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  • 401.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Regeringen hotar att rasera kollektivtrafiken2009In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 402.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    How overall satisfaction relate to quality attributes and frequency of negative critical incidents in public transport services1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 403.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived quality of public transport service: A study of negative critical incidents1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 404.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived service quality attributes in public transport: Inferences from complaints and negative critical incidents1998In: Journal of Public Transport, 2 (1), 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 200 complaints filed to a public transport company and 210 negative critical incidents (NCIs) obtained from on-board interviews were analyzed with the purpose of inferring perceived service quality (PSQ) attributes of public transport. Most frequent complaints and NCIs concerned employee behavior and punctuality, followed by missing or inaccurate information and inadequate planning. In a follow-up mail survey, a representative sample of 997 respondents reported if they remembered having experienced prototypical NCIs constructed on the basis of the complaints. Confirming the validity of the inferred PSQ attributes, all NCIs were reported to have been experienced by at least some respondents. NCIs related to employee behavior were however less frequently remembered, whereas those related to vehicle design and space, punctuality, and traffic planning were more frequently remembered. Taken together the results suggest that PSQ attributes in public transport refer to employee behavior, reliability, and simplicity. Finally, inferences made from customer complaints and negative critical incidents are shown to extend our knowledge of perceived service quality attributes in public transport.

  • 405.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. I2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mail survey was conducted to investigate factors affecting public transport users´ satisfaction with the service. The respondents were residents of a metropolitan area of Sweden. A model was proposed and estimated using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII. In the model, overall cumulative satisfaction is positively related to attribute-specific cumulative satisfaction which in turn is negatively related to the remembered frequency of negative critical incidents. In addition, measurement models indicated that both attribute-specific satisfaction and the frequency of negative critical incidents are related to treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design.

  • 406.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Quality of Life and Daily Travel2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume analyses the relevance of daily travel in the quality of life of individuals. It provides a broad understanding of the links between life satisfaction, well-being and travel, the importance of commuting, and different evaluations and measures to assess the experience of commuting and quality of life. Chapters in this book relate travel and quality of life to the built environment, accessibility and exclusion, travel mode choice, travel satisfaction and emotions. It brings together distinguished researchers from a variety of academic backgrounds providing conceptualizations and applications, presented as case studies, for daily travel and well-being. Findings presented in this book are highly relevant for transport planners, transport marketers, public transport authorities, and environmental professionals in the pursuit of improving people’s life. 

  • 407.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Supply and Customer Satisfaction in Public Transportation: The Quality Paradox2009In: Journal of Public Transportation, ISSN 1077-291X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction measures obtained from citizens are frequently used in performancebased contracts due to their presumed link with company performance. However, few studies have actually examined the link between traveler satisfaction measures and objective performance measures in public transport. This research analyzes the relationship between the objective performance measures of public transport services and the satisfaction perceived by travelers. Data were collected in six different European cities. Three objective service performance measures were obtained for each city from the UITP Millennium Database. Three subjective satisfaction attribute measures were obtained from Benchmarking in European Service of Public Transport (BEST 2001), answered by 6,021 respondents in total. In addition to subjective attribute measures, overall satisfaction was also used as a subjective measure. Several correlational analyses show that the relationship between satisfaction and service performance in public transport is far from perfect.

  • 408.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The quality paradox: discrepancy between service supply and customer satisfaction2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 409.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Evaluating service scape in public transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 410.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, S
    Ettema, D
    Gärling, T
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A psychometric analysis of the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011In: Satisfaction with Different Travel Modes / [ed] K Dziekan , T Gehlert, T Gärling, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 411.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A happy work commute2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 412.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 132-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 413.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfredsställelse med vardagliga resor oavsett färdmedel - psykometrisk analys av STS Skalan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 414.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustavsson, B-O.
    Lahtinen, T.
    Larsson, P.
    Thomasson, B.
    Services and issues relating to the work environment1996In: B. Edvardsson & S. Modell (Eds.), Service managment. Interdiciplinary percepectives. (pp. 151-180), Stockholm: Nerenius & Santérus , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 415.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Frequency of negative critical incidents and satisfaction with public transport services1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 416.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. II2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stated-preference study was conducted to investigate user satisfaction with public transport services. A convenience sample of 95 public transport users participated. The results of a previous large-scale survey were replicated in showing that overall satisfaction is related to satisfaction with treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design. It was further shown that the total frequency of negative critical incidents affected overall satisfaction whereas the frequencies of different types of negative critical incidents selectively affected attribute-specific satisfaction. In both cases relative rather than absolute frequency was important.

  • 417.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Negativa händelser, upplevd kvalitet och global tillfredsställelse i kollektivtrafikresor1998Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 418.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Review of soft policy measures for changed travel behavior in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 419.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Related to Service Performance Attributes2001In: Hensher, D. (Ed). Travel behaviour research. The leading Edge. (pp.815-825), Elsevier Science, Ltd , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The present study examines the relationship between service performance and public transport users satisfaction. Residents (n=228) of a metropolitan area of Sweden answered a survey questionnaire assessing their satisfaction with the local public transport (busses and streetcars). Information was also collected about the public transport services used by the survey respondents for trips to work and to downtown, respectively. By estimating structural models using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII, the hypothesized relation between satisfaction and service performance (travel time, wait time, changes, and frequency of service) was confirmed. Service performance was directly related to overall cumulative satisfaction whereas recalled negative critical incidents did not seem to play any role.

  • 420.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Related to Service Performance Attributes2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 421.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Bamberg, S
    Fujii, S
    Richter, J
    Implementation of soft policy measures to change private car use in urban areas2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 422.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Millett, B.
    Mattsson, J.
    Johnston, R.
    An analysis of international business-to-business relationships based on the commitment-trust theory2002In: Industrial Marketing Management, 31, 403-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-to-business relationships are characterized by an exchange between two or more parties. Research has identified several factors that enhance marketing and management in business relationships, mainly with a focus on large manufacturing firms. However, less is known about how service firms develop and maintain international relations during the establishment of a business. To analyze the relevance of the key mediating variable model (Morgan and Hunt 1994) which maintains that business-to-business relationship requires commitment and trust, interviews were conducted with five different service entrepreneurs in Sweden, Australia, and the UK. The findings demonstrate the importance of commitment, trust, relation termination costs and benefits, shared values, and communication between the exchange partners.

  • 423.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, D.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

  • 424.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 425.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Larhult, Lina
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg.
    An Analysis of Soft Transport Policy Measures Implemented in Sweden to Reduce Private Car Use2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations carried out in many countries show that soft policy measures in the form of personalized travel planning reduce private car use and increase travel by public transport. Sweden is a sparsely populated country that poorly supports public transport, a country with long distances, a cold climate, and a high concentration of private cars, which is why soft policy measures implemented in Sweden may be less cost-effective than has been found in other countries. Thirty-two programs using personalized travel planning were analysed with regard to stewardship, geographic area of application, choice of techniques of exerting an influence, and effects on car use and choice of alternative travel modes. None of the evaluations of the documented programs met the method requirements for such evaluations as regards design and effect measurement. Additionally, reporting was substandard as well as non-standard in the way that is desirable in order to enable comparative analyses. With reservations for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive effects on a par with the results in other countries have been obtained in some of the implemented programs. It is however necessary to conduct evaluations which are of higher quality. The requirements which will then have to be applied are defined.

  • 426.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Nyberg, C.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Threats and aggression directed to soccer referees: An empirical phenomenological psychological study2004In: The Qualitative Report, 9, 652-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which were summarized in six themes. The main themes described the perceived causes of threat, reactions to threat, how the referees´ manage stressful situations, and their motives to referee.

  • 427.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012In: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 428.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gamble, A
    Bergstad Jakobsson, C
    Ettema, D
    Impact of Performance of Out-of-Home Activities on Affective and Cognitive Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Ettema, D
    Travel and Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 430.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Gamble, A
    Bergstad Jakobsson, C
    Ettema, D
    Car-use, Satisfaction with Travel and Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 431.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, C
    Gamble, A
    Hagman, O
    Polk, M
    Gärling, T
    Ettema, D
    Impacts of Routine Out-of-Home Activities on Subjective Well-Being2010Report (Refereed)
  • 432.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Suzuki, H
    Fujii, S
    Kitagawa, S
    Nakai, S
    Gärling, T
    Eriksson, L
    Ettema, D
    The relationship between subjective well-being and satisfaction with daily travel2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 433.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Feasibility of Voluntary Reduction of Private Car Use2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are today facing substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, and air pollution. Transport authorities therefore implement various policy measures that aim to modify or reduce private car use. These are generally referred to as Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures.

    In this research report we propose a classification of the various TDM-measures, encompassing the specific characteristics of each, how the various measures may be distinguished from each other and to what extent they may interact, as well as how effective they are in modifying or reducing private car use.

    A theoretical framework is proposed next, to account for how the TDM measures impact on car users’ change in travel behaviour. The theoretical framework posits that, if a change goal is set, it is followed by forming plans to attain the set goal (e.g., to change from using the car to using alternative modes). A principle of cost-minimization is proposed that describes how car users incrementally implement plans to achieve their set goals.

    A review of voluntary travel-behavior change (VTBC) programs shows that in general the VTBC-related TDM measures are effective. Yet, it is still unclear whether these positive effects are long-term. Furthermore, the positive effects are apparently only observed for motivated (and self-selected) participants and not even necessarily for all of them unless some facilitating conditions are fulfilled. However, the VTBC measures meet with higher public acceptance, are politically feasible, and cost-effective.

    It is argued that more research is needed to answer the questions of when and why VTBC measures work, wherein also a closer investigation into which individual and situational factors it is that generates the positive effect.

  • 434.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Affective Forecasting: Improving Habitual Car Users' Predictions about Future Satisfaction with Public Transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 435.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Consumers Reluctance to Use Public Services: Effects of a Defocusing Technique on Car Users Predictions of Future Satisfaction with Public Transport2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 436.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effect of Critical Incidents on Car Users' Predicted Satisfaction with Public Transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 437.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of a Trial Passenger Project on Habitual Car Users' Capacity to make a Permanent Travel Mode Shift towards Public Transport Use2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 438.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Facilitating Sustainable Practice: Long-Term Effects of a Trial Passenger Project on Habitual Car Users' Frequency of Public Transport Use2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 439.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Richter, J
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Review of Implementations of Soft Transport Policy Measures2010In: Transportation: Theory and Application, ISSN 1946-3111, E-ISSN 1946-3111, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Wahlund, B
    Kritiska händelser en outsinlig källa för förbättrad tjänstekvalitet1997Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 441.
    Fuglsang, Lars
    et al.
    Lillehammer Univ Coll, Lillehammer, Norway.;Roskilde Univ, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Ronning, Rolf
    Lillehammer Univ Coll, Lillehammer, Norway.;Eastern Norway Res Inst, Lillehammer, Norway..
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Framing Innovation in Public Service Sectors Preface2014In: Framing innovation in public service sectors / [ed] Fuglsang, L; Ronning, R; Enquist, B, Routledge, 2014, Vol. 30, p. XIII-XIIIChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 442.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering , Tokyo Institute of Technology , Japan.
    Bamberg, Sebastian
    Department of Psychology , University of Giessen , Germany.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology , University of Gothenburg.
    Are Effects of Travel Feedback Programs Correctly Assessed?2009In: Transportmetrica, ISSN 1812-8602, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 443. Fujii, Satoshi
    et al.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with work commute differs among Sweden, Netherland and Japan?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed satisfaction with travel scale in previous research. The ratings on the scales were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. In this presentation we will report the comparative analysis on satisfaction with work commute between Sweden, Netherland and Japan, using the data of samples of car users in the countries. In the analysis, we will firstly see how such ratings differ among the countries. We will then investigate the determinants of the difference while considering difference of distribution of personal attributes (such as age, sex, and others) and trip attributes (such as travel time duration, commuting travel mode, and others), and the difference of the attributes of work commute environment (such as the level of average traffic congestion). Lastly, we will see the difference of satisfaction with travel among the countries while controlling by the abovementioned variables that affect on the satisfaction. We will discuss why this differences were found while considering differences that were not measured in this research such as cultural difference.

  • 444. Fundin, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Using Kano's theory of attractive quality to better understand customer experiences with e-services2003In: Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. vol. 4, No. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 445. Fundin, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Using the Kano model and technology readiness to better understand customer satisfaction with e-services2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 446. Gabauer, H.
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Cultural Change in the Context of re-stucturing manufacturing firms towards service orientation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 447.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). ITEM-HSG, University of St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Impact of Service Orientation in Corporate Culture on Business Performance in Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 448.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy-Structure Configuration in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy

  • 449.
    Gebaur, Heiko
    et al.
    Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (Cirus), Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Sebhatu, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Innovation in complex service systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 450.
    Gebaur, Heiko
    et al.
    Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (Cirus), Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Service sys-tems Innovation in complex settings2013Conference paper (Refereed)
6789101112 401 - 450 of 810
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