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  • 47901.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Halling, A
    Lindblad, U
    Gender differences in knowledge, attitude, behavior and perceived oral health among adolescents1999In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional dental questionnaire census survey was conducted in classrooms of 17,280 students aged 13-18 years in Skaraborg County, Sweden. The overall response rate, based on school attendance on the test day, was 91% with no gender differences at the senior level and 86% (boys 87%, girls 85%) at the upper secondary level. The aim was to examine gender differences in knowledge, attitude, behavior, and perceived oral health. A retest study showed good agreement. Thirty-one percent of the girls and 21% of the boys flossed regularly. Eleven percent reported daily candy consumption, with no significant gender difference. Girls, however, more often than boys considered their own consumption to be too high. This gender difference in attitude was most pronounced among older daily consumers (odds ratio (OR)= 5.8[3.7-9.2]). Oral health was regarded as important by a majority of the students (95%). Girls considered sound teeth to be more important than did boys, both among the younger (OR=1.7[1.4-2.1) and the older (OR=2.4[1.9-3.1]) adolescents. Conclusion: Most adolescents had a positive dental attitude and perceived their own oral health to be good. Poorer knowledge and behaviors concerning oral health were demonstrated. Gender differences existed in most issues. Girls scored more favorably on behavioral measures, showed more interest in oral health, and perceived their own oral health to be good to a higher degree than did boys

  • 47902.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Oral health-related quality of life in older Swedish people with pain problems2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 510-516Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47903.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Jarkman, K.
    Lindblad, U.
    Halling, A.
    Adolescents Perceptions of Oral Health and Influencing Factors2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Accounts on self-perceptions of oral health have hitherto been rare, although of great interest for strategies in health promotion.



    Purpose: The objective of this study was to increase the knowledge on adolescents perceptions of oral health and influencing factors.



    Methods: Semistructured interviews of 17 Swedish adolescents were performed. Criteria for strategic sampling were age (15, 18 years), gender (male, female), and dental health (healthy, unhealthy). Data were analysed according to the constant comparative method. Areas of focus were general oral health, personal oral health, life-style issues and dental care.



    Results: The awareness of oral health was mostly low among the informants. Two categories of oral health were identified, action and condition. Conditional aspects were most frequent in evaluations of personal oral health. Possibilities to influence oral health were considered limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support and impact, and external factors. Gender differences were indicated in health consciousness. Concern for oral health was denoted the core category of perceived influence.

  • 47904.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Jarkman, K.
    Lindblad, U.
    Halling, A.
    Adolescents perceptions of oral health and influencing factors: A qualitative study2002In: Acta Odontolologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounts of self-perceptions of oral health have hitherto been rare, although they are of great interest for strategies in health promotion. The objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of adolescents perceptions of oral health and influencing factors.Semi-structured interviews of 17 Swedish adolescents were performed. Criteria for strategic sampling were age (15, 18 years), gender (male, female), and dental health (healthy, unhealthy). Data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Areas of focus were general oral health, personal oral health, dental care, and life-style issues.Oral health awareness was generally low among the informants. Two categories of oral health were identified: action (the physical things we do to effect the condition of our mouths) and condition (the physical status of the mouth). Conditional aspects were most frequent in evaluations of personal oral health. The informants considered their possibilities to influence oral health limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support and impact, and external factors. Concern for oral health was derived as the core category in perceived influence on oral health. This study indicates that it is important to find factors that enhance adolescents awareness of their own resources and to seek mechanisms that govern internalization. There is a need to find strategies to convey such knowledge to the intermediaries: the dental personnel and the parents.

  • 47905.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Lindblad, U
    Halling, A
    Self-perceived oral health in adolescents associated with family characteristics and parental employment status2003In: Community Dental HealthArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - To investigate self-perceived oral health and its associations with family characteristics and parental employment status in an adolescent population from a gender perspective.

    Design - A cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires answered anonymously in classrooms.

    Setting - All senior (13-15 years) and upper secondary (16-18 years) level schools in Skaraborg County, Sweden.

    Subjects - 17,035 students, participation rate 88.5%.

    Outcome measures - A single-item rating of self-perceived oral health; satisfaction with the appearance of the teeth; self-assessed gingival bleeding; a perceived oral health index.

    Results - Independent of family characteristics and parental employment status, girls, more often than boys, perceived their oral health to be good and had less self-assessed gingival bleeding but were less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. Adolescents living with a single mother (senior level OR 0.71 [CI 0.59-0.84], upper secondary level OR 0.76 [CI 0.62-0.92]) or with neither parent were less likely to perceive their oral health as good when single-item rated and reported more gingival bleeding (living with a single mother: senior level OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], upper secondary level OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]) than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Associations between parental employment status and self-perceived oral health were weak and inconsistent.

    Conclusions - Family characteristics were important for adolescents self-perceived oral health while parental employment status was not. Children living in single-parent households should be supported and recognised in strategies for oral health promotion and prevention. Gender differences should also be taken into consideration.

  • 47906.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nordblom, A
    Sundqvist, R
    Tandhälsa hos barn och ungdomar i Skaraborg1997In: Barn i Skaraborg, Skövde: Skaraborgsinstitutet , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47907.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Råstam, L
    Lindblad, U
    Tooth loss and obesity in a defined Swedish population2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore the association between tooth loss and obesity in a defined adult Swedish population and to investigate whether psychosocial factors could explain a tentative association. Methods The study is based on a population survey 2001-2005 in two municipalities within the same mainly rural area in south-western Sweden, being part of a comprehensive epidemiological study on hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity (The Skaraborg Project). A random sample of 30-74-year-olds (five year strata) was selected and 2,918 people participated (76%). Information on remaining number of teeth was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Tooth loss was defined as <20 remaining teeth, as compared to 20. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) 30 kgm-2. Associations were estimated using logistic regression and adjustments were made for demographic, clinical and life-style variables as well as co-morbidity. Results The mean BMI value was 26.9 kgm-2 in men and 26.8 kgm-2 in women. Obesity was still more frequent among women than among men (23.6% versus 17.7%, p<0.001). Including all ages, there was a statistically significant association between tooth loss and obesity among women (OR 1.98; CI 1.44-2.72), but not among men (1.40; 0.98-2.00). However, in participants below 60 years of age, this association was stronger and statistically significant in both genders, while it was lost in older participants. Conclusions In this study, tooth loss was associated with obesity in the younger adults with a stronger association in women than in men

  • 47908. Östberg, Bengt
    Olika parametrars inverkan på CTMP-massans avvattningsförmåga2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47909.
    Östberg, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Energieffektivare torkning i diskmaskiner genom ny torkmetod: Utvärdering genom praktiska försök och simuleringar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy consumption is constantly increasing. The results are major environmental issues in which climate change is one of the biggest problems. Household energy consumption currently account for a significant share of the total energy consumption. Therefore it is important to improve household energy consumption to reduce household environmental impact. Appliances, which accounts for a large portion of household energy use, have a great potential for energy improvement. One example of an appliance where much energy can be saved is dishwashers.

    Dishwashers wash, rinse and dry dirty dishes. The dishwashers produced today uses less energy and water than before, when this work was done by hand. There are still more actions that can be taken to reduce the dishwasher's energy consumption. A lot of efforts are made among other things to reduce the energy consumption during the heating of the water inside the dishwasher and to reduce the energy consumed during the drying phase.

    A dishwasher where the heating occurs by a heat pump is developed by Asko Appliances AB. The heat pump takes the heat that is needed for the dishwasher from a water tank, causing the water to freeze. The drying of the dishes in this dishwasher will be done by letting the humid air inside the dishwasher out, using a fan. The air is then driven past the ice stock by making it go through an air gap, where the moisture condenses from the air on the cold surface created by the ice. The air then returns back into the dishwasher.

    In this thesis, this drying method is evaluated and compared with the technology used by Asko Appliances AB today, where the humid air is leaving the dishwasher and is brought into the room where dishwasher stands while air from the room is entering. Experiments will be performed on a dishwasher with an external ice stock. The evaluation of the drying process experiment was done using inspection. A mathematical model with an energy balance over the drying phase was built. Simulations were performed on the model and the results were verified by the experiments. With the model, the amount of water that evaporates inside the dishwasher during the drying phase was calculated.

    Results from the inspection showed that the drying method using the ice stock better performs than the drying method used by Asko Appliances AB today. High temperatures and air flow rates were found to provide a better result according to the experiments and the model. The drying is according to the model most energy efficient when the starting temperature is 70 °C, but since so much water located on the dishwasher walls is dried at that starting temperature, the in reality most efficient starting temperature is 60 °C. Then the dish is dried just as well and the energy consumption is 0.5 MJ less than when the starting temperature is 70 °C.

  • 47910.
    Östberg, Gustaf
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Yucelen, Emrah
    FEI Company, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    In-Situ TEM Characterization of the Effect of Interfaces on Charge Transport in Cu (In, Ga) Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells2009In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, 1435-8115, Vol. 15, p. 712-713Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47911. Östberg, Helena
    Effektiv navigering i 3D gränssnitt2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats behandlas teorier om gränssnittsutformning av bland andra Ben Shneiderman och Jennifer Preece, för att se om dessa kan tillämpas för att underlätta navigationen i ett tredimensionellt gränssnitt. Mot dessa praktiskt orienterade författarna ställs de mer visionära författarna, Brenda Laurel och Janet H. Murray, som ger en annan bild om hur de tycker ett gränssnitt ska vara. De går inte in på hur ett gränssnitt skapas, utan har åsikter om hur det istället bör vara. Detta till skillnad mot Shneiderman och Preece som är praktiska och mycket konkreta i sina åsikter om gränssnitt. Då 3d är ett relativt nytt område har även material från Internet tagits med. Microsoft Research 3d gränssnitt Task Gallery har analyserats för att se hur de utnyttjat grafiska element för att göra det lätt navigerat. Litteraturen och analysen av Task Gallery visar att gränssnitts teorier kan användas på 3d gränssnitt. Andra slutsatser är att gränssnittet bör begränsas i sin miljö och/eller i rörligheten hos användaren, för att bli greppbart och effektivt. Val som en designer måste ta ställning till är om produkten ska vara realistisk eller abstrakt i sin utformning och hur man möter olika krav hos användare med olika erfarenhet. Ett sätt att göra detta är att ge gränssnittet flera nivåer, med möjlighet för användaren att välja hur denne vill navigera sig, där olika vägar och översikter finns att tillgå. Nyckelord: Gränssnitt, 3d, navigering, metaforer, ikoner, färgkodning

  • 47912.
    Östberg, Julia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Sjövall, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Upplevelser hos nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor under den första tiden i yrket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47913.
    Östberg, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Laboratory Preparation of Viscose2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47914.
    Östberg, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some Aspects on Pulp Pre-treatment Prior to Viscose Preparation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of carbon disulphide are consumed in the conventional production of viscose. Until a novel, eco-friendly, wood-based process for the production of cellulose textile fibres has been developed and implemented, it is important to try to find ways to improve the conventional viscose process, e.g. in terms of reducing the carbon disulphide requirement of the process. The aim of this thesis was to reduce the amount of carbon disulphide consumed in the preparation of high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating pulps with enzymes. It also aimed at investigating and linking the different measurements of reactivity, i.e. gamma number, Fock reactivity and Kw, and determining the sensitivity of the gamma number to the hemicellulose content of pulp. Reactivity was measured as Fock reactivity and gamma number. The gamma number of viscose solutions remained unchanged when an enzyme stage was used prior to the viscose process. The gamma number analysis was found to be selective not only to cellulose but also to the hemicellulosic material. It was verified that both cellulose and hemicellulose molecules in the pulp material were substituted in the viscose preparation stages, showing that the gamma number of the pulp is due to both substituted cellulose and substituted hemicelluloses. The mechanisms responsible for the Fock reactivity, or the filter-clogging value (Kw) on the one hand and the gamma number on the other, are probably not the same. It was speculated that the analysis method employed in Fock´s test and the filter-clogging value measure the results on a fibre level, whereas the gamma number measures changes mainly on a molecular level. This could explain the difference in the levels of reactivity found in this study.

  • 47915.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some Aspects of the Reactivity of Pulp Intended for High-Viscosity Viscose: Influence on the Reactivity and the Gamma Number2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47916.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some aspects on the activation of dissolving pulps and the influence on the reactivity in a following viscose stage2013In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 47, no 3-4, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was found that, for a dissolving pulp, an enzymatic pre-treatment with an endoglucanase prior to viscose preparation did not change the correlation between the gamma number of the viscose dope and the carbon disulphide charge. Thus, the pulp stoichiometry, or reactivity, was not changed by an endoglucanase pre-treatment. It has nevertheless previously been found that the pulp reactivity, measured either by Fock's test or as the filter clogging value (Kw), increased for the same type of enzyme pre-treatment. Thus, the pulp reactivity seems to be influenced by the analysis method employed.

  • 47917.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some Aspects on the Reactivity of a Dissolving Pulp when used for Viscose PreparationIn: O papelArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 47918.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Håkansson, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Some aspects of the reactivity of pulp intended for high-viscosity viscose2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 743-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original objective of this study was to reduce the consumption of carbon disulphide in the preparation of high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating two softwood pulps with enzymes prior to the viscose stages. Reactivity can, however, be measured in different ways and the methods used in this study are Fock´s test of the pulp and the gamma number of the viscose solution prior to regeneration. It was found that whilst the reactivity of a pulp that had been subjected to enzyme pretreatment increased according to Fock´s test, it did not increase when the gamma number obtained in a standardized viscose preparation process was used. This unexpected difference that was discovered between the two reactivity tests made it difficult to analyze the impact of the enzyme stage on reactivity; the underlying reasons for the different reactivity results obtained were therefore investigated first. The conclusion that may be drawn from this investigation is that Fock´s test measures the extent to which carbon disulphide reacts with a pulp sample during a standardized test whereas the gamma number measures the resulting degree of xanthate substitution on the cellulose backbone. These two reactivity tests are thus not totally correlated. It was concluded that the gamma number was the more relevant of the two tests since it reflects the dissolution ability of a pulp in the viscose preparation, which is a very basic property of viscose. A higher gamma number also means that the coagulation time in the spinning process is prolonged; this is beneficial as it can be used to increase the tenacity of the viscose fibres. Measuring the reactivity according to Fock´s test, on the contrary, provides more dubious results as the test has no undisputed correlation to the viscose preparation process.

  • 47919.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kvarnlöf, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The hemicellulose content in two chemical pulps and its influence on Fock´s test and the gamma number of the resulting viscose dope2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 4p. 377-380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47920.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Kvarnlöf, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    The Influence of the Hemicellulose Content in Dissolving Pulps on the Gamma Number of Viscose DopesIn: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47921.
    Östberg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Industrialisering av konsumentprodukt: Från inkommande material till färdigvarulager2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the industrialization of a newly developed household machine on behalf of Technogarden Engineering Resources in Karlstad, Sweden. The report is a part of the final course in the Bachelor Program in Mechanical Engineering at Karlstad University and takes place in spring 2014.

    An innovator, an investor and a engineering consultant firm have through collaboration developed a new type of gruel machine. The product is in its final stage of construction and is planned to be manufactured in a production located in Sweden, autumn of 2014.

    To compete against today’s trend in outsourcing manufacturing to low cost countries for better profitability, the industrialization of the gruel machine must be done with a minimum amount of resources in order to become successful, which also describes the problem of this study. Using pre-study material in form of Lean production literature, visiting a successful production site and gathering data from involved engineers a specification was developed which describes what this industrialization must achieve and which requests can be accomplished. The specification involves the main questions such as capacity in number of gruel machines produced in a certain amount of time, ergonomics and how to achieve equal product quality.

    A comprehensive product study has been done to identify how the machine is meant to be assembled where the focus was to analyze timing, identifying item groups and assembly sequence. Six concepts on different factory layouts were created using two dimensional sketches of the actual plant chosen for the machine. The sketches show visual layouts of how the production equipment can be physically arranged in order to assemble the machine. The concepts are then assessed according to a valuation schedule in which the main factors are arranged and an engineering assessment is made of how well the different concepts satisfy these factors. From the valuation schedule the concepts obtain a score and the concept with the highest score wins.The winning concept was worked further on by developing a detailed layout using software Google Sketchup. Using the detailed layout a cost-estimation was made on the manufacturing equipment needed.

    The results of the study show that the gruel machine best is assembled together in a continuous production in form of a line layout. The assembly process is done by operators manually distributed among four stations equipped with materials via rack of items. Two of these layouts are required to meet the market demand at 20 000 gruel machines a year. An exact sizing of commodity and finished inventories could not be determined because of underdetermined suppliers and deliveries.

  • 47922.
    Östby Jansson, Freja
    Karlstad University.
    Att inte vilja riskera det riskfyllda: En kvalitativ studie om att arbeta med riskfyllda arbeten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47923.
    Östby Jansson, Freja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hur anställda inom den psykiatriska vården upplever sitt arbete och sin arbetssituation: En kvalitativ studie.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie är en kvalitativ studie om personer vilka arbetar inom psykiatrisk vård och deras upplevelse av sitt arbete och sin arbetssituation. För att undersöka detta har fyra personer vilka arbetar med psykiatrisk vård intervjuats i mellan 30 till 50 minuter. Det som sades under intervjuerna är materialet vilket studiens resultat baserats på.

            Materialet har bearbetats med hjälp av tematisk analys som genom en sexstegsprocess genererat fyra teman: brist på kommunikation och förståelse, ansvar och kompetens leder till känsla av meningsfullhet, tillfredsställelsen kring att ingen människa är den andra lik och vikten av att ha bra och goda relationer med kollegor.

            Slutsatser vilka är möjliga att dra utifrån studiens resultat är att det är påfrestande för personalen att arbeta och leva i tider av förändringar och ovisshet men att det är arbetet med människan som är det centrala kring att personer väljer att arbeta med detta. Det är också möjligt att förstå vikten av hur graden av kontroll spelar in på de anställda och deras mående samt hur socialt stöd i form av goda relationer med kollegor är avgörande för trivsel på arbetsplatsen och hur väl de anställda klarar av att hantera stress och svåra situationer.

  • 47924.
    Östensen, Anne-Christine
    Karlstad University.
    Meningsskapande möten i Bild: Elever och lärares väg till meningsskapande genom syliggörande interaktion2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47925. Östenson, Pia
    Läsutveckling2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47926. Östenson, Pia
    Läsutveckling2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47927. Östensson, Emil
    Konflikthantering inom skolan2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans värld figurerar människor i alla åldrar med olika bakgrunder, med skilda roller och uppgifter. Det uppstår ibland oförenligheter mellan dessa människor som kan leda till konflikter. Syftet med denna uppsats är att få en bild av hur konfliktsituationer inom skolan ser ut och hur man som lärare kan hantera olika typer av konflikter på bästa sätt. Till grund för min analys använder jag tre övergripande forskningsfrågor: Vilka konflikter finns i skolan? Hur hanterar man konflikter i skolan? Arbetar man förebyggande och i så fall hur? Underlaget för uppsatsen är hämtat från relevant litteratur och en gjord undersökning. I den gjorda undersökningen intervjuades åtta verksamma lärare från två olika skolor om deras syn och erfarenheter inom området. Genom att relatera undersökningens resultat med litteraturen utförs en analys, som resulterar i slutsatserna att: De allra vanligaste konflikterna är de på gruppnivå som uppstår elever sinsemellan. De vanligaste exemplen av dessa är baktaleri och skvaller, men det finns även andra konflikter på skolan mellan lärare- elev, lärare-lärare, föräldrar-lärare och slutligen lärare och skolledning. Konflikterna på skolan hanteras olika beroende på hur konflikten ser ut men ett aktivt lyssnande och god kommunikation är nyckelbegrepp i en konflikthantering. Det bedrivs ett förebyggande arbete på skolorna med bl.a. ett projekt om värdegrundsfrågor.

  • 47928. Östensson, Linda
    Att lära för livet eller plugga inför prov?2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här examensarbetet undersöks huruvida elever i gymnasieskolan pluggar in fakta till ett prov eller om de lär sig för en längre tidsperiod. Frågeställningen består av tre frågor: Hur väl minns en elev fakta om man jämför ett kortare och ett längre tidsperspektiv? Vilken fakta minns eleven bäst? Vilka elever presterar bäst efter en längre tidsperiod? Arbetet grundar sig delvis på litteraturstudier men framförallt på en kvantitativ undersökning. Litteraturstudien kommer i början av uppsatsen, i bakgrundsdelen, och handlar framförallt om hur människans minne fungerar. Dessutom tar arbetet upp vad som står i Lpf 94 om lärandet och de krav som gymnasieskolan bör ställa på eleven. Efter litteraturstudien redovisas de resultat som kom fram i undersökningen. Undersökningen grundar sig på tre frågor på Hinduism och Buddhism som ställdes till två olika klasser. Två frågor ställdes vi ett tillfälle. Fyra veckor senare ställdes samma frågor samt en ny fråga. I resultatdelen jämförs elevernas svar på de olika frågorna samt hur resultatet skiljde sig mellan de olika provtillfällena. Det görs även en jämförelse mellan de båda klasserna. I analysdelen förs en diskussion om varför resultatet blev som det blev och vad det innebär. Det konstateras att eleverna har glömt bort mycket fakta mellan första och andra tillfället. Det framkommer dock att den fakta de minns bäst är den som är mer övergripande. Det visar sig också att det generellt är så att de elever som lyckas bra efter en längre period även är de som lyckas bra ifrån början, vid första tillfället. Ord att söka på: Minne, minnas, reproducera, fakta, lärande, livslång lärande, gymnasieskola, gymnasieelev.

  • 47929. Östensson, Linda
    Barndopet i Svenska kyrkan - en kvalitativ studie av argument för och emot barndopet samt en diskussion om vem som har rätt till barndopet2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att föra en diskussion runt barndopet i Svenska kyrkan, inte att komma fram till något rätt eller fel. Motiveringar för och emot barndopet tas upp. Även frågan om huruvida ett barns föräldrar måste vara troende för att det ska få ta del av barndopet behandlas i uppsatsen. Det förs också en diskussion runt om man som förälder har rätt att fatta beslut om dop åt sitt barn. Uppsatsen grundar sig på litteraturstudier och kvalitativa undersökningar i form av djupintervjuer med sex prästvigda personer. I slutsatsen förs en sammanfattande diskussion med argument för och emot barndopet. Frågan om vem om har rätt till barndopet behandlas också.

  • 47930. Öster, Heidi
    Hembygden2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47931.
    Öster, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Wennbom, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Socialtjänst för utsatta barn: En kvalitativ studie om hur socialsekreterare upplever arbetetssituationen och hur den påverkar klientarbetet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of how social workers in their work with vulnerable children are related to the work situation and how the work situations affect client work. To conduct the study a qualitative method was used. In total five professional social workers who works with vulnerable children was interviewed. The analyze method in this study was content analysis. The theoretical perspective in this study is human service organizations and the demand and control model. The result in this study shows that it is high strain work situations that have an impact on client work. Social workers are heavily loaded in their work, there are gaps in support from managers and its hard keep experience staff and recruiting new staff with sufficient experience. The result shows lack of resources which leads to at risk that it is not enough staff to take care of serious notifications. The results shows that social workers work situation leads to difficulty in performing work of a high quality and those children are at risk of suffering during the waiting period.

  • 47932.
    Österback, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Varför individanpassas matematikundervisningen?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur och varför undervisningen i matematik egentligen individanpassas för elever i årskurs 1-3.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien gjordes för att ta reda på varför lärare gör individanpassningar i klassrummen och hur de gör dem. I studien intervjuades tio lärare i de lägre åldrarna för att få höra om deras syfte med att individanpassa undervisningen och hur de gjorde det. Resultatet visade att många anpassar för att skapa en bättre arbetsro i klassrummet men även för att eleverna ska få hjälp att nå sina mål och de uppsatta kunskapskraven.

  • 47933.
    Österberg, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    En studie om bilderbokens förändrande familj: En analys av tre bilderböcker om familjer och sociala skiktningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I have done a text analysis of three picture books aimed at children in pre-school age. The purpose is to investigate how social stratification are described in three Swedish picture books focusing on the family. In the analysis, I use the intersectional perspective, where you study and assume questions about power and inequalities between different groups in society based on sex, class, sexual orientation and age. The result of the analysis shows that families in picture books are shaped differently. The family no longer needs to be the classic family, in today's society, the family is changing. The result also shows how the picture book can be used as an educational tool. The picture book can help create a meeting place between the adults and the children to discuss differences in society and the conditions of others, to make everyone's equal worth visible.

  • 47934.
    Österberg, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    En Fairtrade city: Berättelsen om Munkfors2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 47935.
    Österberg, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Samverkan, det kan betyda så mycket: En studie om ett projekt i Klarälvens samordningsförbund2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar finansiell samordning ur ett samverkansperspektiv. Finansiell samordning går ut på att landstinget, försäkringskassan, arbetsförmedlingen och kommunen lägger samman pengar i ett förbund. Detta förbund förkortas Finsam. Målet med sammanläggningen är att uppnå ett mera effektivt sätt att använda resurserna, samt att det ska bli lättare att samverka för människor som är i behov av insatser från mer än en myndighet. Förbundet ska underlätta samverkan och leda till att myndigheterna på längre sikt kan komma fram till bättre metoder att hantera sina klienter. Effektivare metoder på ett sådant sätt att antalet personer som hamnar mellan stolarna och bara slussas runt i systemet kan minimeras.

    Två värmländska kommuner har gått samman och startat ett sådant förbund år 2007, Forshaga och Munkfors. Förbundet heter Klarälvens samordningsförbund och det är med utgångspunkt där som uppsatsen är skriven. Förbundet är nytt och de har under senare halvan av år 2007 påbörjat sitt första projekt, projektet de kallar Dirigo. Projektet är till för individer i behov av insatser från fler än en myndighet. Det är personer som har arbetat i projektet som har varit en källa till information i den här uppsatsen. En del av syftet med uppsatsen är att placera Finsam och Dirigo på en kartbild över samverkan, finna vilka typer av samverkan som kan sammankopplas med förbundets sätt att arbeta och hur man arbetar i projektet. Den andra delen av syftet är att få fram hur arbetet har gått till mera konkret i projektet; vad har varit coachernas roll i projektet. De är anställda för att driva verksamheten med deltagarna. Det jag vill besvara är vad deras roll har varit i projektet i förhållande till samverkan mellan de inblandade aktörerna. Det jag kommer fram till är att de har haft en mera extensiv roll än coacher, när man ser till samverkan. de har fungerat både som projektledare och haft en roll som länk och tolk mellan myndigheter och deltagare i projektet.

    Metoden i uppsatsen är kvalitativ. Jag har intervjuat handläggare och representanter för de olika myndigheterna som är representerade i samordningsförbundet, samt en av coacherna anställd i projektjet. Ett av resultaten jag har fått fram i undersökningen är att Dirigo i många avseenden inte är i behov av samverkan för att fungera. Det är ett samverkansprojekt, men coacherna fungerar som en buffert för samverkan. Så länge coacherna driver projektet behöver inte handläggarna på de olika myndigheterna komma överens och samarbeta. Det är dock viktigt att ha i åtanke att uppsatsen är skriven under projektets gång; efter avslutat projekt skulle intervjusvaren och därmed analysen kunna se mycket annorlunda ut.

  • 47936. Österberg, Ingrid
    Medier, journalistik och demokrati2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 47937.
    Österberg, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gymnasieelevers relation till fysik: En kvalitativ studie berörande intresse, motivation och attityder inom fysikundervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that students’ interest in physics has been reduced over the last decades, both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this study is to examine students’ relationship with physics and thus investigate how the physics education in upper secondary school could improve.

    Qualitative interviews were used as research method. The results indicate that students find the physics courses interesting, and that they generally have a positive attitude towards the subject. Nevertheless, they find the education hard and stressful. Furthermore, the study shows that the teachers have a great impact on students’ interests and attitudes. The students have difficulties seeing the relevance of the course and they request more connections to their everyday life, new technology and society. The students appreciate associations to media and enjoy both observing and practicing experiments. The study indicates that stereotypical prejudices, such as social awkwardness, exist about people who are devoted to their studies. However, the informants consider it admirable to be successful within the area of physics. Having a profession related to physics is associated with high status, intelligence and a high income.

    In conclusion, the education needs to be changed and adapted in order to stimulate students’ interests since students' interests and experiences have changed during the recent decades. Interest has an effect on motivation, and thus affects students' performance and future career choices.

  • 47938. Österberg, Joel
    Kylprocessens påverkan på träbränslepelletsens hållfasthet samt hårdhet: En studie av hur bäddhöjd och luftflöden påverkar pelletskvalitén2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47939. Österberg, Joel
    Kylprocessens påverkan på träbränslepelletsens hållfasthet samt hårdhet: En studie av hur bäddhöjd och luftflöden påverkar pelletskvalitén2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47940. Österberg, Johan
    En prognostisk valideringsstudie av de psykologiska mönstringsvariablerna till värnpliktstjänstgöring2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 47941.
    Österberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    We want you as our new recruit: Prerequisites for recruitment to and retention in the Swedish Armed Forces2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the prerequisites for the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) in order to recruit sufficient numbers of suitable individuals to the organization, and to retain those within the organization.

    The thesis comprises three studies (Study 1-3) where Study One comprises data gathered, with a longitudinal design, when Sweden relied on conscription for the manning of the Armed Forces. Results show that those wanting to do international military service assessed themselves higher for required qualities than those individuals not volunteering for international military service. Study Two shows that job satisfaction, according to Hackman and Oldham´s Job satisfaction model, is higher when job characteristics are good, and they in turn affect the Critical Psychological States, as proposed by Hackman and Oldham. Study Three indicates that there is a relation between performance orientation, job characteristics, job satisfaction and retention. In sum, this thesis suggests that there are different incentives for recruiting and retaining personnel to a conscripted force, and an all-volunteer force. Furthermore, the thesis indicates that an all-volunteer force concept is not the best way of manning the armed forces, for Sweden and countries with similar society, size and likewise a critical geopolitical position.

  • 47942.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Rydstedt, L W
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kleiven, J
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Fors Brandebo, M
    Swedish Defence University (SEDU), Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Path to Job Satisfaction: Applying the Theory of Purposeful Behavior to Military Conditions2017In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand,personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction andturnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using aquestionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables.Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

  • 47943.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Rydstedt, Leif
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Job satisfaction among Swedish soldiers: Applying the Job Characteristics Model to newly recruited military personnel2018In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A professional military organization was introduced in Sweden in 2010. This means that the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) need to attract and employ soldiers, and to retain them within the organization. This scenario creates new types of challenges in manning the organization. The transition to an all-volunteer force puts job satisfaction in focus in order to retain personnel. This cross-sectional study of the relations between working conditions and job involvement among 300 recently employed soldiers showed that the dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model related significantly to job satisfaction and work motivation and (negatively) to turnover intentions from the SAF. The results further showed that all the critical psychological states contributed independently to the variance in the outcome variables.

  • 47944.
    Österberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    IKT spelar roll: Hur vuxna med en intellektuell funktionsnedsättning använder IKT ur ett empowermentperspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how a sample of adults with an intellectual disability uses information and communication technologies (ICT), and to see whether these people can be strengthened in their everyday life through ICT.

    To get answers to the questions posed in this paper interviews were made. The interviews are semi-structured so that the context to some extent is bounded. Questions which highlights the more widely aspects of ICT are set with the help of subject areas.

    The results show that these people in many ways are strengthened in their use of ICT. There's perceived difficulties in the usage, but there are mainly opportunities expressed in the narratives. For example, one person uses ICT to bridge the problems that arise when difficulties to read and write exists. The social aspects of ICT is mentioned as important in this study by most informants.

  • 47945. Österberg, Malin
    Trafficking inom den Europeiska Unionen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47946.
    Österberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Miljöundervisning i Dharamsala2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years, enviromental issues has been higly topical and everyone is involved in the end. To raise children into citizents who cares abuot the enviroment, the education has to start in the early years of school. The purpose of the examination is to investigate how the eniviromental education looks in a village called Dharamsala in northern India.

    Intervjues has ben done with three teachers working in different schools and one teacherstudent. I´ve also intervjued one tibetan munk whoes ben working as teacher and director. I´ve also studied a societyorgan that have a close realationship with most schools in the area. Observations has also ben used in the studie. The result did´t show any big difference between the schools enviromental education.

    All schools that have ben studied is working with enviromental questions, in the lower classes they mix it in with other. Everyone in the studie thinks that it´s very important to work with enviroment in the school to rase responsebible citizens.

  • 47947. Österberg, Marie
    Adam och Eva eller en bakterie? - vilket är vårt ursprung2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47948.
    Österberg, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    "Jag vill lära mig när det är intressant": Några elever i behov av stöd i sitt språk- läs- och skrivlärande beskriver motivation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how students in need of support in their language- reading and writing learning describe motivation. The intentions are to investigate how students in need of support in their language-reading and writing learning describe motivation and how students in need of support in their language-reading and writing learning describe motivational education. This is a qualitative study based on 6 interviews. The student interviews are conducted on students between 10-12 years and the selection criteria are primarily that all informants are in need of support in their language-reading and writing learning. The result shows that the informants' descriptions of motivation and motivational education were pupil-oriented, meaning that the informants gave concrete examples of what motivated them, here and now. Furthermore, the conclusion that the social relations of the informants are of great importance in motivational work, which means that the students' social relations play a major role in the work of raising the students' inner motivation. This is in line with the theoretical starting point of this study, the sociocultural perspective, which means that the social context and language is one of our most important tools for developing our thinking and creating new knowledge. In the results the informants said that communication, support or scaffolding, from the teacher is crucial for motivation, which is also one of the school's main tasks.

  • 47949.
    Österdahl, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Barns utforskande av fysikaliska fenomen på kullar: En design-baserad studie om barns utforskande av friktion.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to provide knowledge about how children explore, understand and reason about the physical phenomenon of friction. This study have been based on the younger children’s exploring. The method of the study has been observation in order to get as close to the environment that’s being investigated and to bring attention to the younger children’s actions. A nonparticipating observation was also used for the observer to influence the children as little as possible. The observations that have been made have taken place over two days and have been video recorded to ensure documentation of children's reasoning, body language and actions. The result shows how the children focused on overcoming the friction to get an object to slide instead of getting stuck. The participants’ interaction also emerged in the result as central to driving the exploration further. The conclusions drawn after the study is that the result can be linked to the preschool’s curriculum, which addresses the fact that the children should be given the opportunity to explore, discuss and develop understanding of physical phenomena. The study has also highlighted that hills can be used as a tool for teaching and exploring the phenomenon of friction.

  • 47950.
    Österdahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hendo, Ilias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Themes in Totara: Creating and cloning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give the reader an insight into the graphical interface of a Learning Management system, the theme, how it functions and its importance. The main point is how the creation of new themes can be done, and two different approaches are examined and compared.The use of learning management systems have been growing rapidly over the past years. Modern learning, be it basic school, higher education or professional training, is almost always supported by some learning management system where both instructors and participators share learning material, assignments, discussion, among other things.The theme of a learning management system is of great importance and can have a substantial impact on the efficiency of the actual learning process. Themes might also differ in their purpose, thus depending on the target audience, creating a specific theme might be desirable.The work done in this paper examines the structure and function of themes in the web based Totara learning management system, and looks at two different approaches to creating new themes. These approaches involve creating something from scratch, and cloning an already existing theme.The conclusion drawn from the work done in this paper is that the most efficient way of creating a new theme, is through cloning an already existing theme. Only when time and experience is plentiful, and a full control over the theme structure is desirable, is creating a theme from scratch a viable option.

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