Firstly, program directors at universities should engage in hiring qualified teachers in accounting, organize supportive activities to encourage students about the accounting profession. Also, program directors should include compulsory internships in the curriculum so that students can learn about the accounting profession. Secondly, former accounting students should get involved in the process of encouraging students about the accounting profession.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the beliefs influencing the personal attitudes and subjective norms of students not to choose the accounting profession. Therefore, the thesis provides an up-to-date theory about the TRA in the accounting profession in Sweden.

  • 47967. Yeom, H. W.
    et al.
    Horikoshi, K.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ono, K.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Nature of the broken-symmetry phase of the one-dimensional metallic In/Si(111) surface2002In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 65, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47968.
    Yermentayeva, Aierke
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Carey, Luke
    Service-Dominant Orientation 2.0: Consideration of Sustainability Concerns2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Service-Dominant (S-D) logic suggests mutual strategic benefit for all actors of the value network (Vargo & Lusch 2016). However, theoretical reasoning lacks empirical validation of S-D logic implications for performance indicators as well as customer experience. First step in operationalization of S-D logic was undertaken by Karpen et al. (2012; 2015). The model nevertheless grasps dyadic relationship of company and customer, while S-D logic theory requires zooming out interactions to the level of multiple actors. Thus, to ensure multi-actor resource integration external environment has to be added. Additionally, sustainability concerns nowadays gain growing attention, which urges companies to reckon with environmental and societal issues to achieve strategic benefit.  

    The present paper aims at empirical testing of an extended framework of S-D orientation 2.0. Incorporation of Sustainability Interaction capability into the operational model proposed by Karpen et al. (2011) is expected to strengthen association between S-D orientation and customer-related indicators.

    The study is designed as quantitative explanatory research based on survey via questionnaire in the context of Ikea furniture retailing. Hypotheses to examine relationship between variables S-D orientation 2.0 and customer-related indicators are based on the S-D logic theory and research of Karpen et al. (2015).

    Hypotheses testing empirically supports the previous research regarding importance of S-D orientation in predicting customer-related indicators. Besides, S-D orientation 2.0 has superior fit over the previous model, which is explained by additional factor. Sustainability interaction as an additional value co-creation capability significantly influences market performance indicators, since corporate activities towards society and environment influences customer connection and loyalty to the company.

    The research has both theoretical and practical implications. From theoretical perspective the research further develops middle-range theory for abstract S-D logic framework by translating its premises into service-driving skills of company to co-create value in conjunction with customers. The contribution of the study is in inclusion of external environment, which ensures complexity of interactions between multiple actors, through sustainability interaction capability. Service-driving skills in form of corporate capabilities provide managers with practical guideline to improve customer experience and perception. Strategical implementation of interaction capabilities has a positive influence on customer-related indicators, while sustainability interaction capability enhances trust, affective commitment and repurchase intention. Thus, implementation of S-D orientation capabilities with reckoning sustainability issues provides companies with competitive advantage.

  • 47969.
    Ygfeldt, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Skildring av mångkulturalitet i tre utvalda barnböcker.: En studie om framställningen av karaktärer med utländsk bakgrund och användningen av mångkulturell litteratur i skolan.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural so does the educational system and schools. I believe with high probability that as a teacher I will teach a multicultural group in the classroom, therefore I want to become aware of what message the multicultural children ́s and youth literature portrays. The goal of the study is to enguire how people from countries other than Sweden are portrayed in three children ́s and youth books. I will be utilizing a qualitative litearture analysis that surrounds thus giving insight into how this is portrayed in the chosen literature pieces. The results of the study concludes that multiculturalism is depicted in everyday contexts and the characters are described in a way that agrees with their stereotypic looks.

  • 47970. Yi, Choong-ho
    A Framework for Representing and Reasoning with Information Systems1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47971. Yi, Choong-ho
    Informal and formal methods for systems development - focusing on UML2001In: On Methods for Systems Development in Professional Organisations. The Karlstad University Approach to Information Systems and its Role in Society (Nilsson, AG & Pettersson, JS, Eds.), 307-, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2001, p. 307-324Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems development, in a strict sense, is a formalisation of the end-user' desires in the form of executable computer programs. In the last two decades a number of formal methods have been suggested to systemise this formalising process and make it more efficient, eventually to achieve an optimal automation of the process. This chapter addresses the following issues: Which are these formal methods, and what are their advantages and disadvantages, compared with traditional, informal methods? Do formal methods work only in theory, but not in practice? A study is presented as an illustration, showing how UML for object-oriented systems development can be formalised using a formal technique called FUML

  • 47972. Yi, Choong-ho
    Informella och formella metoder för systemutveckling- med fokus på UML2000In: A. G. Nilsson and J. Petterson (Eds.), Karlstadskolans synpå informatikens roll i samhället, pages 301-318, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000, p. 301-318Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Systemutveckling är i strikt mening en formalisering av användarnas önskemål i form av exekverbara datorprogram. För att effektivisera, systematisera och till slut automatisera denna formaliseringsprocess maximalt har en mängd formella metoder föreslagits under de två senaste decennierna. I kapitlet diskuteras följande frågor: Vilka är dessa formella metoder och vilka för- och nackdelar har de jämfört med traditionella, informella metoder? Fungerar formella metoder bara i teorin men inte i praktiken? Som illustration presenteras en studie om hur UML för objekt-orienterad systemutveckling kan formaliseras med hjälp av en formell teknik kallad FUML

  • 47973. Yi, Choong-ho
    Modelling Object-Oriented Dynamic Systems Using a Logic-Based Framework2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 47974. Yi, Choong-ho
    Reasoning about Concurrent Actions in the Trajectory Semantics1995Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 47975. Yi, Choong-ho
    Reasoning about Concurrent Actions within Features and Fluents1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47976. Yi, Choong-ho
    Representing and Reasoning with Scenarios within Information Systems Modelling2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47977. Yi, Choong-ho
    Towards the Assessment of Logics for Concurrent Actions1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47978. Yi, Choong-ho
    et al.
    , Johannesson
    A Many-Sorted Temporal Logic for Reasoning with Business Goals1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47979. Yi, Choong-ho
    et al.
    Johannesson, C.
    Beyond Goal Representation: Checking Goal-Satisfaction by Temporal Reasoning with Business Processes1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47980. Yi, In-Ah
    Individualism against the Utilitarian Collectivism of the Nineteenth Century in Charles Dickens´Hard Times2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hard Times is generally known as an industrial novel which exposes the evils of the industrialism of the mid-nineteenth century Britain. However, it is difficult to grasp the term industrialism fully without the historical understanding of utilitarianism. Victorian Utilitarianism that derived from the seventeenth century and eighteenth century materialist and empirical traditions had a huge impact on the ethics of many areas of the nineteenth century society. That is to say, the majority of people were politically, educationally, and economically under the influence of the utilitarian thought. However, Charles Dickens, among others, was against this collective wave of thought. In Dickens’ estimation, this society was in a state of a serious bankruptcy of humanity. He found no place for imagination and flexibility in this way of thinking. Here in Hard Times, he miniaturizes British society in a small town called “Coketown”. Coketown is materialistically prosperous but the inner state of the people in town is the opposite. Children in the school are mentally suffocated by the tightening frame of utilitarianism. The majority of people in this society are under the fetters of the utilitarian system. Dickens attacks this utilitarian system with some free thinking individuals as his weapons in Hard Times. This essay investigates how, in Hard Times, Charles Dickens defends individualism against the utilitarian collectivism of the nineteenth century.

  • 47981.
    Yidan, Huang
    Karlstad University.
    Can Public Transit Integration be a Way in Service Innovation for Sustainable Public Transit System?: A Case of Zhengzhou2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47982.
    Yildirim, Tugay
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Rohlin, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Prestationsmätningars roll i revisionsbyråer: En kvalitativ studie utifrån revisorers perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Management control system is meaningful for corporations.  It aims to define overall company-goals and develops strategies that eases the achievement of these goals. The purpose of the strategies is to create desirable performances through guidance of employees. The strategy and performance evaluation are correlated since both creates desirable performances. This is achieved through performance evaluation as it monitors and examines employees’ performances. 

    Prior research highlights performance evaluation through corporations' perspective, but does not present a connection between performance evaluation and its effects on auditors. Although, it has been established some effects of parts within performance evaluation. Due to that the research has been based on corporations' perspective, it becomes interesting to study the subject through auditors’ perspective. Performance evaluation is used in a wide variety within the large audit firms, thus relevant to study. 

    The purpose of the thesis is to create a broader understanding of which role performance evaluation has in audit firms. This has been studied through observations of how performance evaluation is executed and which effects it has on auditors. The thesis’s research-strategy is qualitative, though empirical data has been generated through interviews with eleven auditors. 

    All of the researched audit firms include overall company-goals, individual goalsetting, time budgets, feedback and monetary incentives in the process of execution of performance evaluation. This study presents which effects performance evaluation has on auditors. Positive effects of performance evaluation are increased performances and motivation. This increment is based on increased self-efficacy, clear expectations and guidelines, and active participation during goal-setting and feedback processes. The negative effects of performance evaluation are based on the work procedure that is created by the management tool, in terms of time pressure, stress and pressure regarding acquisition of customers. 

  • 47983. Yilmaz, Birsen
    et al.
    Drapic, Haris
    Webbgränssnitt för hantering av BibTEX-databas2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete har ett webbgränssnitt mot referensdatabasen Bibliography for TeX (BibTeX) implementerats i PHP:Hypertext Processor (PHP). BibTeX, ett system som hanterar referenser, används tillsammans med LaTeX, ett typsättningsprogram, till att skapa dokument. Referenserna som används i ett dokument lagras i BibTeX-databasen via webbgränssnittet. Användaren har möjlighet att utföra diverse operationer på BibTeX-databasen via webbgränssnittet exempelvis lägga till, ta bort, ändra och söka referenser. Syftet med detta webbgränssnitt var att utöka vissa funktioner som inte förekom i det webbgränssnitt som används för närvarande av forskningsgruppen för distribuerade och kommunicerande system. Dessa funktioner är följande: låsning av referensdatabasen när någon utför en operation, utökning av antalet referenstyper samt automatisk revisionshantering. Webbgränssnittet implementerades med stöd för två språk, svenska respektive engelska.

  • 47984.
    Yin, Wang
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Probing of Consumer Orientation Based On Service-Dominant Logic: By Empirical Study of Cosmetics Companies2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With marketing concept being maturely developed, many firms are encouraged being customer-oriented. However, as firms pursue advanced technology development which is in order to meet customers’ various needs and being competitive, the furious competition of products innovation and development is raising which leads to time and people consuming blindly for firms, and the space of being competitive is condensed. In such case, a new logic is advocated which is to ask firms to lay down the separated line with consumers, and start to consider about interaction with consumers and other value network entities, it is time to get rid of single side supply and to advocate two side collaborate. This paper argue the customer orientation should be reconsidered with transmitting into service-dominant logic, through demonstrating from several primary theory foundation, it argued that interaction and collaboration of manufacturing companies and consumers is a new features for firms to find another outlet to being competitive. Even though this mindset is not prevail, it has already started in IT sector, and gradually it will expand to others, because information technology is seen as a good facilities for interaction between companies and consumers, it will be reflected in further practical study.

  • 47985.
    YinPing, Zhang
    et al.
    China.
    BaiZhan, Li
    China.
    Chen, Huang
    China.
    Xu, Yang
    China.
    Hua, Qian
    China.
    QiHong, Deng
    China.
    ZhuoHui, Zhao
    China.
    AnGui, Li
    China.
    JiaNing, Zhao
    China.
    Xin, Zhang
    China.
    Fang, Qu
    China.
    Yu, Hu
    China.
    Qin, Yang
    China.
    Juan, Wang
    China.
    Ming, Zhang
    China.
    Fang, Wang
    China.
    XiaoHong, Zheng
    China.
    Chan, Lu
    China.
    ZhiJian, Liu
    China.
    YueXia, Sun
    China.
    JinHan, Mo
    China.
    YiLi, Zhao
    China.
    Wei, Liu
    China.
    TingTing, Wang
    China.
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Sundell, Jan
    China.
    Ten cities cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children asthma and other allergies in China2013In: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 58, no 34, p. 4182-4189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma, rhinitis and eczema (allergic or non-allergic) have increased throughout the world during the last decades, especially among children. Changes in the indoor environment are suspected to be important causes. China has experienced a dramatic change in indoor environmental exposures during the past two decades. However, such changes and their associations with children's asthma and other health aspects have not been thoroughly studied. China, Children, Homes, Health (CCHH), Phase I, was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 48219 children 1-8 years old in 10 Chinese cities during 2010-2012. The questionnaire includes the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) core health questions and additional questions regarding housing, life habits and outdoor environment. In health analyses, children aged 3-6 years old were included. The prevalences of doctor diagnosed asthma varied from 1.7% to 9.8% (mean 6.8%), a large increase from 0.91% in 1999 and 1.50% in 2000. The prevalence of wheeze, rhinitis and atopic eczema (last 12 months) varied from 13.9% to 23.7%, 24.0% to 50.8% and 4.8% to 15.8%, respectively. Taiyuan had the lowest prevalences of all illnesses and Shanghai the highest, except for wheeze-where the highest value was for Urumqi. We found (1) no obvious association between disease prevalences and ambient PM10 concentrations and (2) higher prevalences of disease in humid climates with hot summers and cold winters, but with no centrally heated buildings. Associations between the diseases and economic status as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) requires further study.

  • 47986.
    Yli-Panula, Eija
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education, University of Turku.
    Eloranta, Varpu
    Department of Teacher Education, University of Turku.
    The landscapes that Finnish children and adolescents want to conserve - a study of pupils´drawings in Basic Education2011In: Nordidactica - Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 1, p. 35-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A landscape is an experienced environment, which can be perceived by senses and feelings or through cognition processes. The background hypotheses of this study comprise the idea that the landscape which somebody would like to conserve is, in one way or another, important and valuable to her or him. The person undoubtedly has positive experiences and images of this environment. The present study used students’ drawings to analyze their conceptions of the landscape. The conceptions differ both in content and in quality and they are dependent on age and experiences. The aim of this study was to analyze the drawings of a group of Finnish pupils (N=324) in basic education to find out the landscape they would like to conserve and to find out their relation to the environment. Pupils from grades 1-2, 5-6 and 8-9 participated. The results show that the nature landscape was the most common one in all age groups. In the nature landscapes the following issues were usually present: vegetation, especially trees, often also flowers (in girls’ drawings), water elements, the sky and the sun. Furthermore, dominating contents in the nature landscapes were water elements, like creeks, rivers, small lakes, lakes or the sea. Many of the nature drawings contained forest. One third of the landscapes represented a built environment, the so-called cultural landscape, where the nature landscape had been more or less changed by human activity The number of these built landscapes did not vary markedly between the three age groups. The third of the main categories, a landscape where human beings were physically present in the landscapes, was the most infrequent and was relatively most often drawn by pupils in grades 5-6. The boys valued more landscapes modified by human activity compared to the landscapes valued by girls. In conclusion: the landscapes in the drawings of these Finnish pupils in basic education were strongly connected to the nature and this result is in line to the original Finnish definition of the landscape.

  • 47987. Ylämäki, Christian
    Performance evaluation of the QCS at Paper Machine 6, Arctic Paper Håfreström AB2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new Quality Control System has been installed at paper machine 6 (PM6), Arctic Paper Håfreström AB. At the same time, new scanners and some additional control equipment was also installed. This paper highlights the difficulties involved when comparing statistics from the old system with statistics from the new one. Several factors have been recognized as especially infuential. An attempt has also been made to show approximately how different factors affects the statistics. A number of mathematical tools like frequency analysis, principal component analysis and autocorrelation have been shown valuable in analyzing papermachine control systems. Several examples are shown where these tools have been put to use in the case of PM6 Arctic Paper Håfreström.

  • 47988.
    Ylén, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Kvinnliga hundägares erfarenheter av att äga en hund: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine dogowners’ experiences of the relation to their dog. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted and all respondents were dog owners as well as members of a Swedish brukshundklubb. The collected data was analyzed by a so called thematic analysis. What the paper generally comes down to is the different experiences dog owners have experienced in owning a dog, and how this can be linked to previous research in health. Experience as contributing to better health, love the dog, joy and companionship raised on several occasions in the essay. After the analysis was made, four final themes were found: better health, never lonely, interest, and relationship and emotion. The results of this study showed that a dog can give a good health to the owners, for an example by getting out for a walk. It also shows that the dog is spreading love, joy, and not least the owners never have to feel alone. The conclusion of this study was that the dog contributes to better health, both mentally, physically and socially.Keywords: dog, dogownership, health, emotions, interests

  • 47989.
    Yngman, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes grown by pyrolysis of ferrocene2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn a lot of attention during the last decades due to its promising mechanical and electrical properties. Extensive research regarding the mechanical properties of CNTs has been carried out during the last decades. A lot of effort has been put into developing methods to properly characterize features such as Young’s modulus and the deformation processes of carbon nanotubes. A detailed knowledge of these properties is important for many of the suggested applications of carbon nanotubes.Here we have examined multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown by pyrolysis of ferrocene. In some cases the carbon nanotube contained an iron core or traces of iron in the core. The carbon nanotubes ranged from 20 nm to 65 nm in radius and 1000 nm to 4000 nm in length.An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for in situ force measurements. The AFM cantilever was used to displace individual carbon nanotubes from their equilibrium positions. The forces used to displace the carbon nanotubes have been plotted against the displacements of the tubes to obtain the characteristic force-displacement curves. From the slope of these curves the spring constants of the carbon nanotubes have been found. Young’s modulus for each tube was derived from the spring constant and the tube dimensions.We found that Young’s modulus ranged from 7 GPa to 340 GPa with no observed dependence on the radius or the length. Previous works suggest that deformation processes such as rippling and buckling will drastically change the spring constant of the tubes when displaced. The maximum values of the applied forces in our measurements were smaller than those needed to push the tubes into the deformation stages. The relatively low values of Young’s modulus indicate that these tubes are rich in defects which dominate their mechanical behaviour.

  • 47990.
    Yngman, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Probing mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this c-level thesis is to investigate Young’s modulus of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The force measurements as well as the imaging are done by an atomic force microscope (AFM). This has been done before by Eric W. Wong et al in 19971. These earlier experiments report techniques using clean-room facilities not available at Karlstad University. Our task is to investigate probabilities in which to perform the experiment by using the available instruments at Karlstad University.The force measurements are done by using the AFM tip to push the CNTs. A force curve is obtained from where it is possible to determine the spring constant of the CNT. By knowing some essential characteristics of the cantilever and the tip, Young’s modulus can be calculated. The CNT needs to be fixed in one end and able to push to the sides in the other end. Our main focuses in this thesis is how to fix the CNTs and what surface to use. Essentially two methods of fixing the tubes have been tried out. Partly we have been looking for large particles on the surface lying on top of a CNT fixing one end, partly we have evaporated gold to achieve an edge under which the CNTs can be attached.In conclusion we can say that it is hard and time-consuming looking for CNTs randomly fixed by particles on the surface. Further we can say that the choice of surface is important. A surface with a low friction was desired but the low friction causes trouble during imaging. The force between the tip and the cantilever during imaging seems to be enough to disturb the CNT and the surface, making measurements hard.

  • 47991. Yngstrand, Cathrine
    Barns uttalanden kring materia: Kvalitativ undersökning med semistrukturerad intervjuteknik rörande elever i årskurs tre2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47992.
    Yngström, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    ADHD och musik: Jobbar skolan med musik som inlärningmetod för barn med ADHD?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A pupil with ADHD is constantly getting new impulses and is unable to focus and remain concentration on their task at school. When the pupil loses concentration he or she can often be loud and thereby disturbing all the other pupils in the classroom. One of the reasons for losing their concentration is that these pupils got poor working memory. A recently study shows that working memory can be improved by playing and practice music.

    A theory that all people have a multiple intelligence that emerges from learning is a part of this study because school should encourage all children and ensure their individual learning. Multiple intelligences means that each person learns in different ways, for example through the musical intelligence that this essay partly focuses on. Pupils with musical intelligence are absorbing information and learn through songs, rhythms and melodies. Then they associate their knowledge through this.

    In this essay, I interviewed two special education teachers and asked them how and if they use music in their special education with pupils that got ADHD. The result is that they are not using the music to a greater extent, but they would like to. Two music teachers were also interviewed to get a picture of what teachers with interest in music would like to do in school to make use of the music for the pupils that struggles.

  • 47993. Yngvesson, Nathalie
    Romantisme et réalité Étude de La Mare au Diable, La petite Fadette et Francois le Champi de George sand1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 47994.
    Yodphongsa, Say
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förutsättningskontroll och nedbrytningstest på oljeförorenad mark: Preem 2, Karlstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47995.
    Yodphongsa, Ying
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Könsnormer i den thailändska förskolan: En undersökning om förskolepedagogers sociokulturella perspektiv och förhållningssätt kring flickor och pojkar i den thailändska förskolan.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of how pedagogues treat girls and boys differently in Thailand and also to contribute to the knowledge about gender and gender norms in the preschools in Thailand.

    To answer my research questions, I travelled to the north of Thailand to visit two pre-schools. I have been using a qualitative study to collect information from teachers and have compiled my observations to compare theory with real practice. I also interviewed some Thai native language teachers in Sweden to expand the research material. The results show that the importance of education has increased for children in Thailand, which has given both girls and boys the same opportunity to attend school. The research also tells that pedagogues in Thailand are educated about gender and equality which shows in their reasoning about how to approach girls and boys with gender awareness. However, despite the gender sensitive reasoning it has through observation been disclosed that old norms are still a present issue when it comes to approaching girls and boys differently. 

  • 47996.
    Yohan, Noh
    et al.
    Waseda University.
    Wang, C.
    Waseda University.
    Tokumoto, M.
    Waseda University.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ishii, H.
    Waseda University.
    Takanishi, Atsuo
    Waseda University.
    Development of Airway Management Training System WKA-4: Provide Useful Feedback of Trainee Performance to Trainee during Airway Management2012In: Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2012 ICME International Conference on, IEEE Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47997.
    Yoho, K. D.
    et al.
    Roy E. Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, USA.
    Ford, R.
    Department of Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida,.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Dahlinger, F.
    The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Florida State University, Sarasota, Florida, USA.
    Moving “The Greatest Show on Earth”: W.C. Coup as an innovation champion2018In: Journal of Management History, ISSN 1751-1348, E-ISSN 1758-7751, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 76-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research aims to provide a historical example of how an innovation champion radically changed the operations of the circus industry by incorporating both the rational and actuation models in his scaling-up innovations. The innovations to the logistics and operations of the P. T. Barnum Circus, “The Greatest Show on Earth”, created by William C. Coup in response to the massive technological development of integrated railroad systems offer new insights into how management effectuation operates through the capabilities and experiences of an innovation champion. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a theoretically anchored longitudinal study that captures the mechanisms and processes of innovation by adopting an explorative, inductive research design in the form of a single in-depth case analysis. Findings: Coup’s contributions show how the management innovation process works and adds detail with regard to how a champion of change may succeed in an effectuation process. Coup’s management innovation was in scaling-up others’ innovations. In an effectuation process similar to what entrepreneurs must do when their new ideas find a growing market acceptance, Coup repeatedly scaled-up others’ ideas in ways that changed how his industry operated. Originality/value: Although there is some agreement on how management influences innovation in their organizations, research identifying the characteristics of managers that cause them to be innovation champions is still evolving and this current work adds to this endeavor. This work provides a rich illustration of an innovation champion’s use of effectuation as a process of experimentation to discover pragmatic and effective solutions to problems arising from the use of new technology or scaling business models to levels never before imagined.

  • 47998.
    Yong-an, Min
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Shanghai University, China.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Xiao-chun, Wu
    Shanghai University, China.
    Luo-ping, Xu
    Shanghai University, China.
    Oxidation and Thermal Fatigue Behaviors of Two Type Hot Work Steels During Thermal Cycling2013In: Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, ISSN 1006-706X, E-ISSN 2210-3988, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal fatigue test has been carried out on widely used hot work steel 4Cr5MoSiV1 and a low alloyed steel 3Cr3MoV in temperature range of 200 to 700 degrees C. Tempering resistance, as well as high temperature hardness/strength of steel specimens, works as a dominating material parameter on thermal fatigue resistance. During the heating period, high hardness can depress the inelastic deformation. This deformation is the origination of tensile stress, which acts as the driving force of heat checking during the cooling period. The cyclic strain-oxidation interaction can speed up the damage on surface defects, which plays an obvious role in initiation of thermal cracks. On 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel specimens, borders between the matrix and inclusions such as titanium compounds, or lager carbides such as primary carbides, are focused by strain and attacked by oxidation, and are main initiating places of cracks. While on 3Cr3MoV steel specimens, larger strain causes plastic deformation concentrating around grain boundaries. Then the following oxidation accelerates this grain boundary damage and creates cracks.

  • 47999.
    Youhanes, Elsa
    Karlstad University.
    Motiverande samtal: Effekten av motiverande samtal avseende livsstilsförändring hos patienter med hjärt-kärlsjukdom - en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48000.
    Youhanes, Elsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Westerberg, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till individer med hjärtsvikt vid vätske- och saltrestriktion. -en integrerad litteraturstudie.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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