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  • 47851.
    Wärdell, David
    Karlstad University.
    Restoring the Apocalypse: Recurrence, Religion and the Fall of Humanity in Walter M. Miller, Jr.'s A Canticle for Leibowitz2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In A Canticle for Leibowitz, Walter M. Miller, Jr. tells a grim narrative of the future of human civilization. The author’s reliance on the themes of recurrence and religion distinguishes the novel from similar works in the science fiction genre, and are key elements in framing Miller’s post-apocalyptic vision. This essay argues that these themes are employed by the author in order to establish the fall of humanity as part of an inevitable cycle. Central aspects of Judeo-Christian tradition, such as the fall, the burden of original sin and the deluge, are discerned in Miller’s narrative, and linked to the concepts of destruction and restoration in the novel. The loss of an original place of perfection, and humanity’s inability to return to that place, is argued to be central to the cycle’s repetition. The Catholic perception of original sin as hereditary is argued to be pivotal in the failure to achieve that return. The cyclic aspect of the return is also shown to contrast with the linear elements of the novel, particularly in light of the Christian eschatology and the linear progression of time. Furthermore, this essay discerns the different expressions of recurrence in miller’s narrative, ranging from structure and characters to theme. It is demonstrated how the author, through the application of recurrence, affirms the cyclic aspect of the narrative structure. Also, it is argued that its implementation serves to infuse the novel with sentiments of inevitability concerning the progression of the cycle.

  • 47852.
    Wäring, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter: En kvalitativ studie om hur grundskollärare i åk 2 och 3 arbetar med läs- och skrivsvårigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how primary school teachers in grades 2 and 3 work with pupils with reading and writing difficulties, and what resources primary school can provide to assist these students. To answer this purpose, I conducted a qualitative interview method, the performance map. This is a tool that creates a broader understanding of respondents. The answers will be more profound and the interviewer will be a better listener. I have interviewed four primary school teachers from grade 2 and 3, as well as a principal, all from the same primary school. The results of this study indicate that the teacher`s competence, reading and writing methods and school resources are of great importance when working with students who has reading and writing difficulties.

  • 47853.
    Wärme, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Vuxen anknytning som prediktion av copingstrategier: En enkätstudie om vuxen anknytning och copingstrategier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey study has been carried out to investigate possible correlations and predictions between adult attachment and coping strategies. The sample for the study was 133 students from various Universities and colleges in Sweden who answered a questionnaire. . To measure adult attachment this study used Experience in close relationship (ECR-R), and copingstrategies was measured by Brief COPE. Data collected were analyzed in SPSS using the Pearson correlationcoefficient test and multiple regression analysis.

    The results from the present study showed significant negative correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and problem focused coping. The results also showed a significant negative correlation between avoidance attachment and problem focused coping. The results from the present study showed a significant correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and dysfunctional coping. The results also showed a significant correlation between avoidance attachment and dysfunctional coping. The study results showed that there was no correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and emotion focused coping. The results also showed that there was no correlation between avoidance attachment and emotion focused coping. The result from the present study showed that anxiety loaded extension was a significant predictor of problem-focused coping where 15% of the variance of problem-focused was explained. Anxiety loaded attachment was a significant predictor of dysfunctional coping where 22% of the variance was explained.

    The conclusions are that students with anxiety loaded and avoidance attachment use lower grade of problem-focused coping. Students with anxiety and avoidance attachment uses increasingly dysfunctional coping strategies. It is concluded that variables other than adult attachment affects using various coping strategies.

  • 47854.
    Wärme, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förnybar energi ur ett kvinnligt och manligt perspektiv: En attitydundersökning med avseende på att kartlägga hur synen på fönybar energi påverkas av om individen är kvinna eller man2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The extraction and usage of energy give rise to immense environmental problems which helps to accelerate climate change. Energy is an important resource for the community and there are a variety of different types of energy sources available, that are either classified as renewable or non-renewable energy sources. The usage of renewable energy sources cause less environmental impact than the usage of non-renewable energy, which in turn means that the energy’s strain on the environment is strongly affected by the type of energy source used.

    The aim of the study is to describe to what extent attitudes towards renewable energy are affected by whether the individual is male or female, by examining the hypothesis regarding how women have a closer connection to nature and to a larger extent shows on an pro-environmentally friendly behavior than men, and if it also can be detected on issues related to renewable energy and thus imply that women have a friendlier approach towards renewable energy than men. A number of ecofeminist believe that women have a stronger bond with the nature through her embodiment as a woman and by her maternal role, which according to previous research also leads to the fact that women shows on a more extensive environmental behavior.Through a qualitative research method in the form of semi-structured interviews has three female and three male respondents been asked questions with regards to the environment, individual responsibility and energy. All of the respondents have an understanding of the environmental problems that exist and what they are caused by, and that individual responsibility is of great significance for a reduced environmental impact, which enabled further evaluation of all respondents' views on renewable energy. Differences and similarities can be seen between women's and men's attitude towards renewable energy, but in the end, the similarities are too great and the differences too vague in order to be able to verify that women’s closer connection to the nature and their pro-environmental behavior means that they have a more positive attitude towards renewable energy than men. There is therefore no basis in my study to claim that attitudes towards renewable energy are affected by whether the individual is female or male.

  • 47855.
    Wärme, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Dans i förskolan: Pedagogers förhållningssätt till dans och rörelse som pedagogiskt verktyg för de yngsta barnen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how preschool teachers relate to dancing with the youngest children in preschool. As the method I used questions sent by mail to the six selected preschool teachers. The questions were answered by the preschool teachers as a bit shorter written stories that followed throughout each question. I chose three teachers with shorter working experience in preschool and three teachers with long working experience in preschool. The answers I got from the interviews were presented in a result section.

     

    Then I drew parallels between the responses I received, the selected literature and my own thoughts. The results showed that all teachers except one was interested in dancing and considered themselves using dance as an educational tool for the youngest children. All educators clearly show that they know that children experience the world with their bodies and their minds. By contrast, all agree that dance/movement was important for the child’s body development and body awareness.

  • 47856. Wärnefors Borell, Helén
    Grundskolans kommunalisering - vad hände med eleverna2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47857. Wärre, Katarina
    Livets film - en observerande undersökning av amatörfilm på filmarkivet i Grängesberg utifrån dess plats i forskarvärlden2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Film of Life” The Filmarchive in Grängesberg is in charge of restoring all non – fiction film from all over Sweden. The collection consists of mainly informative films, but also amateur-film, which will be of particular interest in this essay. Through a different set of perspectives, the essay will work through the character of the amateur-film, and in the final chapters evaluate it´s function in film-history and as an object of reserch. An analysis shows that the amateur-film, rather than working on causal parametres, primary functions as a tool for the author to glorify the memory of a recorded event. Thus it ignores the established conventions of filmmaking; the essay is hereby questioning how to place amateur-film within the film-history.

  • 47858.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Credential Selection2009Report (Refereed)
  • 47859.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Göteborgs universitet, Samhällvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska Institutionen.
    Experimental studies of human-computer interaction - working memory and mental workload in complex cognition2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cognition is readily described as cognitive tasks requiring the coordination of multiple steps of processing or tasks exceeding short term memory capacity. Similarly, mental workload may be described as the use and temporary expenditure of a finite amount of information processing capacity. In the current study, the mental workload of complex cognition was manipulated through variations in the mode of presentation (Study I) with the information being presented either printed on paper or displayed on a computer screen as well as through variations in page layout (Study II) with the information being presented, either using a page layout designed to fit the computer screen or on a long page of scroll type. In Study III, the short-term memory demands of the complex cognitive tasks themselves were explored. The principal findings of the three studies may be summarized by the following points: Consumption of information is more effective when information is presented on paper rather than displayed on a computer screen (Study I: Experiment 1). Similarly, Production of information is more effective when information is presented on paper (Study I: Experiment 2) rather than on a computer screen. Consumption of information generates less mental workload when the page layout is adapted to fit the computer screen (Study II: Experiments 1 & 2). Problem solving processes, including both Consumption and Production of information, may be described both in terms of their reliance on either ST-WM or LT-WM (Study III: Experiments 1, 2 & 3) and in terms of their reliance on specific 'slave systems' of the tripartite model (Study III: Experiments 1 & 3). Taken together, Studies I and II show that the presentation of information on screen, versus in printed form, exerts detrimental effects on human information processing and that some of those effects may be attributed to differences in the navigational properties of the two media. In addition, Study II demonstrated that an adaptation of the page layout of the presented material so that it fitted its intended media, mental workload may be alleviated. Finally, the results of Study III showed that, in order to understand the memory demands of complex cognition, it is necessary to include elements of both the ST- and LT-WM paradigm of Ericsson & Kintsch and the tripartite model of Baddeley & Hitch.

  • 47860.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Experimental studies of human-computer interaction: working memory and mental workload in complex cognition2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cognition is readily described as cognitive tasks requiring the coordination of multiple steps of processing or tasks exceeding short term memory capacity. Similarly, mental workload may be described as the use and temporary expenditure of a finite amount of information processing capacity. In the current study, the mental workload of complex cognition was manipulated through variations in the mode of presentation (Study I) with the information being presented either printed on paper or displayed on a computer screen as well as through variations in page layout (Study II) with the information being presented, either using a page layout designed to fit the computer screen or on a long page of scroll type. In Study III, the short-term memory demands of the complex cognitive tasks themselves were explored.



    The principal findings of the three studies may be summarized by the following points:



    Consumption of information is more effective when information is presented on paper rather than displayed on a computer screen (Study I: Experiment 1).



    Similarly, Production of information is more effective when information is presented on paper (Study I: Experiment 2) rather than on a computer screen.



    Consumption of information generates less mental workload when the page layout is adapted to fit the computer screen (Study II: Experiments 1 & 2).



    Problem solving processes, including both Consumption and Production of information, may be described both in terms of their reliance on either ST-WM or LT-WM (Study III: Experiments 1, 2 & 3) and in terms of their reliance on specific 'slave systems' of the tripartite model (Study III: Experiments 1 & 3).



    Taken together, Studies I and II show that the presentation of information on screen, versus in printed form, exerts detrimental effects on human information processing and that some of those effects may be attributed to differences in the navigational properties of the two media. In addition, Study II demonstrated that an adaptation of the page layout of the presented material so that it fitted its intended media, mental workload may be alleviated. Finally, the results of Study III showed that, in order to understand the memory demands of complex cognition, it is necessary to include elements of both the ST- and LT-WM paradigm of Ericsson & Kintsch and the tripartite model of Baddeley & Hitch.

  • 47861. Wästlund, Erik
    Explorations in cross - cultural differences in levels of self concept as measured by the SDQ1 (svensk text)1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 47862.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Göteborgs universitet, Samhällvetenskapliga Fakulteten , Psykologiska institutionen.
    Manipulation and Measurement of Mental Workload - An experimental investigation in human computer interaction2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 47863.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Manipulation and Measurement of Mental Workload: An experimental investigation in human computer interaction2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 47864.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 47865.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, BoKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.Gustafsson, AndersKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.Bitner, BitnerArizona State University.Verma, RohitCornell University.
    Proceedings of the 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS 13), June 2013, CTF Center for Service Systems, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 47866.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Conny
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Final HCI Research Report: Deliverable D4.1.52011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an overview of recent research results of Activity 4 ‘Usability’ of PrimeLife, where an emphasis is put on those results, which have not been reported in the same detail in other HCI-related PrimeLife deliverables yet. The first part reports about our results in the area of User Interface (UI) Representation of Privacyenhancing Identity Management Concepts and presents research on PET methodologies, mental models for anonymous credentials and the results from the final round of end-user evaluations of the UI prototypes developed during the PrimeLife project. The second part reports about our work in the area of usable privacy policies and presents the final results of Activity 4’s research on policy icons and on a user-friendly management and display of PPL (PrimeLife Policy Language) policies.

  • 47867.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Cornelia
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Towards Usable Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Lessons Learned from the PrimeLife Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we present lessons learnt from the PrimeLife HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Activity by discussing typical HCI challenges and fallacies that we experienced during the PrimeLife project. We also provide guidance on how these issues can be addressed in order to develop usable privacy-enhancing technology solutions.

  • 47868.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, SimoneKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.Köffel, CWolkerstorfer, Peter
    HCI Research Report: Version 12009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core activities in the PrimeLife  project is the design and implementation of privacy aware applications that are usable. Therefore it is the main objective of Activity 4 to assure the usability of those applications and advance the research in this area. The First HCI Research Report presents the main research results of the HCI activity within the first year of PrimeLife. The HCI Research Report V1 presents work in progress and will be updated and complemented by a second version, the Final HCI Research Report (D4.1.5), which will be published at the end of the PrimeLife project.

  • 47869.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Usability Challenges of Privacy Technologies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47870.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Zwingelberg, Harald
    UI prototypes: Policy administration and presentation (version 1)2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy Policies are an important prerequisite for user control in privacy-enhancing identity management. The transparency of privacy policies can be enhanced if users are informed about mismatches of a site’s policy with the user’s preferences. Investigating understandable and transparent privacy policies as well as simplified and usable privacy preference (data release policy) management "on the fly" are the objectives of the deliverable. For this, it is discussing icons presenting the content of policies and different User Interface (UI) prototypes for policy display and preference administration, which have been partly compared and tested in an Online user study. Finally, legal requirements for policy display in social network sites and how they translate to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) requirements are investigated.

  • 47871.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    End User Transparency Tools: UI Prototypes2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Data Track is a user-side transparency-enhancing tool developed in PrimeLife, which provides the users with a history function documenting what personal data the user has revealed to whom under which conditions. Besides, it provides online functions to access the user’s personal data at the remote services side. This deliverable documents PrimeLife work package 4.2’s work on a usable Data Track. After introducing into the Data Track functionalities and the technical background, we will present the results of five iterations of user interface developments and usability testing, which we performed at Karlstad University and at CURE. We also present our initial work on a Data Track for social communities as well as on a Data Track for lifelong privacy.

  • 47872.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Users' Mental Models' Effect on their Comprehension of Anonymous Credentials2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, J.; Fischer-Hübner, S.; Rannenberg, K., Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 233-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous Credentials are a key technology for enforcing data minimisation for online applications. The design of easily understandable user interfaces for the use of anonymous credentials is however a major challenge, as end users are not yet familiar with this rather new and complex technology and no obvious real-world analogies exist for them. In this chapter, we analyse what effects the users’ mental models have on their understanding of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials in the context of an e-Shopping application scenario. In particular, we have investigated the effects of the mental models of a card-based user interface approach and an attribute-based user interface approach and compared these in terms of errors of omission and addition. The results show that the card-based approach leads to significantly more errors of addition (i.e., users believe that they have disclosed more information than they actually have) whereas the attribute-based approach leads to more errors of omission (i.e., users underestimate the amount of data that they have disclosed).

  • 47873.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Graf, C
    Wolkerstorfer, P
    Hochleitner, C
    Tscheligi, M
    HCI for PrimLIfe Prototypes2011In: Primelife - Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] J. Camenisch, S. Fischer-Hübner & K. Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 217-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47874.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Khandelwal, Nikunj
    Köffel, Christina
    Access Control in Social Networks2009Report (Refereed)
  • 47875.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Archer, Trevor
    Göteborg University.
    Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Concept: A Meta-Analysis of SDQ2001In: Cross Cultural Studies, ISSN 1069-3971, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 280-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This meta-analytic approach, designed to explore the cross-cultural differences in levels of self-concept as measured by the Self-Description Questionnaire, yielded two main results. (a) There seems to be a general pattern in self-concept amongst schoolchildren from the three cultural groups included in this investigation (i.e., Asia, Africa, and Australia/United States). Girls have higher or equal means in most academic areas and boys are higher in nonacademic and total self-concept. Furthermore, (b) in the comparison between these cultural groups a pattern emerged whereby the children from Africa, generally, had the most positive self-concept, the children from Asia had the least positive self-concept in the nonacademic subareas, and the children from Australia/United States had the least positive self-concept in the academic subareas. Because these differences are difficult to explain solely with the concepts of individualism and collectivism, a tentative explanation incorporating the concept of optimism is suggested.

  • 47876.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Archer, Trevor
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Internet Blues Revisited: A Replication and Extension of Kraut et al (1998) Internet Paradox Study2001In: CyberPsychology and Behavior, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a replication of the Kraut et al. Internet paradox study designed to set guidelines for harmless Internet usage, without any potential for personal damage. The present study produced two main results: The first is a partial confirmation of the general response pattern found by Kraut et al. (i.e., that younger individuals tend to use the Internet to a higher degree and that they experience a lesser degree of psychological well-being). The second main result, however, contradicts the interpretation by Kraut et al. of the causal relationship between Internet usage and psychological well-being.

  • 47877.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    The effect of page layout on mental workload: A dual-task experiment2008In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1229-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two dual-task experiments, the effects of page layout on mental workload were explored. Previous studies indicate that it is preferable to present a text document on paper than to display it on a computer screen (e.g. Mayes, D. K., Sims, V. K., & Koonce, J. M. (2001). Comprehension and workload differences for VDT and paper-based reading. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28(6), 367–378; Wastlund, E., Reinikka, H., Norlander, T., & Archer, T. (2005). Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 377–394). However, critics have advocated improper matching of the materials between the two media as a confounding variable e.g. (Noyes, J. M., & Garland, K. J. (2003). VDT versus paper-based text: reply to Mayes, Sims and Koonce. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31(6), 411–423). The focus of the present study has been to take one such variable, page layout, and then isolate and replicate it onscreen in order to assess its affect on user performance. The results of the present experiments showed that optimizing the page layout for onscreen viewing decreased mental workload. This not only confirms the importance of matching all aspects of the presentational modes in doing paper vs. computer comparisons, but also shows that reading from a computer screen can be facilitated by creating documents with a page layout that is adapted to the screen which they are intended to be presented on.

  • 47878.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Insights in consumer behavior: Eye-tracking studies at the Service Research Center2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47879.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Heuristics and resource depletion: eye-tracking customers’ in situ gaze behavior in the field2014In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we visit a retail outlet, we go there to complete some type of shopping goal. These goals may be very specific and precisely planned prior to entering the store, or more abstract, and something we think of on the spur of the moment. The stores may display tens of thousands of different products, making it difficult to achieve the shopping goal in a rational manner. As a result, we use different types of heuristics to meet our shopping goals. In this study, we investigate how a customer’s visual attention is influenced by their shopping goal, based on the results of three field experiments in three different contexts—a gas station, a sports store, and a grocery store. Firstly we establish that differences do exist in viewing behavior based on whether shopping goals are planned or unplanned. A more complex and unplanned shopping goal leads to increased observations of in-store stimulus. We then study whether or not the complexity of the first shopping goal also influences the viewing behavior of the next shopping goal, independently of the characteristics of the second goal. The findings confirm that complex decision heuristics deplete cognitive recourse. This finding results in diminished visual attention during subsequent choices. In turn, this has implications for a customer’s shopping behavior.

  • 47880.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Reinikka, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors2005In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the influence of VDT (video display terminals) and paper presentation of text on consumption of information (Study 1) measured in the form of convergent production and production of information (Study 2) measured in form of divergent production. The READ test of reading comprehension was used as the convergent task whereas the “Headlines” test was used as the divergent task. Several other factors pertaining to performance were also studied including the PANAS test of positive and negative affect, the STH test of stress, tiredness and hunger, the TRI (Technology Readiness Inventory) and the SE test of stress and energy.

    The results show that performance in the VDT presentation condition where inferior to that of the Paper presentation condition for both consumption and production of information. Concomitantly, participants in the VDT presentation condition of the consumption of information study reported higher levels of experienced stress and tiredness whereas the participants in the VDT presentation condition of production of information study reported only slightly higher levels of stress.

    Although the results are discussed in both physiological and psychological terms arguments are made that the incremental effects of VDT text presentation stem mainly from dual-task effects of fulfilling the assignment and working with the computer resulting in a higher cognitive workload.

  • 47881.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47882.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 47883.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47884.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47885.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 47886.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ricardo, Matos
    Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience2019In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47887.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Pettersson, Ola
    What You See is Where You Go: Testing a Gaze-Driven Power Wheelchair for Individuals with Severe Multiple Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Individuals with severe multiple disabilities have little or no opportunity to express their own wishes, make choices and move independently. Because of this, the objective of this work has been to develop a prototype for a gaze-driven device to maneuver powered wheelchairs or other moving platforms.



    The prototype has the same capabilities as a normal powered wheelchair, with two exceptions. Firstly, the prototype is controlled by eye movements instead of by a normal joystick. Secondly, the prototype is equipped with a sensor that stops all motion when the machine approaches an obstacle.



    The prototype has been evaluated in a preliminary clinical test with two users. Both users clearly communicated that they appreciated and had mastered the ability to control a powered

    wheelchair with their eye movements

  • 47888.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Adult Habilitat Ctr, Landstinget i Värmland, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Ola
    Embint Technol, Örebro, Sweden..
    Bared, Anders
    Aurena Labs AB, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities2015In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 815-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

  • 47889.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A walk on the wild side: Investigating attention during the consumer choice process in a real supermarket setting2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements / [ed] K. Holmqvist, F. Mulvey & R. Johansson, 2013, p. 168-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated different facets of attention during the consumer choice process. Objectives have included how variation in attention changes throughout the choice process (Russo & Leclerc, 1994), its effect on preference formation (Shimojo et al 2003), the general distribution of attention (Wästlund et al, 2010), the effect of shelf placement (Chandon et al 2009), and the effect of a central placement on attention and choice (Atalay, 2010). The common drawback of these studies is that they are static lab experiments using digital images, which has been shown to influence gaze distribution (Tonkin et al, 2011). Therefore, in this study we use a head mounted eye-tracker to replicate previous research studies in a real retail environment to see if the results hold outside the lab. Data from 63 participants performing choice tasks in a supermarket are analysed. The results show support for a number of findings from previous research such as the initial central fixation bias and subsequent overrepresentation of observations of centrally placed products. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings on the general gaze distribution during the choice process but fail to replicate the strong effect of centrally placed products on choice. Additionally, methodological implications are discussed.

  • 47890.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Consumer choice processes and consideration sets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With thousands and thousands of items to choose from in supermarkets, finding a product on the shelf can be a challenge. Naturally, consumers do not see all products nor do they consider buying all products they see. The consumer first screens the original set of products and then considers a reduced set of alternatives. The consideration set is evaluated and reduced to one alternative that is chosen (Lapersonne et al. 1995). The choice is actually a consumer choice process including several steps, e.g., orientation, evaluation, and verification (Russo and Leclerc, 1994).

    In the present study we investigated consumers’ consideration sets and consumer choice processes in an experiment with 52 respondents in a supermarket. The respondents were instructed to choose one package of sandwich meat that they would like to buy. The  experiment included two displays of shelves: The first shelf contained one section of sandwich meat and one section of products like pickled garlic and sun-dried tomatoes.The second shelf contained only sandwich meat but with two distinctly different types of packaging. Where the respondents looked first, if the chosen product were in that section, and how much they looked at areas outside their consideration set were investigated. The results show that in the shelf with two categories of products the participants hardly looked at the non-target products during the orientation phase or the verification phase. In the shelf with two differently packaged sandwich meats the participants looked at both parts of the shelf during the orientation phase but significantly more at their selfselected target area during the verification phase. These results highlight the importance of products signaling appropriate attributes in order to even be looked at.

  • 47891.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Austria.
    PET-USES2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, Fischer-Hübner, Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47892.
    Wästlund, Titti
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Vierling, Stephanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Vad styr köp av miljöbil?: En empirisk studie om efterfrågan på miljöbilar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Government's vision of a fossil-free vehicle fleet in 2030 put a high demand on the technical development and sale of green cars, also named as clean vehicles. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the trend of the share of clean vehicles into the Swedish market from January 2009 to February 2015. This work will also assess whether there is any economic variable that affects the purchase of clean vehicles as well as regular passenger cars. The variables tested are as follows; price on car, petrol price, micro index of the CCI, unemployment, disposable income and interest rate. The result of a segmented regression analysis showed an increased trend in the proportion of clean vehicles where time explaining growth. The study cannot explain the underlying factors, because none of the surveyed financial variables could explain the increase in sales of clean vehicles. Therefore the consumer preferences are assumed to be the strongest explanatory variable in the choice of driving a green car. The study could not identify any specific variable that have had a greater impact on the clean vehicles sales due to total sales of passenger cars. For the government to realize the vision of a fossil-free vehicle fleet more studies about consumer preferences related to the choice of clean vehicles is required. Demand for cars seems to constantly increase and therefore it is doubtful whether the car will ever be substituted off. Therefore the fuel plays the lead role in the evolution towards a more environment-friendly society in order to create opportunities to achieve the vision of a fossil-free fleet.

  • 47893.
    Wäxfeldt, Helene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Work-life balance inom rättspsykiatrin: En kvalitativ studie av förhållandet mellan   arbete och privatliv hos rättspsykiatrins personal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka rättspsykiatrisk personals upplevelse av förmågan att kunna skilja arbete och privatliv utifrån ett work-life balance perspektiv. Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på tolv intervjuer med personer som jobbar inom olika områden inom rättspsykiatrin. Analysen gjordes utifrån Braun och Clarks variant av tematisk analys.

    De flesta personerna som deltog i studien upplevde att de kunde separera arbete och privatliv på ett tillfredställande sätt, vilket visar att de även uppnått work-life balance utifrån egna förmågor och behov. De arbetsrelaterade situationer som visade sig vara det som påverkade personalen mest under fritiden var konflikter eller problem i arbetsgruppen. Tankar och oro kring personalkonflikterna var det som upplevdes svårast att koppla bort under fritiden. Även viss emotionell påverkan kopplad till patienterna beskrevs men upplevdes inte lika påfrestande som konflikter i personalgruppen. Handledning, stöd från kollegor och ett stabilt och tryggt privatliv var saker som hjälpte personalen att inte känna negativ inverkan från arbetet på privatlivet.

  • 47894.
    Wåger, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Grupperingar i skolvärlden: En studie om hur lärare i särskolan uppfattar mötet mellan grundskolan och grundsärskolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some teachers in special school´s perceptions of the meeting of compulsory school and special school. In this study, ethnocentrism is used as a theoretical framework, the theory which is built on the meeting between groups and how they interact. The study has a phenomenographic onset, which is a qualitative method. The gathering of data was made through interviews, one to one. Five interviews were made and analyzed by the use of phenomenographic analysis. Five categories were identified: Inclusion, commitment and interest, knowledge about special school, to be forgotten, and differences in cognitive approach. In the sample space the underlying structures was discussed by ethnocentrism, as well as previous literature and research. Some common points of contact between ethnocentrism and previous research on the meeting could be found. What the study also found was that four out of five respondents felt a sense of belonging in school, while one felt that the Special school was excluded from the regular school. The respondents could all agree on the fact that several factors affected the meeting. These five categories could be seen as areas of improvement in schools that want to work in an inclusive manner. These factors were also lifted in previous research on special school and inclusion.

  • 47895. Wåger, Jonny
    Syns man inte - finns man inte: En kvalitativ studie om självpresentation på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47896. Wågerud, Rebecca
    Dyskalkyli - vad är det?2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47897. Wåhlander, Kajsa
    FMT vid Downs syndrom och Alzheimers sjukdom2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 47898.
    Wåhleman, Martin
    Karlstad University, Division for Ingesund College of Music.
    Gruppstorlek och betyg i ämnet musik2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My experience from teaching music in elementary school has motivated this study, the purpose of which is to evaluate the relationship between pupils’ grades and the size of classes in the classroom. The investigation was limited to only include grades from the 9th (last) year of elementary school in the subject of music, the size of the class, and the differences between girls and boys.

    The results of the study demonstrated that no correlation between higher grades and smaller classes was established. The differences between the results and the statistics from the Swedish National Agency for Education were too small to prove any connections. Additional aspects must be evaluated to be able to show any relationship, and prove a connection between given grades, the size of classes, and their skills

  • 47899. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Differences in News Angels between countries - comparing newspapers in the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Sweden2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är idén om möjligheten att hitta en absolut sanning ifrågasatt och människor blir mer och mer medvetna om den dolda dagordning som styr det globala nyhetsflödet. Frågan är snarast: vem styr dagordningen? Vilka åsikter framställs som Sanningen? Det är inte alltid självklart att få möjlighet att föra fram sin egen version av en händelse. Denna uppsats undersöker artiklar som tar upp det amerikanska kongressvalet som hölls den 5 november 2002. Artiklarna kommer från tretton tidningar i sju olika länder – USA, Storbritannien, Frankrike, Tyskland, Italien, Schweiz och Sverige. Innehållet i dessa artiklar analyseras ur olika perspektiv, primärt med hjälp av Geert Hofstedes interkulturella teori, men även mediaägande och -historik tas med i beräkningen. Dessutom kan inrikespolitiska mål ofta märkas, exempelvis i ländernas medielagstiftning. Studien visar det amerikanska perspektivets genomslagskraft, men även hur nationella media i varje land har en egen dagordning som inte nödvändigtvis följer den amerikanska linjen. Den valda teorin kan förklara en del av skillnaderna mellan de undersökta länderna, men studien tar också upp frågan om hur samhället förändras och om media formas av kulturen den är en del av eller om media istället formar kulturen. Det troligaste svaret är: både och. Den vinkling som media väljer kommer att bidra till att forma till en framtida historieskrivning. De olika vinklingarna är därför viktiga eftersom ett flertal synvinklar kan ge en mer nyanserad och balanserad sanning.

  • 47900. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Freedom for just one night - the promise and threat of information and communication technologies2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Not many novels have been written about technology from a female perspective, but Jeanette Winterson’s The PowerBook and Pat Cadigan’s children’s book Avatar are two examples where information and communication technologies (ICT) play a major role. That women often see the benefits of a less regulated space provided by the technology is explored in these two novels. In this essay I will study them through the lens of Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of smooth and striated space. The focus has been on three different issues: information and communication technology’s impact on identity; privacy and security on the Internet; and also – since both of the authors are women, who consider gender-related strategies – female views of ICT. The novels contradict the idea that there is a virtual reality entirely separated from the real world; both imply that although ICT creates a virtual environment, the meetings and communications that take place in it are real, especially from an emotional perspective. The novels suggest that the characters’ sense of identity and security often is tested when opposites – smooth/striated, online/offline, virtual/real, emotional/technical, private/public – collide, when this collision triggers an emotional response. In Avatar emotions are in fact a method to authenticate the validity of what happens in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the collision and its impact on the emotions create an indeterminacy, a smooth space, and seems to be a narrative strategy for both Winterson and Cadigan, which they both use to examine a number of issues, including patriarchy, which shows what these female authors think is possible to do with the help of ICT. Both texts study how the Internet – and the thoughts mediated through the Internet – influence individuals and societies. As a new medium, Internet can be considered new territory, a new frontier. Whose thoughts are going to be trendsetting on the Net? Who colonizes Cyberspace? Both authors point towards the benefits of a more balanced viewpoint, where more angles than one are taken into account, and what can happen when a hegemonic world-view has been shaken. These novels convincingly show that it is in the dynamic tension between smooth and striated that new viewpoints can be found.

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