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  • 47901. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    “To catch sight of her and then again to lose her” - trickster behaviur in Virgina Woolfs Orlando2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several of the characters in Virginia Woolf’s Orlando have traits that resembles those of a classical female folk-tale trickster, who exposes hypocrisies and stupidities in the patriarchal society and introduces new ways of thinking. My aim is mainly to explore how the narrator in Orlando, but also some of the characters in the novel, can be said to function as tricksters. Additionally, my intention is to investigate the motivations behind the use of trickster attributes. The novel gives us an opportunity to explore different structures, both literary ones, in this case biography writing, and social ones. The psychological and social issues connected with gender are foregrounded and examined when Orlando changes from man to woman. Orlando’s shape-shifting gives us the opportunity to study the tricks, masks and disguises women hide behind in order to please, use or transform men; to be able to have more power over their own lives. The way the narrator displays multiple view-points can help the reader to break free from ”habits of thinking” and critically examine the expected roles of men and women. By violating the norms of society the characters are in a position to define new rules for themselves, and create a space where they can live a less restricted life. In my opinion, the novel suggests that any woman – or man – who wants to break out of the patriarchal society’s confining structures seems to be forced to become a trickster.

  • 47902. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Zum schwedischen Dialekt Malungsmål und dessen Beziehungen zur deutschen Sprache2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker samband och likheter, primärt grammatiska sådana, mellan det tyska språket och malungsmål, en svensk dialekt från Dalarna. Uppsatsen ger först en kort översikt över teorier om hur dialekter i både Tyskland och Sverige förändras grammatiskt och ger sedan en mer detaljerad bild av dialekten malungsmål. Denna bild bygger bland annat på den grammatiska kartläggning dialektforskare som Lars Levander och Ola Bannbers gjorde av dialekter i Dalarna under tidigt 1920-tal. I februari 2001 gjordes fem korta intervjuer av lärare och studenter vid Västerdalarnas gymnasieskola i Malung och en enkätundersökning där totalt 166 svar inkom. Både intervjuer och enkätundersökning visade på en tendens att det är en fördel att utgå från sina eventuella kunskaper om dialekten vid inlärning av tyska eftersom det, som intervjuer, enkätundersökning och speciellt den grammatiska översikten visar, finns många likheter, i synnerhet strukturella sådana, mellan tysk grammatik och malungsmålets grammatik. Uppsatsen avslutas med en önskan om att lärare i Malung ska dra fördel av dessa likheter och dra paralleller mellan dialekten och tyskan i sin undervisning, eftersom detta kan ge ytterligare infallsvinklar som kan tydliggöra och underlätta språkinlärning.

  • 47903. Wåhlén, Christina
    Rollen som brandman - förväntningar, erfarenheter och "hjälten"2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 47904. Wåhlén, Christina
    Åklagares handläggning av förundersökningsprotokoll av våld mot kvinnor2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 47905.
    Wålberg, Mads
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Självbestämmande teori och redskapsgymnastik: Kan autonomi-stödjande miljöer i idrott och hälsa öka elevers inre motivation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working with students in Physical Education has been through a change because of, according to research, indications that young people aren´t involved in physical activities as much as in the past. This means that the educational planning should adapt to the teaching to fit as many pupils as possible free of the cognitive and physical conditions. The purpose of this study is to examine how an SDT (Self-Determination Theory)-based intervention affect students ' motivation in gymnastics. The study aims to see how an experimental intervention affects a class in comparison with another more controlled gymnastics-lesson. In order to reach the result the study has used questionnaires before and after the intervention. The result of this shows little difference in motivation changes between the groups, but the study is sharing light upon other perspectives on how to consider the objectives and issues. These differences are discussed and conclude that the study opens up new discussions and potentially new ideas by implementing of SDT pedagogically and didactically as well as suggestions for further research that can provide further proof of the SDT as a motivational approach within other areas in Physical Education.

  • 47906.
    Wålberg, Tommy Sorknes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Tellfors, Gwendolyn
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    ScanAuto: 15 - minuters service, ett nytt koncept!2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 47907. Wålfors, Carl
    1770-talets fria marknad: En skildring om finansminister Johan Liljencrantz frisläppande av spannmålshandeln 1775 och 17802018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this essay is to research the ideological motives behind the extrication of the grain trade in 1775 and 1780. To do this research I have to see the Swedish state and farmers economic situation before 1775 and after 1775, but also what time Liljencrantz lived in and how relevant the time was to the reform. The starting point for this essay is using the functionalism analysis with action axiom of praxeology in mind to see the relationship between the state and the individual.

       During the early 18th century, Sweden had a mercantile system where the industry had to be protected with high tariffs and a strong nobility owning them. During the enlightenment thinkers like Adam Smith, Anders Chydenius and to some extent physiocrats sought a society with free market that would have the result of more wealth, to the nation as well as to the citizen. The result of this essay is that Liljencrantz reform were the causes of his time and political view, the time of enlightenment and physiocracy to make the farmer more free and prosperous. It was also the start of the more liberal economy that would dominate the Swedish society in the 1800 hundreds.

  • 47908. Wålfors, Carl
    Civilsamhällets inverkan på välfärden: En kvalitativ studie om Esping- Andersens svenska socialdemokratiska välfärdsmodell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gösta Esping- Andersen released his book The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990. In it he described Sweden as beeing a social democratic welfare society. At the same time, the country was in a financial decline and the government had to privatize public utilities in order to stabilaze the economy. The government had to change the way it governed. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the impact of civil societies social institutions and the relationship between theese organisations and the state. To fullfill this purpose this study has two questions at its disposal; Has the demand for the work of the Salvation Army developed over time? How can this be related to a change in the state's welfare model?   

    This study uses a qualitative systematic text analysis to examine documents from the swedish governmental inquiries and the Salvation Army. In addition to that, this essay uses the public governance- perspective as a theory.     

    The result is that the Salvation Armys demand, in case of revenue, has steadliy increades since the early 2000s. Their social institutions is a somewhat of a complement to the governmental ones, especilly in the case of providing shelter for the homeless. The conclusion is therefore that the swedish social democratic welfare state has shown more liberal tendencies which is consistent with other research examining different types of organisations in the civil society.   

  • 47909. Wålfors, Carl
    Doktor Hellers öde: En studie i rättegången i maj 1945 avseende misstanke om tyskt spionage i Värmlands gränstrakter2017Student paper second term, 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47910. Wålfors, Carl
    "Jordbruket är inte vilken industri som helst": Centerpartiets krispaket till lantbruket 20182019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47911.
    Wållberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    A summery in English of the master thesis: The influence of the accounting law: An evaluation of the annual reports among non-profit associations2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have in this master thesis chosen to evaluate limit us to the non-profit fundraising associations. The evaluation is based on what Vedung(1998) the side-effect model, where we have the purposes of the law as the point of departure, to see that these law purposes are fulfilled. With this model we have also seen if there are any side-effects that were not foreseen.

    In the analysis we have compared the non-profit associations’ annual reports with each other and with one profit making limited company. The evaluation shows that the annual reports are now more alike than before, both between each other and with the profit making limited company. However there is still room for the associations to use the annual report in a marketing-oriented way, to “sell” themselves to the stakeholders. Before 2001 it was almost impossible to compare the non-profit associations’ annual reports. The profit making limited companies annual reports are much more focused on numbers, this probably has to do with that the stakeholders’ wishes return on investment. A donor to a non-profit association rather wants to know that his/her money have done someone’s life to the better.

    Our conclusions in this master thesis are that the new accounting law have affected the non-profit associations’ annual reports, this when they now are obligated to form its accounting according to ÅRL. But in the same time we also believe that the law not only has affected how the annual reports are formed. The expectations from the stakeholders, the accountants etc. also forms how they arrange the annual report, have also been affected. If any side effects that have arisen since the law changed among the non-profit associations’ annual reports are not easy to find. This is because it is still differences between a profit making limited company and a non-profit association, but they are now under the same annual report rules.

  • 47912. Wånggren, Maria
    Lärares konflikthantering bland elever - en studie i en sydafrikansk kåkstadsskola2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen handlar om hur vi som lärare ska få eleverna trygga i skolan. Mitt syfte med studien är att lära mig hur jag kan arbeta förebyggande så att min klass blir en samspelt grupp där man visar varandra respekt, är vänner och kan lösa konflikter på ett konstruktivt sätt. Resultatet har nåtts bl.a. genom intervjuer med lärare på en Sydafrikansk kåkstadsskola. Hur löser de sina konflikter, som har dubbelt elevantal och helt andra förutsättningar mot vad vi har i Sverige? Jag intervjuade 5 lärare, var och en enskilt, på engelska under min praktik i Sydafrika. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att de genom samtal med sina elever försöker att öka sammanhållningen och gruppkänslan i klassen. Dessa samtal handlar om hur värdefull var och en av oss människor är och också om hur vi ska vara rädda om varandra. De poängterar att man ska behandla andra som man vill bli behandlad själv. De talar med eleverna om att när de är i skolan är det klassen som är deras familj och därmed ska de dela med sig. Att få elever som inte är trygga i sig själva att känna sig trygga i grupp är svårt. Lärarna poängterar att många elever kommer från en så otrygg hemmiljö att det kan vara mycket svårt att få dem att känna sig trygga i grupp. En av lärarna nämner dock att just p.g.a. den otrygga hemmiljön väljer många barn att se klassen som sin familj, vilket de menar skapar en bra gruppkänsla.

  • 47913. Wöhrer, Erwin
    Measuring progress in written English2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to measure progress in written English by means of an error analysis. The analysis was applied to texts produced by three different age groups and the errors found in the different error categories were used as a yardstick in the comparison of the age groups. The corpus of this study consisted of 36 compositions written by pupils in grade nine of the compulsory school and in grade one and two of the Swedish ‘gymnasium’. The major part of the study dealt with the analysis of errors in the areas of grammar, vocabulary and orthography. The results show that the percentage of orthographical errors was almost the same in all three grades. Within the group of grammatical errors there was no clear tendency found. The category of lexical errors showed a clear improvement from grade 9 through 10 while a remarkable increase of errors was found in grade 11. The study shows also that pupils make a greater improvement from grade 9 through 10 than from grade 10 through 11 with respect to the length of the compositions and the number of errors.

  • 47914. Wündsch, Estrella
    Stödundervisning - en studie i skolår 52004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt intresse av och min nyfikenhet på den så kallade stödundervisningen i skolan gjorde att jag började fundera på ämnet. I mitt arbete undersöker jag hur skolan hjälper elever som inte klarade av de nationella ämnesproven i årskurs fem. Styrdokumenten lägger ett stort ansvar på skolan för dessa elever. Arbetets huvudsyfte var att kartlägga och utvärdera det särskilda stöd som skolan, enligt styrdokumenten, skall ge till dessa elever som inte blev godkända på de nationella ämnesproven i årskurs fem. Det var viktigt att få veta hur eleverna upplever problemet och också att fråga deras föräldrar om deras uppfattning. Jag har valt forskningsintervju och enkät som metod. Forskningsintervju visar sig vara den mest rekommenderade metoden när det gäller kvalitativ forskning och enkäten fungerar bra som ett komplement till arbetet som har att göra med föräldrarna. Arbetet gjordes i en skola i Mellansverige. Föräldrarna gav mig tillåtelse att intervjua deras barn. Alla data analyserades och som resultat fick jag veta att det finns stor vilja att ge eleverna mer och bättre stödundervisning, men pengarna räcker inte alltid för att göra så. Skolpersonalen arbetar aktivt för att göra vad lagen säger. Det kanske är så att stödundervisning borde ses som ett sätt att förebygga problem. För att göra det behövs mer personal eller färre elever i varje klass.

  • 47915. Wündsch, Estrella
    et al.
    Urzua del Pozo, Cynthia
    El castellano de la Edad Media en la novela La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 47916.
    Wüpper, Lara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Mitt ansvar, andras ansvar eller vårt ansvar: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas resonemang kring kriser och sin egna krisberedskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen är syftet att studera hur unga vuxna, i åldern 20 till 35, resonerar kring kriser och sin egna krisberedskap samt hur deras resonemang kan förstås. I urvalet för studien har syftet varit att intervjua både kvinnor och män som är bosatta antingen i en stad eller utanför en stad, mer definierat stadsområde eller landsbygd. Urvalet har gjorts för att kunna se eventuella skillnader beroende på geografiskt placerad bostadsplats eller beroende på kön. Empirin för studier har samlats in genom tio strukturerade intervjuer baserade på fyra teman: bakgrundsfrågor, krissituationer, upplevt ansvar och syn på framtiden. I det analytiska arbetet framkom tre teman och ett av dessa var att några av informanterna visade ett mycket engagerat förhållningssätt till krisberedskap, vilket visade sig genom att de antingen var pålästa, hade förberett en plan eller att de hade materiella saker hemma, eller alla tre delar. Ett andra tema var att några av informanterna visade på ett minimalt engagerat förhållningssätt till krisberedskap, vilket visade sig genom att det inte hade varken tänkt på det eller förberett sig. Ytterligare ett tema som framkom var att några av informanterna visade på en vilja att hjälpa till vid händelse av en kris. Studien har visat att personerna som deltagit resonerar på olika sätt kring kriser och krisberedskap; antingen anser de att det är deras egna ansvar, antingen så anser de att det är någon annans ansvar eller så anser de att det finns ett gemensamt ansvar. Resultatet har analyserats med tillit och det imaginära som teoretiska utgångspunkter, där det har visat sig att informanternas erfarenheter påverkar vilka intressen och värderingar som de har idag.  

  • 47917.
    Xiang, Zhengzhe
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Deng, Shuiguang
    Zhejiang University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zomaya, Albert
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Dynamical Service Deployment and Replacement in Resource-Constrained Edges2019In: Mobile Networks and Applications , ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of mobile computing technology, more and more complex tasks are now able to be fulfilled on users’ mobile devices with an increasing number of novel services. However, the development of mobile computing is limited by the latency brought by unstable wireless network and the computation failure caused by the constrained resources of mobile devices. Therefore, people turn to establish a service provisioning system based on mobile edge computing (MEC) model to solve this problem. With the help of services deployed on edge servers, the latency can be reduced and the computation can be offloaded. Though the edge servers have more available resources than mobile devices, they are still resource-constrained, so they must carefully choose the services for deployment. In this paper, we focus on improving performance of the service provisioning system by deploying and replacing services on edge servers. Firstly, we design and implement a prototype of service provisioning system that simulates the behaviors between users and servers. Secondly, we propose an approach to deploy services on edge servers before the launching of these servers, and propose an approach to replace services on edge servers dynamically. Finally, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of our approaches. The result shows that our approach can improve the performance of service provisioning systems.

  • 47918.
    Xing, Hong
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Service Innovation in Hotel Industry: Case Study of InfoQuest2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being developed for centuries, Hotel Industry has been in its maturity period for a long time. Confronted with fierce competition and the current global economic crisis, it becomes a hot topic in Hotel Industry how to maintain and raise revenues. By shifting focus from ‘Goods-Dominant Logic’ to ‘Service-Dominant Logic’, Service Science presents a new perspective on value creation and service experience. In this new perspective, value is co-created by various roles, experienced and evaluated by customers. However, the problem is how to implement theories in a specific industry. Focusing on hotel industry, this paper aims to illustrate how service evolves with the development of technology and theory based on the case study of InfoQuest, which is an IT company mainly providing SaberKnot. InfoQuest redefines several economic roles (hotels, IT system provider, local businesses and customers) and relationships among them (from a linear model to a netlike model) where it injects Hotel Industry with new vitality. Both competitive advantages and potential problems that might arise from the service innovation are subsequently discussed. At last, a further analysis is made on the China market in order to show the possibility of that business entering into China.

  • 47919.
    Xinzhu, Jin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Channel Estimation Techniques of SC-FDMA2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This master thesis investigates several di®erent channel estimation techniques in an SC-

    FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) system with parameters set

    according to the standards of 3GPP LTE (3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term

    Evolution). 3GPP LTE is the name given to a project within the 3GPP to improve the

    mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. In this thesis, we ¯rst introduce

    the SC-FDMA system, which is a transmission technique that utilizes single carrier mod-

    ulation, then ¯ve types of estimators are investigated. Essential to all channel estimatiors

    is the use of pilot symbols. In the last part we compare the performance of the channel

    estimation techniques with each other in di®erent environments by analysing their symbol

    error rates. All simulations are done in a Matlab environment.

  • 47920.
    Xoljé, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Innovation inom outsourcing av IT: En kvalitativ studie utifrån leverantörens möjligheter att bidra2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-branschen är en av de marknader som konstant växer och krav på nya uppfinningar och innovationer är höga. Outsourcing har under en längre tid används av IT-företag för att kunna reducera kostnader för produktion och utveckling. Outsourcing är även ett bra alternativ för att erhålla expertis inom ett visst område där företag saknar erfarenhet eller resurser. Innovation är en del av företags utveckling och när hela eller delar av företagens IT-avdelningar blir outsourcade är det naturligt att även tillhörande delar av innovationsprocessen har förflyttats. Leverantören är den part som i praktiken utvecklar innovationen i outsourcingavtalet. Leverantörerna får en strikt budget och tidsram från kunden att följa för varje projekt. Innovation är kreativt, föränderligt och levande. Dessutom är innovation dyrt. Helt motsägelsefullt mot outsourcing. Leverantörer har en svår uppgift i att arbeta utifrån kundens krav och samtidigt försöka realisera innovationer. Syftet med studien är att undersöka på vilket sätt leverantörer bidrar med innovation inom outsourcing av IT.Studien har utförts med en kvalitativ fallstudiemetod. Intervjuer har genomförts med fyra olika respondenter på ett stort IT-företag som nästan helt uteslutande arbetar med outsourcing. Den största nackdelen med outsourcing är de stora kraven på kostnadsbesparing, den har en negativ inverkan på innovationen. Alla respondenter har uttryckt att de som leverantör har möjlighet att bidra med innovation men att kostnadsbesparingarna kan göra utrymmet för innovation begränsat i vissa fall. Övergången till det agila arbetssättet har hjälpt till att främja innovationsförmågan hos leverantören.

  • 47921.
    Xu, Cathrine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Liv mellan himmel och jord: Barns tankar om livet, döden och livets uppkomst2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to make children’s thoughts about life, death and their concept of origin of life visible. Through a combined biological- and philosophical perspective my aim is to make children’s diversity of thoughts visual. My chosen method for my study is semi-structured interviews integrated with drawings with children between 5-7 years old. In the result of the study children´s different way of understanding and expressing their thoughts about life become visible. The result also shows children’s different concept about origin of life connected to a naturalistic-, an evolutionary -and a creationist theory. I noticed a great curiosity and engagement from the participating children and a distinct commitment to reflect over given topics. The collected data gave a clear illustration of children’s different kind of thoughts of being alive, life and death and their understanding of origin of life.

  • 47922.
    Xu, Damiao
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Yang, Duo
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives on University Students' Buying Behavior2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47923. Xu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Yang, Qing
    Qian, Xuhong
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University.
    Janson, Jan-Christer
    Uppsala University.
    Assessment of 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride reductase activity in homogenates of bakers’ yeast by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography2007In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 847, no 2, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47924.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Marshall, Roger
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Show you care: initiating co-creation in service recovery2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying mechanism of customer co-creation in service recovery (co-recovery), and investigates the impact of initiation on customer post-recovery evaluations and behavioural intentions.

    Design/methodology/approach – Researchers used a 3 (no co-recovery vs employee-initiated co-recovery vs customer-initiated co-recovery)×2 (male vs female)×2 (western vs eastern customers) between-subject experiential study in a hotel setting.

    Findings – When a service employee initiates a co-recovery, customers perceive higher justice, greater satisfaction and a higher tendency to repurchase in the future. But if the customer initiates such a co-recovery, little improvement on these outcomes is found compared to a recovery entirely managed by the company. The effect was moderated by culture: western customers were more sensitive to initiation in the co-recovery process than eastern customers.

    Research limitations/implications – Written scenarios using a hotel setting and a technical error were used, and may reduce the applicability of the findings to real life or other service categories or types of error. Subjects used may not be representative of other population groups. Further studies using real life situations, human error and a more diverse population group are recommended.

    Practical implications – A positive co-recovery can be achieved by service employees taking initiatives when a problem occurs.

    Originality/value – This study extends previous research on co-recovery by investigating the effect of initiation by service employees on customers’ perception of co-creation. Service companies can improve customers’ post-recovery evaluations by inviting them to co-create a feasible solution, and potentially reduce the company's compensation costs.

  • 47925.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland university, New Zealand.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Hedmark university college.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Recovering service failure through resource integration2014In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 16, p. 1259-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customers and employees can co-create a resolution following a service failure through integrating their resources. Their activities and interactions during resource-integration shape the customers' service recovery experiences. Prior research overlooks resource integration between all involved actors in a co-created service recovery process. This research details the process with two empirical studies. Study 1 is a qualitative analysis of narratives of service recovery experiences; Study 2 is a quantitative assessment of scenario-based survey data. The results show that a favourable service recovery experience is resulted from integrating all involved actors' resources in a mutually beneficial manner. Three key resources are financial compensation, service skills including communication and timing. Our findings indicate that co-created service recovery fails in the absence of just one resource or mismatches in their integration. The combined studies reveal that customers use their justice perceptions to assess activities and interactions for resource integration in service recovery.

  • 47926. Yadoitsev, Igor
    et al.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, Ina
    Hierarchical design principles of selective laser melting for high quality metallic objects2015In: Additive manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 7, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47927. Yadroitsev, I
    et al.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, I
    Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: Temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution2014In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 583, p. 404-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47928.
    Yadroitsev, I.
    et al.
    Cent Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Yadroitsava, I.
    Cent Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa.
    Du Plessis, A.
    Univ Stellenbosch, CT Scanner Facil, ZA-7602 Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Qualification of Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for Biomedical Applications2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 372-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rectangular Ti6Al4V extralow interstitials (ELI) samples were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in vertical and horizontal orientations relative to the build platform and subjected to various heat treatments. Detailed analyses of porosity, microstructure, residual stress, tensile properties, fatigue, and fracture surfaces were performed based on x-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The types of fracture and the tensile fracture mechanisms of the LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were also studied. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties were compared against standard specifications for conventional Ti6Al4V alloy for use in surgical implant applications. Conclusions regarding the mechanical properties and heat treatment of LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI for biomedical applications are made.

  • 47929.
    Yadroitsev, I
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, I
    Université de , France.
    Johansson, S
    Linköpings universitet.
    Smurov, I
    Université de Lyon.
    Energy input effect on morphology and microstructure of selective laser melting single track from metallic powder2013In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 213, no 4, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47930.
    Yadroitsev, Igor
    et al.
    South Africa.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Yadroitsava, I.
    South Africa.
    A systematic approach to manufacturing parts with desired properties by selective laser melting2015In: Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition 2015, MS and T 2015, Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is becoming a powerful additive manufacturing technology for different industries: automotive, medical, chemical, aerospace, etc. The extension of applications requires a wide spectrum of powder materials with specific properties. To produce parts with tailored properties by SLM, optimal process-parameters and scanning strategies have to be used for different powders. Numerical simulation allows the estimation of temperature distribution during laser melting and prediction the final microstructures and properties of SLM object. A hierarchical approach, including systematic analysis of SLM parameters necessary to control the final product quality on every level - track, layer, 3D object is suggested and discussed. A series of single tracks, layers and 3D objects were manufactured from metal powders to validate a proposed algorithm. The efficiency of the approach was illustrated by the manufacturing of fully dense samples from AISI 420 stainless steel.

  • 47931. Yadroitsev, Igov
    et al.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Yadroitsava, Inna
    Titanium Alloys Manufactured by In Situ Alloying During Laser Powder Bed Fusion2017In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2725-2730Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47932.
    Yadroitsev, Igov
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Yadroitsava, Inna
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa.
    Du Plessis, Anton
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Qualification of DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI) alloy for biomedical applications2017In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freedom Fabrication symposium – an Additive Manufacturing conference 2017 / [ed] David L. Bourell, Richard H. Crawford, Carolyn C. Seepersad, Joseph J. Beaman & Scott Fish, Austin: University of Texas , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47933.
    Yafele, Anki
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Musik, förändring och framtidsdrömmar: En kvalitativ studie av det sydafrikanska musikutbildningsprojektet, Acess Music Project2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an examination of how a music education that is run by a NGO, Non Governmental Organisation, in South Africa works. The organisation Arkwork for Art NPC, and their artistic programme Access Music Project, AMP, based in Grahamstown in Eastern Cape province, works as an case study. This study shows what different opportunities and challenges are of the work with the project and describes who the young participants enrolled in the project are and how they experience the music education. Further more this work explore the relationship between music education and social justice.

    Information was gathered through qualitative semi-structured interviews with the participants and project founder and leadership of the project. Partly information also was gathered through unstructured observations. The result shows that Arkwork for Art is filling an important gap where the government lack resources to offer music education for youth in marginalised communities. The organisation struggle with many things, most difficult for them is to get stable funding. AMP have many big future plans and want for instance to change the curriculum of music education in the future. My examination shows that the participants are very satisfied to be a part of AMP and that the project has an important role in their lifes and the community where they are based.

  • 47934.
    Yaghoubi, Saba Tahaei
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Aalto University, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Size effects on centrosymmetric anisotropic shear deformable beam structures2017In: Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, ISSN 0044-2267, E-ISSN 1521-4001, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 586-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the size effect on beam structures with centrosymmetric anisotropy is studied within strain gradient elasticity theory. Applying dimension reduction to the three dimensional anisotropic gradient elasticity, the third-order shear deformable (TSD) beam is analysed. A variational approach is used to determine the equilibrium equations of TSD beam together with consistent (classical and non-classical) boundary conditions. The TSD beam theory which is suitable for deep beam structures can be replaced by (less complicated) Euler-Bernoulli beam model for thin beam structures. The anisotropic Euler-Bernoulli beam model is also formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory. This anisotropic beam theory can be used to study size effects for any types of centrosymmetric anisotropy. To address the more practical cases of composite structures, the formulation is simplified for orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials. Finally, the analytical solutions are provided for bending of simply supported (TSD and Euler-Bernoulli) beams as well as clamped Euler-Bernoulli beams. The effect of the crystal orientation with respect to the beam geometry is investigated in these examples.

  • 47935.
    Yaghoubi, Saba Tahaei
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Strain and velocity gradient theory for higher-order shear deformable beams2015In: Archive of applied mechanics (1991), ISSN 0939-1533, E-ISSN 1432-0681, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 877-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strain and velocity gradient framework is formulated for the third-order shear deformable beam theory. A variational approach is applied to determine the governing equations together with initial and boundary conditions. Within the gradient framework, the strain energy is generalized to include strain as well as strain gradient. Furthermore, the kinetic energy is also generalized to include velocity and the velocity gradient. Such approach results in the introduction of the static and kinetic internal length scales. For dynamic analysis of beams, most of the gradient theories do not take the velocity gradient into account. The model developed in this paper depicts the influence of the velocity gradient on the governing equations and initial and boundary conditions of the third-order shear deformable theory. Through the assumption of the velocity gradients, kinematic quantities are distinguished on the microscale and on the macroscale. Finally, Timoshenko and Euler–Bernoulli beam theories are also presented by simplifying the third-order theory.

  • 47936.
    Yaghoubi, SabaTahaei
    et al.
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Aalto university, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Buckling of centrosymmetric anisotropic beam structures within strain gradient elasticity2017In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 109, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buckling of centrosymmetric anisotropic beams is studied within strain gradient theory. First, the three dimensional anisotropic gradient elasticity theory is outlined. Then the dimension of the three dimensional theory is reduced, resulting in Timoshenko beam as well as Euler–Bernoulli beam theories. The governing differential equations together with the consistent (classical and non-classical) boundary conditions are derived for centrosymmetric anisotropic beams through a variational approach. By considering von Kármán nonlinear strains, the geometric nonlinearity is taken into account. The obtained nonlinear formulation can be used to study the postbuckling configuration. The analysis of size effect on anisotropic beam structures is missing in the literature so far, while the present model allows one to characterize the size effect on the buckling of the centrosymmetric anisotropic micro- and nano-scale beam structures such as micropillars. As a specific case, the governing buckling equation is obtained for the more practical case of orthotropic beams. Finally, the buckling loads for orthotropic simply supported Timoshenko and Euler–Bernoulli beams as well as a clamped Euler–Bernoulli beam are obtained analytically and the effect of the internal length scale parameters on the buckling load is depicted.

  • 47937. Yalcin, Ihsan
    Estimering av kapitalkostnad för onoterade företag2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of capital for traded companies is basically assessed on information from thefinancial market. Small and non-traded companies are lack of this necessary financialmarket information in order to determine an appropriate equity risk premium and tocompute the cost of capital.In the absence of financial information necessary for an external investor, it is difficult toevaluate a non-traded company with the Capital Asset Pricing model (CAPM), which isbased on the financial market information. It measures only the systematic risk, which isthe contribution of one share to the market risk of a portfolio. It is therefore important tofind models that reflect the small and non-traded companies’ real business value and theirunique characteristics. The shortcomings of current models, such as CAPM, have led toattempts to develop new alternative models that can make a proper measure for theunlisted companies’ cost of capital. One such model is the AHP model (AnalyticalHierarchy Process) developed by Cotner & Fletcher (2000). The AHP model is based onthe fact that investors do not necessarily depended on financial market information inorder to mature a capital cost for the unlisted companies.The AHP model is based on the idea that the owners of unlisted traded companies do notsee their company as part of a well diversified portfolio. Therefore not only the systematicrisk should be considered for an appropriate estimation of the risk premium in the capitalcost. Capital cost should be based on total riskPurpose: To provide a comprehensive description, empirical testing and analysis of theAHP model to show how to estimate the cost of capital for untraded companies.Method: Data collection for this paper is based on secondary data which means data inthe form of articles and other relevant literature.Conclusion: It is difficult to believe that the AHP model can replace the CAPM and beused as an alternative model for the estimate cost of capital for both traded and nontraded companies. However, the model might be used by non-traded company executiveswho have fairly good insight into the company and thus can estimate the risk levels andrisk premium for the company in a reasonable manner. As a conclusion, it can beassumed that the AHP model is not an appropriate analytical tool to be used by banksand fund managers that have basically diversified investments

  • 47938.
    Yalcin, Ihsan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Vem är turisten?: En studie av föreställningar om turism och målgrupper för turism i Värmland2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker frågan om vem som anses vara turisten, d v s, vem turist subjektet är, hur denna föreställs i turismstudier och turismnäringen, samt varför. Intresse för denna fråga väcktes av personliga erfarenheter. Det har att göra med hur jag inte fick samma uppmärksamhet som andra svenska turister både när jag turistade i mitt eget land (Turkiet) och även när jag turistade i Sverige handlar om varför jag inte ansågs vara turist och behandlades annorlunda. Varför och vad är de bakomliggande aspekter som urskiljer mig från svenskar (västerlänningar) som turist subjekt? Det är detta som föranledde huvudfrågan för denna uppsats: vem är eller anses vara en turist?

    Ytterligare en anledning till varför jag valde att undersöka frågan är att jag ville veta huruvida “invandrare” i Värmland uppfattas som turist subjekt eller inte. Råder samma föreställning om turist subjektet även i Värmland? I anknytning till denna fundering ställde jag också frågor till ”invandrare” i Värmland om de ser sig själva som turister eller inte och vilka faktorer som påverkar det. Vidare ville jag också undersöka huruvida föreställningen om turist subjektet färgar vilka som anses vara målgrupper inom turismnäringen i Värmland, samt hur kommer detta till uttryck i bland annat broschyrer, planeringsdokument och destinationsutveckling av turistorter. Arbetets tonvikt kommer att läggas på vem eller vilka anses vara turister och vem eller vilka som turistar i Värmland.

  • 47939.
    Yamamura, Shinya
    et al.
    Kyushu Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology.
    Nagata, Akira
    Kyushu Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology.
    Uchida, Masato
    Network Design Research Center, Kyushu Institute of Technology.
    Tsuru, Masato
    Network Design Research Center, Kyushu Institute of Technology.
    Virtual Segment: Segmentation Method for Store-carry-forward Routing Schemes2008In: Proceedings of The 1st Workshop on Wireless Broadband Access for Communities and Rural Developing Regions (WIRELESS4D'08, co-locaded with M4D 2008), Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2008, p. 102-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47940.
    Yang Halvardsson, Chenfei
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Hur minns du allt?: -En självobservationsstudie om memorering inom klassiskt piano2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Playing a piece by heart is an important aspect of being a musician, despite this there are few concrete guidelines for how the memorization process is optimized, and musicians often find their own way. The purpose of this study was therefore to, from a design theory perspective, investigate which resources underlie effective memorization. To investigate this, two memorization methods, constructed in line with previous literature and research, were tested on two Intermezzo by Brahms. Method one was based on mechanical learning without analysis, method two was based on harmonics analysis. Video observation and logbook were used to document the process, efficiency was measured by utilized hours. Results showed that method two depended more on conceptual framework compared to method one, the methods were however similar in other used resources. Method two (5 hours 15 minutes) was more time-efficient than method one (14 hours 20 minutes). In addition to the improved efficiency, method two contributed to greater awareness in the memorization process, which in turn led to increased motivation for memorization. The discussion examines the study's results in relation to previous literature and research. 

  • 47941. Yang, Li
    Spectral model of halftone on a fluorescent substrate2005In: J.Imaging Science Technology 49 (2005), 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47942. Yang, Li
    What has been overlooked in Kubelka-Munk Theory?2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47943. Yang, Li
    et al.
    Fogden, A.
    Pauler, N.
    Sävborg, Ö.
    Kruse, B.
    A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print2005In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal 40(2005),423-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47944. Yang, Li
    et al.
    Fogden, A.
    Pauler, N.
    Sävborg, Ö.
    Kruse, B.
    Studying ink penetration by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques2006In: J.Imaging Science and TechnologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 47945. Yang, Li
    et al.
    Kruse, B.
    Studying ink penetration by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47946. Yang, Li
    et al.
    Miklavcic, S.J.
    Revised Kubelka-Munk theory.III: A general theory of light propagation in scattering and absorptive media2005In: J.Optical Society of America A 22(9), 1866-1873, (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47947. Yang, Li
    et al.
    Miklavcic, S.J.
    Theory of light propagation incorporation scattering and absorption in turbid media2005In: Optics Letter 30(7), 792-794, 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47948.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    China, Australia.
    Sun, Yugeng
    China.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    DLS: A Dynamic Local Stitching Mechanism to Rectify Transmitting Path Fragments in Wireless Sensor Networks2013In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 306-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a pair of novel rectification algorithms (greedy negative pressure push algorithm and dynamic local stitching algorithm) is proposed to cooperatively repair broken transmitting paths in Wireless Sensor Networks. Our approach is to overcome the poor data validity in WSNs, specifically for harsh application environments - such as unattended sensor nodes or frail wireless transmitting channels - where fault tolerant becomes a vital aspect. Using adjacency information, Greedy negative pressure push algorithm can efficiently grow the transmitting path to achieve the minimum energy consumption for relays model. Here, we measured packet travel time and the expectation of relay distance to set this model's key parameters to achieve the lowest possible end-to-end transmitting delay. Dynamic local stitching algorithm has a major difference with other existing routing algorithms in rectifying broken paths: despite others that reroute whole paths, our algorithms only stitch broken fragments of the original path spending minimum amount of energy as well as recovery time. Based on mathematical computing and simulation, our novel rectification algorithm could effectively (1) reduce the total number of routing overheads, (2) improve net throughput, and (3) increase system fault tolerant much better than four already designed routing algorithms. Results were also very promising to motivate other algorithms in this field.

  • 47949.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin.
    Woo, Peng-Yung
    Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University.
    Wang, Zhaoxia
    Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Choor, Chin Hoong
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Hu, Guoqiang
    School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Ubiquitous Data-Centric Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47950. Yang, Wei
    Material selection and failure analysis of a ribbon element in a line source loudspeaker2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
956957958959960961962 47901 - 47950 of 49099
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