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  • 46751.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Heuristics and resource depletion: eye-tracking customers’ in situ gaze behavior in the field2014In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we visit a retail outlet, we go there to complete some type of shopping goal. These goals may be very specific and precisely planned prior to entering the store, or more abstract, and something we think of on the spur of the moment. The stores may display tens of thousands of different products, making it difficult to achieve the shopping goal in a rational manner. As a result, we use different types of heuristics to meet our shopping goals. In this study, we investigate how a customer’s visual attention is influenced by their shopping goal, based on the results of three field experiments in three different contexts—a gas station, a sports store, and a grocery store. Firstly we establish that differences do exist in viewing behavior based on whether shopping goals are planned or unplanned. A more complex and unplanned shopping goal leads to increased observations of in-store stimulus. We then study whether or not the complexity of the first shopping goal also influences the viewing behavior of the next shopping goal, independently of the characteristics of the second goal. The findings confirm that complex decision heuristics deplete cognitive recourse. This finding results in diminished visual attention during subsequent choices. In turn, this has implications for a customer’s shopping behavior.

  • 46752.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Reinikka, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors2005In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the influence of VDT (video display terminals) and paper presentation of text on consumption of information (Study 1) measured in the form of convergent production and production of information (Study 2) measured in form of divergent production. The READ test of reading comprehension was used as the convergent task whereas the “Headlines” test was used as the divergent task. Several other factors pertaining to performance were also studied including the PANAS test of positive and negative affect, the STH test of stress, tiredness and hunger, the TRI (Technology Readiness Inventory) and the SE test of stress and energy.

    The results show that performance in the VDT presentation condition where inferior to that of the Paper presentation condition for both consumption and production of information. Concomitantly, participants in the VDT presentation condition of the consumption of information study reported higher levels of experienced stress and tiredness whereas the participants in the VDT presentation condition of production of information study reported only slightly higher levels of stress.

    Although the results are discussed in both physiological and psychological terms arguments are made that the incremental effects of VDT text presentation stem mainly from dual-task effects of fulfilling the assignment and working with the computer resulting in a higher cognitive workload.

  • 46753.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46754.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 46755.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46756.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46757.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 46758.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ricardo, Matos
    Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience2019In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46759.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Pettersson, Ola
    What You See is Where You Go: Testing a Gaze-Driven Power Wheelchair for Individuals with Severe Multiple Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Individuals with severe multiple disabilities have little or no opportunity to express their own wishes, make choices and move independently. Because of this, the objective of this work has been to develop a prototype for a gaze-driven device to maneuver powered wheelchairs or other moving platforms.



    The prototype has the same capabilities as a normal powered wheelchair, with two exceptions. Firstly, the prototype is controlled by eye movements instead of by a normal joystick. Secondly, the prototype is equipped with a sensor that stops all motion when the machine approaches an obstacle.



    The prototype has been evaluated in a preliminary clinical test with two users. Both users clearly communicated that they appreciated and had mastered the ability to control a powered

    wheelchair with their eye movements

  • 46760.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Adult Habilitat Ctr, Landstinget i Värmland, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Ola
    Embint Technol, Örebro, Sweden..
    Bared, Anders
    Aurena Labs AB, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities2015In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 815-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

  • 46761.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A walk on the wild side: Investigating attention during the consumer choice process in a real supermarket setting2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements / [ed] K. Holmqvist, F. Mulvey & R. Johansson, 2013, p. 168-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated different facets of attention during the consumer choice process. Objectives have included how variation in attention changes throughout the choice process (Russo & Leclerc, 1994), its effect on preference formation (Shimojo et al 2003), the general distribution of attention (Wästlund et al, 2010), the effect of shelf placement (Chandon et al 2009), and the effect of a central placement on attention and choice (Atalay, 2010). The common drawback of these studies is that they are static lab experiments using digital images, which has been shown to influence gaze distribution (Tonkin et al, 2011). Therefore, in this study we use a head mounted eye-tracker to replicate previous research studies in a real retail environment to see if the results hold outside the lab. Data from 63 participants performing choice tasks in a supermarket are analysed. The results show support for a number of findings from previous research such as the initial central fixation bias and subsequent overrepresentation of observations of centrally placed products. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings on the general gaze distribution during the choice process but fail to replicate the strong effect of centrally placed products on choice. Additionally, methodological implications are discussed.

  • 46762.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Consumer choice processes and consideration sets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With thousands and thousands of items to choose from in supermarkets, finding a product on the shelf can be a challenge. Naturally, consumers do not see all products nor do they consider buying all products they see. The consumer first screens the original set of products and then considers a reduced set of alternatives. The consideration set is evaluated and reduced to one alternative that is chosen (Lapersonne et al. 1995). The choice is actually a consumer choice process including several steps, e.g., orientation, evaluation, and verification (Russo and Leclerc, 1994).

    In the present study we investigated consumers’ consideration sets and consumer choice processes in an experiment with 52 respondents in a supermarket. The respondents were instructed to choose one package of sandwich meat that they would like to buy. The  experiment included two displays of shelves: The first shelf contained one section of sandwich meat and one section of products like pickled garlic and sun-dried tomatoes.The second shelf contained only sandwich meat but with two distinctly different types of packaging. Where the respondents looked first, if the chosen product were in that section, and how much they looked at areas outside their consideration set were investigated. The results show that in the shelf with two categories of products the participants hardly looked at the non-target products during the orientation phase or the verification phase. In the shelf with two differently packaged sandwich meats the participants looked at both parts of the shelf during the orientation phase but significantly more at their selfselected target area during the verification phase. These results highlight the importance of products signaling appropriate attributes in order to even be looked at.

  • 46763.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Austria.
    PET-USES2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, Fischer-Hübner, Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46764.
    Wästlund, Titti
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Vierling, Stephanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Vad styr köp av miljöbil?: En empirisk studie om efterfrågan på miljöbilar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Government's vision of a fossil-free vehicle fleet in 2030 put a high demand on the technical development and sale of green cars, also named as clean vehicles. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the trend of the share of clean vehicles into the Swedish market from January 2009 to February 2015. This work will also assess whether there is any economic variable that affects the purchase of clean vehicles as well as regular passenger cars. The variables tested are as follows; price on car, petrol price, micro index of the CCI, unemployment, disposable income and interest rate. The result of a segmented regression analysis showed an increased trend in the proportion of clean vehicles where time explaining growth. The study cannot explain the underlying factors, because none of the surveyed financial variables could explain the increase in sales of clean vehicles. Therefore the consumer preferences are assumed to be the strongest explanatory variable in the choice of driving a green car. The study could not identify any specific variable that have had a greater impact on the clean vehicles sales due to total sales of passenger cars. For the government to realize the vision of a fossil-free vehicle fleet more studies about consumer preferences related to the choice of clean vehicles is required. Demand for cars seems to constantly increase and therefore it is doubtful whether the car will ever be substituted off. Therefore the fuel plays the lead role in the evolution towards a more environment-friendly society in order to create opportunities to achieve the vision of a fossil-free fleet.

  • 46765.
    Wäxfeldt, Helene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Work-life balance inom rättspsykiatrin: En kvalitativ studie av förhållandet mellan   arbete och privatliv hos rättspsykiatrins personal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka rättspsykiatrisk personals upplevelse av förmågan att kunna skilja arbete och privatliv utifrån ett work-life balance perspektiv. Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på tolv intervjuer med personer som jobbar inom olika områden inom rättspsykiatrin. Analysen gjordes utifrån Braun och Clarks variant av tematisk analys.

    De flesta personerna som deltog i studien upplevde att de kunde separera arbete och privatliv på ett tillfredställande sätt, vilket visar att de även uppnått work-life balance utifrån egna förmågor och behov. De arbetsrelaterade situationer som visade sig vara det som påverkade personalen mest under fritiden var konflikter eller problem i arbetsgruppen. Tankar och oro kring personalkonflikterna var det som upplevdes svårast att koppla bort under fritiden. Även viss emotionell påverkan kopplad till patienterna beskrevs men upplevdes inte lika påfrestande som konflikter i personalgruppen. Handledning, stöd från kollegor och ett stabilt och tryggt privatliv var saker som hjälpte personalen att inte känna negativ inverkan från arbetet på privatlivet.

  • 46766.
    Wåger, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Grupperingar i skolvärlden: En studie om hur lärare i särskolan uppfattar mötet mellan grundskolan och grundsärskolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some teachers in special school´s perceptions of the meeting of compulsory school and special school. In this study, ethnocentrism is used as a theoretical framework, the theory which is built on the meeting between groups and how they interact. The study has a phenomenographic onset, which is a qualitative method. The gathering of data was made through interviews, one to one. Five interviews were made and analyzed by the use of phenomenographic analysis. Five categories were identified: Inclusion, commitment and interest, knowledge about special school, to be forgotten, and differences in cognitive approach. In the sample space the underlying structures was discussed by ethnocentrism, as well as previous literature and research. Some common points of contact between ethnocentrism and previous research on the meeting could be found. What the study also found was that four out of five respondents felt a sense of belonging in school, while one felt that the Special school was excluded from the regular school. The respondents could all agree on the fact that several factors affected the meeting. These five categories could be seen as areas of improvement in schools that want to work in an inclusive manner. These factors were also lifted in previous research on special school and inclusion.

  • 46767. Wåger, Jonny
    Syns man inte - finns man inte: En kvalitativ studie om självpresentation på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46768. Wågerud, Rebecca
    Dyskalkyli - vad är det?2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 46769. Wåhlander, Kajsa
    FMT vid Downs syndrom och Alzheimers sjukdom2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 46770.
    Wåhleman, Martin
    Karlstad University, Division for Ingesund College of Music.
    Gruppstorlek och betyg i ämnet musik2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My experience from teaching music in elementary school has motivated this study, the purpose of which is to evaluate the relationship between pupils’ grades and the size of classes in the classroom. The investigation was limited to only include grades from the 9th (last) year of elementary school in the subject of music, the size of the class, and the differences between girls and boys.

    The results of the study demonstrated that no correlation between higher grades and smaller classes was established. The differences between the results and the statistics from the Swedish National Agency for Education were too small to prove any connections. Additional aspects must be evaluated to be able to show any relationship, and prove a connection between given grades, the size of classes, and their skills

  • 46771. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Differences in News Angels between countries - comparing newspapers in the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Sweden2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är idén om möjligheten att hitta en absolut sanning ifrågasatt och människor blir mer och mer medvetna om den dolda dagordning som styr det globala nyhetsflödet. Frågan är snarast: vem styr dagordningen? Vilka åsikter framställs som Sanningen? Det är inte alltid självklart att få möjlighet att föra fram sin egen version av en händelse. Denna uppsats undersöker artiklar som tar upp det amerikanska kongressvalet som hölls den 5 november 2002. Artiklarna kommer från tretton tidningar i sju olika länder – USA, Storbritannien, Frankrike, Tyskland, Italien, Schweiz och Sverige. Innehållet i dessa artiklar analyseras ur olika perspektiv, primärt med hjälp av Geert Hofstedes interkulturella teori, men även mediaägande och -historik tas med i beräkningen. Dessutom kan inrikespolitiska mål ofta märkas, exempelvis i ländernas medielagstiftning. Studien visar det amerikanska perspektivets genomslagskraft, men även hur nationella media i varje land har en egen dagordning som inte nödvändigtvis följer den amerikanska linjen. Den valda teorin kan förklara en del av skillnaderna mellan de undersökta länderna, men studien tar också upp frågan om hur samhället förändras och om media formas av kulturen den är en del av eller om media istället formar kulturen. Det troligaste svaret är: både och. Den vinkling som media väljer kommer att bidra till att forma till en framtida historieskrivning. De olika vinklingarna är därför viktiga eftersom ett flertal synvinklar kan ge en mer nyanserad och balanserad sanning.

  • 46772. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Freedom for just one night - the promise and threat of information and communication technologies2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Not many novels have been written about technology from a female perspective, but Jeanette Winterson’s The PowerBook and Pat Cadigan’s children’s book Avatar are two examples where information and communication technologies (ICT) play a major role. That women often see the benefits of a less regulated space provided by the technology is explored in these two novels. In this essay I will study them through the lens of Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of smooth and striated space. The focus has been on three different issues: information and communication technology’s impact on identity; privacy and security on the Internet; and also – since both of the authors are women, who consider gender-related strategies – female views of ICT. The novels contradict the idea that there is a virtual reality entirely separated from the real world; both imply that although ICT creates a virtual environment, the meetings and communications that take place in it are real, especially from an emotional perspective. The novels suggest that the characters’ sense of identity and security often is tested when opposites – smooth/striated, online/offline, virtual/real, emotional/technical, private/public – collide, when this collision triggers an emotional response. In Avatar emotions are in fact a method to authenticate the validity of what happens in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the collision and its impact on the emotions create an indeterminacy, a smooth space, and seems to be a narrative strategy for both Winterson and Cadigan, which they both use to examine a number of issues, including patriarchy, which shows what these female authors think is possible to do with the help of ICT. Both texts study how the Internet – and the thoughts mediated through the Internet – influence individuals and societies. As a new medium, Internet can be considered new territory, a new frontier. Whose thoughts are going to be trendsetting on the Net? Who colonizes Cyberspace? Both authors point towards the benefits of a more balanced viewpoint, where more angles than one are taken into account, and what can happen when a hegemonic world-view has been shaken. These novels convincingly show that it is in the dynamic tension between smooth and striated that new viewpoints can be found.

  • 46773. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    “To catch sight of her and then again to lose her” - trickster behaviur in Virgina Woolfs Orlando2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several of the characters in Virginia Woolf’s Orlando have traits that resembles those of a classical female folk-tale trickster, who exposes hypocrisies and stupidities in the patriarchal society and introduces new ways of thinking. My aim is mainly to explore how the narrator in Orlando, but also some of the characters in the novel, can be said to function as tricksters. Additionally, my intention is to investigate the motivations behind the use of trickster attributes. The novel gives us an opportunity to explore different structures, both literary ones, in this case biography writing, and social ones. The psychological and social issues connected with gender are foregrounded and examined when Orlando changes from man to woman. Orlando’s shape-shifting gives us the opportunity to study the tricks, masks and disguises women hide behind in order to please, use or transform men; to be able to have more power over their own lives. The way the narrator displays multiple view-points can help the reader to break free from ”habits of thinking” and critically examine the expected roles of men and women. By violating the norms of society the characters are in a position to define new rules for themselves, and create a space where they can live a less restricted life. In my opinion, the novel suggests that any woman – or man – who wants to break out of the patriarchal society’s confining structures seems to be forced to become a trickster.

  • 46774. Wåhlström Bäcke, Maria
    Zum schwedischen Dialekt Malungsmål und dessen Beziehungen zur deutschen Sprache2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker samband och likheter, primärt grammatiska sådana, mellan det tyska språket och malungsmål, en svensk dialekt från Dalarna. Uppsatsen ger först en kort översikt över teorier om hur dialekter i både Tyskland och Sverige förändras grammatiskt och ger sedan en mer detaljerad bild av dialekten malungsmål. Denna bild bygger bland annat på den grammatiska kartläggning dialektforskare som Lars Levander och Ola Bannbers gjorde av dialekter i Dalarna under tidigt 1920-tal. I februari 2001 gjordes fem korta intervjuer av lärare och studenter vid Västerdalarnas gymnasieskola i Malung och en enkätundersökning där totalt 166 svar inkom. Både intervjuer och enkätundersökning visade på en tendens att det är en fördel att utgå från sina eventuella kunskaper om dialekten vid inlärning av tyska eftersom det, som intervjuer, enkätundersökning och speciellt den grammatiska översikten visar, finns många likheter, i synnerhet strukturella sådana, mellan tysk grammatik och malungsmålets grammatik. Uppsatsen avslutas med en önskan om att lärare i Malung ska dra fördel av dessa likheter och dra paralleller mellan dialekten och tyskan i sin undervisning, eftersom detta kan ge ytterligare infallsvinklar som kan tydliggöra och underlätta språkinlärning.

  • 46775. Wåhlén, Christina
    Rollen som brandman - förväntningar, erfarenheter och "hjälten"2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 46776. Wåhlén, Christina
    Åklagares handläggning av förundersökningsprotokoll av våld mot kvinnor2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 46777.
    Wålberg, Mads
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Självbestämmande teori och redskapsgymnastik: Kan autonomi-stödjande miljöer i idrott och hälsa öka elevers inre motivation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working with students in Physical Education has been through a change because of, according to research, indications that young people aren´t involved in physical activities as much as in the past. This means that the educational planning should adapt to the teaching to fit as many pupils as possible free of the cognitive and physical conditions. The purpose of this study is to examine how an SDT (Self-Determination Theory)-based intervention affect students ' motivation in gymnastics. The study aims to see how an experimental intervention affects a class in comparison with another more controlled gymnastics-lesson. In order to reach the result the study has used questionnaires before and after the intervention. The result of this shows little difference in motivation changes between the groups, but the study is sharing light upon other perspectives on how to consider the objectives and issues. These differences are discussed and conclude that the study opens up new discussions and potentially new ideas by implementing of SDT pedagogically and didactically as well as suggestions for further research that can provide further proof of the SDT as a motivational approach within other areas in Physical Education.

  • 46778.
    Wålberg, Tommy Sorknes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Tellfors, Gwendolyn
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    ScanAuto: 15 - minuters service, ett nytt koncept!2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 46779. Wålfors, Carl
    1770-talets fria marknad: En skildring om finansminister Johan Liljencrantz frisläppande av spannmålshandeln 1775 och 17802018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this essay is to research the ideological motives behind the extrication of the grain trade in 1775 and 1780. To do this research I have to see the Swedish state and farmers economic situation before 1775 and after 1775, but also what time Liljencrantz lived in and how relevant the time was to the reform. The starting point for this essay is using the functionalism analysis with action axiom of praxeology in mind to see the relationship between the state and the individual.

       During the early 18th century, Sweden had a mercantile system where the industry had to be protected with high tariffs and a strong nobility owning them. During the enlightenment thinkers like Adam Smith, Anders Chydenius and to some extent physiocrats sought a society with free market that would have the result of more wealth, to the nation as well as to the citizen. The result of this essay is that Liljencrantz reform were the causes of his time and political view, the time of enlightenment and physiocracy to make the farmer more free and prosperous. It was also the start of the more liberal economy that would dominate the Swedish society in the 1800 hundreds.

  • 46780. Wålfors, Carl
    Civilsamhällets inverkan på välfärden: En kvalitativ studie om Esping- Andersens svenska socialdemokratiska välfärdsmodell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gösta Esping- Andersen released his book The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990. In it he described Sweden as beeing a social democratic welfare society. At the same time, the country was in a financial decline and the government had to privatize public utilities in order to stabilaze the economy. The government had to change the way it governed. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the impact of civil societies social institutions and the relationship between theese organisations and the state. To fullfill this purpose this study has two questions at its disposal; Has the demand for the work of the Salvation Army developed over time? How can this be related to a change in the state's welfare model?   

    This study uses a qualitative systematic text analysis to examine documents from the swedish governmental inquiries and the Salvation Army. In addition to that, this essay uses the public governance- perspective as a theory.     

    The result is that the Salvation Armys demand, in case of revenue, has steadliy increades since the early 2000s. Their social institutions is a somewhat of a complement to the governmental ones, especilly in the case of providing shelter for the homeless. The conclusion is therefore that the swedish social democratic welfare state has shown more liberal tendencies which is consistent with other research examining different types of organisations in the civil society.   

  • 46781. Wålfors, Carl
    Doktor Hellers öde: En studie i rättegången i maj 1945 avseende misstanke om tyskt spionage i Värmlands gränstrakter2017Student paper second term, 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46782. Wålfors, Carl
    "Jordbruket är inte vilken industri som helst": Centerpartiets krispaket till lantbruket 20182019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46783.
    Wållberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    A summery in English of the master thesis: The influence of the accounting law: An evaluation of the annual reports among non-profit associations2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have in this master thesis chosen to evaluate limit us to the non-profit fundraising associations. The evaluation is based on what Vedung(1998) the side-effect model, where we have the purposes of the law as the point of departure, to see that these law purposes are fulfilled. With this model we have also seen if there are any side-effects that were not foreseen.

    In the analysis we have compared the non-profit associations’ annual reports with each other and with one profit making limited company. The evaluation shows that the annual reports are now more alike than before, both between each other and with the profit making limited company. However there is still room for the associations to use the annual report in a marketing-oriented way, to “sell” themselves to the stakeholders. Before 2001 it was almost impossible to compare the non-profit associations’ annual reports. The profit making limited companies annual reports are much more focused on numbers, this probably has to do with that the stakeholders’ wishes return on investment. A donor to a non-profit association rather wants to know that his/her money have done someone’s life to the better.

    Our conclusions in this master thesis are that the new accounting law have affected the non-profit associations’ annual reports, this when they now are obligated to form its accounting according to ÅRL. But in the same time we also believe that the law not only has affected how the annual reports are formed. The expectations from the stakeholders, the accountants etc. also forms how they arrange the annual report, have also been affected. If any side effects that have arisen since the law changed among the non-profit associations’ annual reports are not easy to find. This is because it is still differences between a profit making limited company and a non-profit association, but they are now under the same annual report rules.

  • 46784. Wånggren, Maria
    Lärares konflikthantering bland elever - en studie i en sydafrikansk kåkstadsskola2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen handlar om hur vi som lärare ska få eleverna trygga i skolan. Mitt syfte med studien är att lära mig hur jag kan arbeta förebyggande så att min klass blir en samspelt grupp där man visar varandra respekt, är vänner och kan lösa konflikter på ett konstruktivt sätt. Resultatet har nåtts bl.a. genom intervjuer med lärare på en Sydafrikansk kåkstadsskola. Hur löser de sina konflikter, som har dubbelt elevantal och helt andra förutsättningar mot vad vi har i Sverige? Jag intervjuade 5 lärare, var och en enskilt, på engelska under min praktik i Sydafrika. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att de genom samtal med sina elever försöker att öka sammanhållningen och gruppkänslan i klassen. Dessa samtal handlar om hur värdefull var och en av oss människor är och också om hur vi ska vara rädda om varandra. De poängterar att man ska behandla andra som man vill bli behandlad själv. De talar med eleverna om att när de är i skolan är det klassen som är deras familj och därmed ska de dela med sig. Att få elever som inte är trygga i sig själva att känna sig trygga i grupp är svårt. Lärarna poängterar att många elever kommer från en så otrygg hemmiljö att det kan vara mycket svårt att få dem att känna sig trygga i grupp. En av lärarna nämner dock att just p.g.a. den otrygga hemmiljön väljer många barn att se klassen som sin familj, vilket de menar skapar en bra gruppkänsla.

  • 46785. Wöhrer, Erwin
    Measuring progress in written English2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to measure progress in written English by means of an error analysis. The analysis was applied to texts produced by three different age groups and the errors found in the different error categories were used as a yardstick in the comparison of the age groups. The corpus of this study consisted of 36 compositions written by pupils in grade nine of the compulsory school and in grade one and two of the Swedish ‘gymnasium’. The major part of the study dealt with the analysis of errors in the areas of grammar, vocabulary and orthography. The results show that the percentage of orthographical errors was almost the same in all three grades. Within the group of grammatical errors there was no clear tendency found. The category of lexical errors showed a clear improvement from grade 9 through 10 while a remarkable increase of errors was found in grade 11. The study shows also that pupils make a greater improvement from grade 9 through 10 than from grade 10 through 11 with respect to the length of the compositions and the number of errors.

  • 46786. Wündsch, Estrella
    Stödundervisning - en studie i skolår 52004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt intresse av och min nyfikenhet på den så kallade stödundervisningen i skolan gjorde att jag började fundera på ämnet. I mitt arbete undersöker jag hur skolan hjälper elever som inte klarade av de nationella ämnesproven i årskurs fem. Styrdokumenten lägger ett stort ansvar på skolan för dessa elever. Arbetets huvudsyfte var att kartlägga och utvärdera det särskilda stöd som skolan, enligt styrdokumenten, skall ge till dessa elever som inte blev godkända på de nationella ämnesproven i årskurs fem. Det var viktigt att få veta hur eleverna upplever problemet och också att fråga deras föräldrar om deras uppfattning. Jag har valt forskningsintervju och enkät som metod. Forskningsintervju visar sig vara den mest rekommenderade metoden när det gäller kvalitativ forskning och enkäten fungerar bra som ett komplement till arbetet som har att göra med föräldrarna. Arbetet gjordes i en skola i Mellansverige. Föräldrarna gav mig tillåtelse att intervjua deras barn. Alla data analyserades och som resultat fick jag veta att det finns stor vilja att ge eleverna mer och bättre stödundervisning, men pengarna räcker inte alltid för att göra så. Skolpersonalen arbetar aktivt för att göra vad lagen säger. Det kanske är så att stödundervisning borde ses som ett sätt att förebygga problem. För att göra det behövs mer personal eller färre elever i varje klass.

  • 46787. Wündsch, Estrella
    et al.
    Urzua del Pozo, Cynthia
    El castellano de la Edad Media en la novela La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 46788.
    Wüpper, Lara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Mitt ansvar, andras ansvar eller vårt ansvar: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas resonemang kring kriser och sin egna krisberedskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen är syftet att studera hur unga vuxna, i åldern 20 till 35, resonerar kring kriser och sin egna krisberedskap samt hur deras resonemang kan förstås. I urvalet för studien har syftet varit att intervjua både kvinnor och män som är bosatta antingen i en stad eller utanför en stad, mer definierat stadsområde eller landsbygd. Urvalet har gjorts för att kunna se eventuella skillnader beroende på geografiskt placerad bostadsplats eller beroende på kön. Empirin för studier har samlats in genom tio strukturerade intervjuer baserade på fyra teman: bakgrundsfrågor, krissituationer, upplevt ansvar och syn på framtiden. I det analytiska arbetet framkom tre teman och ett av dessa var att några av informanterna visade ett mycket engagerat förhållningssätt till krisberedskap, vilket visade sig genom att de antingen var pålästa, hade förberett en plan eller att de hade materiella saker hemma, eller alla tre delar. Ett andra tema var att några av informanterna visade på ett minimalt engagerat förhållningssätt till krisberedskap, vilket visade sig genom att det inte hade varken tänkt på det eller förberett sig. Ytterligare ett tema som framkom var att några av informanterna visade på en vilja att hjälpa till vid händelse av en kris. Studien har visat att personerna som deltagit resonerar på olika sätt kring kriser och krisberedskap; antingen anser de att det är deras egna ansvar, antingen så anser de att det är någon annans ansvar eller så anser de att det finns ett gemensamt ansvar. Resultatet har analyserats med tillit och det imaginära som teoretiska utgångspunkter, där det har visat sig att informanternas erfarenheter påverkar vilka intressen och värderingar som de har idag.  

  • 46789.
    Xing, Hong
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Service Innovation in Hotel Industry: Case Study of InfoQuest2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being developed for centuries, Hotel Industry has been in its maturity period for a long time. Confronted with fierce competition and the current global economic crisis, it becomes a hot topic in Hotel Industry how to maintain and raise revenues. By shifting focus from ‘Goods-Dominant Logic’ to ‘Service-Dominant Logic’, Service Science presents a new perspective on value creation and service experience. In this new perspective, value is co-created by various roles, experienced and evaluated by customers. However, the problem is how to implement theories in a specific industry. Focusing on hotel industry, this paper aims to illustrate how service evolves with the development of technology and theory based on the case study of InfoQuest, which is an IT company mainly providing SaberKnot. InfoQuest redefines several economic roles (hotels, IT system provider, local businesses and customers) and relationships among them (from a linear model to a netlike model) where it injects Hotel Industry with new vitality. Both competitive advantages and potential problems that might arise from the service innovation are subsequently discussed. At last, a further analysis is made on the China market in order to show the possibility of that business entering into China.

  • 46790.
    Xinzhu, Jin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Channel Estimation Techniques of SC-FDMA2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This master thesis investigates several di®erent channel estimation techniques in an SC-

    FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) system with parameters set

    according to the standards of 3GPP LTE (3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term

    Evolution). 3GPP LTE is the name given to a project within the 3GPP to improve the

    mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. In this thesis, we ¯rst introduce

    the SC-FDMA system, which is a transmission technique that utilizes single carrier mod-

    ulation, then ¯ve types of estimators are investigated. Essential to all channel estimatiors

    is the use of pilot symbols. In the last part we compare the performance of the channel

    estimation techniques with each other in di®erent environments by analysing their symbol

    error rates. All simulations are done in a Matlab environment.

  • 46791.
    Xoljé, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Innovation inom outsourcing av IT: En kvalitativ studie utifrån leverantörens möjligheter att bidra2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-branschen är en av de marknader som konstant växer och krav på nya uppfinningar och innovationer är höga. Outsourcing har under en längre tid används av IT-företag för att kunna reducera kostnader för produktion och utveckling. Outsourcing är även ett bra alternativ för att erhålla expertis inom ett visst område där företag saknar erfarenhet eller resurser. Innovation är en del av företags utveckling och när hela eller delar av företagens IT-avdelningar blir outsourcade är det naturligt att även tillhörande delar av innovationsprocessen har förflyttats. Leverantören är den part som i praktiken utvecklar innovationen i outsourcingavtalet. Leverantörerna får en strikt budget och tidsram från kunden att följa för varje projekt. Innovation är kreativt, föränderligt och levande. Dessutom är innovation dyrt. Helt motsägelsefullt mot outsourcing. Leverantörer har en svår uppgift i att arbeta utifrån kundens krav och samtidigt försöka realisera innovationer. Syftet med studien är att undersöka på vilket sätt leverantörer bidrar med innovation inom outsourcing av IT.Studien har utförts med en kvalitativ fallstudiemetod. Intervjuer har genomförts med fyra olika respondenter på ett stort IT-företag som nästan helt uteslutande arbetar med outsourcing. Den största nackdelen med outsourcing är de stora kraven på kostnadsbesparing, den har en negativ inverkan på innovationen. Alla respondenter har uttryckt att de som leverantör har möjlighet att bidra med innovation men att kostnadsbesparingarna kan göra utrymmet för innovation begränsat i vissa fall. Övergången till det agila arbetssättet har hjälpt till att främja innovationsförmågan hos leverantören.

  • 46792.
    Xu, Cathrine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Liv mellan himmel och jord: Barns tankar om livet, döden och livets uppkomst2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to make children’s thoughts about life, death and their concept of origin of life visible. Through a combined biological- and philosophical perspective my aim is to make children’s diversity of thoughts visual. My chosen method for my study is semi-structured interviews integrated with drawings with children between 5-7 years old. In the result of the study children´s different way of understanding and expressing their thoughts about life become visible. The result also shows children’s different concept about origin of life connected to a naturalistic-, an evolutionary -and a creationist theory. I noticed a great curiosity and engagement from the participating children and a distinct commitment to reflect over given topics. The collected data gave a clear illustration of children’s different kind of thoughts of being alive, life and death and their understanding of origin of life.

  • 46793.
    Xu, Damiao
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Yang, Duo
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives on University Students' Buying Behavior2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46794. Xu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Yang, Qing
    Qian, Xuhong
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University.
    Janson, Jan-Christer
    Uppsala University.
    Assessment of 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride reductase activity in homogenates of bakers’ yeast by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography2007In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 847, no 2, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46795.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Marshall, Roger
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Show you care: initiating co-creation in service recovery2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying mechanism of customer co-creation in service recovery (co-recovery), and investigates the impact of initiation on customer post-recovery evaluations and behavioural intentions.

    Design/methodology/approach – Researchers used a 3 (no co-recovery vs employee-initiated co-recovery vs customer-initiated co-recovery)×2 (male vs female)×2 (western vs eastern customers) between-subject experiential study in a hotel setting.

    Findings – When a service employee initiates a co-recovery, customers perceive higher justice, greater satisfaction and a higher tendency to repurchase in the future. But if the customer initiates such a co-recovery, little improvement on these outcomes is found compared to a recovery entirely managed by the company. The effect was moderated by culture: western customers were more sensitive to initiation in the co-recovery process than eastern customers.

    Research limitations/implications – Written scenarios using a hotel setting and a technical error were used, and may reduce the applicability of the findings to real life or other service categories or types of error. Subjects used may not be representative of other population groups. Further studies using real life situations, human error and a more diverse population group are recommended.

    Practical implications – A positive co-recovery can be achieved by service employees taking initiatives when a problem occurs.

    Originality/value – This study extends previous research on co-recovery by investigating the effect of initiation by service employees on customers’ perception of co-creation. Service companies can improve customers’ post-recovery evaluations by inviting them to co-create a feasible solution, and potentially reduce the company's compensation costs.

  • 46796.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland university, New Zealand.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Hedmark university college.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Recovering service failure through resource integration2014In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 16, p. 1259-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customers and employees can co-create a resolution following a service failure through integrating their resources. Their activities and interactions during resource-integration shape the customers' service recovery experiences. Prior research overlooks resource integration between all involved actors in a co-created service recovery process. This research details the process with two empirical studies. Study 1 is a qualitative analysis of narratives of service recovery experiences; Study 2 is a quantitative assessment of scenario-based survey data. The results show that a favourable service recovery experience is resulted from integrating all involved actors' resources in a mutually beneficial manner. Three key resources are financial compensation, service skills including communication and timing. Our findings indicate that co-created service recovery fails in the absence of just one resource or mismatches in their integration. The combined studies reveal that customers use their justice perceptions to assess activities and interactions for resource integration in service recovery.

  • 46797. Yadoitsev, Igor
    et al.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, Ina
    Hierarchical design principles of selective laser melting for high quality metallic objects2015In: Additive manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 7, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46798. Yadroitsev, I
    et al.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, I
    Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: Temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution2014In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 583, p. 404-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46799.
    Yadroitsev, I.
    et al.
    Cent Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Yadroitsava, I.
    Cent Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa.
    Du Plessis, A.
    Univ Stellenbosch, CT Scanner Facil, ZA-7602 Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Qualification of Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for Biomedical Applications2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 372-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rectangular Ti6Al4V extralow interstitials (ELI) samples were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in vertical and horizontal orientations relative to the build platform and subjected to various heat treatments. Detailed analyses of porosity, microstructure, residual stress, tensile properties, fatigue, and fracture surfaces were performed based on x-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The types of fracture and the tensile fracture mechanisms of the LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were also studied. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties were compared against standard specifications for conventional Ti6Al4V alloy for use in surgical implant applications. Conclusions regarding the mechanical properties and heat treatment of LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI for biomedical applications are made.

  • 46800.
    Yadroitsev, I
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Yadroitsava, I
    Université de , France.
    Johansson, S
    Linköpings universitet.
    Smurov, I
    Université de Lyon.
    Energy input effect on morphology and microstructure of selective laser melting single track from metallic powder2013In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 213, no 4, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
933934935936937938939 46751 - 46800 of 47948
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