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  • 401. Ahlenius, Emma
    et al.
    Eklöf, Nathalie
    Hur påverkar nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter ett köpcentrums attraktivitet?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Köpcentrum har under de senaste 20 åren utvecklats och blivit en plats för mer än bara inköp av varor. I och med nöjesrevolutionen är nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter inte längre ett främmande inslag i köpcentrum för konsumenter. Flertalet författare har identifierat faktorer som skapar attraktivitet och ofta nämns dessa aktiviteter som en faktor. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur dessa nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter påverkar ett köpcentrums attraktivitet. I teorin förklaras begreppet attraktivitet och hur det kan påverkaa konsumenternas syn på köpcentrumet. Konsumenternas ständiga efterfrågan av olika form av underhållning beskrivs och dessutom redogör teorin för hur adderandet av nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter har påverkat köpcentrum. I denna studie har det använts en kvantitativ metod och datainsamlingen utfördes med strukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes personligen med totalt 140 respondenter vid två separata tillfällen. I empirin presenteras de resultat som sammanställts i form av tabeller. Intervjublanketten placeras som bilaga (bilaga 1) och tabellerna (tabell 1-8) diskuteras vidare i analysen. Analysen diskuterar och kontrollerar huruvida resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som finns i teorin. Slutsatsen är att nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter påverkar ett köpcentrums attraktivitet genom att skapa ett positivt helhetsintryck.

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    fulltext
  • 402.
    Ahlfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Byström, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hur satsar arbetsgivaren på hälsofrämjande åtgärder och hur uppfattas i så fall dessa av personalen?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 403.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Arahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks2019In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the latency-aware multipath schedulerZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities ininformation-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is touse the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows,and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimatorcalled zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiplepaths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths sothat the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is,so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow withoutcreating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation usingsimulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

  • 404.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Are MIRCC and Rate-based Congestion Control in ICN READY for Variable Link Capacity?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) has been introduced as a potential future networking architecture. ICN promises an architecture that makes information independent from lo- cation, application, storage, and transportation. Still, it is not without challenges. Notably, there are several outstanding issues regarding congestion control: Since ICN is more or less oblivious to the location of information, it opens up for a single application flow to have several sources, something which blurs the notion of transport flows, and makes it very difficult to employ traditional end-to-end congestion control schemes in these networks. Instead, ICN networks often make use of hop-by-hop congestion control schemes. How- ever, these schemes are also tainted with problems, e.g., several of the proposed ICN congestion controls assume fixed link capacities that are known beforehand. Since this seldom is the case, this paper evaluates the consequences in terms of latency, throughput, and link usage, variable link capacities have on a hop-by-hop congestion control scheme, such as the one employed by the Multipath-aware ICN Rate-based Congestion Control (MIRCC). The evaluation was carried out in the OMNeT++ simulator, and demonstrates how seemingly small variations in link capacity significantly deterio- rate both latency and throughput, and often result in inefficient network link usage. 

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    fulltext
  • 405.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    ICN Congestion Control for Wireless Links2018In: IEEE WCNC 2018 Conference Proceedings / [ed] IEEE, New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) with its design around named-based forwarding and in-network caching holds great promises to become a key architecture for the future Internet. Still, despite its attractiveness, there are many open questions that need to be answered before wireless ICN becomes a reality, not least about its congestion control: Many of the proposed hop-by-hop congestion control schemes assume a fixed and known link capacity, something that rarely – if ever – holds true for wireless links. As a first step, this paper demonstrates that although these congestion control schemes are able to fairly well utilise the available wireless link capacity, they greatly fail to keep the link delay down. In fact, they essentially offer the same link delay as in the case with no hop-by-hop, only end- to-end, congestion control. Secondly, the paper shows that by complementing these congestion control schemes with an easy- to-implement, packet-train link estimator, we reduce the link delay to a level significantly lower than what is obtained with only end-to-end congestion control, while still being able to keep the link utilisation at a high level. 

  • 406.
    Ahlgren, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Cellen är den minsta levande delen hos allt liv": Om hur centrala termer förklaras i tre läromedel i biologi för grundskolans senare del2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 407. Ahlgren, Bodil
    Cellerna pratar: Om metaforer i läroböcker i biologi för grundskolans senare del och gymnasieskolan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 408.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Lidström, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Gastromax Duo: Ett kompakt rivjärn för den moderna hemmakocken2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Gastromax Duo” is a degree project for the Innovation and Design Engineering program at Karlstad University. Joakim Ahlgren and Joakim Lidström have independently carried out the project during Spring Term 2010. The degree project extends 22,5 ECTS credits.

    The assigners for this project are Peter Ottosson and Jonas Eriksson at Sveico AB in Gnosjö, Sweden. Peter Johansson is the project supervisor at Sveico AB and Monica Jacobsson is the academic supervisor at Karlstad University. The examiner at Karlstad University is Lennart Wihk, who has also supported the project team during the design process.

    Sveico AB is located in Gnosjö, Sweden and manufactures kitchen utensils and other kitchen accessories. In the Sveico AB product portfolio resides the Gastromax series of kitchen tools for the ”home chef”. The lack of a foldable grater within the Gastromax series was noticed by the Sveico AB management, which brought about this project.

    The largest part of this project was a very thorough pre-study phase, where the project team mapped out the needs and wishes of the users, along with research about the market of the product. The pre-study consists of interviews with consumers, professional users and representatives of commerce, along with user studies.

    During the product development process, a number of idea generation methods has been used, both internally in the project team and externally with uninitiated individuals. During the subsequent concept generation phase, emphasis was put on the development of physical models, used to evaluate ideas and solutions.

    Out of the 19 concepts that were developed during the concept generation phase, six was chosen through a set of systematic evaluation routines. These six concepts were presented to the assigners that in turn chose two of the concepts for the project team to develop further. These two concepts was then combined and transformed into the final product proposal.

    The final, detailed solution is surrounded with secrecy, but three key concepts in the final foldable grater can be officially stated:

    • A long grating surface
    • Adjustable work angle
    • Two grating surfaces: one fine and one coarse

    The final result of the project is a product description of the grater, with a proposal of a general design, a mechanical solution of the adjustability aspect and a suggestion of materials for the different product components.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 409.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Nilsson, Anders P.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Individual boldness is linked to protective shell shape in aquatic snails2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 4, article id UNSP 20150029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold-shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to equivalent fitness outcomes between bold and shy individuals over a lifetime. However, an alternative or complementary explanation may be that bold individuals phenotypically compensate for their risky lifestyle to reduce predation costs, for instance by investing in more pronounced morphological defences. Here, we investigate the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis, i.e. that bold individuals exhibit more pronounced anti-predator defences than shy individuals, by relating shell shape in the aquatic snail Radix balthica to an index of individual boldness. Our analyses find a strong relationship between risk-taking propensity and shell shape in this species, with bolder individuals exhibiting a more defended shell shape than shy individuals. We suggest that this supports the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis and sheds light on a previously poorly studied mechanism to promote the maintenance of personality variation among animals.

  • 410.
    Ahlgren, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    EN SVENSK VARIANT AV BEPS-PROJEKTETS ÅTGÄRD 4: En komparativ studie av hur OECD:s föreslagna ränteavdragsbegränsningsreglering bör utformas i Sverige utifrån artikel 4 i EU-kommissionens förslag till direktiv mot skatteundandraganden, det alternativa förslaget i företagsskattekommitténs slutbetänkande från 2014samt tyska och finska begränsningsreglerför ränteavdrag2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att Industrivärden-domarna meddelats i slutet av 2007 stod det klart att det var godtagbart för koncerner att skatteplanera med hjälp av rätten till avdrag för lånekostnader som föreskrivs i inkomstskattelagens (1999:1229, IL) 16 kap. 1 §. Eftersom lagrummet inte ställer några krav på att den uttagna räntan beskattas kunde koncerner, via lån mellan koncernbolagen, framkalla en lägre beskattning genom att strategiskt välja att inte beskatta uttagen ränta men erhålla avdrag för räntekostnader. Detta resulterade i att ett förslag till lagstiftning i form av ett avdragsförbud hastades fram under sommaren 2008 och började tillämpas redan den 1 januari 2009. När bestämmelserna omsattes i praktiken klargjordes att lagrummens flertaliga subjektiva rekvisit vållade en stor osäkerhet. Bestämmelserna reviderades under 2013, men man lyckades inte avhjälpa tillämpningssvårigheterna. Efter en lång granskning av EU-kommissionen inleddes under 2015 därutöver ett formellt överträdelseförfarande mot Sverige eftersom reglerna befanns avskräcka företag från etablering. Parallellt med detta så har företagsskattekommittén efter tre års utredningar presenterat ett förslag på ett nytt regelverk för ränteavdrag. Eftersom detta ansågs vara unikt och internationellt frånvändande ombads emellertid kommittén att arbeta om förslaget med fokus på en resultatbaserad modell. Samtidigt har Sverige varit med och tagit fram en ny modell för ränteavdrag inom ramen för BEPS-projektet, och under 2015 antagit denna inom ramen för BEPS åtgärdsplan 4. Idag befinner sig Sverige således i en situation där det finns begränsningsregler för ränteavdrag som är hårt kritiserade och nu också anmälda som fördragsstridiga av EU-kommissionen. Samtidigt håller regelverket på att omarbetas av FSK som ombettsatt föreslå internationellt vedertagna regler till 2017. Samtidigt kan det antas att Sverige kommer införa en variant av OECD:s modell som föreslås i BEPS åtgärdsplan 4eftersom det inte gjorts några reservationer vid antagandet under 2015. Mot bakgrund av detta behöver såvitt författaren kan bedöma de nuvarande ränteavdragsbegränsningsreglerna ersättas av de lagstiftningsåtgärder som man tillsammans med OECD arbetat fram i BEPS-projektets åtgärdsplan 4. Särskilt med beaktande av att EU nu också officielltställt sig bakom en implementering av åtgärdsplanen genom förslag till direktiv mot skatteundandraganden som skickades på remiss till medlemsstaterna under januari 2016.Syftet med den här framställningen är därför att utreda olika möjliga utformningar av BEPS åtgärdsplan 4 4, för att utifrån dessa utvärdera en lämplig svensk variant.Därmed ska arbetet utreda regelmodellen i åtgärdsplan 4 genom en beskrivning av BEPS slutliga åtgärdsrapport 4 och en analys av vilka delar som måste införas i Sverige. För att kunna utvärdera hur de delar av åtgärdsrapport 4 som måste införas i Sverige lämpligast ska utformas behövs därefter en beskrivning av artikel 4 i EU-kommissionens förslag till direktiv mot skatteundandraganden, det alternativa förslaget i företagsskattekommitténs slutbetänkande från 2014, och de tyska och finska begränsningsreglerna för ränteavdrag samt slutligen en jämförelse av olika fördelar och nackdelar i dessa utformningsvarianter. Vid en granskning av detta material har författaren funnit att en svensk OECD-modell lämpligast bör innehålla följande komponenter 1) avdrag upp till ett belopp motsvarande ränteinkomster 2) avdrag för de därutöver räntebetalningarnatill ett belopp motsvarande 30 procent av företagets resultat beräknat enligt EBITDA eller ett maximalt avdragsbelopp, beroende på vilket som är högst 3) Kvittningsrätt av negativa och positiva avdragsutrymmen på koncernnivå 4) rullning av negativa räntenetton, dock längst till och med det 6 året efter att nettoräntebetalningen uppstod.

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    En Svensk variant av BEPS-projektets åtgärdsplan 4, Magisterprogrammet i skatterätt
  • 411.
    Ahlgren, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law. 9111134020.
    Är inkomstskattelagens bestämmelser om ränteavdragsbegränsningar förenliga med etableringsfriheten?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I enlighet med inkomstskattelagens (1999:1229)16 kap. 1 § får företag alltid fullt skatteavdrag för räntekostnader som löper på lån, oberoende av hur den motsvarande ränteinkomsten beskattas. Under år 2008 uppmärksammade Skatteverket att företag lagenligt kunde missbruka denna avdragsrätt genom att utfärda lån till närstående företag och därigenom erhålla en lägre beskattning. Till följd av detta så infördes begränsningar i den generella avdragsrätten för räntekostnader under 2009.

    Allt sedan begränsningsreglernas införande har dess överenstämmelse med EU-rättens etableringsfrihet varit ett omdiskuterat ämne. Medan regeringen och högsta förvaltningsdomstolen anser att reglerna ligger i linje med EU-rätten och reglerna om etableringsfrihet är remissinstanserna och många framträdande personer inom det juridiska samfundet av en annan åsikt. Även EU-kommissionen har utrett reglerna, och drar slutsatsen att de utgör ett hinder av den fria etableringsrätten. EU-kommissionen anser att bestämmelserna särskilt missgynnar gränsöverskridande verksamheter och att de går utöver vad som är nödvändigt, trots att reglerna förvisso skulle kunna motiveras. Regeringen anser att om reglerna mot all förmodan skulle anses utgöra ett hinder så kan de i vart fall motiveras och är proportionerliga.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utreda om utformningen av inkomstskattelagens ränteavdragsbegränsningar i 24 kap. 10 a-b och d-e §§ är förenliga med EU-rättens regler om etableringsfrihet i art. 49 i funktionsfördraget. Det vill säga utreda huruvida reglerna utgör ett hinder mot etableringsfriheten, och om ett sådant hinder i så fall kan accepteras. Normalt förbjuds alla former av hinder mot etableringsfriheten. I särskilda fall får emellertid avsteg göras. Detta förutsätter att de inskränkande reglerna kan motiveras mot bakgrund av art. 52 FEUF eller ett trängande allmänintresse, att de har till syfte att uppnå de anförda målen samt inte gå utöver vad som är nödvändigt för att uppnå dessa mål.

    Vid en granskning av inkomstskattelagens bestämmelser om ränteavdragsbegränsningar finner författaren att reglerna innebär ett hinder för etableringsfrihetens utövande, men att detta hinder kan motiveras med att reglerna syftar till att förhindra skatteflykt och bevara den väl avvägda beskattningsrätten mellan medlemsstaterna. Författaren finner dock att inkomstskattelagens regler om ränteavdrag går utöver vad som är nödvändigt för att uppnå de angivna syftena. Reglerna uppfyller inte EU-rättens krav på rättssäkerhet och det finns mindre inskränkande åtgärder för att uppnå dessa syften än de ränteavdragsbegränsningarna erbjuder. Författaren finner därför att det svenska regelverket är oförenligt med etableringsfriheten.

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    Inkomstskattelagens bestämmelser om ränteavdragsbegränsningar och etableringsfrihet
  • 412. Ahlgren, Per
    The Application of Microcrystalline Cellulose in Pharmaceutical Tabletmaking1995Report (Other academic)
  • 413.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Alliansen oss emellan: - en undersökning om huruvida klienters och terapeuters skattningar av allians stämmer överens2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether clients' and therapists' estimation of alliance match, if there is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction and if there is a difference between client satisfaction and a standard measure. Statistical analysis and a qualitative thematic analysis were used to examine this. Results show no difference between ratings of an alliance total between clients and therapists, except for when examining the different dimensions. There is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction ratings. Also, there is a difference between client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) ratings between the participants and a standard measure. Emerging themes about the change of therapy where: Relational establishing interaction, Relief and non-judgmental. Conclusions where made about the fact that alliance ratings did not differ between client and therapist, as well as the fact that there was a correlation between high ratings of alliance with high ratings of client satisfaction. Finally there was support for the conclusion that student therapy has higher, or at least an equally high ratings of satisfaction as other psychiatric care according to comparisons made with the standard measure. The thematic analysis shows that therapy brought on big changes in the clients life, changes that seem connected. They also show how important it is to have a more personal factor in therapy.

  • 414.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa: En fenomenologisk studie av handläggares/handledares upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to get some insight into how staff experience their work with the unemployed. A Phenomenological method, IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis), was used to find out. 10 people were interviewed through this method and multiple categories appeared, which give some insight into how they perceive their job; a role, frustration/ambivalence, rewarding work, demands, developing work and commitment. They are people playing a role, an authority. Experiences are also, among other things, that the work is very rewarding, challenging, developing and gives one a chance to make a difference in another person's life. These positive aspects, the meetings with people, participating in their processes, weigh heavier than the negative aspects. These are among other things a larger work-mass than what is bearable, several demands on personality and high demands on legal security and uniformity. If not for the positive aspects they would not have stayed. In conclusion one can say that it is work where they perceive themselves as needed and where they feel like they can evolve and make a difference.

  • 415.
    Ahlin, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Ämnena Bild och Musik ur ett historiskt perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research project is about how the subjects` art and music has been described under the 20th century in the Swedish school until today. The purpose with this research project is to do a text analysis that describes these subjects now and the last century, to illustrate the differences between today and the last century. Hence the size of this subject I have chosen some random samples out of the 20th century until today. I started to take these random samples from the first lyric I found about these subjects, and continued with these random samples in other lyrics from the middle of the 20th century until the year 2006. I just took these random samples from what I had found because I did not found some lyrics from earlier period of the 20th century. After a few weeks of material researching I started to write down my text analysis.

    The result of the research project when it comes to the earlier parts of the 20th century art and music subjects´ was that they where used to raise up the students and teach them how to behave in working life. It was the adults who choose what was best for the students and it was about preparation for the life as an adult. Through art the students should learn how to draw of a tool from different works of that epoch and the music was about how to learn a psalm or a song by heart that could be about how one should behave oneself.

    The results of my research project when it comes to today is that the differences between yesterdays school and today’s that today these subjects are more independent fore the students then before. On the basis of the conditions of the students they can use these subjects both as a way to express them self in other subjects then art and music, and it is also another way to take some learning about there own culture like others cultures. It is the imagination of the students that should characterize the subjects` art and music. The school wants through these subjects` that the students shall get a better self – confidence about them self and that the students shall take other cultures closer to them and there way of seeing at these subjects.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 416. Ahlin, Jenni
    Förankrad i förvaltningen? - chefer i Mariestads kommun diskuterar biblioteksverksamhet2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 417.
    Ahlin, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Handhygien i förskolan: Pedagoger och barns uppfattningar av handhygien och dess roll i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about preschool teachers and children perceptions about hand hygiene in preschool. It also focusses on preschool teachers’ way of working when it comes to hand hygiene against children. The purpose with this study was to illuminate preschool teachers’ attitudes and working methods with hand hygiene in the preschool and how children reason about hand hygiene. Seven preschool teachers and twelve children from two different preschool participated in the study. The children were interviewed in pairs and the preschool teachers were interviewed individually. It can be read in the results that the preschool teachers think that the children know why they wash their hands and the children agree about that. All seven preschool teachers also indicate that they talk with children about hand hygiene and why it is important. The children do not think that the preschool teachers talk to them about hand hygiene. However, the children do show knowledge about why they should wash their hands and also explains what would happen if they did not do it. Maybe the preschool teachers and the children have different point of view of what ”talking” is in this context when their answers doesn’t match. The preschool teachers and children have a similar perception when it comes to what hand hygiene routines they have and what they use when they wash their hands.

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  • 418.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Karlstad University.
    Hur ser en fysiklaboration ut på lågstadiet?: En studie om hur lärare på lågstadiet arbetar på ett undersökande sätt i fysik.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how Primary school teachers work and think about the practical teaching in physics. Primary school teachers who work with a teacher support in science and technology, and Primary school teachers who do not work after any program have been interviewed. The method chosen in this study is semi-structured interview with sound recording. A total of seven interviews have been conducted and each interview took about 30 minutes to complete. The study addresses what research today says about practical activities in school and how the children learn the best way. Therefore, teachers are also asked about how they experience physics and practical work and how they choose to put an investigative approach. The result shows that the teachers experience physics as difficult and abstract. Teachers who work with a support program experience that the program helped them teach physics on a deeper level. The study also shows that most teachers uses closed and given labs.

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  • 419. Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Hjalmarsson, Hanna
    Massage som en omvårdnadsintervention för att lindra smärta hos patienter med cancer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 420.
    Ahlin, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes the method of Thematic Analysis, TA, to research the question: How do mindfulness and meditation teachers’ describe the prerequisites for effective mindfulness and meditation teaching? It aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in this field. In the scientific literature there is a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers (Grossman et al 2014) and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively (Shapiro 2009). The interpretations of what twelve experienced teachers, from different traditions, say in the in-depth interviews of this study results in three main themes and nine subthemes: main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills, and main theme; Student qualities with subthemes; Positive for learning and Negative aspects to deal with, and main theme; Context with subthemes; Fields of application, Levels and Supporting factors. The results lead to the argument that anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher, depending on the students and the context. The study shows the interdependence between the teacher, student and other contextual circumstances and gives clear indications in which direction one should go.

  • 421.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2016In: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several authors have suggested demands and requirements for teaching mindfulness and meditation. In the scientific literature there is however a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively. This study aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in the field of mindfulness and meditation and it investigates how mindfulness and meditation teachers describe the prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation.

    Method: The method of Thematic Analysis, TA, was utilized to analyse the data from semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve experienced teachers, from different mindfulness and meditation traditions. The participants are mindfulness and meditation teachers from either within the Buddhist, secular or both Buddhist and secular contexts.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three main themes and nine subthemes, such as for example the main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills. The results suggest a flexible and pragmatic view on how mindfulness and meditation teaching should be provided. Instead of a fixed set of requirements for the teacher and the student, what makes mindfulness and meditation teaching effective has to do with the ability to recognize the potential in every unique situation with an understanding of the impermanent and interdependent relationship between teacher, student and context.

    Conclusion: Being and becoming a teacher is a continuous process and anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher. It is dependent on the students and the context. A formalized education is not a prerequisite but what is required is sufficient compassion and insight. For the teacher’s compassion and insight to ripen and for the student to learn, non-ideal conditions and suffering, is required and it is helpful with supportive fellow practitioners, teachers, especially if they themselves practice what they teach and share what they know.

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  • 422.
    Ahlin, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares erfarenheter av arbete med läsförståelse på gymnasiesärskolans nationella program2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore teachers’ experience of teaching reading comprehension at upper secondary special school national programs.

    To find out the answers to the purpose and research issues a written interview via the Internet where fourteen teachers answered   a questionnaire with open questions. I have analyzed the responses using the concepts scaffolding and artefacts taken from the sociocultural perspective.

    The summarized result show that teachers work with teaching strategies for pupils to assimilate text with understanding. The teachers have a central role in this form of co- learning and acts as a support in the students reading comprehension learning. Teachers are also working to support students learning by making adjustments such as easy- to-read texts and support of speech and images. In the teaching teachers use artefacts as well as they scaffold the pupils in the learning of reading comprehension.

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  • 423. Ahlin, Sandra
    Historiesyn och samtidssyn - en jämförelse mellan två hembygdsföreningar2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 424. Ahlin, Susanne
    Sorg i skolan - pedagogers upplevelser av sorg2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En pedagog kommer i yrket möta elever och familjer som upplever olika slags krissituationer. Det är viktigt att vara väl förberedd för att kunna hjälpa de som har sorg. Av den anledningen är ett av syftena till denna undersökning att lära mig mer om vilken förberedelse pedagoger har när det gäller arbetet med elever i sorg. Det andra syftet är att lära mig mer om hur skolan hanterar situationen vid en krissituation. Metoden som använts är kvalitativ intervju. Sju pedagoger med olika erfarenhet har intervjuats. Därefter har svaren jämförts med teorierna i litteraturen. En slutsats jag drar efter min undersökning är att det är utbildning tillsammans med erfarenhet som gör att pedagoger kan känna sig trygga inför en krissituation. Det jag tar med mig i min kommande yrkesroll, förutom det som nämnts ovan, är att använda kyrkan som samarbetspartner både i undervisning om sorg och vid krishantering. Jag kommer även vara mer observant på skillnaden mellan flickors och pojkars sätt att sörja. Ett citat jag tar med mig kommer från en av de intervjuade pedagogerna och gäller för såväl elever som pedagoger. ”Att ge en kram utan ord är bättre än att på avstånd bara se på för att man inte vet vad man ska säga”. Nyckelord: Sorg, pedagogers beredskap, sorgearbete, skola

  • 425.
    Ahlman, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Tandvårdspersonals engagemang i kliniskt arbete med hemlösa: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Hemlösa har ett stort tandvårdsbehov och behöver engagerad tandvårdspersonal som är beredda att arbeta kliniskt med denna grupp. Syfte: Syftet är att studera vad som engagerar tandvårdspersonal till att arbeta med hemlösa. Metod: En kvalitativ studie och kvalitativ innehållsanalys har använts. Urval: Studien baseras på intervjuer med en tandläkare och en tandsköterska. Resultat: Resultatet presenteras i två domäner. Domänen Fängslande speglar vad informanterna upplever spännande i kliniskt arbete med hemlösa. Tre kategorier finns under denna, Intresse, Ovillighet bland kollegor och Team-work. Under domänen Medkänsla finns två kategorier Nytta och Välvilja. Där speglas känslor som informanterna upplevde i arbetet med denna grupp. Kategorierna visar vad som engagerar informanterna i deras kliniska arbete med hemlösa. Konklusion: Känslorna som tandvårdspersonalen erhåller vid det kliniska arbetet med hemlösa utgör en grund för det engagemang som personalen känner för arbetet. Dock är det flera faktorer som samverkar till detta engagemang.

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    Studentuppsats Hemlösa
  • 426. Ahlmark, Anna
    Resemotivet i Göran Tunströms romaner “De heliga geograferna” och “Juloratoriet”2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 427. Ahlmark, Anna
    Tonåringens läsvanor - en enkätundersökning bland elever i klass 9 på grundskolan2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har genomfört en enkätundersökning rörande skolungdomars läsvanor. I undersökningen deltog 75 stycken niondeklassare från Mariebergsskolan i Karlstad. Det som jag var intresserad av att veta var bl. a. följande; Hur ofta och hur mycket läser de skönlitteratur efter skoltid? Varför de läser böcker? Vilken slags litteratur föredrar de? Anser de att skolan ger dem bra information om böcker? Läser någon böcker regelbundet i deras hemmiljö? Jag har kommit fram till att det finns likheter men också skillnader mellan könen. Flickorna läser mer än pojkarna. Både flickorna och pojkarna läser för att det är spännande att leva sig in i en annan värld, men också för nöjes skull. Pojkarna föredrar fantasy och science fiction, medan flickorna föredrar att läsa om kärlek, romantik och relationer. De allra flesta ungdomarna ger skolan ett mycket dåligt betyg vad det gäller att informera om böcker. Flertalet av ungdomarna har någon i hemmet som regelbundet läser böcker.

  • 428.
    Ahlquist, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Trådlöst elektriskt lås2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att göra en trådlös version av det elektriska lås som tillverkas av Electec System AB.

    För att göra ett trådlöst elektriskt lås måste ett batteri monteras i låset. Batteriet måste hållas uppladdat hela tiden för att kunna driva motorn och ge strömförsörjning till elektroniken i låset. Alla signaler mellan låset och styrenheten ska dessutom överföras trådlöst istället för med kabel. Signalerna måste kodas innan sändning så att ingen obehörig kan läsa signalen och sedan öppna dörren.

    Det svåraste i ett trådlöst elektriskt lås är att överföra effekt från dörrkarmen till låset eftersom utrymmet är begränsat och avståndet mellan låsblecket i karmen och låset i dörren kan uppgå till 10 mm. För att överföra effekt från dörrkarmen till låset konstruerades en transformator. Förlusterna i transformatorn ökar kraftigt då luftgapet ökas.

    Det visar sig att motor och övriga kretsar kan drivas med ett avstånd mellan kärnorna på upp till 7 mm. Luftgapet kan sannolikt ökas när andra transformatorkärnor används. Dessa fanns dock inte tillgängliga under examensarbetets gång på grund av lång leveranstid. I jämförelse med överföring av effekt är problemet att koda och överföra signaler mellan styrenheten och låset enklare och kan lösas med hjälp av färdiga kretsar.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 429. Ahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Lindström, Jenny
    Kundtillfredsställelse i ett turismföretag - en undersökning av Vildmark i Värmlands gäster2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 430.
    Ahlqvist, Björn
    Innovations- och designingenjörsprogrammet.
    Värmeåtervinning från kylsystem: Uddeholm AB2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractUddeholm AB is a leading global supplier and manufacturer of tool steel with about 3500 employees worldwide.

    Over the next few years production will increase and environmental requirements are becoming tougher. To manage this series of important investments are implemented. One of them is to reduce the consumption of cooling water and make use of residual heat generated by the production.

    The project has been performed at Granmelt which is a sub section to the steel mill. At this section scrap metal is melted and granulated for production of refined steel. The first step in the process is melting in high frequency induction furnaces. Some components in the furnace must be cooled to avoid overheating. The cooling effect is obtained by water transferring heat energy from the furnace components to a heat exchanger. 

    The project aims to improve the cooling system, take advantage of waste heat, thereby reducing environmental impact and save energy.

    An important part of the project has been collecting data from existing systems. The information has been the basis of various proposals on how the system should be designed and how the waste heat should be used.

    The design is visualized by schematic drawings that describe the flow through the system and its components. The report also contains sketches and drawings to improve the layout in view of maintenance work.

    Calculations explain how much available heat energy can be extracted, which heat sources that can be replaced and how much money it will save.The result of this project is that the new system has a payback period under two years, after ten years the company has saved over three million SKR by warming the buildings with the residual heat.

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    Värmeåtervinning från kylsystem
  • 431. Ahlqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Hansson Eklöf, Lina
    Förutsättningar och psykosocialt stöd för varaktig viktnedgång2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 432. Ahlqvist, Karolin
    et al.
    Fallenius, Louise
    Wickholm, Hanna
    Ett visionskoncept för modulbyggda studentbostäder2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en dokumentation av vårt examensarbete som har gjorts i samarbete med Moelven ByggModul AB. Företaget tillverkar modulbyggda anläggningar. Dessa är billiga, icke klimatberoende, flexibla och tidsbesparande, men trots detta ses de som en nödlösning. Moduler likställs ofta med baracker som i sin tur förmedlar budskapet tillfälligt och fyrkantigt. Eftersom modulbyggen betraktas som ett andrahandsalternativ jämfört med platsbyggen kontaktas Moelven ByggModul AB ofta i sista minuten. Uppgiften har varit att utveckla ett visionskoncept för modulbyggda studentbostäder. Målet har varit att ta fram ett presentationsmaterial som gör det möjligt för Moelven ByggModul AB att marknadsföra sina studentbostäder som ett förstahandsval på marknaden. Examensarbetet har utförts i tre delar. Den första delen var förstudiefasen där stora mängder information samlades in. Den andra delen av arbetet bestod i att generera idéer och i den sista delen utarbetades det slutgiltiga visionskonceptet. Visionskonceptet innefattar sammansättning av moduler, samt den enskilda modulens interiör och exteriör. Fokus har även lagts på vad studenter vill ha för bekvämligheter och sociala aktiviteter i sin närmiljö. Modulernas sammansättning är inspirerad av amfiteatern Coluseum. Vi valde den runda formen för att den medger bra ljusinsläpp, innegården blir en gemensam mötesplats och modulernas lådform kamoufleras. Studentbostäderna är lägenheter på 18 kvm eller 24 kvm. De har eget kök, badrum, förvaringsmöjligheter och lösningar som ökar boendets flexibilitet. Exteriärt har fönster och dörrar på de olika modulerna placerats i linje under varandra för att skapa entydighet. De flesta komponenter i visionskonceptet har utformats identiskt för att underlätta produktion. Tanken med mobila studentbostäder är att de ska kunna sättas upp på ett ställe för att vid ett senare tillfälle monteras ned och flyttas till ett annat geografiskt läge. Detta medför att omgivningen kring modulerna kommer att se olika ut. Vår ide är att beställaren ska kunna beställa moduler som ger studenterna tillgång till bekvämligheter och sociala aktiviteter som saknas i närmiljön. Detta skulle kunna vara gym, studierum, hobbyrum och mini-livs. För att presentera visionskonceptet har vi skapat en fysisk modell av modulernas sammansättning och utformat en folder. Dessutom har Tobias Sjödin gjort en visualisering på en CD-rom skiva . Med detta material hoppas vi att Moelven ByggModul AB ska kunna marknadsföra sig som ett förstahandsval på marknaden för studentbostäder. För att fullfölja visionskonceptet och slutföra arbetet med studentbostäderna krävs det att praktiska detaljer så som brandsäkerhet och dylikt genomarbetas. Det krävs även en marknadsföringskampanj för att det visionskoncept vi utarbetat åt Moelven ByggModul AB ska uppmärksammas på marknaden.

  • 433. Ahlqvist, Karolin
    et al.
    Fallenius, Louise
    Wickholm, Hanna
    Ett visionskoncept för modulbyggda studentbostäder2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 434.
    Ahlqvist, Margary
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Div Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berglund, Britta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Div Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Klang, Birgitta
    Karolinska Inst, Care Sci & Soc, Div Nursing, Dept Neurobiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Care Sci & Soc, Div Nursing, Dept Neurobiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Satisfactory reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC ASSESS to evaluate management of peripheral venous catheters2014In: Journal of Vascular Access, ISSN 1129-7298, E-ISSN 1724-6032, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 128-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Nursing students should be given opportunities to participate in clinical audits during their education. However, audit tools are seldom tested for reliability among nursing students. The aim of this study was to present reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC assess to assess management of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) and PVC-related signs of thrombophlebitis. Methods: PVC assess was used to assess 67 inserted PVCs in 60 patients at ten wards at a university hospital. One group of nursing students (n= 4) assessed PVCs at the bedside (inter-rater reliability) and photographs of these PVCs were taken. Another group of students (n= 3) assessed the PVCs in the photographs after 4 weeks (test-retest reliability). To determine reliability, proportion of agreement [P(A)] and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) were calculated. Results: For bedside assessment of PVCs, P(A) ranged from good to excellent (0.80-1.0) in 55% of the 26 PVC assess items that were tested. P(A) was poor (< 0.70) for two items: "adherence of inner dressing to the skin" and " PVC location." In 81% of the items, k was between moderate and almost perfect: moderate (n= 5), substantial (n= 3), almost perfect (n= 5). For edema at insertion site and two items on PVC dressing, k was fair (0.21-0.40). Regarding test-retest reliability, P(A) varied between good and excellent (0.81-1) in 85%-95% of the items, and the k ranged between moderate and almost perfect (0.41-1) in 90%-95%. Conclusions: PVC assess demonstrated satisfactory reliability among nursing students. However, students need training in how to use the instrument before assessing PVCs.

  • 435.
    Ahlqvist, Margary
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Karolinska Inst, Div Surg, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berglund, Britta
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Karolinska Inst, Div Surg, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Klang, Birgitta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wiren, Mikael
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Karolinska Inst, Div Surg, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Red Cross Univ Coll, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A new reliable tool (PVC assess) for assessment of peripheral venous catheters2010In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1108-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale and aims To evaluate the extensive use of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs), including catheter-related complications, a reliable tool for PVC assessment is needed. The aim of this study was to develop such a tool to evaluate PVCs in relation to management, documentation and signs and symptoms of thrombophlebitis (TH), as well as to determine its inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Method The tool development included confirmation of content and face validity. Two groups of registered nurses used the new tool (PVC assess) to assess PVC management and signs of TH independently. Group A (n = 3) assessed 26 items in 67 PVCs bedside (inter-rater reliability). Group B (n = 3) assessed photographs (67 PVCs, 21 items) of the same PVCs as those in Group A with a 4-week interval (test-retest reliability). Proportion of agreement P(A) and Cohen's kappa were calculated to evaluate inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Results Among nurses assessing PVCs at bedside, the P(A) was good to excellent (0.80-1) in 96% of the items in PVC assess. In 80% of the items kappa was substantial to almost perfect (0.61-1). TH sign erythema fell into the fair range (kappa = 0.40). In test-retest reliability analysis the P(A) was within the good and excellent range (0.80-1.0) and kappa varied from moderate to almost perfect (0.41-1.0) in 95% of the items. One item 'outer dressing is clean' was in fair range (0.21-0.40). Conclusions The PVC assess instrument shows satisfactory inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Reliability tests on reviewing documentation remain to be performed.

  • 436.
    Ahlqvist, Margary
    et al.
    Division of Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bogren, Agneta
    Department of Nursing in Gastroenterology and Endochrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagman, Sari
    Department of Nursing in Gastroenterology and Endochrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nazar, Isabel
    Department of Nursing in Gastroenterology and Endochrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    Department of Nursing in Gastroenterology and Endochrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Karin
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Human Pharmacological Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sunde Valfridsson, Berit
    Intensive Care Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Mona
    Lecturer, Ersta Sko¨ ndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Handling of peripheral intravenous cannulae: effects of evidence-based clinical guidelines2006In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1354-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This study aimed at evaluating the outcome of implemented evidence-based clinical guidelines by means of surveying the frequency of thrombophlebitis, nurses’ care, handling and documentation of peripheral intravenous cannulae. Background. Peripheral intravenous cannulae are frequently used for vascular access and, thereby, the patients will be exposed to local and systemic infectious complications. Evidence-based knowledge of how to prevent these complications and how to care for patients with peripheral intravenous cannula is therefore of great importance. Deficient care, handling and documentation of peripheral intravenous cannulae have previously been reported. Design. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by a group of nurses at three wards at a university hospital before and after the implementation of the evidence-based guidelines. Method. A structured observation protocol was used to review the frequency of thrombophlebitis, the nurses’ care, handling and the documentation of peripheral intravenous cannulae in the patient's record. Results. A total of 107 and 99 cannulae respectively were observed before and after the implementation of the guidelines. The frequency of peripheral intravenous cannulae without signs of thrombophlebitis increased by 21% ( P < 0·01) and the use of cannula size 0·8 mm increased by 22% ( P < 0·001). Nurses’ documentation of peripheral intravenous cannula improved significantly ( P < 0·001). Conclusion. We conclude that implementation of the guidelines resulted in significant improvements by means of decreased frequency of signs of thrombophlebitis, increased application of smaller cannula size (0·8 mm), as well as of the nurses’ documentation in the patient's record. Relevance to clinical practice. Further efforts to ameliorate care and handling of peripheral intravenous cannulae are needed. This can be done by means of increasing nurses’ knowledge and recurrent quality reviews. Well-informed patients can also be more involved in the care than is common today.

  • 437.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University.
    Att sova med fienden: - Om väljarstöd, blockidentifikation och blocköverskridande styren2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Minority- and cross-bloc regimes in Swedish municipalities have more than doubled the last ten years. The phenomenon should be seen in light of the fact that the traditional blocks have lost support in favor of new parties in the municipal parliaments, such as the Swedish Democrats and different local parties. Historically, the municipal political arena is usually described as less ideological than the national arena. Nevertheless, in the 2014 elections, the turnout resulted in formations of weak center-right/center-left minority governments in one third of the muncipalities in Sweden. When municipal elections result in hung parliaments, remarkably many parties seems to favor minority governments instead of establishing cross-bloc majorities. Why? A possible explanation is that the party identification among the swedish electorate has been replaced by a strong bloc identification, which might induce the parties to avoid coalitions that jeopardize the support from bloc identificated voters. But is this fear rational? Do political parties that form cross-bloc coalitions lose more electoral support than parties that form bloc coalitions?

       Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide new knowledge about the Swedish electorate and the impact of bloc identification on Swedish politics, by investigating whether coalition parties election results are related to the choice between bloc and cross-bloc coalitions. This is done by statistical Mann-Whitney tests of election data from Swedish municipal elections between 1994-2014.

       The study shows that the average voter support does not differ significantly for parties in blocs compared to parties in cross-bloc coalitions. The exception is the Social Democratic Party, which on average loses fewer votes in cross-bloc coalitions compared to scenarios in which the party is ruling alone or in a traditional bloc. With these results, the study complement previous research on bloc identification and electoral behavior. Furthermore, the study does not support the hypothesis that a party's electoral support in cross-bloc coalitions differs, depending on whether or not the party is leading the cross-bloc coalition.

       In summary, the study does not provide rational support for non-scientific assumptions that cross-bloc coalitions are associated with particular declining electoral support, despite increasing political mobility and enhanced block identification among the electorate.

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    Att sova med fienden
  • 438.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Besvär!: Om motståndet hos två tvångssammanslagna kommuner i samband med kommunblocksreformen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate why the two Swedish municipalities of Frykerud and Östmark were the only municipalities in Värmland that were forcibly merged by the state during the ”Municipality block reform” of 1971, and whether local identities played a role in the resistance against this reform. 

        The study is designed as a comparative case study and builds on both history and political science to analyze the topic from a broader perspective. Based on the research situation three theoretical theses have been formulated, the durability of which will be tested in the analysis part of the essay.

        The study notes that Frykeruds resistance against the ”Municipality block reform” started when the reform prevented a planned retirement home construction in the municipality. In the analytical part of the essay, the author discusses how the discontent can be interpreted as symptomatic of bourgeois centralization resistance, as well as being due to the fact that traditional, local self-government as a political subject was perceived as threatened. In Östmark, the "Municipality block reform" developed into a political struggle between the reformist Social Democrats and the "reform-skeptical" conservative parties. The battle started with disagreements over the completions of investments in the municipality.

        In the analysis section, the hypotheses previously formulated have been tested, and the author also formulates a new hypothesis regarding the local communities and local identities' political role in the resistance against the "Municipality block reform".

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  • 439.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den lyssnande kommunen: Om medborgardialog ur förtroendevaldas, tjänstemäns och medborgares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For the last decades, the party memberships in Sweden have decreased from 600.000 to 300.000, although the general interest in politics have been stable during the same period. This situation can be percieved as a threat to swedish democracy; if the political parties are loosing contact with the citizens, the parties will also face the risk of not being able to canalize the views of the citizens. If that’s the case, the represenative democracy might loose legitimacy. These conclusions have triggered local municipalities in Sweden to launch ”civil dialogue”, innovative ways to include the citizens in public projects and welfare services, with the purpose to re-establish connection and trust between the public and civil sector. However, political studies suggest that civil dialogue rarely have succeeded to strenghtened democracy. In some cases, civil dialogue seemed to hurt trust and legitimacy in local municipalities. That makes the civil dialogue phenomenon interesting – how can attempts to reinforce trust and democracy result in a backfire? What in the core of civil dialogue might catalyze this backlash?

       The nature of civil dialogue suggest that cooperation between the public and civil sphere is becoming more acceptable, even desirable, in swedish politics. This development breaks with the traditional ways of public administration and bureaucracy in Sweden. However, the cooperation between the public and civil sphere is also the core of a new broad trend in public administration and governing, namely ”governace”. Governance refers to a way of adminstrating public affairs by the logic of networks, including the civil society in the public affairs with the purpose of making the public administration more effective and to find creative solutions on new problems. The first aim of this study is to recieve a new understanding how the subjective experiences of civil dialogue participants can affect legitimacy and trust, by analyzing the experiences of participants in a failed dialogue. The second aim is to explore wether civil dialogue is better understood as a part of a new broad trend in public buraucracy, governance, rather than more traditional bureaucracy. These aims are fulfilled using a case study, which has a swedish local municipality, Sunne, in focus.

       The results of the study suggests that none of the participants of the civil dialogue in Sunne experienced that they had ”been listened to”, which seems to be an important cause behind the negative result of the specific dialogue. The innovativeand failed attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of local democracy resulted in a negative reaction through the traditional channels of political participation. The study also suggests that civil dialogue and governace have some similarities regarding their main principles of value and general logic, but since the municipality of Sunne didn’t implement the steering logics of civil dialogue in its full practice, it’s hard to judge wether it should be perceived as governance or not.

  • 440.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    "En koloni under Sunne!": Om storkommunreformens lokala opinioner och konflikter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 441. Ahlqvist, Nils
    Ett portrett i förändring: En studie av guidningens utveckling på Mårbacka Minnesgård2012Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 442.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University.
    Håll gränsen!: Centerpartiets försvarspolitik 1912-20152016Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy between the years 1912-2015. and try to outline potential ideological changes in their politics during the same period. An ideology analysis is employed for the purpose.

    The analysis is carried out by a method based on ideological ideal types, to which the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy through history are compared to. The ideological ideal types ”liberalism” and ”realism” are aiming to describe the international defense policy, whilst the ideal types ”doves” and ”hawks” are aiming to describe the national defense policy. The use of ideal types, as it is done in this study, is to be seen as a way to bridge the gap between everyday policies and more abstract ideology.

    The result of this study shows that not only has an ideological change taken place in the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy during the course of history; three major changes are identified and described. The study also shows that the Swedish Centre Party has made an ideological travel from being isolationistic pacifists pre-World War I to approaching a more liberal hawk-influenced defense policy in the 21th Century.

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    Håll gränsen!
  • 443.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Demokrati i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers arbetssätt och syn på barns inflytande2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to identify which approach that the teachers believe that they use in their work with children's influence. The aim is also to investigate whether or not the teachers experience any consequences when giving the children a chance to influence and if so, what kind of consequences.

    I have used qualitative interviews to answer the questions of my thesis. My conclusion, based on the result of the interviews, indicates that teachers believe children experience limited influence in routine situations. The results also indicates that teachers who demonstrates a conscious democratic approach while teaching, believed they helped children get a better understanding of the concept of democracy already at an early age.

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    Demokrati i förskolan
  • 444.
    Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Barn och fred. En pilotstudie om förskolebarns förståelse av fred2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 65-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt FN:s mål om hållbar utveckling (Agenda 2030) betonas bland annat främjandet av en kultur av fred och icke-våld. Utvecklingen i finländska styrdokument för förskolan visar däremot att temat fred har nedtonats. Denna studie vill genom ämnesdidaktisk samverkan mellan bildkonst och religion synliggöra 6-åringars förståelse av fred, deras sätt att samtala om och i teckningar gestalta ett liv i fred med varandra. Den kvalitativa temaanalysen visade att barn i denna pilotstudie förstår fred som tillstånd, fred som relationer, fred som förhandlingar och fred som möte och handling. Samtal kring barnens teckningar och de visuella konkretiseringarna stöder tolkningen. Pilotstudien har genom pedagogiska och ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv på lärande för fred uppmärksammat vikten av att barns lärandeprocesser om fred, icke-våld och globalt medborgaskap behöver beakta kravet på tid, rum, språk och struktur för interaktion, tolkning, fördjupning och handling.

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  • 445. Ahlstedt, Anneli
    Barn med koncentrationssvårigheter - förhållningssätt och bemötande2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As part of my examination work, I have chosen to take an in depth look at the topic of children with concentration problems in the classroom. The aim of my work is to find an appropriate approach to these children and to an understanding of how one can create a teaching environment where everyone thrives. I have drawn on both literary and interviews to enable me to reach a conclusion. I have read a number of books that have provided me with good background knowledge and that will stand me in good stead for the future. Additionally, I have interviewed personnel within education who have extensive professional experience. Children with concentration problems are a group that can be found in nearly every classroom. Judging by my interviews it is a group of children that is on the increase. The demands of today`s society can be one reason. Increased pressure and stress on the family means that the peace and quiet ideally needed to create a secure environment in which children grow up is often lacking. Larger groups, fewer recources within the educational establishment and increased demands mean that this group of children could become the losers in today`s schools. Key words: approach, concentration problems, response, teaching environment

  • 446.
    Ahlstedt, Carin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Lénie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Seniorboende: Planeringsförutsättningar i Karlstads kommuns ytterområden2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 447. Ahlstedt, Daniel
    Perspektiv på läsning2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 448.
    Ahlstedt, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Perspektiv på läsning: En högstadielärare och sex av hans elever om skönlitteratur i svenskämnet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about literature instruction in the last three years of Sweden’s compulsory school from one teacher’s and six of his pupils’ perspective. The research is analysed from a socio-cultural perspective on learning and literature reception.

    The empiric material is based on interviews with the teacher and six of his students.

    The research shows that there is a difference between what the pupils read on their spare time and what they read during Swedish instruction. It also shows that the pupils wants literature full of action where descriptions of people and the setting don’t slow down the reading experience.

    The teacher is successful in finding literature the pupils appreciate but sees the value of literature on another level – in the processing of the reading experience. He gives his pupils the task to discuss their views on the text’s meaning based on their specific expe-rience. The instruction is thereby partly in co-ordnance with ideals put forward by literature instruction theorists Louise M. Rosenblatt and Judith A. Langer. The dialogic and socio-cultural perspective on learning which Lev S. Vygotskij proclaims is also an inspiration for the teacher.

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  • 449. Ahlstedt, Marie
    et al.
    Jarl, Louise
    Faktorer som minskar respektive ökar säkerheten i omvårdnaden av patienter med hepatit B, C samt HIV - en litteraturstudie2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 450. Ahlstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Berglund, Emil
    Johansson, Stefan
    Humankapitalets betydelse vid värdering av IT-bolag2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
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