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  • 451.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Evans, MartynHeath, IonaMacNaughton, Jane
    Medical Humanities Companion: Volume One: Symptom2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 452.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Evans, MartynLouhiala, PekkaPuustinen, Raimo
    Medical Humanities Companion: Volume two: Diagnosis2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a person falls ill, their experience changes - sometimes in a very minor and transient way, sometimes in a decisive and lasting one. ‘Diagnosis’ is often seen as the process of scientifically and objectively identifying the causes of this subjective experience, but is the process and meaning of ‘diagnosis’ really as simple as this implies?

    As this volume of The Medical Humanities Companion argues, diagnoses are an answer to complex human needs that spring from being ill, and are in turn a complex, culturally mediated interaction between individuals, scientific discoveries, social negotiation and historical change. This volume makes visible the complexities and ambiguities involved in giving and receiving diagnoses, and how they shape and are shaped by views on what is real and acceptable, and how people relate to the phenomena of illness.

  • 453. Ahlén, Camilla
    Språklig påverkan1999Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språket är den enskilda faktor som påverkar vår verklighet mest. Hur vi använder det och i vilken form är avgörande för hur vårt liv gestaltar sig. Genom mänsklighetens historia har människans språk utvecklats jämsides med människan själv. Vi har gått från en talspråkighet via skriftspråk och en typografiskkultur till en andra talspråkighet som har sin grund i ett skriftspråk. I de båda talspråkigheterna presenterar vi våra sanningar muntligt, skillnaden ligger i att i den andra talspråkigheten formuleras sanningarna först skriftligt sedan presenteras de muntligt. Det är därför av största vikt att vi värnar om vårt skriftspråk så att vi alla har möjligheten att vara med och påverka verkligheten runt omkring oss.

  • 454. Ahlén, Emelie
    Anpassning till elevers studieinriktning i Historia A2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kursen Historia A läses idag av elever från samhällsvetenskapliga-, estetiska- och naturvetenskapliga programmet. Dessutom kan elever från ytterligare fem program läsa historia som valbar kurs. I kursplanen för Historia A står det att kursen skall utformas efter elevers studieinriktning, men frågan är om någon sådan anpassning sker i praktiken. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka programanpassning av A-kursen i historia, hur denna anpassning kan se ut samt vad lärare och elever har för uppfattning om programanpassning. Om någon sådan inte förekommer är syftet också att undersöka vad det kan bero på. Tidigare utredningar från skolverket visar att många skolor inte använder programmålen. Någon undersökning har dock inte gjorts gällande programanpassning i historia. Utifrån den tidigare forskningen har följande tre forskningsfrågor formulerats: 1. Förekommer det någon programanpassning i kursen Historia A med avseende på innehåll, arbetssätt, studietakt och bedömning och hur ser denna i sådana fall ut? 2. Vilka för- och nackdelar ser lärare samt elever med programanpassning i kursen Historia A? 3. Vad kan det bero på om programanpassning inte förekommer i kursen Historia A? Utgångspunkten för detta examensarbete har varit nationella och lokala styrdokument. Resultaten bygger på en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer med sex lärare och tjugofyra elever på en skola i Västra Götalandsregionen. En avgränsning har gjort till estetiska-, media-, naturvetenskapliga- och samhällsvetenskapsprogrammet. Slutsatserna på den första frågan är att programanpassning förekommer i varierad utsträck-ning på de fyra program som deltagit i studien. Innehållsmässig anpassning förekommer främst i NV, i viss utsträckning på SP, men överhuvudtaget inte i ES och MP. Anpassning av arbetssättet förekommer inte på något program, i alla fall inte som en medveten instruktion från lärarna. Studietakten uppges vara hög, men har inte anpassats på något program. Däremot görs innehållet lättare på MP och mer teoretiskt på NV. Gällande bedömning är ambitionen att uppnå rättvisa, men flera lärare medger att elever i NV brukar få högre betyg. Lärarna är dock inte överens om det är svårare att få ett högt betyg i NV än i andra program, vilket även gäller eleverna. Oenighet råder också om möjligheten att få ett högt betyg i ES och MP. Slutsatserna på den andra frågan är att lärarna främst anger nackdelar med programanpassning, medan elevernas uppfattning varierar mellan olika program. Lärarna anser att elevers intresse kan öka, men är rädda för ett alltför begränsat synsätt och minskad allmänbildning. Andra nackdelar uppges vara att lärare inte har tillräcklig kompetens, att det kräver mer planering samt kan försvåra en likvärdig bedömning. Bland eleverna är MP och en av NV-klasserna mest positiva, medan ES båda SP-klasserna samt en NV-klass är mer negativa. Fördelar är att intresset för ämnet kan öka, vilket kan resultera i högre betyg och elevaktivitet. Dessutom kan det bidra till helhetssyn och komma till nytta i andra ämnen. Nackdelar uppges vara minskad allmänbildning, ensidighet, orättvisa mellan program samt svårigheter att välja gymnasieprogram och vidareutbildning eftersom begränsade perspektiv har studerats. Slutsatserna på den tredje frågan är att det finns flera hinder som bristande planeringstid och kompetens, schemaläggning, avsaknad av programanpassade läroböcker, stora klasser samt utformningen av den kursutformade gymnasieskolan. Största hindren verkar dock vara lärarnas inställning samt den lokala kursplanen som fastställer A-kursens innehåll. Detta examensarbete är att betrakta som en fallstudie, vilket innebär att slutsatserna inte bör generaliseras. Dock styrks resultatet av tidigare utredningar, vilket tyder på att slutsatserna är trovärdiga. Min uppfattning är att programanpassning enbart bör förekomma då den ökar elevers förståelse och intresse för historia.

  • 455.
    Ahlén, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Föreningen för Karlstads Arbetsstugor2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 456. Ahlén, Merith
    Syskon - vilken betydelse har de för varandra?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 457.
    Ahlénius, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Öst, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Att ge eller att inte ge: En studie om projektledares arbete med återkoppling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of our paper is that feedback is needed as a tool on during work to make the individuals feel comfortable. This is basically related to our need of feeling accepted and to feel affinity. Research has demonstrated that the confirmation from the outside world is an important part of the individual's selfimage. In a project based environment, feedback is important, as project groups often consist of new constellations of people who quickly must learn to work together. If feed-back could be used successfully, this can have positive effects on work perfor-mance. The problem of providing feedback is how to give it in a constructive way so the receiver to take in the information and accept it. By examining past research, we examined why there is a need for feedback in project teams, what the research says that the giver should consider when it comes to feedback, and what consequences and results of feedback could be. Our purpose is, based on existing research, to examine how feedback is used in practice for five project managers. We asked ourselves following questions: Do project managers provide feedback? In what ways? How do they work with feedback? Do they know how the theory looks about the topic? How do they work to become better at giving feedback? To examine the issues, we used a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews. The interview subjects were all working in the same indus-try, the real estate industry. Our interview data were processed by transcribing and coding by predetermined themes. In our analysis we compared the theoretical background of the empirical data we collected. A matrix with a compilation of the collected data is presented in appendix 2. Our conclusion is that project managers mostly work with positive feedback and that giving negative feedback is perceived problematic. We also discovered that the project managers lacked a theo-retical knowledge about the subject and that the skills they possessed, had they learned through experience.

  • 458.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oulu, Finland.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    University of Oulu, Finland .
    Markkula, Jouni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Student perceptions and attitudes towards the software factory as a learning environment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 459.
    Ahmad, Ramjar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Den hållbara urbanplaneringens paradoxer: The paradoxes of unsustainable urban planning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  This paper has investigated two urban planning ideals that emerges in the planning process. The study's starting point has been sustainable development to study the two existing urban planning ideals today. This means that the compact city and the green city has been the main focus of this study, but sustainability has large space with many of the aspects that is expected to lead to sustainable development. A case study was used to investigate how Karlstad is working on the issue and how the paradox appears in the municipal planning. Karlstad is currently developing a new green structure plan. The study's empirical evidence is based on two interviews with Karlstad municipality officials. The municipal documents Karlstad municipality's comprehensive plan (2012) and Olmårs densification study (2007) has been used. The municipal documents and the interview material was analyzed through meaning content. The study's analysis is based on the study's empirical and theoretical background which shows that there is a paradox in Karlstad municipality's urban planning. It also shows a trend in which cities aim to achieve the sustainable city. As the concept of sustainability is a diffuse concept, the compact city and the green city has become a complex strategy to achieve the sustainable city. This means that the green and compact city can be viewed from several different angles. Karlstad municipality's vision of the compact city is to have a compact city especially in the central parts of the city. These areas are green areas today. A planning dilemma between the aspirations of the planning arises, in which these must be weighed against each other. This means that if the green structure is prioritized then another aspect must be weighed out. In other words; there is a paradox in Karlstad municipal´s urban planning, and this means that if the green structure priority needs another aspect weighed out. This means that there is a paradox in municipal urban planning, and this is shown in this paper.

  • 460.
    ahmad, waqas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Development of algorithm for li-ion batteries in electric vehicles, taking into account SOC, charge control, cell balancing and SOF.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 461.
    Ahmadi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Dahlgren, Kim
    Karlstad University.
    Karlsson Solaiman, Ari
    Karlstad University.
    Rabitsch, Alexander
    Karlstad University.
    Adding support for NEAT to iperf32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NEAT is an ongoing project which aims to re-enable the evolution ofthe transport layer of the Internet while at the same time providing aneasy to use API for developers of networked software. Researchers behindthe NEAT project has expressed an interest in a trac generator whichutilizes the NEAT framework in order to more easily conduct experiments,however, no such trac generator has previously been available. The goalof this project was to deliver a working implementation of NEAT in iperf3.This report covers the overall design, implementation and design decisionsmade during the project.

  • 462.
    Ahmadi, Nezar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Jag är mer än bara en flykting: En kvalitativ studie av utrikesfödda högutbildade personer i lågkvalificerade yrken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 463.
    Ahmadullah, Morshid Safi
    Karlstad University.
    Teaching and Learning second language: A comparison of teaching and learning Arabic and Dari languages in Secondary Schools of Kabul.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Afghan languages are, influenced by Arabic in the field of academic terms. Also, several Arabic words need to be learnt for daily conversation in Afghanistan. This study is about students and teachers’ views about learning and teaching Arabic and Dari as two second languages in the areas of Kabul where the residents’ native language as well as the language of instruction is Pashto. The aim of the study is to explore similarities and differences between teaching and learning Arabic and Dari in secondary schools of Kabul.

    The data for this quantitative study was collected from 9 schools in the eastern part of Kabul, Information was gathered through separate questionnaires for teachers and students as well as textbook analysis. The schools were selected via purposive sampling. A total of 60 students and 50 teachers (25 Dari and 25 Arabic) participated in this study.

    The main findings of the study included that all students are interested in learning both Arabic and Dari for various reasons. However, learning language helps students to understand the context of the textbooks and get knowledge about this is true about learning Arabic as it is a foreign language too.

    While teaching the languages, teachers only help students improve listening and reading skills as the teachers do most of the talking in class only sometime ask the students to repeat the lesson from textbook. The remaining two important skills i.e. writing and speaking are widely ignored because the teachers ask the students to do the writing at home and provide little time for verbal conversations inside class due to limited time.

    Likewise, the teachers thought it is important to focus on developing reading skills among students and very little or no attention is given to improving writing skills. In addition, memorization and recalling of information when required is the dominant feature of teaching in the schools I studied in this study.

    Arabic and Dari languages have lot of similarities, from having same alphabets to lot of common words. In my study most of students’ were interested to learn both Dari and Arabic, but the obstacle they faced during learning Arabic was, that there was not enough qualified Arabic language teachers but number of qualified teachers in Dari language was a lot and that made learning Dari easier for students who were interested.

    Generally, the results of this research confirm many previous results. However, a lot need to be done by teachers, school management and education authorities to improve the learning and teaching situations.

  • 464.
    Ahmadzai, Abdullah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN: A study of students’ drop   out and retention rates of boys and girls of primary schools in Maidan Wardak   Province - Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School access and staying in school is one the most important issue for the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan particularly for girls. According to the Ministry of Education (MoE), nearly seven million children have access to school in Afghanistan, 37 per cent of whom are girls.

    Students drop out of schools before completing their education cycle, to know who drops out and to what extent; this study describes some of factors that influence students to drop out of school in grade 4 and grade 6.

    To find out some factors that may influence girls and boys to drop out of schools in grade 4 and 6 six, structured interviews were conducted in 10 schools – 5 in rural area and 5 in urban area of Maidan Wardak province of Afghanistan. Data was collected by random sample from 32 girls and 48 boys who left schools. 20 teachers and 20 parents were also interviewed to know what their opinions are on drop out of students.

    After data collection, several factors were found to cause students drop out of schools; some of the most prominent causes were Poverty, lack of security, long distance to school and socio- culture factors.

    By looking to the current educational situation of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan, there is a need of research almost in all areas particularly in the area of girls’ education.

  • 465. Ahmadzai, Khurshied Etebari
    TEACHING METHODS OF ISLAMIC HISTORY SUBJECTS IN AFGHANISTAN:: An analysis of Teachers’ perception of Teaching Islamic History subject at Sayed Jamal-u-Din Teacher Training College and Madrasas in Kabul city.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of this research is to analyze the perception of teachers in applying teaching methods while teaching Islamic History subject in a Teacher Training College and two Madrasas (one male and one female) in Kabul city. The aim is to find out if the subject of history is taught as per the ministry of education (MoE) teaching rules and regulations. Moreover, the purpose of teaching at these institutes and the common problems faced by them are also investigated. In order to answer these questions, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 History teachers from Sayed Jamal-u-Din Teacher Training College and its relevant 14 districts Teacher Training Colleges and mentioned Madrasas in Kabul city that follows the same curriculum and textbooks. After collecting the questionnaires, 75% response rate was achieved. The output of the survey was arranged in categories in excel sheet based on three main research questions. Then, some tables were designed for presenting the frequencies and the percentages of the data and later it was used for the analysis collected data.

    Being explicit about teaching a subject makes it more interesting and motivates the students to learn it for a reason. As a result, recalling it is easier for learners. Therefore, it is very important for teachers to share the purpose of history with their students.

    Regarding the methods, the most common approach preferred by teachers was to lecture. Though lecture is not avoidable but it is under criticism for being biased and one way of transferring the data. In addition, there is no opportunity for students to share their experiences, ideas and the knowledge they have achieved from the lessons. There are other methods mentioned by teachers such as group work, discussion and students seminars, which are based on constructive approach. These methods expect students to be active and discuss and debate different issues and topics relevant to the lesson and at the same time observe the same phenomena from others perspectives as well.

    According to experienced teachers, the most common barriers in teaching Islamic History was tick textbooks as well as Arabic nature of Islamic History has mixed a lot of Arabic words into Dari version of text book. As a result, understanding the lessons becomes hard for students bearing in mind that difficult words and spelling mistakes adds up to this problem.

  • 466.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    EvoCreeper: Automated Black-Box Model Generation for Smart TV Applications2019In: IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, ISSN 0098-3063, E-ISSN 1558-4127, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Smart TVs are coming to dominate the televisionmarket. This accompanied by an increase in the use of the smartTV applications (apps). Due to the increasing demand, developersneed modeling techniques to analyze these apps and assess theircomprehensiveness, completeness, and quality. In this paper, wepresent an automated strategy for generating models of smartTV apps based on a black-box reverse engineering. The strategycan be used to cumulatively construct a model for a given app byexploring the user interface in a manner consistent with the use ofa remote control device and extracting the runtime information.The strategy is based on capturing the states of the user interfaceto create a model during runtime without any knowledge ofthe internal structure of the app. We have implemented ourstrategy in a tool called EvoCreeper. The evaluation results showthat our strategy can automatically generate unique states anda comprehensive model that represents the real user interactionswith an app using a remote control device. The models thusgenerated can be used to assess the quality and completeness ofsmart TV apps in various contexts, such as the control of otherconsumer electronics in smart houses.

  • 467.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Frajtak, Karel
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Cerny, Tomas
    Baylor University, Waco.
    Aspects of Quality in Internet of Things (IoT) Solutions: A Systematic Mapping Study2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 13758-13780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that has the promising power to change our future. Due to the market pressure, IoT systems may be released without sufficient testing. However, it is no longer acceptable to release IoT systems to the market without assuring the quality. As in the case of new technologies, the quality assurance process is a challenging task. This paper shows the results of the first comprehensive and systematic mapping study to structure and categories the research evidence in the literature starting in 2009 when the early publication of IoT papers for IoT quality assurance appeared. The conducted research is based on the most recent guidelines on how to perform systematic mapping studies. A set of research questions is defined carefully regarding the quality aspects of the IoT. Based on these questions, a large number of evidence and research papers is considered in the study (478 papers). We have extracted and analyzed different levels of information from those considered papers. Also, we have classified the topics addressed in those papers into categories based on the quality aspects. The study results carry out different areas that require more work and investigation in the context of IoT quality assurance. The results of the study can help in a further understanding of the research gaps. Moreover, the results show a roadmap for future research directions.

  • 468.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gargantini, Angelo
    University of Bergamo, Italy.
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yilmaz, Cemal
    Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Szeles, Marek
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Code-Aware Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019In: IET Software, ISSN 1751-8806, E-ISSN 1751-8814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a useful testing technique to address the interaction of input parameters in software systems. In many applications, the technique has been used as a systematic sampling technique to sample the enormous possibilities of test cases. In the last decade, most of the research activities focused on the generation of CIT test suites as it is a computationally complex problem. Although promising, less effort has been paid for the application of CIT. In general, to apply the CIT, practitioners must identify the input parameters for the Software-under-test (SUT), feed these parameters to the CIT tool to generate the test suite, and then run those tests on the application with some pass and fail criteria for verification. Using this approach, CIT is used as a black-box testing technique without knowing the effect of the internal code. Although useful, practically, not all the parameters having the same impact on the SUT. This paper introduces a different approach to use the CIT as a gray-box testing technique by considering the internal code structure of the SUT to know the impact of each input parameter and thus use this impact in the test generation stage. We applied our approach to five reliable case studies. The results showed that this approach would help to detect new faults as compared to the equal impact parameter approach.

  • 469.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pahim, Amador
    Red Hat Czech s.r.o., Brno, Czech Republic .
    Rosa Junior, Cleber R
    Red Hat, Inc., Westford, USA .
    Kuhn, D. Richard
    Natl Inst of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA .
    Bures, Miroslav
    Dept of Computer Science, Czech Technical Univ, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Towards an Automated Unified Framework to Run Applications for Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019In: EASE '19 Proceedings of the Evaluation and Assessment on Software Engineering, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 252-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a well-known technique,but the industrial experience is needed to determine its effectivenessin different application domains. We present a case study introducinga unified framework for generating, executing and verifyingCIT test suites, based on the open-source Avocado test framework.In addition, we present a new industrial case study to demonstratethe effectiveness of the framework. This evaluation showed thatthe new framework can generate, execute, and verify effective combinatorialinteraction test suites for detecting configuration failures(invalid configurations) in a virtualization system.

  • 470.
    Ahmed, Faisal Mahmood
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Estimated Droop Control for Parallel Connected Voltage Source Inverters: Stability Enhancement2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are considered as the replacement of conventionalenergy sources. These RES can use wind energy, solar light, bio waste and can alsobe in the form of small hydro power units. These RES has very poor power qualityand contains voltage uctuations and variable frequency. These factors make RES astability risk for the main utility grid. As a solution, currently inverters with dierentdesign techniques are being used as an interface between RES and main utility grid. Thecurrent study proposed a new technique "estimated droop control" for inverter design.The conventional droop control technique which was already used in inverter design, hasdiculty in synchronizing parallel connected inverters with dierent droop gains and lineimpedances. The proposed "estimated droop control" does not use any predened droopvalues for inverters and all inverters are responsible for the estimation of their own droopvalues with respect to their output power. Therefore, inverters are not bound to usesame and static droop values which are considered as a vital communication link. Theproposed design methodology has made inverters independent from this only virtual linkof communication due to which the reliability of a system has increased. The proposeddesign technique has given very good results in a simulation run. When the Simulinkmodel was run in parallel connected inverter with dierent line impedances, it was asuccess as both inverters started operating with same droop values as they were sharingan equal load. The most important test was with dierent line impedances because inconventional droop control it is dicult for inverters to keep their synchronism withdierent line impedances and an unequal load sharing make inverters to deviate fromtheir nominal values and to generate dierent tracking signals for each set. This problemhas been successfully solved with estimated droop control as in this method each inverterset its droop gains according to its output power, which helps an inverter to operate atnominal values with dierent droop gains and line impedance.

  • 471. Ahmed, Ilknor
    et al.
    Kristiansson, Marie
    Närståendes upplevelser av att vårda en demenssjuk person i hemmet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 472.
    Ahmed, Mohammed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Service Quality in Accounting Firms: its Effect on Client Satisfaction and Loyalty: A quantitative study based on the Swedish listed companies2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The quality of service is considered as an essential component in any service industry. It has been evolved in service marketing and has often been used in other research fields and sectors. Further, researchers have emphasized the importance of measuring the quality dimensions over years and in various industries in order to manage it. Also, they have proposed that enhancing the quality of services enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty, in turn that will enable the service provider to meet the changes and challenges in its business environment.

    Purpose: Based on listed companies’ perception at Nasdaq Stockholm OMX, the study seeks to evaluate the service quality provided by accounting firms in Sweden and determine the situation of its dimensions, as well as to explore their direct impact on the client satisfaction and client loyalty. In addition, the study utilizes the SERVPERF model to measure the service quality’s dimensions.

    Approach/methodology: To achieve the purpose, the study conducts a deductive and quantitative approach with explanatory purpose. Also, the data has been collected based an online questionnaire. It was sent to 450 listed companies at Nasdaq Stockholm OMX, resulting in a sample of 58 respondents. The analysis has been conducted based on regression analysis.

    Result/discussion: the research presents and discusses the result based on two hypotheses groups separately. The first hypotheses group regarding the impact of service quality and its dimensions on customer satisfaction. The second hypotheses group concerning the impact of service quality and its dimensions on customer loyalty.

    Originality: To the researcher’s knowledge this study is considered as a first attempt using a multi-dimension scale to assess the service quality of the accounting firms in Sweden based on the perception of Swedish listed companies. 

  • 473. Ahmed, N
    et al.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Unintentional injury mortality and socio-economic development among the 15-44 year-olds: in a health transition perspective2000In: Public Health (2000) 114, 416-422Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 474.
    Ahmed, Naeem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The great developments in the field of wireless communications that has been accelerated by the commercial need for better services has led to the application of wireless systems in many fields of life. The effect of wireless technology is much widened, like for safety applications, home automation, smart grid control, medical wearable, embedded wireless devices, entertainment systems etc.

    Direct and indirect surveillance of spectrum treatment has acknowledged the sequential and spatial accessibility of spectrum inside allocated frequency bands. This implies that spectrum deficiency is becoming a main problem. Therefore, spectrum deficiency problem arises here in terms of that most of the licensed primary users are not using their spectrum due to any reason of either geographical variation or temporal basis, and lot of allotted spectrum is unused and under-utilized. Moreover, along with spectrum deficiency problem, other issues are also linked like interference caused by secondary unlicensed users to primary licensed users while sharing the work load among each others, and problem of vacating the spectrum band in less fewer time frames after primary users detection.

    Cognitive networks assure to tackle these spectrum deficiency and other associated problems by accommodating secondary (unlicensed) users, in the spectrum region which is under-utilized. Spectrum Sensing is the prime motivation for cognitive radio and ensures that secondary (unlicensed) users do not propose unbearable levels of interference to primary (licensed) users.

    Cooperative Spectrum Sensing methodologies are still an open window of research. This work is related to cope up the problem of spectrum deficiency and associated problems, by developing an approach for establishment of grouping/clustering between secondary users in a cooperative spectral environment. This approach ensures that members within a group are highly correlated. As a result, the workload on each sensing node within a group is reduced. The effectiveness of this approach depends upon the accuracy of fused decision related to the presence or absence of primary (licensed) user at a particular band (50MHZ to 100MHZ). This approach also depends on the factor that time taken in sensing the primary (licensed) users should be less enough so that decision in vacating the band by the Cognitive Radio secondary users could be taken in fewer time frames. This latter metric is known to be ‘agility’, which eventually comes with the outcome of minimum interference to primary users via their early recognition.

  • 475. Ahmed, S.
    et al.
    Lambotharan, S.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    Chambers, J. A.
    MIMO Frequency Selective Channels with Multiple Frequency Offsets: Estimation and Detection Techniques2005In: IEE Proceedings on CommunicationsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 476. Ahmed, S.
    et al.
    Lambotharan, S.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    Chambers, J. A.
    Parameter Estimation and Equalization Techniques for Communication Channels with Multipath and Multi Frequency Offset2005In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, , Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 219-223, February 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 477. Ahmed, S.
    et al.
    Lambotharan, S.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    Chambers, J. A.
    Parameter Estimation Techniques for MIMO Frequency Selective Channels with Frequency Offsets2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 478.
    Ahmed, Tekosher
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Att identifiera signaler för obestånd i tid2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to protect themselves from credit risk, the banks must constantly check the performance of  the companies they have lent money to. There are many mathematical models for predicting financial distress. These models use accounting-based ratios, which often are historical and not representative for the present situation. This study describes how the banks do in practice to find signals of insolvency in time and the variables they are observing for doing that.

    In addition to financial reports which the company sends in to the bank at least once a year, also the relationship between them and information from different information  agencies are of great importance to track  signals of insolvency. Poor profitability is the primary cause of insolvency. It is caused mainly because of bad business and leadership.  Eventually will  poor profitability lead  to consuming of equity capital and place the company in an illiquid situation. Then it may be difficult for the company to pay their bills and signals of insolvency become obvious and  the  banks start then to sharpen  their attention on the companies and intensify the follow-up works.

    Another find-out  of the  study  is  that local factors which  are  contributing to failure are  the  large companies that are active  in the area. When they are in a bad situation, it affects the suppliers. The big difference between service and manufacturing companies  regarding insolvency  is  that service companies are more flexible regarding cutting down costs when bad times come.

  • 479.
    Ahmed, Umair
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Racing Driver Model in Dymola Vehicle Dynamics Library (VDL): Steering Controller Design2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Racing drivers always want to traverse path at vehicle’s maximum performance limits while keeping the vehicle at its ideal trajectory. The main objective of this report is to elaborate strategy for the path following problem in which driver has to follow the predefined 2D roads. New steering controller design for closed loop racing driver model in Dymola vehicle dynamics library is developed. The methodology proposed by Sharp et al. [2] is followed with the optimal velocity profile that tries to mimic the actions of the real drivers in real time scenarios. Vehicle handling limits i.e. longitudinal and lateral limits are defined before simulation. While travelling in the neighbourhood of optimal velocity on the straight road as well as during the curves, the performance of the steering controller is tested by conducting the test on J turn, Clothoid, Extended chicane and the closing curve path and also tested during the different environment effects e.g. when there is a side wind affecting the vehicle. Performance of existing and new steering controllers discussed and compared in result chapter. It is ensured that the drawbacks in the existing steering controller are eliminated by using the proposed methodology in new implemented steering controller.

    Key Words: Driver Model, Steering Controller, Path following, Velocity profile

  • 480.
    Ahmed, Walid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Skröder, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Hur jobbar destinationen Karlstad med att förlänga kinersernas vistelse?2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 481.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Stateless and Why Some Gain and Others Not: The Case of Iranian Kurdistan2018In: Comparative Kurdish Politics in the Middle East: Actors, Ideas, Interests / [ed] Serhun Al & Emel Elif Tugdar, New York: Palgrave , 2018, p. 201-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to develop a theory for the purpose of explaining variation in political gains among stateless nations. It is limited to a study on the Kurds in Iran, and seeks to explain their gains in the past, as well why they are lagging behind compared to their fellow Kurds in the Middle East. Three arguments are advanced. First, variation in political gains reflects the distribution of power or, alternatively, the balance of power between ethnic groups within a state. Second, the historical record shows that opportunities for political gains for the Kurds in Iran (and in neighboring countries) arise during circumstances when the balance of power between the Kurds and the ruling state is upset. These pertain, respectively, to external intervention by great powers; internal upheaval or revolution; and sustained guerilla warfare facilitated by rivalries between regional states. Third, the current (im)balance of power between the Kurds and the Iranian state account for their disadvantageous position compared to their fellow Kurds. In the absence of a shift in the balance of power in favor of the Kurds, this situation is likely to remain unchanged in the foreseeable future.

  • 482.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    Iran2018In: Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system / [ed] Carsten Anckar & Thomas Denk, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, p. 301-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 483. Ahmedi, Idris
    et al.
    Baser, Bahar
    Toivanen, Mari
    Kurdish Diaspora’s Transnational Activism and Accommodation of the Kurdish Question in Sweden2017In: Migration from Turkey to Sweden: Integration, Belonging and Transnational Community / [ed] Paul T. Levin, Bahar Baser & Hans-Ingvar Roth, London: I.B. Tauris , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 484.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    et al.
    1979.
    Bremberg, Niklas
    Teori: Varför en eklektisk ansats är att föredra inom samhällsvetenskaplig forskning2016In: Att forska: Praktiker och roller  inom samhällsvetenskapen / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg & Arita Holmberg, Stockholm: Carlssons Bokförlag , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 485.
    Ahmedova, Sevindg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Skall vi leka?: Lekens betydelse för barnens utveckling2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 486.
    Ahnberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Messing, Jan
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Följeforskning som företeelse och följeforskarrollen som konkret praktik2010In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i fyra följeforskningsprocesser, där vi själva medverkat, diskuterar vi följeforskning som företeelse och rollen som följeforskare. Vår artikel ska ses som ett empiriskt exempel i anslutning till den debatt som Göran Brulin, Karin Sjöberg och Lennart Svensson initierade genom artikeln ”Gemensam kunskapsbildning för regional tillväxt” (publicerad i Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, årg 15, nr 1, våren 2009).

  • 487.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La construcción del mundo posible en El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Se estudia cómo se construyen los mundos posibles en la novela El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina. El punto de partida se toma de la semiótica. El propósito es indagar de qué manera se crea la verosimilitud del mundo posible, y qué papel desempeñan los recursos técnicos, psicológicos y textuales de la narración. La hipótesis es que en dicha novela se presentan referencias político-históricas y socio-culturales de la realidad. Mediante la conexión entre dichas referencias y los personajes se indica el tiempo y el espacio de la historia como si se tratara de la vida real, a la vez que la iconografía y las creencias contribuyen a crear la verosimilitud. También se opina que algunos actantes se expresan a través del impacto que producen en los personajes, que la narración se lleva a cabo por varias voces narrativas, y que la imagen del mundo se completa mediante la focalización variada y la memoria colectiva. Se sostiene que existe una relación causal entre el amor, la memoria y la voluntad de narrar. Asimismo se opina que los sentidos de la vista, el oído y el olfato más las comparaciones, las descripciones y las frases largas se utilizan para visualizar el mundo posible de la obra.

  • 488.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La recuperación de la identidad en la novela Sefarad de Antonio Muñoz Molina2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the signification of identitary discourses in the novel Sefarad: Una novela de novelas by Antonio Muñoz Molina and determine to what extent these discourses represent and respond to identitary discourses in contemporary Spanish society. The analysis focuses on three principal questions: how is the narrative constructed, what is conveyed as a result, and what is the aim of the narrative.

    Identity is understood as a social construction, an individual and continuous process of assuming, defining, negotiating and maintaining cultural identities, elements of the surrounding world that provide the individual with a sense of meaning (Fromm 1956; Castiñeira 2005; Marsella 2008).

    The novel consists of different stories that manifest the social impact of the totalitarian regimes in Europe during the twentieth century, told by a diversity of voices. First, the analysis deals with the structure of the text, examined through the model of mise en abyme (Dällenbach 1989). Secondly, the significations of transition, transgression (Lotman 1978) and, analogically, stigmatization are deduced (Goffman 1972), processes that are related to the effects of the frontier as a metaphor (Pratt Ewing 1998) and to limit situations (Jaspers 1974). Thirdly, the study stresses the representation of the past, in which trauma, melancholy and mourning are significant (Benjamin 1992; Freud 1986).

    The conclusions confirm the claim that the novel corresponds to humanity’s treasure of suffering (Leidschatz), a cultural possession that thematizes the processes of memory and oblivion (Assmann 1999), represented through stories told by the victims of intolerance at different levels. The text is accordingly conceived as a mirror through which the narrator constructs his identity as a writer and transmits meaning to the reader by providing the opportunity to reflect upon identity issues today.

  • 489.
    Ahnstedt, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nilsson, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av delegering för kompressionslindningi hemsjukvården2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title:                                   District nurses experience of delegation for compression therapy in home healthcare

    Faculty:                               Health, Science and Technology

    Course:                               OMA 312 Degree project - nursing,15 ECTS

    Authors:                              Malin Ahnstedt och Lina Nilsson

    Supervisor:                          Anna Nordin

    Examiner:                           Maria Harder

    Examiner:                           Birgitta Bisholt

    Pages:                                 31

    Date for the examination:   October 2018

    Key words:                         Home Health Care, District Nurse, Delegation, Safe care, Compression Therapy

     

    Background: Home healthcare today means increasingly advanced healthcare efforts which place high demands on district nurses' knowledge and leadership. The district nurse handles various medical information to nursing staff based on different regulations and guidelines. The district nurse's also have a central leadership role and will work for a safe care. In Sweden, an increase in chronic leg ulcer is seen which affects both the daily life and the quality of life for the victims. An important part of the treatment of leg ulcers is compression therapy. The district nurse's delegates compression therapy to nursing staff in home care. Purpose: Describe district nurses experience of delegating compression therapy in the home health care. Method: Qualitative interview study with inductive approach that was conducted and analyzed based on qualitative content analysis. 12 district nurses from six different municipalities working in municipal home healthcare were interviewed. Result: Results are presented within two generic categories which were, District nurse's approach to delegation and District nurse's experiences the consequences delegation can lead to. These are described with six subcategories each. Conclusion: The study showed that district nurses performed delegation of compression wound care to nursing staff in different ways, personal or general delegation. In general delegation, the activities do not fully comply with laws, regulations and guidelines and the patient's safety can be adversely affected. Their experience is that knowledge, as well as evidence-based work, is the basis for a safe delegation. The patient's safety and quality of life are influenced by the nursing staff's knowledge and interest in performing the delegated task.

  • 490.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 491. Ahonen, Johanna
    et al.
    Andersson, Lina
    Emotioner och copingstrategier i arbetet med socialtjänstens barn: en kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares emotioner och hanteringen av dessa i arbete med inom socialtjänsten långvariga ungdomar2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 492.
    Ahonen, Sirkka
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Kan ett inbördeskrig försonas i ett historieklassrum? Teori och praktik2015In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2015:3, p. 19-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing Post-Conflict Reconciliation in a History Classroom. Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    In a post-conflict society, history education may prolong the conflict on a symbolical level by fostering biased narratives of guilt and victimhood. To avoid this it is necessary to open and maintain a reconciling dialogue in history classrooms. The theory of deliberative communication, launched by Jürgen Habermas, has been applied to pedagogy by Tomas Englund. Deliberative pedagogical discourse implies an equal distribution of power in classroom interaction. Predetermined standpoints are avoided and majority decisions not pursued. Participants are expected to listen to each other instead of rushing to express their individual opinion. Deliberative discussion is founded on the ethos of social inclusion. Three concrete cases illustrate the chances of dialogical history education in post-conflict societies: Finland after the civil war of 1918, South Africa after the end of apartheid, and Bosnia-Hercegovina after the war of 1992–1995. South Africa provides the only example of a prompt post-conflict introduction of dialogical history education. The Afrikaner narrative of heroism and victimhood was after 1994 reserved a place in the new post-colonial history curriculum at the side of the narratives of apartheid and the Black resistance. The viability of dialogical history education has been monitored by attitude surveys. South African surveys reveal that dialogue does not inevitably rule out an identification with the traditional identity narratives. In Bosnia-Herzegovina only little has been achieved in introducing a dialogue in history education but there are signs of students, parents and teachers aspiring to inclusive lessons. The reconciliatory potential imbedded in the multiperspectival nature of the historical knowledge is available in history education.

  • 493.
    Ahonen, Sirkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Post-Conflict History Education in Finland, South Africa and Bosnia-Herzegovina2013In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A post-conflict society tends to get locked in a history war. As the practice of history in its broad sense is a moral craft, representations of guilt and victimhood prevail in social memory. The representations are often bolstered by mythical references, wherefore deconstruction of myths is expected from history education for the purposes of post-conflict reconciliation. This article deals with the post-conflict uses of history in Finland, South Africa and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The three cases constitute examples of a class war, a race conflict and an ethno-religious armed clash. The memory politics and history curricula differ between the cases. Their comparison indicates, how far an imposition of one ´truth´, a dialogue of two ´truths´ and segregation of different memory communities are feasible strategies of post-conflict history education. The article suggests that history lessons can be an asset instead of a liability in the pursuit of reconciliation.

  • 494. Ahrn, Malin
    Skolans utemiljö: En undersökning om elevers tankar om skolgården2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 495. Ahrn, Malin
    Skolans utemiljö: En undersökning om elevers tankar om skolgården2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 496.
    Ahrnens, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lägesställare med I/P-omvandlare som alternativ2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a project instigated by Lennart Proper, Aspervall Instrument AB. The report deals with the development of Aspervalls pneumatic actuator, ASPEdonet and it is a part of the course degree project of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, MSGC17. The course covers 22.5 ECTS credits and it was accomplished during the spring term of 2016 at the faculty of health, natureand engineering, Karlstad University. Aspervall is a company located in Säffle that specialize in precision engineering, contract manufacturing and development of own products like ASPEdonet. ASPEdonet is a pneumatic actuator constructed of a pneumatic double-acting cylinder and a positioner. The pneumatic cylinder is used to convert air pressure into mechanical work through the moment of a piston with piston rod in a cylinder tube. The positioner is used to regulate the pressure to different sides of the piston with the use of a control signal. The thesis objective was to further develop the pneumatic positioner by converting it to electropneumatic, which means that the previous pneumatic control signal was replaced with a electronic analog control signal. This was accomplished through installing proportional technology into the positioner in the form of an I/P-transducer. I/P-transducer is also preferred to as E/P-transudcer or proportionalvalve, is a pressure regulator that is used to regulate air pressure proportional to an electronic signal. The problem definition of the project was how the positioner could be complemented with a I/P-transducer without compromising the basic function or the design of the positioner. The project followed the different stages of the product development process, pre-study, product specification, idea generation, concept selection and structure with detail design. The project resulted in a documentation that can serve as basis for product manufacturing and further development. The solution that was generated has the same basic construction and design as the previous model. Norgren VP12 was selected as I/P-transducer since it is compact enough to be integrated in the positioner. Standard components from Norgren and Nelco served as fittings and cable gland. A new more compact valve was designed as a part of the construction, the valve is manufactured from a single unit.

  • 497. Ahtinen, Aino
    et al.
    Mattila, Elina
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    Vanhala, Toni
    Ermes, Miikka
    Sairanen, Essi
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myllymäki, Tero
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Mobile mental wellness training for stress management: feasibility and design implications based on a one-month field study.2013In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth, ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 1, no 2, article id e11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management.

    METHODS: Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week's and one month's use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month's use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva.

    RESULTS: Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good acceptability, usefulness, and engagement among the working-age participants, and provided increased understanding on the essential features of mobile apps for stress management. Five design implications were derived based on the qualitative findings: (1) provide exercises for everyday life, (2) find proper place and time for challenging content, (3) focus on self-improvement and learning instead of external rewards, (4) guide gently but do not restrict choice, and (5) provide an easy and flexible tool for self-reflection.

  • 498.
    Ahtinen, Aino
    et al.
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Mattila, Elina
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Ermes, Miikka
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Sairanen, Essi
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myllymäki, Tero
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Oiva – A mobile phone intervention for psychological flexibility and wellbeing2012In: Designing for Wellness and Behavior Change workshop, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide a scalable solution to mental health problems caused by stress, we developed Oiva, a mobile phone intervention for improving mental and physical wellbeing. Oiva is based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and its aim is to teach the users skills to increase their psychological flexibility. The application contains 45 text, audio, and video exercises. Two user studies demonstrated the usability and acceptability of the application and concept. The evaluations also revealed that the users expected guidance on the application for performing the intervention program. They also wanted to have possibilities to individualize the application by saving their own reflections about the exercises as notes. The preliminary evaluation results indicate that Oiva is a good starting point for the further design and research of mobile applications for reducing stress and improving wellness.

  • 499.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: Proceedings of QUIS 14: The 14th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence inManagement 2015, 2015, Vol. 14, p. 965-968Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 500.
    Aidantausta, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    3D-byggnadsmodeller utifrån takkonstruktioner: Lagring, hantering och bearbetning2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of cities and municipalities in Sweden begin to work with city models in 3D. For the most part the models are used for visualizations of ongoing planning processes, but also for the analysis of noise, shadow studies and environmental disaster simulations.

    Gothenburg continues to develop the use of 3D maps in municipal operations and is demanding a way to create building elements (walls), which generates in 3D buildings, from roof constructions that are mapped from the primary map. A method has been investigated in the present study. The results are then presented as a 3D model of buildings, along with a terrain map that will facilitate the localization of the area. The created 3D buildings are then compared with roof-data from the primary map to see how well they harmonize with each other. Then also the handling and storage of three-dimensional data with the information model CityGML is investigated. A specification of the requirements and characteristics that the customer, the City Planning in Gothenburg, looks are essential for building modeling in 3D has also been established.

    The final result shows of 4% increase in the plane of 3D buildings compared to primary map. The increase would be slightly greater if the comparison is made on the volume instead. The results also revealed that the increase in plan is something that has occurred during the creation of the roof constructions, which was something that I couldn’t have affected during the work. The results also show that the CityGML is an appropriate information model for storage and handling of 3D. Gothenburg still have insufficient knowledge of CityGML, which is also one of the reasons why the information model hasn’t been implemented in the municipality work with 3D models.

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