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  • 401.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Roach partial migration: predation, personality and propensity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration may confer benefits, such as foraging opportunity and predator avoidance, but partial migration, i.e. that not the whole population migrates, can be expected if benefits differ between individual phenotypes. We here show that seasonal migration from lakes to connected streams in the freshwater fish roach is strongly affected by risk of cormorant predation. We show that the duration away from the lake, as well as roach individual body size, influence the probability of being predated by cormorants. We also present novel field data showing that cormorant predation acts as a selective pressure against individuals with bold personality, providing a mechanism behind the evolution and maintenance of behavioural phenotypic diversity along the bold-shy continuum. Accordingly, we argue that bold individuals have a higher migratory propensity to avoid cormorants, and that cormorant predation on bold individuals may shift animal-personality composition of roach populations, with consequences for selective processes and lake system composition and function.

  • 402.
    Nilsson, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fjärranalys av skogsskador efter stormen Gudrun: Skogens återhämtning efter den värsta stormen i modern tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On January 8th, 2005 one of the most devastating storms in Sweden’s history occurred, where hundreds of thousands became powerless and seven people lost their lives. The storm Gudrun hit central Götaland worst and nearly nine years’ professional felling of forests was estimated to have fallen in some areas. Previous studies of the storm were carried out on behalf of the Swedish Forest Agency, where the results show that the proportion of windthrown forest area was 11 % in the worst affected municipality of Ljungby. About 80 % of all damaged forests were spruce, 18 % were pine and 2 % were deciduous.                       

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the amount of windthrown forest after the storm Gudrun through analysis of satellite remote sensing data. The proportion of windthrown coniferous and deciduous forest was calculated and the results were compared to the reports written on behalf of the Swedish Forest Agency. Furthermore, the proportion of reforested areas in 2016 was calculated. A change analysis based on satellite data from Landsat 5 from 2004 and 2005 was performed which included a forest mask created by supervised MLC classification. The forest mask was used to exclude uninteresting areas in the analyses. The result was then used for the analysis of the proportion of windthrown coniferous and deciduous forest and for the analysis of reforested areas in 2016. In the latter, a forest mask based on Landsat 8 data was used.

    The results from the analyses show that about 15.8 % of the forest was windthrown, of which 78 % were coniferous and 13 % were deciduous forest. By 2016, 25% of the windthrown areas had been reforested. The accuracy of the results is generally high, but despite this, it substantially differs from the results of earlier studies. The reason for this could be differences in satellite images and programs and additional error sources in conjunction with the analyses.

  • 403.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Mathematical models for compressible flow in porous media2014In: Proceedings of the 19th International Drying Symposium / [ed] Julien Andrieu, Roman Peczalski, Séverine Vessot, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical dewateringcan be accomplished by applying vacuum on one side of the material. In suchapplications, the air flow accompanying dewatering can be substantial and energy-efficient operation requires accurate design and control of the vacuum system. The present study analyses one-dimensional, compressible flow through porous media.Three types of flow are investigated: isothermal, isentropic and adiabatic. The results are presented in terms of relations between dimensionless numbers. The main result is that the difference between assumptions of adiabatic andisothermal flow will be quite small for the majority of foreseeable process conditions.

  • 404.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Stepwise Development of a Mathematical Model for Air Flow in Vacuum Dewatering of Paper2014In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1587-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Finding food and staying alive2018In: Biology and ecology of pike / [ed] Skov, Christian & Nilsson, Anders P., Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 406.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lunds universitet.
    Chapman, Ben
    University of Nottingham & University of Manchester, UK.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Baktoft, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Lunds universitet.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild2017In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 1-4, article id 20170208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of par- ental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post- zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive. Here we provide proof-of- concept for predation on hybrids being a postzygotic barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama) and their hybrids in 2005. Tagged fish were returned to their lake of origin, exposing them to natural predation risk from apex avian predators (great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo). Scanning for regurgitated tags under cormorant roosts 3–4 years later ident- ified cormorant-killed individual fish and allowed us to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification.

  • 407.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Arkeologerna Statens Historiska Museer.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hansson, Martin
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden..
    The invisible subalterns: An archaeological overview2019In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 169-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 19th and early 20th centuries there were numerous non-proprietors paupers in the Swedish countryside such as crofters, boarders and inhabitants of rural slums. With a change in the heritage legislation, increased possibilities to archaeologically investigate the non-proprietors of the recent past have emerged, but the archaeological material is still both scarce and of a repetitive character. Thus, multi source methods such as triangulation of written documents, historical maps and archaeological evidence is used to study living conditions in a number of cases. We argue for the importance of archaeology in this context, as there often are arguments against the usefulness of archaeology in a period rich in written sources. We emphasize that archaeology helps provide a more complex picture of the vulnerability and marginalization of poor and paupers. Marginalization could offer new possibilities to the poor and pauper, but also weaker security nets and increased vulnerability. The potential of archaeological studies of landless subalterns can show the multivocality of the lives of the subalterns, in the same way as it shows how the subalterns organized their daily life. We can conclude that much needs to be done on the topic of subalterns, in order to make them more visible and a mainstream topic of historical research. Archeology has a great deal to contribute in this process.

  • 408.
    Nord, Madelene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Metabolism och personlighetstyp hos svartmunnad smörbult (Neogobuis melanostomus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between the body mass of an organism, activity level and metabolism (metabolic rate, MR) where a higher body mass and activity level correlate with a higher MR. How is it then with an organism's personality and its MR; does the type of personality of the organism play a part in its MR? To test the prediction that a more active personality, such as boldness, would show a higher value of MR in comparison to a more inactive personality, such as shyness, personality, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope (MMR-SMR) were compared for the invasive fish species round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) sampled from Guldborgsund in the Western Baltic. In total, about 400 round goby were captured, of which 19 individuals underwent the entire study. Personality was assessed by two different experiments, scototaxis and boldness, where the individuals then were divided into the personality groups bold and shy. SMR, MMR and aerobic scope were analyzed by respirometry.

    There was a significant difference in SMR between the two types of personality (bold and shy), which also has been found in previous studies (Toscano & Monacos, 2015). There were no significant differences between either MMR, aerobic scope or weight between bold and shy fish. In conclusion, the significant difference in SMR between bold and shy fishes, was probably based on the fact that individuals with a higher proportion of boldness had a higher energy consumption to compensate for the phenotypic benefits (such as higher and easier dispersibility) compared to individuals with less boldness. However, further studies on round goby would have to be performed to investigate whether there is a connection between boldness and a higher dispersibility.

  • 409.
    Nordquist, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Blankålens (Anguilla anguilla) val av flyktväg vid passage av ett småskaligt vattenkraftverk2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European eel is an endangered species that migrates between the ocean and fresh water or brackish water during its life cycle. The eels that migrate to lakes and streams encounter obstacles, such as hydroelectric plants (HEP), which prevent the eels from moving freely between the ocean and streams. The construction of passages at the HEPs is one way to help the eel when migrating back to the ocean. The purpose of this study was to examine whether eels prefer to pass the HEP at the water surface or at the bottom during its downstream migration. The study was performed at the HEP in Alster, at the River Alsterälven, east of Karlstad. The flexibility of the eels when searching for a passage was also examined to determine if they will use the passage that is available at the moment, or if they wait until their first choice of route is available. The pipes, which led to traps that were emptied every day during September and October 2012, yielded 126 fishes out of which 112 were eels. In order to examine whether the eels are flexible or not the pipes were open either one at a time or both at the same time according to a random block design. The results showed that 63% of the eels preferred the pipe located at the water surface, and that the eels were not flexible in terms of depth preference when searching for a passage. The eel preferred the pipe at the water surface regardless of whether it had access surface pipes or pipes at both depths at the same time.

  • 410. Noren, Viveca
    et al.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bishop, Kevin
    Flood risk assessment: Practices in flood prone Swedish municipalities2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 18, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments are important to ensure efficient and effective flood risk management. Methods and strategies for flood risk assessment are described in the literature, but less is known about how assessments are actually performed. We have studied local flood risk assessments in Sweden by interviewing flood risk managers in municipalities and analyzing documentation of flood risk assessment efforts. There is a large variation between municipalities in how flood risk assessment has been done. The efforts made in association with the EU Floods Directive together with a Government Commission about a flood in Lake Malaren are the most advanced assessments. Only a few of the municipalities have done comparable assessments. Generally, however, there is a lack of experience and theoretical knowledge about concepts and methods of flood risk assessment in the municipalities. In the assessments studied, the flood itself had been rather well defined in hazard maps. The consequences of a flood had been studied in the larger projects but only by half of the municipalities. It is mainly direct, tangible consequences that have been included. It is mainly the exposure of assets that has been investigated while little attention has been paid to vulnerability. To improve flood risk assessment in Sweden there is a need for knowledge and resources in the municipalities. Prioritization and motivation are needed to actually perform the assessments. National guidelines for may be helpful to guide municipalities in this work and to have more uniform risk assessment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 411.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Migration and quality of landlocked Atlantic salmon smolt: Implications for conservation and management2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar has a complex life cycle, including long migrations and habitat shifts for both juveniles and adults. As such, salmon populations are vulnerable to habitat degradation and fragmentation along their migratory routes. This makes management and conservation a complex task requiring knowledge of salmon ecology at different temporal and spatial scales. In this thesis I highlight the use of a holistic life-history based approach in the conservation and management of wild and hatchery-reared salmon in regulated rivers and lakes.

    Small populations of wild-reproducing landlocked salmon and trout Salmo trutta exist in the regulated River Klarälven, Sweden. Since the 1930s, transportation of adult spawners upstream of eight dams has given the fish access to spawning grounds. The number of returning wild spawners became critically low in the 1960s, but stocking of hatchery smolts resulted in an increase in spawners that continues today. My data show that wild smolt may suffer high mortality due to multiple dam passages. To ensure viable populations of wild populations, future management should include both up- and downstream solutions that ensure connectivity in the system.

    The recreational and commercial salmonid fishery are maintained by compensatory stockings, yielding annual catches of about 75 tons, and a river return rate of hatchery fish of about 1%. As a large portion of the stocked smolts does not survive downstream migration to the lake, there has been discussion about the quality of the stocked smolt and about stocking strategies. Based on my studies, producing hatchery smolts more closely resembling wild-born conspecifics should result in reduced loss rates. I suggest changes in the hatchery and stocking procedures to increase the survival of stocked smolts. The results of my research should be applicable to other regulated systems, particularly those with mixed stocks of wild and hatchery salmonid populations.

  • 412.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala University.
    Effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early maturation and smolt development in hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar2014In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 1192-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of feed quality and quantity on growth, early male parr maturation and development of smolt characteristics were studied in hatchery reared landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. A 2x2 factorial design was used, with two levels of feed rations and lipid content of the feed. The fish were reared from first feeding until release in May the second year. At the end of the experiment salmon fed high rations, regardless of lipid content, grew the most, whereas salmon fed low lipid feed with low rations grew the least. In addition, fish fed low lipid feed had lower body lipid levels than fish fed high lipid feed. Fish from all treatments showed some reduction in condition factor (CF) and lipid levels during their second spring. Smolt status was evaluated using both physiological and morphological variables. These results, based on Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) enzyme activity, saltwater tolerance challenges and visual assessments, were consistent with each other, showing that salmon from all treatments except the treatment in which fish were fed low rations with low lipid content, exhibited characteristics associated with smolting at two-years of age. Smolting was mainly affected by feed rations; fish fed higher rations experienced enhanced smolting. Sexually mature male parr from the high ration, high lipid content treatment were also subjected to saltwater challenge tests, and were found to be unable to regulate plasma sodium levels. Low feed rations noticeably reduced the proportion of sexually mature male parr, while there was no difference related to lipid content of feed. Fish fed low rations with low lipid content exhibited the highest degree of severe fin erosion.

  • 413.
    Norén, Viveca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Drinking water risk assessment in practice: the case of Swedish drinking water producers at risk from floods2016In: Environment Systems and Decisions, ISSN 2194-5403, E-ISSN 2194-5411, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a safe and reliable drinking water supply, water producers need to manage a large range of risks regarding both water quality and quantity. A risk management approach where risks are systematically identified and handled in a preventive manner is promoted by the World Health Organization and supported by researchers and drinking water experts worldwide. Risk assessment is an important part of such a management approach, and a variety of tools for risk assessment are described in the literature. There is, however, little knowledge of how drinking water risk assessment is performed in practice, including which tools that are actually used. This study investigates the use of risk assessment tools, and the approach to risk management, on a local level in the Swedish water sector. It is based on interviews with key persons from a targeted selection of water producers. We find that the application of tools as well as the approach to risk assessment and management differs considerably between the water producers. The tools most frequently used are mainly the ones promoted or required by Swedish national organizations. Although many of the water producers have done some kind of risk assessment, most have not implemented a risk management approach. Furthermore, their knowledge of the concepts of risk and risk management is often limited. The largest challenge identified is to prioritize risk assessment, so that it is actually performed and then used as a basis for managing risk in a systematic way.

  • 414.
    Nyberg, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Castera, Jeremy
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Clement, Pierre
    Aix-Marseille Université, France; Honorary University, France.
    Teachers' and Student Teachers' Attitudes Towards Nature and the Environment: A Comparative Study Between Sweden and France2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the world, the educational system is expected to deal with issues regarding sustainability and to promote pro-environmental behaviours and attitudes. This study investigates attitudes towards nature and the environment among 1,109 teachers and student teachers in Sweden and France, using the 2 factor Model of Environmental Values (2-MEV). The results imply that in both Sweden and France, teachers and student teachers hold a prevailingly ecocentric attitude, as opposed to an anthropocentric attitude, which possibly indicates a predominantly positive approach towards the environment and environmental education. Comparisons between the countries show, however, that the Swedish teachers and student teachers hold a more anthropocentric attitude than the teachers and student teachers in the French sample.

  • 415.
    Nylin, Soren
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms univesitet.
    Embracing Colonizations: A New Paradigm for Species Association Dynamics2018In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitehost and insectplant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insectplant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting. A common research program is proposed which better prepares us for the challenges from introduced species and global change.

  • 416.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

    A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

  • 417.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts2017In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying fish behaviour at hydropower dams is needed to facilitate the design and improvement of fish passage solutions, but few studies have focused on Atlantic salmon kelts. Here, we used radio telemetry (n = 40, size range = 50–81 cm) and acoustic sonar to study kelt movements in the forebay as well as their dam passage survival and subsequent migration success past multiple dams. We also compare radio telemetry and acoustic sonar observations of fish behaviour and used acoustic sonar to measure the depth distribution of fish approaching the turbine intake zone. Passage success at the dam was 41%, and mortality was largely associated with turbine passage (62%). The two fish that passed via the spill gates survived and continued their downstream migration. At the dam, all but one radio-tagged kelt approached the intake zone shortly after arrival to the forebay, and sonar data showed that approaching fish were predominantly surface oriented (72%, 88% and 96% of the observations were less than 1, 2 and 3 m deep, respectively). Turbine passage rate from the intake zone was higher at night than at day, indicating that the lack of visual cues may reduce the barrier effect of the 70-mm conventional trash rack. Turbine passage rate also increased with increasing hydropower generation. The percentage of observed upstream movements away from the intake zone compared with the total number of observations was considerably greater in the radio telemetry data (41%) than in the sonar data (4%). Only one fish survived passage of all eight hydropower dams to reach the lake. This low-passage survival underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of migrating kelts, and the fish's surface orientation as well as their rapid approach to the intake rack should be taken into account when designing such measures.

  • 418.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?2016In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1008-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeat salmonid spawners may make large contributions to total recruitment and long term population stability. Despite their potential importance, relatively little is known about this phase of the life history for anadromous populations, and nothing has been reported for landlocked populations. Here, we studied post-spawning behaviour and survival of landlocked Atlantic salmon in relation to downstream dam passage in the River KlarÀlven, Sweden. Eight hydropower stations separate the feeding grounds in Lake VÀnern from the spawning grounds in the River KlarÀlven, and no measures to facilitate downstream migration are present in the river. Forty-nine percent of the salmon survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Females and small fish had higher post-spawning survival than males and large fish. The post-spawners migrated downstream in autumn and spring and remained relatively inactive in the river during winter. Downstream migration speed in the free flowing part of the river was highly variable with a median of 9.30km/day. Most fish passed the first hydropower station via upward-opening spill gates after a median residence time in the forebay of 25min. However, no tagged fish survived passage of all eight hydropower stations to reach Lake VÀnern. This result underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of downstream migrating kelts.

  • 419.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Elghagen, J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Elghagen Fiskevård, Åstorp.
    Heiss, M.
    BNGF GmbH-Büro für Naturschutz-Gewässer-und Fischereifragen, Pähl, D-82396, Germany.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    An angled rack with a bypass and a nature-like fishway pass Atlantic salmon smolts downstream at a hydropower dam2018In: Marine and Freshwater Research, ISSN 1323-1650, E-ISSN 1448-6059, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 1894-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower dams disrupt longitudinal connectivity and cause fragmentation of river systems, which has led to declines in migratory fish species. Atlantic salmon smolts rely on intact longitudinal connectivity to move downstream from rearing habitats in freshwater to feeding grounds at sea. Smolts often suffer increased mortality and delays when they encounter hydropower plants during their downstream migration. Currently, there are few examples of downstream passage solutions that allow safe and timely passage. We assessed the performance of two passage solutions at a hydropower dam, namely, an angled 15-mm rack with a bypass and a large nature-like fishway. The performance of these new fish passage solutions was evaluated by tracking radio-tagged Atlantic salmon smolts as they encountered the facilities. The radio-tagged smolts passed the dam 9.5 h after release (median) and exhibited a dam-passage efficiency of 84%, with passage rates increasing with body length. Fish passage occurred through both the rack bypass and the nature-like fishway. The passage efficiencies were 70-95% for the rack bypass and 47% for the nature-like fisway. The new fish passage facilities resulted in improved passage conditions at the site, confirming that angled racks with bypasses as best-practise solutions for downstream passage, but also that large nature-like fishways may act as downstream passage routes for salmon.

  • 420.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Goerig, Elsa
    nst Natl Rech Sci, Ctr Eau Terre & Environm, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ardren, William
    S Fish & Wildlife Serv, Western New England Complex, Essex Jct, VT USA.
    Castro-Santos, Theodore
    USGS Leetown Sci Ctr, SO Conte Anadromous Fish Res Ctr, Turners Falls, MA USA.
    Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 707-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

  • 421.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    McCormick, S. D.
    S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center USGS-Leetown Science Center.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ardren, W. R.
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Castro-Santos, Theodore
    2 S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center USGS-Leetown Science Center.
    Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts2017In: North American Journal of Fisheries Management, ISSN 0275-5947, E-ISSN 1548-8675, Vol. 4, no 37, p. 816-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate behavior and survival of radio-tagged wild and hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar smolts as they migrated past three hydropower dams equipped with fish bypass solutions in the Winooski River, Vermont. Among hatchery-reared smolts, those released early were more likely to initiate migration and did so after less delay than those released late. Once migration was initiated, however, the late-released hatchery smolts migrated at greater speeds. Throughout the river system, hatchery-reared fish performed similarly to wild fish. Dam passage rates varied between the three dams and was highest at the dam where unusually high spill levels occurred throughout the study period. Of the 50 fish that did migrate downstream, only 10% managed to reach the lake. Migration success was low despite the presence of bypass solutions, underscoring the need for evaluations of remedial measures; simply constructing a fishway is not synonymous with providing fish passage.

  • 422.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Alenäs, I
    Falkenberg Energi.
    Elghagen, J
    Falkenberg Energi.
    Hebrand, M
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB.
    Karlsson, S
    SLU.
    Kläppe, S
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Upstream and downstream passage of migrating adult Atlantic salmon: Remedial measures improve passage performance at a hydropower dam2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 102, p. 331-343Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 423.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Zagars, Matiss
    Institute for Environmental solutions.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Behavior of trap-and-transported Atlantic salmon spawners of hatchery origin in the Daugava River system (Latvia)2019In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Where migrating fish have to pass multiple dams, very high passage performance is required at the series of obstacles to avoid accumulated negative effects of multiple dam passage. In some rivers, migrating fish are trapped, transported past several obstacles, and released to continue their migration. Such trap-and-transport solutions, however, have seldom been evaluated. In the Daugava River, Latvia, several dams with no functional fishways block the river for migrating fish. A remnant Atlantic salmon population is being sustained by a sea ranching regime, where returning spawners are caught and artificially spawned, the juveniles raised in hatcheries, and smolts released in to the river in time for their seaward migration. Hatchery released fish, however, differ substantially from wild conspecifics, and in Latvia, as elsewhere throughout the range of salmon, reduced dependency on hatchery production and the re-establishment of wild salmon populations are being discussed. In the Daugava River system, suitable spawning and rearing habitat remains upstream two dams and an associated large reservoir in a mainstem tributary, the Ogre River, offering the potential to restore a wild salmon population.  To explore the potential of a trap-and-transport solution to bring Atlantic salmon spawners in contact with remaining spawning grounds in the Daugava River system, spawners were caught, radio tagged, transported upstream of the two dams and the reservoir, and released to pursue their spawning migration in the tributary. Despite being unfamiliar with the river, some of the tagged spawners moved upstream, reaching areas up to 12 km from the release sites. Males were observed higher upstream in the river compared to females, and some males were tracked relatively close to potential salmon spawning habitat. Females, although displaying some movements in the lower parts of the river, were not observed close to any suitable spawning areas, highlighting potentially important sex differences in post trap-and-transport behaviour. Perhaps due to different responses to handling stress, such low post-transportation spawning success among females has the potential to negatively impact restoration efforts in the Daugava River system and elsewhere. The present study represents a first step towards the restoration of wild Daugava salmon, one of several unique Baltic Atlantic salmon populations, and a potential model for future restoration efforts.

  • 424.
    Obregón, C.
    et al.
    Estuaries & Wetlands Conservation Programmes, Conservation Programmes Department, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London.
    Lyndon, A. R.
    Centre for Marine Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, John Muir Building, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Barker, J.
    Estuaries & Wetlands Conservation Programmes, Conservation Programmes Department, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London, United Kingdo.
    Christiansen, H.
    Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Biology, KU Leuven.
    Godley, B. J.
    Centre for Ecology and Conservation, Daphne du Maurier Building, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter,.
    Kurland, S.
    Populations genetics, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Potts, R.
    Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter.
    Short, R.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, United Kingdom.
    Tebb, A.
    Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Mariani, S.
    School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Peel Building, Salford, United Kingdom.
    Valuing and understanding fish populations in the Anthropocene: Key questions to address2018In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 828-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the values of fish populations and fisheries has primarily focused on bio-economic aspects; a more nuanced and multidimensional perspective is mostly neglected. Although a range of social aspects is increasingly being considered in fisheries research, there is still no clear understanding as to how to include these additional values within management policies nor is there a cogent appreciation of the major knowledge gaps that should be tackled by future research. This paper results from a workshop held during the 50th anniversary symposium of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles at the University of Exeter, UK, in July 2017. Here, we aim to highlight the current knowledge gaps on the values of fish populations and fisheries thus directing future research. To this end, we present eight questions that are deeply relevant to understanding the values of fish populations and fisheries. These can be applied to all habitats and fisheries, including freshwater, estuarine and marine.

  • 425.
    Ogla, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Halter av bekämpningsmedel i rå- och dricksvatten i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Undesirable effects from pesticides have been noted not only in Sweden but also all over the world where chemical agents are used without any restriction. Raw water is a raw material for drinking water. In Sweden raw water originates from both surface and groundwater; results of water surveys in Sweden have shown that different pesticides are present both in raw and drinking water. This study presents the concentrations of pesticides in raw and drinking water in Sweden and the study has shown that there are significant differences in the proportions of samples with pesticides between raw and drinking water. The results also show that the highest proportion of samples with pesticide residues in drinking water (30.43%) was registered in the County of Blekinge. The highest proportion of samples with pesticide residues in raw water (42.30%) was registered in the County of Gävleborg. For surface and groundwater, the results show that at least one pesticide (active substance) has been found in all samples in surface and groundwater in Sweden in 2015. 

    Some prohibited substances were found in groundwater even though they were banned more than 20 years ago. Prohibited substances were also detected in water operations.          

    Most of pesticides in Sweden are used by industry; herbicides are mainly used in agriculture while households use mostly moss pesticides.

    The study shows that there are high concentrations of pesticides in raw water in Sweden.  Some prohibited substances were detected in surface water, groundwater and water operations.

     

  • 426.
    Oien, Henning
    et al.
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of community-based interventions for the older population: a quasi-experimental study of a hip-fracture prevention program in Norway2018In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHip fractures among older adults are a major public health problem in many countries. Hip fractures are associated with expensive health care treatments, and serious adverse effects on patients' health and quality-of-life. In this paper, we estimate the effect of a community-based hip fracture prevention program that was initiated in 16 Norwegian municipalities in 2007. Specifically, the participating municipalities implemented one or more of the following interventions: exercise programs for older adults, information and education campaigns to communicate how to effectively reduce falls to care workers and older adults, and preventive home safety assessment and modification help services.MethodsWe used a difference-in-difference design, and identified control municipalities by matching on pre-intervention trends in the outcome. The outcome measure was the incidence of hip-fractures among older adults (65years).ResultsWe found no statistically significant effects of the implemented program on the incidence of hip fractures, on average, in older subgroups (80years) or in municipality-specific analyses.ConclusionsIt is unclear whether the interventions managed to achieve a change in hip fracture rates at the population level.

  • 427.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). CSD, ROSE.
    ROSE – On the Issue of Comparative Subject Specific Didactics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 428.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). CSD, ROSE.
    Mellström, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Gender Studies (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A digitalized classroom in India: Potentials for transformation of curriculum and power hierarchies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Tani, Sirpa
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Niemi, P-J
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Tainio, Lisa
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Powerful Knowledge across curricula, academic disciplines and school subjects2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 430.
    Olofsson, Angélica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    ”See something, say something”: - En kvalitativ undersökning om arenaansvarigas arbete kring säkerhetsinteraktion med besökare.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historical events have shown the potential danger and the serious and sometimes tragic consequences that can occur at arenas and places where large crowds are gathered. There are several challenges when communicating safety to a broad audience whose focus lays on the event and its adventures.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how managers at arenas operate and interact around the safety of visitors in an arena. A total of six qualitative interviews with eight people who work with arenas was done and thematically analysed.

    The results of the study show that safety and security are on top of the priority list of both the arenas and organizers. The organisation’s size and thus resources affects the conditions for work and therefore the approach can differ. Although there is a clear division of responsibilities in terms of laws and regulations most arenas consider themselves as a form of controller on certain fundamental aspects of safety. Collaboration between stakeholders and government has evolved during the last years and is considered to be good.

    There are several challenges since risk perception is subjective, and also because each event is unique. Planning and analysis is therefore crucial, taking into account the nature of the event, expected audience, potential threats and local conditions. Social media has opened up new possibilities related to information and dialogue but also new risks since uncontrolled information can spread rapidly. Exchange of experience between the arenas appears to mainly be done informally, although research has shown that by learning from own and others' mistakes, new mistakes can be avoided and potential impacts milder. The result shows that there is a movement towards a more proactive safety approach and that safety and service are key factors. The future will hold a shared responsibility - “see something, say something”.

  • 431.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Student Sustainability Consciousness: Investigating Effects of Education for Sustainable Development in Sweden and Beyond2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and sustainability education has been an important part of education worldwide for many years, aiming to foster pro-environmental behavior among young people. Education for sustainable development (ESD) and its teaching components holism (the approach to the content) and pluralism (the approach to teaching) has been launched as the educational approach to support this aim by empowering young people with action competence for a sustainable future. Environmental and sustainability certifications are commonly used by schools as support in their ESD-implementation efforts. To date, scholarly attention to, and critical reflection on the effects of such certification on students’ perceptions of sustainability have been limited.

    This doctoral thesis focuses on this gap in ESD research through five large-scale studies, four of which were conducted in Sweden and one in Taiwan. Questionnaire instruments measuring students’ sustainability consciousness (SC) and their experiences of ESD were developed for the project.  In total, 2 413 students in Sweden and 1 741 students in Taiwan (grades six, nine and twelve) participated by filling in the SC questionnaire. The Swedish students also filled in questionnaires about their experiences of ESD at their schools in terms of holistic approach to content and pluralistic approach to teaching.

    The results question the impact of schools’ environmental and sustainability certification on students’ SC. The results also show the importance of holism and pluralism in ESD for students’ SC, regardless of whether schools were certified or not. Moreover, the findings reveal an adolescent dip in students’ SC as well as a gender gap, both of which were reinforced among students in the certified schools.

    Given the findings, this thesis can give more generalizable guidance for schools and certifying organizations to further reorient ESD towards teaching and learning approaches that have an effect on student SC.

  • 432.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire - categorization of items2017Data set
  • 433.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire - grade six version2017Data set
  • 434.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire - grade twelve version2017Data set
  • 435.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ), Chinese version: Grade 6-7 and High School2017Data set
  • 436.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sutstainability Consciousness Questionnaire - grade nine version2017Data set
  • 437.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Young People's "Sustainability Consciousness": Effects of ESD Implementation in Swedish Schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is approaching its end and it is important to investigate the effects of the efforts to implement education for sustainable development (ESD) nationally, before decisions on forthcoming efforts are made. There are few investigations of the effect of ESD implementation that take a broad approach. In order to measure the educational effects of ESD implementation broadly and inclusively, I introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness (SC), which will be operationalized into the research through a Likert scale questionnaire. This licentiate thesis contributes new knowledge on the implementation of ESD in the Swedish school system as reflected in young people’s SC. Two studies have been conducted. In the first study, I investigated the effects of ESD implementation by a comparison of SC between students in schools with an explicit ESD approach and control schools without an explicit approach. In the second study, I investigated whether the perceptual dip among adolescents found in the field of environmental education was also present in the economic and social dimensions of their SC in addition to the environmental one. The total sample included 2 413 students in 6th, 9th and 12th grades of the Swedish schools system. Results of the two studies indicate that the implementation of ESD in the Swedish compulsory school system does not seem to have been particularly successful as there are only small positive effects of an explicit ESD approach in 6th grade and even a small negative effect of an explicit ESD approach in the 9th grade. Furthermore, the dip in adolescent 9th graders’ SC is confirmed. This indicates that different age groups tackle the effects of the prevailing traditional sustainability teaching in different ways, which suggests that ESD in schools need to be adapted to different levels.

  • 438.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Self-perceived action competence: Validation of an instrument in a whole school ESD development process in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 439.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Adolescents and the dip in sustainability consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decline in adolescence, in this paper referred to as a “dip”. However, less is known whether adolescents’ interests and concerns for sustainable development (SD), i.e. a more inclusive concept including economic and social issues, also dip in adolescence. Education for sustainable development (ESD) could be regarded as a teaching approach that in a good way meets the educational needs of adolescents. Therefore before promoting widespread adoption of such an approach it is important to rigorously test the hypothesis whether adolescents’ broader consciousness of SD really dip.  A research group in Sweden has recently developed an instrument for surveying students’ sustainability consciousness (SC), a broad concept integrating affective and cognitive aspects of the three dimensions of SD. Thus, this study aims to investigate students’ SC in the transition to adolescence. This was done by surveying 2413 Swedish students in the 6th, 9th and 12th grade using an age-adapted questionnaire. The results unambiguously show that Swedish students’ SC dips in adolescence, strongly indicating a need to modify the sustainability education of adolescents. Education for Sustainable Development is recommended as an approach to meet that need. However, further research is needed to evaluate the potential utility of ESD as a teaching approach for tackling the adolescent dip in students’ SC.

  • 440.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Cross validation of a new scale covering student self-perceived action competence2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution aims to describe the development, cross validation and operationalization of a new scale developed to measure student self-perceived action competence. The underlying idea of education for sustainable development (ESD) is to empower young people to be sustainability action competent and thus, in the long run, contribute to transform the world into a more sustainable place (Lotz-Sitiska, Wals, Kronlid, & McGarry, 2015; Mogensen & Schnack, 2010, UNESCO, 2014). To be able to tune in and develop ESD processes and implementation strategies it is important to evaluate outcomes of ESD at the student level (Scott, 2013). Therefore, we set out to construct a reliable and valid instrument that covers action competence based on its definition in relation to sustainable development. The self-perceived action competence (SPAC) item battery was developed based on the definition of action competence by Danish researchers (Jensen & Schnack, 1997; Breiting & Mogensen, 1999). We built a higher order SEM model to validate the SPAC through confirmatory factor analysis. In our model, the student SPAC consists of three main parts (latent constructs): (KAP) knowledge of action possibilities, (COI) confidence in one’s own influence, and (WTA) a wish to act. The latent constructs KAP, COI and WTA are covered by four items respectively. 608 students aged 13-19 years old responded on a five-point Likert-scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) to each of the twelve items. To cross validate the SPAC, the students also gave their answers to the short version (27 items) of the sustainability consciousness questionnaire (SCQs) (Gericke et al., 2018). The two scales were respectively validated with good model-fit. Moreover, the SPAC was translated into Dutch and cross validated with a group of Flemish students (n=403). The Flemish SPAC model was validated with good model fit. At the ECER conference in Hamburg, we will present the full 12-item scale and the full validation of the SPAC, including reliability measures of the scales and correlations between the Swedish and Flemish cohorts as well as the cross validation between the SPAC and SCQs for the Swedish data. We will invite the audience to share their thoughts on the relation between student self-perceived action competence and the action competence concept as an educational ideal. Feedback on strengths and shortcomings of our SPAC questionnaire will also be welcomed.

  • 441.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eco-Schools in Sweden and the Effects on Students’ Sustainability Consciousness2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 442.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gender and students’ sustainability consciousness2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 443.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Investigating the dip in the adolescents’ sustainability consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 444.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The adolescent dip in students' sustainability consciousness: Implications for education for sustainable development2016In: The Journal of Environmental Education, ISSN 0095-8964, E-ISSN 1940-1892, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decrease in adolescence, but less is known about adolescents' broader consciousness of sustainable development, also including economic and social issues. This study investigates students' sustainability consciousness in the transition to adolescence. This was done by surveying 2,413 Swedish students in the sixth, ninth and twelfth grades using an age-adapted questionnaire. The results unambiguously show that Swedish students' sustainability consciousness dips in adolescence, strongly indicating a need to modify the sustainability education for adolescents. Education for sustainable development is recommended as an approach to meet that need.

  • 445.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The Gender Gap in Environmental and Sustainability Education - A cross sectional study of Swedishstudents from grade six, nine and twelve2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 446.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire: Grade 6-version in Swedish2014Data set
  • 447.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Research Unit Edubron, Department of Training and Education Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Green Schools in Taiwan: Effects on Student Sustainability Consciousness2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 54, p. 184-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the Taiwanese government has worked actively to implement the concept of a sustainable Taiwan. As an important step in their strategy, the Ministry of Education has decided to promote the Green School Partnership Project in Taiwan (GPPT). However, academic research and critical reflection on the effects of this environmental and sustainability education initiative are lacking. Therefore, this study focuses on filling this gap by means of a nationwide generalizable effect study. The sampling allowed comparisons between the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades in GPPT and non-GPPT schools and considered the geographic location (north, center, and south of Taiwan) as well as socio-economic area of the schools. A total of 1,741 students participated, answering a questionnaire that focused on student sustainability consciousness (SC) and its components (i.e., knowingness, attitudes, and behaviors in relation to sustainability). Data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Our findings make an important empirical contribution, indicating that GPPT schools and non-GPPT schools have a similar effect on the SC of students, i.e. schools engaged in the GPPT do not enhance student SC. In addition, the gender gap regarding SC increased consistently with each increasing grade level, yielding higher mean values for the girls than for the boys. Furthermore, an adolescent dip occurred in the student SC, especially with regard to student sustainability behavior. Given these findings, implications for developing GPPT are discussed; this research could provide valuable informationabout the educational transformation process to enhance environmental and sustainability behavior among students in Taiwan.

  • 448.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Research Unit Edubron, Department of Training and Education Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Manuscript Green schools in Taiwan: Effects on student sustainability consciousnessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 449.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Effects of green schools in Taiwan on students’ sustainability consciousness2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 450.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The effect of implementation of education for sustainable development in Swedish compulsory schools: Assesing pupils' sustainability consciousness2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 176-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to represent the holistic view of sustainability. Within the concept of sustainability consciousness, we combine and investigate the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainable development in terms of sustainability knowingness, attitudes, and behavior. A Likert-scale questionnaire with 50 items was developed to evaluate pupils’ sustainability consciousness through a nationwide study in Sweden. A total of 1773 pupils from the 6th and 9th grades participated. The results indicated that the ESD profile schools had a small positive effect on the pupils’ sustainability consciousness, while in grade 9 the effect was negative. The implications for further ESD implementation are discussed.

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