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  • 401.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Learning mathematics through algorithmic and creative reasoning2014Inngår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 36, s. 20-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are extensive concerns pertaining to the idea that students do not develop sufficient mathematical competence. This problem is at least partially related to the teaching of procedure-based learning. Although better teaching methods are proposed, there are very limited research insights as to why some methods work better than others, and the conditions under which these methods are applied. The present paper evaluates a model based on students’ own creation of knowledge, denoted creative mathematically founded reasoning (CMR), and compare this to a procedure-based model of teaching that is similar to what is commonly found in schools, denoted algorithmic reasoning (AR). In the present study, CMR was found to outperform AR. It was also found cognitive proficiency was significantly associated to test task performance. However the analysis also showed that the effect was more pronounced for the AR group.

  • 402.
    Kanjilal, Saikat
    et al.
    South Asian University, New Dehli India.
    Persson, Lars-Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Shambilova, Guldarya E
    Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia.
    Equivalent Integral Conditions Related to Bilinear Hardy-type Inequalities2019Inngår i: Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, ISSN 1331-4343, E-ISSN 1848-9966, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 1535-1548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infinitely many, even scales of, equivalent conditions are derived to characterize the bilinear Hardy-type inequality under various ranges of parameters.

  • 403.
    Karchevskiy, Evgueni
    et al.
    Russia.
    Shestopalov, Yuri
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Mathematical and numerical analysis of dielectric waveguides by the integral equation method2013Inngår i: Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, ISSN 1559-9450, s. 388-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The eigenvalue problems for generalized natural modes of an inhomogeneous dielectric waveguide without a sharp boundary and a step-index dielectric waveguide with a smooth boundary of cross-section are formulated as problems for the set of time-harmonic Maxwell equations with partial radiation conditions at infinity in the cross-sectional plane. The original problems are reduced by the integral equation method to nonlinear spectral problems with Fredholm integral operators. Properties of the spectrum are investigated. The Galerkin and collocation methods for the calculations of generalized natural modes are proposed and convergence of the methods is proved. Some results of numerical experiments are discussed.

  • 404.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Towards Improving Transparency, Intervenability, and Consent in HCI2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency of personal data processing is enforced by most Western privacy laws, including the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which will be effective from May 2018. The GDPR specifies that personal data shall be processed lawfully, fairly, and in a transparent manner. It strengthens people's rights for both ex-ante and ex-post transparency and intervenability. Equally important is the strict legal requirements for informed consent established by the GDPR.

    On the other hand, the legal privacy principles have Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) implications. People should comprehend the principles, be aware of when the principles may be used, and be able to use them. Transparent information about personal data processing should be concise, intelligible, and provided in an easily accessible form, pursuant to the GDPR. Nonetheless, the answer to the question about how HCI implications can be addressed depends on the attempts to decrease the gap between legal and user-centric transparency, intervenability, and consent. Enhancing individuals' control in a usable way helps people to be aware of the flow of their personal information, control their data, make informed decisions, and finally preserve their privacy.

    The objective of this thesis is to propose usable tools and solutions, to enhance people's control and enforce legal privacy principles, especially transparency, intervenability, and informed consent. To achieve the goal of the thesis, different ways to improve ex-ante transparency and informed consent are investigated by designing and testing new solutions to make effective consent forms. Moreover, ex-post transparency and intervenability are improved by designing a transparency enhancing tool and investigating users' perceptions of data portability and transparency in the tool. The results of this thesis contribute to the body of knowledge by mapping legal privacy principles to HCI solutions, unveiling HCI problems and answers when aiming for legal compliance, and proposing effective designs to obtain informed consent.    

  • 405.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Gerber, Nina
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Helping John to Make Informed Decisions on Using Social Login2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 33th Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2018), Pau, F, April 9-13, 2018, New York: ACM Publications, 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 406.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Lindegren, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Assessments of a Cloud-Based Data Wallet for Personal Identity Management2017Inngår i: Information Systems Development: Advances in Methods, Tools and Management (ISD2017 Proceedings), 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a project developing cloud technology for identity access management, usability tests of mockups of a mobile app identity provider were conducted to assess users’ consciousness of data disclosures in consent forms and flow of authentication data. Results show that using one’s fingerprint for giving consent was easy, but most participants had not a correct view of where the fingerprint data is used and what entities would have access to it. Familiarity with ID apps appeared to aggravate misunderstanding. In addition, participants could not well recall details of personal data releases and settings for disclosure options. An evaluation with a confirmation screen slightly improved recall rate. However, some participants voiced a desire to have control over their data and expressed a wish to manually select mandatory information. This can be a way of slowing users down and make them reflect more.

  • 407.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Lindegren, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    User Evaluations of an App Interface for Cloud-Based Identity Management2018Inngår i: Advances in Information Systems Development / [ed] Paspallis N., Raspopoulos M., Barry C., Lang M., Linger H., Schneider C., Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 26, s. 205-223Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a project developing cloud technology for identity access management, usability tests of the mock-up of a mobile app identity provider were conducted to assess Internet users’ consciousness of data disclosures in consent forms and their comprehension of the flow of authentication data. Results show that using one’s fingerprint for giving consent was easy, but most participants did not have a correct view of where the fingerprint data is used and what entities would have access to it. Familiarity with ID apps appeared to aggravate misunderstanding. In addition, participants could not well recall details of personal data releases and settings for disclosure options. An evaluation with a confirmation screen improved the recall rate slightly. However, some participants voiced a desire to have control over their data and expressed a wish to manually select mandatory information. This can be a way of slowing users down and make them reflect more.

  • 408.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fingerprint Recognition on Mobile Devices: Widely Deployed, Rarely Understood2018Inngår i: ARES 2018 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018)., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, artikkel-id 39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Only a few studies have addressed the users' conception of how fingerprint recognition used for different purposes on mobile devices works. This study contributes by investigating how different groups of individuals think that the fingerprint recognition works, why they think so, and also by pointing out differences in pin code and fingerprint issues. The study furthermore yields some results concerning individuals' attitudes towards how sensitive the use of fingerprint sensors is: non-users tended to be more afraid of third-party access than users. On the other hand, users tended to regard the fingerprint pattern as more sensitive than non-users.

    This study also manages to give some methodological contributions, namely that mockup user interfaces do not bias the parameters studied in this paper (e.g. understanding of access to fingerprint data), and that self-estimation of knowledge in Computer Security is not a good indicator of respondents' understanding of fingerprint security and privacy. Moreover, people who connected a low degree of sensitivity to fingerprint patterns gave very different reasons for their estimation of sensitivity. This prompts for more research, as it is unclear if different groups would benefit from different information and modes of visualisation to understand what are the issues involved in fingerprint recognition on mobile devices.

  • 409.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för HumanIT (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    The Dilemma of User Engagement in Privacy Notices: Effects of Interaction Modes and Habituation on User Attention2020Inngår i: ACM Transactions and Security, ISSN 2471-2566, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 1-38, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy notices and consent forms are the means of conveying privacy policy information to users. In Europe, a valid consent needs to be confirmed by a clear affirmative action. Despite previous research, it is not yet clear whether user engagement with consent forms via different types of interactions for confirming consent may play a significant role in effectively drawing user attention to the content, even after repeated exposure. We investigate, in a laboratory study, how different types of interactions that engage users with consent forms differ in terms of their effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction. In addition, we examine if and how habituation affects user attention and satisfaction, and the time they spend on giving their consent. We conducted a controlled experiment with 80 participants in four different groups where people either were engaged actively with the policy content via Drag and Drop (DAD), Swipe, or Checkboxes, or were not actively engaged with the content (as the control condition) in a first-exposure phase and in a habituation phase. We measured user attention to consent forms along multiple dimensions, including direct, objective measurements and indirect, self-reported measures. Our results show that the different types of interactions

    may affect user attention to certain parts of policy information. In particular, the DAD action results in significantly more user attention to the data items compared to other groups. However, with repeated exposure to consent forms, the difference disappears. We conclude that user engagement with policy content needs to be designed with care, so that attention to substantial policy information is increased and not negatively affected.

  • 410.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Visualizing Exports of Personal Data by Exercising the Right of Data Portability in the Data Track - Are People Ready for This?2017Inngår i: Privacy and Identity Management. Facing up to Next Steps. Privacy and Identity 2016. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology., Springer, 2017, Vol. 498, s. 164-181Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A transparency enhancing tool called Data Track has been developed at Karlstad University. The latest stand-alone version of the tool allows users to visualize their data exports. For analyzing the users’ perceptions of the Data Track in regard to transparency features and the concepts of data export and data portability, we have conducted a qualitative user study. We observed that although users had rather little interest in the visualization of derived data activities revealed in the Google location file, they were interested in other kinds of derived data like usage patterns for different service providers. Also, as earlier user studies revealed, we again confirmed that it is confusing for users to differentiate between locally and remotely stored and controlled data. Finally, in spite of being concerned about the security of the data exported to their machines, for exercising data portability rights pursuant to the General Data Protection Regulation, most participants would prefer to first export and edit the data before uploading it to another service provider and would appreciate using a tool such as the Data Track for helping them in this context.

  • 411.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Striecks, Christoph
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Krenn, Stephan
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Hörandner, Felix
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Lorünser, Thomas
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Opportunities and challenges of CREDENTIAL: Towards a metadata-privacy respecting identity provider2016Inngår i: Privacy and Identity Management. Facing up to Next Steps. Privacy and Identity 2016 / [ed] Lehmann A., Whitehouse D., Fischer-Hübner S., Fritsch L., Raab C., Springer, 2016, Vol. 498, s. 76-91Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the results of a workshop at the IFIP Summer School 2016 introducing the EU Horizon 2020 project credential, i.e., Secure Cloud Identity Wallet. The contribution of this document is three-fold. First, it gives an overview of the credential project, its use-cases, and core technologies. Second, it explains the challenges of the project’s approach and summarizes the results of the parallel focus groups that were held during the workshop. Third, it focuses on a specific challenge—the protection of metadata in centralized identity providers—and suggests a potential architecture addressing this problem.

  • 412.
    Karelius, Fanny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Stationary iterative methods: Five methods and illustrative examples2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of large sparse linear equations frequently arise in engineering and science. Therefore, there is a great need for methods that can solve these systems. In this thesis we will present three of the earliest and simplest iterative methods and also look at two more sophisticated methods. We will study their rate of convergence and illustrate them with examples.

  • 413.
    Kargar Bideh, Minoo
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Petlund, Andreas
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Griwodz, Carsten
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Ahmed, Iffat
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Halvorsen, Pål
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Behjati, Razieh
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    TADA: An Active Measurement Tool for Automatic Detection of AQM2015Inngår i: Proceeding VALUETOOLS'15 Proceedings of the 9th EAI International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools / [ed] William Knottenbelt, Katinka Wolter, Ana Busic, Marco Gribaudo and Philipp Reinecke, Brussels: The Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 2015, s. 55-60Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of overbuffering in today's Internet (termed as bufferbloat) has recently drawn a great amount of attention from the research community. This has led to the development of various active queue management (AQM) schemes. The last years have seen a lot of effort to show the benefits of AQMs over simple tail-drop queuing and to encourage deployment. Yet it is still unknown to what extent AQMs are deployed in the Internet. In this paper, we present an end-to-end active measurement method to detect AQMs on the path bottleneck. We have developed an active measurement tool, named TADA, and evaluated our measurement methodology on a controlled experimental testbed. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides the basis to identify whether an AQM is deployed on the bottleneck.

  • 414.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Elever som är särskilt begåvade inom matematikämnet: Lärares beskrivningar av särskilt begåvade elever samt hur de utformar en motiverande och utmanande matematikundervisning i de tidigare åren2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare i grundskolans tidigare år, (F-3) upplever elever som är särskilt begåvade inom matematik samt hur de utformar en matematikundervisning som stimulerar dessa elever till fortsatt lärande. I min undersökning har jag använt mig av kvalitativa e-mailintervjuer. Lärarna som deltagit i intervjuerna arbetar inom grundskolans tidigare år, har minst fem års erfarenhet inom yrket och är behöriga att undervisa i matematik.

     

    I resultatet framkommer det att lärarna beskriver att särskilt begåvade elever har lätt för sig och behöver nya utmaningar för att inte bli uttråkade. Resultatet av min studie visar också att det finns en variation i hur lärare utformar sin matematikundervisning. Utifrån intervjuerna framkommer det att lärarna använder sig av tre olika individualiseringsformer, hastighetsindividualisering, materialindividualisering och nivåindividualisering.

  • 415.
    Karlsson, Joar
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Beri, Jacki
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Ett portabelt ramverk för modifiering av användargränssnitt: Applicerat på en smartspegel2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the consulting company Altran this project is to create a solution to modify a modular user interface, a user interface which is divided into areas where each area, module, contains some kind of information. For example a clock or today’s weather report. A cross- platform mobile application would be able to modify the modular user interface, in real-time over the same network. The project was to be implemented on a smart mirror, a product that had to be built and that displays information when turned on but when in an off mode looks like an ordinary mirror. The project was to be able to be reused on other similar modular user interfaces.

    A smartmirror was built with the single-board computer Raspberry Pi 3 B+ running the software MagicMirror2. To modify the smartmirror, a module for the smartmirror was developed to communicate with the other installed modules and the middleware. The developed module was also designed to enable easy modification of the user interface.

    A mobile application was developed to run on cellular phones running the operating systems iOS and Android. The application can modify the smartmirror thus changing the modules positions, installing new modules, replacing the existing modules with new ones and to hide or show the modules.

    A middleware was developed which had the function to create a connection between the mobile application and the modular user interface which is running the middleware thus working as a translation layer. With the middleware running, a modification of the user interface was able to happen, in real-time over the same network.

    This project can, in theory, be reused in other similar modular user interfaces other than the smartmirror if the messages sent through the middleware to the user interface are handled correctly.

  • 416.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Transport-Layer Performance in Wireless Multi-Hop Networks2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication has seen a tremendous growth in the last decades. Continuing on this trend, wireless multi-hop networks  are nowadays used or planned for use in a multitude of contexts, spanning from Internet access at home to emergency situations.

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable and ordered delivery of a data and is used by major Internet applications such as web browsers, email clients and file transfer programs. TCP traffic is also the dominating traffic type on the Internet. However, TCP performs less than optimal in wireless multi-hop networks due to packet reordering, low link capacity, packet loss and variable delay.

    In this thesis, we develop novel proposals for enhancing the network and transport layer to improve TCP performance in wireless multi-hop networks. As initial studies, we experimentally evaluate the performance of different TCP variants, with and without mobile nodes. We further evaluate the impact of multi-path routing on TCP performance and propose packet aggregation combined with aggregation aware multi-path forwarding as a means to better utilize the available bandwidth. The last contribution is a novel extension to multi-path TCP to  enable single-homed hosts to fully utilize the network capacity.

  • 417.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    MPTCP PathFinder - finding your ways to aggregated bandwidth2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many  networks are multi-path; mobile devices have multiple interfaces, data centers have redundant paths and ISPs forward traffic over disjoint paths to perform load-balancing. Multi-path TCP (MPTCP) is a new mechanism that transparently divides a TCP connection into subflows and distributes them over a host's network interfaces. While this enables multi-homed systems like e.g. smartphones to use several interfaces and thus different, and mostly disjoint, network paths for a single transmission, most end-systems are still single-homed. With one interface, standard MPTCP creates only a single subflow, making single-homed systems unable to benefit from MPTCP's functionality. In this paper we propose PathFinder, an MPTCP extension that tries to estimate the number of subflows required to fully utilize  the network capacity, enabling single-homed hosts to reap the benefits of MPTCP. We evaluate MPTCP with PathFinder and compare its performance to standard MPTCP. The evaluation shows that PathFinder is able to open a limited but sufficient amount of subflows to significantly increase the throughput when compared to using standard MPTCP.

  • 418.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet.
    Lars, Nyberg
    Umeå universitet.
    Learning mathematics without a suggested solution method: Durable effects on performance and brain activity2015Inngår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 6-14Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant mathematics Leaching method is to present a solution method and let pupils repeatedly practice it. An alternative method is to let pupils create a solution method themselves. The current study compared these two approaches in terms of lasting effects on performance and brain activity. Seventy-three participants practiced mathematics according to one of the two approaches. One week later, participants underwent BM while being tested on the practice tasks. Participants who had created the solution method themselves performed better at the test questions. In both conditions, participants engaged a fronto-parietal network more when solving test questions compared to a baseline task. Importantly, participants who had created the solution method themselves showed relatively lower brain activity in angular gyros, possibly reflecting reduced demands on verbal memory. These results indicate that there might be advantages to creating the solution method oneself, and thus have implications for the design of teaching methods.

  • 419.
    Khademi, Naeem
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Dale, Øystein
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla.
    Riktor Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Fischer, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC.
    Petlund, Andreas
    Simula.
    Ros, David
    Simula.
    Rüngeler, Irene
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Stenberg, Daniel
    Mozilla.
    Tüxen, Michael
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Weinrank, Felix
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Deliverable D2.3 - Final Version of Core Transport System2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This document presents the core transport system in NEAT, as used for development of the reference implementation of the NEAT System. The document describes the components necessary to realise the basic Transport Services provided by the NEAT User API, with the description of a set of NEAT building blocks and their related design choices. The design of this core transport system, which is the final product ofWork Package 2, is driven by the Transport Services and API design from Task 1.4, and in close coordination with the overall NEAT architecture defined in Task 1.2. To realise the Transport Services provided by the API, a set of transport functions has to be provided by the NEAT Core Transport System. These functions take the form of several building blocks, or NEAT Components, each representing an associated implementation activity. Some components are needed to ensure the basic operation of the NEAT System—e.g., a NEAT Flow Endpoint, a callback-based NEAT API Framework, the NEAT Logic and the functionality to Connect to a name. Additional components are needed for: (a) ensuring connectivity, by means of mechanisms for discovery of path support for different protocols; (b) supporting end-to-end security; (c) the ability to apply different policies to influence the decision-making process of the transport system; (d) providing other important functionalities (e.g., a user-space SCTP stack, or gathering statistics for users or system administrators). This document updates Deliverable D2.2; in particular, the descriptions of NEAT components presented here correspond to their implementation status by the end of WP2, and as such they supersede those in D2.2.

  • 420.
    Khademi, Naeem
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Dale, Øystein
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla.
    Riktor Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC.
    Petlund, Andreas
    Simula.
    Ros, David
    Simula.
    Stenberg, Daniel
    Mozilla.
    Tüxen, Michael
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Weinrank,, Felix
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Deliverable D2.2 - Core Transport System, with both Low-level and High-level Components2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This document presents the core transport system in NEAT, as used for development of the

    reference implementation of the NEAT System. The document describes the components

    necessary to realise the basic Transport Services provided by the NEAT User API, with the

    description of a set of NEAT building blocks and their related design choices. The design

    of this core transport system takes into consideration the Transport Services and the API

    (defined in Task 1.3) and in close coordination with the overall architecture (Task 1.2).

    To realise the Transport Services provided by the API, a set of transport functionalities

    has to be provided by the NEAT Core Transport System. These functionalities take the form

    of several building blocks, or NEAT Components, each representing an associated implementation

    activity. Some of the components are needed to ensure the basic operation of

    the NEAT System—e.g., a NEAT Flow Endpoint, a callback-based NEAT API Framework, the

    NEAT Logic and the functionality to Connect to a name. Additional components are needed

    for: (a) ensuring connectivity, by means of mechanisms for discovery of path support for

    different protocols; (b) supporting end-to-end security; (c) the ability to apply different

    policies to influence the decision-making process of the transport system; (d) providing

    other important functionalities (e.g., a user-space SCTP stack, or gathering statistics for

    users or system administrators).

    This document updates Deliverable D2.1; in particular, the descriptions of NEAT components

    presented here correspond to the implementation status at the time of writing,

    and as such they replace those in D2.1.

  • 421.
    Khademi, Naeem
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC Research Europe.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Hayes, David
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC Research Europe.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Muenster University of Applied Sciences.
    Weinrank, Felix
    Muenster University of Applied Sciences.
    NEAT: A Platform- and Protocol-Independent Internet Transport API2017Inngår i: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 46-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sockets Applications Programming Interface (API) has become the standard way that applications access the transport services offered by the Internet Protocol stack. This paper presents NEAT, a user-space library that can provide an alternate transport API. NEAT allows applications to request the service they need using a new design that is agnostic to the specific choice of transport protocol underneath. This not only allows applications to take advantage of common protocol machinery, but also eases introduction of new network mechanisms and transport protocols. The paper describes the components of the NEAT library and illustrates the important benefits that can be gained from this new approach. NEAT is a software platform for developing advanced network applications that was designed in accordance with the standardization efforts on Transport Services (TAPS) in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), but its features exceed the envisioned functionality of a TAPS system. 

  • 422.
    Khatouni, Ali Safari
    et al.
    Politecn Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecn Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecn Torino, Turin, Italy ; IMDEA Networks Inst, Leganes, Spain.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Alay, Ozgu
    Simula Res Lab, Fornebu, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Res Lab, Fornebu, Norway.
    Midoglu, Cise
    Simula Res Lab, Fornebu, Norway.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Inst, Leganes, Spain.
    Speedtest-like Measurements in 3G/4G Networks: the MONROE Experience2017Inngår i: 2017 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 29TH INTERNATIONAL TELETRAFFIC CONGRESS (ITC 29), VOL 1, IEEE, 2017, s. 169-177Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Broadband (MBB) Networks are evolving at a fast pace, with technology enhancements that promise drastic improvements in capacity, connectivity, coverage, i.e., better performance in general. But how to measure the actual performance of a MBB solution? In this paper, we present our experience in running the simplest of the performance test: "speedtest-like" measurements to estimate the download speed offered by actual 3G/4G networks. Despite their simplicity, download speed measurements in MBB networks are much more complex than in wired networks, because of additional factors (e.g., mobility of users, physical impairments, diversity in technology, operator settings, mobile terminals diversity, etc.). We exploit the MONROE open platform, with hundreds of multihomed nodes scattered in 4 different countries, and explicitly designed with the goal of providing hardware and software solutions to run large scale experiments in MBB networks. We analyze datasets collected in 4 countries, over 11 operators, from about 50 nodes, for more than 2 months. After designing the experiment and instrumenting both the clients and the servers with active and passive monitoring tools, we dig into collected data, and provide insight to highlight the complexity of running even a simple speedtest. Results show interesting facts, like the occasional presence of NAT, and of Performance Enhancing Proxies (PEP), and pinpoint the impact of different network configurations that further complicate the picture. Our results will hopefully contribute to the debate about performance assessment in MBB networks, and to the definition of much needed benchmarks for performance comparisons of 3G, 4G and soon of 5G networks.

  • 423.
    Khoa, Vo Anh
    et al.
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Math & Comp Sci Div, Laquila, Italy..
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Asymptotic analysis of a semi-linear elliptic system in perforated domains: Well-posedness and correctors for the homogenization limit2016Inngår i: Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, ISSN 0022-247X, E-ISSN 1096-0813, Vol. 439, nr 1, s. 271-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we prove results on the weak solvability and homogenization of a microscopic semi-linear elliptic system posed in perforated media. The model presented here explores the interplay between stationary diffusion and both surface and volume chemical reactions in porous media. Our interest lies in deriving homogenization limits (upscaling) for alike systems and particularly in justifying rigorously the obtained averaged descriptions. Essentially, we prove the well-posedness of the microscopic problem ensuring also the positivity and boundedness of the involved concentrations and then use the structure of the two scale expansions to derive corrector estimates delimitating this way the convergence rate of the asymptotic approximates to the macroscopic limit concentrations. Our techniques include Moser-like iteration techniques, a variational formulation, two scale asymptotic expansions as well as energy-like estimates. 

  • 424.
    Khoshkholghi, Mohammad Ali
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Bhamare, Deval
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Optimized Service Chain Placement Using Genetic Algorithm2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization NetSoft 2019, Unleashing the Power of Network Softwarization / [ed] Christian Jacquenet, Filip De Turck, Prosper Chemouil, Flavio Esposito, Olivier Festor, Walter Cerroni, Stefano Secci, IEEE, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is anemerging technology to consolidate network functions onto highvolume storages, servers and switches located anywhere in thenetwork. Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) are chainedtogether to provide a specific network service. Therefore, aneffective service chain placement strategy is required tooptimize the resource allocation and consequently to reduce theoperating cost of the substrate network. To this end, we proposefour genetic-based algorithms using roulette wheel andtournament selection techniques in order to place service chainsconsidering two different placement strategies. Since mappingof service chains sequentially (One-at-a-time strategy) may leadto suboptimal placement, we also propose Simultaneous strategythat places all service chains at the same time to improveperformance. Our goal in this work is to reduce deployment costof VNFs while satisfying constraints. We consider Geantnetwork as the substrate network along with its characteristicsextracted from SndLib. The proposed algorithms are able toplace service chains with any type of service graph. Theperformance benefits of the proposed algorithms arehighlighted through extensive simulations.

  • 425. Kilhamn, Cecilia
    et al.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Interaktion i matematikklassrummet2018Inngår i: Att bli lärare i matematik / [ed] Ola Helenius, Maria Johansson, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, s. 108-123Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 426.
    Kimura, Masato
    et al.
    Kanazawa University, Japan.
    Matsui, Kazunori
    Kanazawa University, Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Notsu, Hirofumi
    Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, Japan.
    Analysis of a projection method for the Stokes problem using an ε-Stokes approach2019Inngår i: Japan journal of industrial and applied mathematics, ISSN 0916-7005, E-ISSN 1868-937X, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 959-985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We generalize pressure boundary conditions of an ε-Stokes problem. Our ε-Stokes problem connects the classical Stokes problem and the corresponding pressure-Poisson equation using one parameter ε>0. For the Dirichlet boundary condition, it is proven in Matsui and Muntean (Adv Math Sci Appl, 27:181–191,2018) that the solution for the ε-Stokes problem converges to the one for the Stokes problem as ε tends to 0, and to the one for the pressure-Poisson problem as εtends to ∞. Here, we extend these results to the Neumann and mixed boundary conditions. We also establis herror estimates in suitable norms between the solutions to the ε-Stokes problem, the pressure-Poisson problem and the Stokes problem, respectively. Several numerical examples are provided to show that several such error estimates are optimal in ε. Our error estimates are improved if one uses the Neumann boundary conditions. In addition, we show that the solution to the ε-Stokes problem has a nice asymptotic structure.

  • 427.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Advancing Models of Privacy Decision Making: Exploring the What & How of Privacy Behaviours2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    People's decisions do not happen in a vacuum; there are multiple factors that may affect them. There are external determinants, such as cost/benefit calculation of decision outcomes. There are also internal factors, such as attitudes, personality, emotions, age, and nationality. Frequently, the latter have a final say on the decision at hand, and similar determinants are triggered during the digital interaction when people make decisions about their privacy.

    The current digital privacy landscape is filled with recurring security breaches and leaks of personal information collected by online service providers. Growing dependency on Internet-connected devices and increasing privacy risks prompted policy makers to protect individuals' right to privacy. In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to provide adequate information about their data collection and processing practices to users, to increase privacy awareness and enable better decision making. Regardless, currently there is no sufficient, usable technology, which could help people make improved privacy decisions, decreasing over-disclosure and oversharing. Hence, multidisciplinary researchers aim at developing new privacy-enhancing solutions. To define such solutions and successfully convey data provision and processing practices, potential risks, or harms resulting from information disclosure, it is crucial to understand cognitive processes underpinning privacy decisions.

    In this thesis, we examine privacy decisions and define factors that influence them. We investigate the attitude-behaviour relationship and identify privacy concerns affecting perceptions of privacy. Additionally, we examine factors influencing information sharing, such as emotional arousal and personality traits. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between privacy concerns and behaviours, and that simplified models of behaviour are insufficient to predict privacy decisions. Our findings show that internal factors, such as nationality and culture, emotional arousal, and individual characteristics, affect privacy decisions. Based on our findings, we conclude that future models of privacy should incorporate such determinants. Further, we postulate that privacy user interfaces must become more flexible and personalised than the current solutions.

  • 428.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Reaching Beyond Borders: Investigating Differences in Privacy Harms Concerns2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the CHI 2018 Workshop: Moving Beyond a One-Size Fits All Approach: Exploring Individual Differences in Privacy, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are people worried about harms that may result from their privacy decisions? How can we improve privacy decisions, and make them more informed? In this short position pa- per, we present some of the findings from the quantitative study on privacy attitudes and behaviors. Further, we shift the attention to potential differences of privacy perceptions among representatives from various demographics. We hope to start the discussion about a necessity to enrich privacy research and include cultural factors, to ensure in- clusion and enhance digital privacy.

  • 429.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Is It Harmful? Measuring People’s Perceptions of Online Privacy Issues2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We report preliminary findings from an online study, identifying people’s attitudes toward privacy issues. The results confirm some of the previous research findings regarding demographic and contextual dependencies of privacy perceptions. The research presents a new scale for measuring attitudes to privacy issues that is based on privacy harms. The results suggest that people consider privacy harms in generic and simplified terms, rather than as separated issues suggested in legal research. This research identified major factors that people tend to think of while considering online privacy.

  • 430.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Shulman, Yefim
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Psychological Effects and Their Role in Online Privacy Interactions: A Review2020Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 21236-21260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increasing dependency on online technologies in even the most ordinary activities, people have to make privacy decisions during everyday online interactions. Visual design often influences their choices. Hence, it is in the hands of choice architects and designers to guide users towards specific decision outcomes. This “nudging” has gained much interest among scholars in interdisciplinary research, resulting in experimental studies with visual cues that may have the potential to alter attitudes and behaviors. Attitude and behavior changes are often attributed to several psychological effects manifesting in cognitive processing and decision-making. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review carried out to identify which psychological effects have been previously studied in the context of online privacy interactions. Subsequently, fifteen articles were selected and thoroughly reviewed, resulting in the identification of twenty psychological effects. The visual cues triggering these effects were recognized and classified against their capabilities to alter privacy attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, the visual cues were divided into two categories: privacy-enhancing and privacy-deteriorating. This review discusses the applicability of such cues in research and UI design. Further, the findings are discussed against the existing research on digital nudges. The authors conclude with a discussion on issues of research quality in the privacy-related field and outline the road to improvement.

  • 431.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Emotional Privacy: Explaining Privacy Behaviours with Affect and Personality TraitsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 432.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    (In)escapable Affect? Exploring Factors Influencing Privacy-RelatedBehavioral Intentions2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020, 2020, s. 4112-4121Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was run to investigate exploratory capabilities of factors such as individual characteristics, privacy concerns and information disclosure in the context of privacy behaviors. The research examined whether affective states arising from immediate emotions alter such capabilities. The results of an online study with 474 international participants demonstrate that immediate emotions might influence information sharing. The effect of privacy concerns, personality and information disclosure on the willingness to share is stronger when participants are in a neutral affective state. However, when the positive or negative feelings take over, the influence of these factors on willingness to share decreases. In this article, we postulate the necessity to include immediate emotions into research on privacy-related decision-making and discuss the applicability of our results in the context of privacy UIs.

  • 433.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Is It Harmful?: Re-examining Privacy Concerns2017Inngår i: Privacy and Identity Management: The Smart Revolution / [ed] Hansen Marit., Kosta Eleni., Nai-Fovino Igor., Fischer-Hübner Simone, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, s. 59-75Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased popularity of interconnected devices, which we rely on when performing day-to-day activities expose people to various privacy harms. This paper presents findings from the empirical investigation of privacy concerns. The study revealed that people, regardless of their diversity, perceive privacy harms as generic and simplified models, not individually as suggested in Solove’s framework. Additionally, the results identified differences in privacy concerns related to information disclosure, protection behavior, and demographics. The findings may benefit privacy and system designers, ensuring that policies and digital systems match people’s privacy expectations, decreasing risks and harms.

  • 434.
    Klockar, Annika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Improving User Experience of Internet Services in Cellular Networks2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has grown enormously since the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 90's. The evolution and wide spread deployment of cellular networks have contributed to make the Internet accessible to more people in more places. The cellular networks of today offer data rates high enough for most Internet services. Even so, the service quality experienced by the users is often lower than in wired networks.

    The performance of TCP has a large impact on user experience. Therefore, we investigate TCP in cellular networks and propose functionality to improve the situation for TCP. We have studied sources of delay and data loss, such as link layer retransmissions, queuing, and handover. Measurements were conducted in a GSM/GPRS testbed. The results indicate that TCP interact efficiently with the GSM link layer protocol in most cases. From experiments of queuing in GPRS, we conclude that with a smaller buffer delay is reduced significantly, but that TCP throughput is about the same as with a larger buffer. Furthermore, we propose an improved buffer management when a connection loses all its resources to traffic with higher priority. We also propose a scheme for data forwarding to avoid negative impact on TCP during handover for WINNER, a research system that was used to test ideas for LTE.

    The achievable data rates in cellular networks are limited by inter-cell interference that vary over the cell. Inter-cell interference can be mitigated with Coordinated Multipoint techniques (CoMP), techniques that currently are being standardized for LTE-Advanced. System wide CoMP is, however, not an option, since it would be too resource consuming. In order to limit the required resources for CoMP, we propose an approach to select a subset of users for CoMP that is based on user experience. Simulation results indicate that user experience, represented with application utility,  and fairness are improved compared to if only rate is considered in the user selection.

  • 435.
    Klockar, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Botella, Carmen
    Universitat de València.
    Sternad, Mikael
    Uppsala University.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Utility as a User Selection Criterion for Coordinated Multi-Point Systems2013Inngår i: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), London: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 3123-3128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception techniques have been proposed to combat inter-cell interference in cellular systems and, hence, to increase the data rates. Due to the overhead introduced, not all users may be served with CoMP. In this paper, we focus on how to select users for joint processing CoMP under limited backhaul capacity. The evaluated user selection schemes take user experience into account, quantified by the utility of Internet application types. We propose a heuristic algorithm utility based user selection that has low computational complexity. Utility based user selection and maximize utility, which maximizes the sum utilities, are compared to maximize rate, which maximizes the sum data rates. A range of traffic mixes and user locations are evaluated. The simulation results indicate that resources required for CoMP are more efficiently used if the user selection is based on utility rather than on maximizing the total data rate. If utility is taken into account a higher total utility can in many cases be achieved for the same limited backhaul capacity.

  • 436.
    Klockar, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Sternad, Mikael
    Uppsala University.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Apelfröjd, Rikke
    Uppsala University.
    User-centric pre-selection and scheduling for coordinated multipoint systems2014Inngår i: 2014 11th International Symposium on Wireless Communications Systems (ISWCS 2014), IEEE, 2014, s. 888-894Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The data traffic volumes are constantly increasing in cellular networks. Furthermore, a larger part of the traffic is generated by applications that require high data rates. Techniques including Coordinated Multipoint transmission (CoMP) can increase the data rates, but at the cost of a high overhead. The overhead can be reduced if only a subset of the users is served with CoMP. In this paper, we propose a user selection approach, including pre-selection of CoMP users and short term scheduling, that takes user requirements into account. Users that require a high data rate to reach an acceptable level of service satisfaction are selected to use coherent joint processing CoMP in some of their downlink transmission bandwidth. Simulation results show that both the number of satisfied users and fairness are improved with the proposed user selection as compared to user selection that does not consider individual user requirements.

  • 437.
    Knodel, Jens
    et al.
    Fraunhofer IESE, Germany.
    Buckley, Jim
    Lero, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    The need for an open corpus of software architecture descriptions2017Inngår i: 19. Workshop Software-Reengineering und -Evolution: 8. Workshop "Design for Future", Bad-Honnef: Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2017, s. 25-26Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architectures are the conceptual tool to share information about key aspects of a software system and to enable reasoning about the principal, most fundamental, and often most difficult-to-change design decisions of the system. Studies of failed software systems give evidence that architecture drift, erosion or degradation is a prevalent problem in industrial practice. But a recent systematic literature review [9] indicates that research currently investigates compliance checking or inconsistency detection only. To advance research we need an open and grounded corpus of software architecture description – serving as a basis for more sophisticated studies beyond detection only. Such a corpus could enable (1) to evaluate new approaches, (2) to provide means for fixing degradation (when it occurs or a-posteriori), (3) to compare and benchmark approaches and, ultimately, (4) enable longitudinal studies in the field.

  • 438.
    Kolyada, Viktor
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Embedding theorems for Sobolev and Hardy-Sobolev spaces and estimates of Fourier transforms2019Inngår i: Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, ISSN 0373-3114, E-ISSN 1618-1891, Vol. 198, nr 2, s. 615-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove embeddings of Sobolev and Hardy-Sobolev spaces into Besov spaces built upon certain mixed norms. This gives an improvement of the known embeddings into usual Besov spaces. Applying these results, we obtain Oberlin-type estimates of Fourier transforms for functions in Sobolev spaces W11(Rn).

  • 439.
    Kolyada, Viktor
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    My First Meetings with Konstantin Oskolkov2013Inngår i: Recent Advances in Harmonic Analysis and Applications: In honor of Konstantin Oskolkov / [ed] Dmitriy Bilyk, Laura De Carli, Alexander Petukhov, Alexander M. Stokolos, Brett D. Wick, Springer, 2013, 1, Vol. 25, s. 27-29Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This note tells about our first meetings with Konstatin Oskolkov. We discuss also optimal estimates of the rate of convergence of Fourier series obtained by Oskolkov in 1975.

  • 440.
    Kolyada, Viktor
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    On limiting relations for capacities2013Inngår i: Real Analysis Exchange, ISSN 0147-1937, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 211-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 441.
    Kolyada, Viktor
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    On the Cèsaro and Copson Norms of Nonnegative Sequences2019Inngår i: Ukrainian Mathematical Journal, ISSN 0041-5995, E-ISSN 1573-9376, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 248-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cèsaro and Copson norms of a nonnegative sequence are the lp -norms of its arithmetic means and the corresponding conjugate means. It is well known that, for 1 < p < 1, these norms are equivalent. In 1996, G. Bennett posed the problem of finding the best constants in the associated inequalities. The solution of this problem requires the evaluation of four constants. Two of them were found by Bennett. We find one of the two unknown constants and also prove one optimal weighted-type estimate for the remaining constant.

  • 442.
    Kolyada, Viktor
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Soria, Javier
    Univ Barcelona, Dept Appl Math & Anal, Gran Via 585, E-08007 Barcelona, Spain..
    Mixed Norms and Iterated Rearrangements2016Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Analysis und ihre Anwendungen, ISSN 0232-2064, E-ISSN 1661-4534, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 119-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove sharp estimates, and find the optimal range of indices, for the comparison of mixed norms for both functions and their iterated rearrangements.

  • 443.
    Kopp, Oliver
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart.
    Lenhard, JörgKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).Pautasso, CesareUSI Lugano.
    Proceedings of the 9th Central European Workshop on Services and their Composition (ZEUS 2017)2017Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 444.
    Koslowski, Konstantin
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Keusgen, Wilhelm
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Haustein, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Sakaguchi, Kei
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Ogawa, Hiroaki
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Nakamura, Makoto
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Tao, Yu
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    SDN Orchestration to Optimize Meshed Millimeter-Wave Backhaul Networks for MEC-enhanced eMBB Use Cases2018Inngår i: 2018 13th IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB), IEEE, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel concept for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) communication using millimeter-wave radio technologies enhanced by mobile edge computing to support a new class of applications requiring low latency and high data rates at the same time. The concept developed in the joint European/Japanese collaboration project 5G-MiEdge [1] builds on meshed backhaul topologies using millimeter wave links with beam forming capabilities and smart routing units for dynamic route, link and power management to be orchestrated by SDN. It is shown that dynamic changes in the topology at run time can be realized without experiencing losses in latency or throughput.

  • 445.
    Kosta, E.
    et al.
    Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society (TILT), Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.
    Hansen, M.
    Unabhängiges Landeszentrum für Datenschutz (ULD), Kiel, Germany.
    Nai-Fovino, I.
    European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Preface2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 446.
    Kosta, Eleni
    et al.
    Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
    Fovino, Igor Nai
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Hansen, Marit
    Unabhangiges Landeszentrum Datenschutz Schleswig, Kiel, Germany.
    Raab, Charles
    University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Sanchez, Ignacio
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Whitehouse, Diane
    Castlegate Consultancy, Malton, England.
    The Smart World Revolution2018Inngår i: Privacy and Identity Management: The Smart Revolution / [ed] Hansen, M., Kosta, E., Nai-Fovino, I., Fischer-Hubner, S., Springer, 2018, Vol. 26, s. 3-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The explosion of the phenomenon of the Internet of Things and the increasing diffusion of smart living technologies in all the layers of our society - from houses to hospitals, from cities to critical infrastructures such as energy grids - clearly demonstrates the viability and the advantages of a fully interconnected vision of a smart world. Technological advances such as the use of open data, big data, blockchain and sensor development in the Internet of Everything are rapidly changing the societal landscape, raising the question of how to guarantee, in a homogeneous way, the preservation of privacy and other human rights in a completely heterogeneous and cross-sectoral world, without impairing the potentialities of the new smart technologies such as the Internet of Things and big data. The 2017 IFIP Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management was dedicated to the exploration of technical, legal and societal issues relating to the smart revolution. This chapter provides an introduction to the exciting work presented at the summer school.

  • 447.
    Koumaras, Harilaos
    et al.
    Natl Ctr Sci Res DEMOKRITOS, Aghia Paraskevi, Greece.
    Tsolkas, Dimitris
    Fogus Innovat & Serv, Athens, Greece.
    Gardikis, Georgios
    Space Hellas Cyprus Ltd, Athina, Greece.
    Merino Gomez, Pedro
    Univ Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Frascolla, Valerio
    Intel Deutschland GmbH, Neubiberg, Germany.
    Triantafyllopoulou, Dionysia
    Univ Surrey, 5GIC, Guildford, Surrey, England.
    Emmelmann, Marc
    FOKUS Fraunhofer Gesell eV, Berlin, Germany.
    Koumaras, Vaios
    INFOLYSiS PC, Athens, Greece.
    Garcia Osma, Maria L.
    Telefonica, Madrid, Spain.
    Munaretto, Daniele
    Athonet, Bolzano Vicentino, Italy.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    Nemergent Solut SL, Bilbao, Spain.
    Suarez de Puga, Jara
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Alay, Ozgu
    Simula Res Lab, Fornebu, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Bosneag, Anne Marie Cristina
    Ericsson LMI, Dublin, Ireland.
    5GENESIS: The Genesis of a flexible 5G Facility2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPUTER AIDED MODELING AND DESIGN OF COMMUNICATION LINKS AND NETWORKS (CAMAD), IEEE, 2018, s. 197-202Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the pathway towards the realisation of a 5G Facility that will allow the validation of the major 5G Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It reflects the approach that the 5GENESIS consortium will adopt in this direction. More precisely, it describes the key design principles of such Facility as well as the targeted use cases for the KPIs validation. The adopted approach for the Facility realisation includes the design of a common implementation blueprint that will be instantiated in five Platforms distributed across Europe. To maximise the diversity and the efficiency of the Facility, complementary performance objectives have been selected for the Platforms, while specific characteristics from different vertical industries have been allocated to each of them.

  • 448.
    Krehel, O.
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci, MB Eindhoven.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Knabner, P.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Dept Math, Erlangen, Germany.
    Multiscale modeling of colloidal dynamics in porous media including aggregation and deposition2015Inngår i: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 86, s. 209-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 449.
    Krehel, Oleh
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Error control for the FEM approximation of an upscaled thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions2016Inngår i: Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications, ISSN 1343-4373, Vol. 25, s. 99-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 450.
    Krimmer, Robert
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Volkamer, MelanieKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).Barrat, JordiEVOL2-eVoting Research Lab, Tarragona, Spain.Benaloh, JoshMicrosoft Research, Seattle, USA.Goodman, NicoleUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.Ryan, Peter Y.AUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.Teague, VanessaUniversity of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Electronic Voting: First International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2016, Bregenz, Austria, October 18-21, 2016, Proceedings2017Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
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