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  • 351.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Understanding learning design when the classroom goes online2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract

    The Internet is increasingly being used by educators and educational institutions not only for information seeking, but also for communication and publishing students work. This paper explores how this can affect the learning situation and how we can understand the difference between an assignment carried out by a student and which is handed over directly, and only, to the teacher, compared to something that will be published and public on the net.

    The Learning Design Sequence developed by Selander (2008) has been used as an analytical tool when analyzing 5 examples from schools using web 2.0. Not having the teacher as the only addressee for a school assignment changes the value of the work and opens up for further development of knowledge, and we argue that the Selander model in some cases can be extended, when the classroom goes on line.

  • 352.
    Ericsson, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Högerpopulism i sociala medier: En komparativ innehållsanalys och en social nätverksanalys2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att åskådliggöra hur Alternativ för Sverige (AfS) och Sverigedemokraterna (SD) kommunicerar i sociala medier och att bidra med kunskap kring hur respektive parti positionerar sig i relation till högerpopulistiska aktörer och ”alt-right” i de digitala politiska landskap som växt fram under de senaste åren. I uppsatsen undersöks detta genom en innehållsanalys av partiernas kommunikation på Facebook, samt genom en undersökning av vilka relationer AfS och SD har till andra aktörer i sociala medier med hjälp av en social nätverksanalys. Genom att analysera explicit innehåll på Facebooksidan (Facebook-inlägg) och mer implicita relationer till andra personer och/eller organisationer, åsyftar studien att granska partiernas kommunikativa innehåll och kontextuella politiska positionering. Dels utifrån ett nationellt perspektiv, samt utifrån ett internationellt perspektiv avseende ”alt-right- rörelsens” beteende och positionering online de senaste åren. De frågeställningar som följer genom studien är: • Hur skiljer sig AfS och SD:s kommunikation på Facebook åt inför riksdagsvalet 2018, samt vilka likheter har de?  • Hur ser AfS nätverk ut i jämförelse med SD:s? Vilka aktörer har de kopplingar till och avspeglar sig deras sociala nätverk i partiernas kommunikation på Facebook?  • Vilket kommunikativt fokus använder AfS respektive SD i Facebook-inläggen? Vilka nyhetsteman, källhänvisning, format och känslor är återkommande, samt i vilken grad svartmålar partierna politiska motståndare?   • Vilken grad av engagemang generar olika fokus på partiernas Facebook-sidor? Uppsatsens teoretiska ramverk utgår från tidigare forskning som kan sammanfattas utifrån två övergripande teman. Det första temat är forskning kring ”alt-right” och den anti-etablissemangsrörelse som denna har utmynnat i under de senaste åren i det digitala landskapet. Det andra temat är högerpopulism online – i vilken kontext finner vi högerpopulism och hur manifesteras den online? Dessa teman överlappar varandra på så sätt att den högerpopulism som manifesteras online ofta sker genom aktörer som kategoriseras som ”alt-right”, samt att ”alt-right” och högerpopulistiska aktörer i hög grad diskuterar samma politiska områden, inte minst migration och kritik gentemot etablerade politiker och massmedia.    I uppsatsen har en komparativ innehållsanalys kompletterats med en social nätverksanalys. I den komparativa innehållsanalysen har kommunikativt innehåll i Facebook-inlägg jämförts mellan AfS och SD:s Facebook-sidor. Samtliga Facebook-inlägg som partiernas officiella Facebook-sidor publicerat veckan inför riksdagsvalet 2018 har kodats genom variabler med koppling till studiens frågeställningar. I den sociala nätverksanalysen har partiernas och partiledarnas officiella Facebook-sidor analyserats. Det har också genomförts en social nätverksanalys baserat på omnämnanden av AfS Twitter-konto på Twitter. Resultaten visar att AfS hänvisar till och använder sig av alternativmedier i hög grad och av etablerade medier i låg grad, samtidigt som förhållandet är det motsatta hos SD. Båda partierna har dock kopplingar till 2  alternativmedier i deras sociala nätverk. I AfS sociala nätverk ingår många aktörer utanför partiet, ofta sådana med koppling till ”alt-right” i andra länder, medan SD:s nätverk endast består av aktörer som representerar partiet. Partiledarna Gustav Kasselstrand (AfS) och Jimmie Åkesson (SD) är centrala i partiernas sociala nätverk. I AfS sociala nätverk har Kasselstrand i högre grad kopplingar till personer (till exempel andra personer inom ledningen i AfS) medan Åkesson i SD:s sociala nätverk har kopplingar till enheter och funktioner inom partiet.  Migration som nyhetsämne på Facebook är överrepresenterat hos både AfS och SD, särskilt för AfS. Både AfS och SD använder sig mer av negativa känslor än positiva känslor och svartmålar politiska motståndare i hög grad i sina Facebook-inlägg. Sådana Facebook-inlägg genererar också i genomsnitt en högre grad av engagemang än andra inlägg. AfS använder sig av Facebook-inlägg som innehåller mobilisering i högre grad än SD. 

  • 353.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Sweden's most appreciated employers: An evaluation of employer brand messages on three organisational career sites2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsgivarvarumärket är det rykte som en organisation har som arbetsgivare.

    Varumärket förkroppsligar en idé som långsiktigt hanteras inom organisationen för att

    uppnå konkurrensfördelar genom olika typer av övertalningsmetoder för att väcka

    uppmärksamhet, tillit och legitimitet bland organisationens kontaktpunkter. Varumärket

    är en kanal för att uttrycka specifikt vad som är fördelaktigt, unikt och karaktäristiskt för

    en organisation.

    Det blir allt större konkurrens om uppmärksamheten hos individer som besitter

    eftertraktad kompetens. Därför finns skäl för både personal- och

    marknadsföringsavdelningar att gå samman för att skapa ett arbetsgivarvarumärke som

    effektivt kan skapa uppmärksamhet hos talangen. Dessa kommunikativa initiativ är högst

    övertygande i sin natur, eftersom dess syfte är att fånga och påverka individens

    uppfattning om organisationen som en bra organisation att arbeta för, och att de är och

    förblir dess förstahandsval.

    De utvalda fallen i denna studie är Hennes & Mauritz, Netlight och King. År 2014 var

    dessa tre de högst rankade på Universum's lista Sveriges mest uppskattade arbetsgivare. Studien

    utvärderar dessa tre organisationers insatser, strategier och deras sätt att representera sin

    organisations identitet som en bra organisation att arbeta för. Genom att samla in och

    utvärdera det innehåll kan studien således visa på de metoder som används for att tilltala,

    och uppfylla behov hos potentiella medarbetare. Genom att kombinera dessa

    anställningsfördelar med traditionella retoriska knep ämnar denna studie att bidra till en

    samtida reflektion över de strategiska metoder som idag används inom dessa

    kommunikativa insatser.

    Resultaten visar en samling fördelar som karaktäriseras av olika teman och belöningar

    som stöds av sanningsenliga uttalanden av medarbetare inom organisationen, vilka agerar

    som bekräftelse på erfarenheten av att arbeta för just en specifik organisation. Det

    handlar uteslutande om övertalning - de vill ha dig.

  • 354.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Borg, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Crash Boom Bang: En kvalitativ studie om estetik och användarvänlighet vid produktion av en extremsportares webb2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 355.
    Eriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    Karlstads universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    All inclusive: Ett utvecklingsarbete för att stödja studenters akademiska informationskompetens2018Ingår i: Studentaktiva lärande- och examinationsformer: Bidrag från universitespedagogisk konferens 2017 / [ed] Johansson, M. & Johansson L.E., Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2018, 1, s. 65-91Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens digitala medielandskap har dramatiskt ökat betydelsen av studenters medie- och informationskompetens (MIK), inte minst vad gäller vetenskaplig information och det sammanhang den publiceras i. Detta är också ett grundläggande mål för högre utbildning enligt Högskoleförordningen. Begreppet MIK innefattar flera av de kompetenser som biblioteken undervisar i och som krävs för att använda och kommunicera information i de akademiska studierna. För att säkerställa att alla grundstudenter har samma möjlighet att träna dessa färdigheter har Karlstads universitetsbibliotek under året startat ett utvecklingsarbete som bland annat mynnat ut i en webbkurs i akademisk informationskompetens. Kursen kommer att finnas tillgänglig i lärplattformen Canvas och innehålla moduler som kan användas separat men även som en del av ett mer studentaktivt och flexibelt lärande för att komplettera övrig undervisning. Förutom de färdigheter som traditionellt kopplas till begreppet informationskompetens: informationssökning, referenshantering och källkritik, kommer kursen även att omfatta nya akademiska informationskompetenser som upphovsrätt och akademiskt skrivande. En förutsättning för en lyckad implementering av kursen är ett ökat samarbete mellan bibliotek och lärare kring behov, utformning och integrering i studenternas ämneskurser.

  • 356.
    Eriksson, Mathias
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Persson, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Medier i radioskugga: Medier, polis och kommunikationssystemet Rakel2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 357.
    Eriksson, Nils
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Ren kommunikation i budskapsdjungeln: En studie för att ta fram kärnbudskap och kommunikationsstrategi2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen kan neka till att det spelar roll vad vi säger och gör här i livet. Vi lämnar alla på ett eller annat sätt något slags spår efter oss. Om man som organisation/företag vill göra det idag och lyckas är en början att planera sin kommunikation. Men innan man gör det är det en fördel att veta vilka som ska nås, hur de ska nås och varför de ska lyssna på just dig. Det pratas ibland om informationsbruset i vårt samhälle och att det är svårt att nå fram på grund av att vi mer och mer skärmar av oss och enbart riktar in oss på vad vi själva vill ha. Kanske är det en av anledningarna till att kommunikationsbranschen växer idag, det behövs helt enkelt en struktur på vad man säger, när man säger det och hur.

    Nätverket Rena Kläder arbetar för humana arbetsvillkor inom textilindustrin i produktionsländerna. Deras fokus ligger på de svenska modeföretagen samt de upphandlare som bland annat beställer de kläder vi har när vi ligger på sjukhus. När jag tog kontakt med dem visade det sig att de inte hade några framtagna kärnvärden, inte heller några kommunikationsstrategier som gällde för nätverket. Mitt uppdrag har varit att ta fram kärnbudskap samt en rekommenderad kommunikationsstrategi. Arbetet har tagit sin form i teori, litteratur jag har läst samt kvalitativa intervjuer med personer som arbetar med nätverket.

    Resultatet av detta visade att Rena Kläders budskap hade gått fram tydligt på vissa områden medan andra hade gett ett splittrat intryck. De gav dock ett bra underlag för mina slutsatser och möjligheten att se två synvinklar av nätverkets arbete, en från fackföreningar och medlemsorganisationer samt en från modeföretagen. Jag hoppas att Rena Kläder kommer att ha nytta av min uppsats och använda den i det vardagliga arbetet med kommunikationen utåt. Uppsatsen kan användas som en ryggrad att gå tillbaka till när nätverket ska delta i kampanjer eller liknande för att lyfta fram de delar som är relevanta just för stunden.

  • 358.
    Eriksson, Olov
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Dömd på förhand?: En studie av namnpubliceringen av misstänkta brottslingar i två svenska tidningar2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 359.
    Eriksson Sjöö, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Folkesson, Beatrice
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Retoriska uttryck i Unicef Sveriges kampanjfilmer 20132014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur en biståndsorganisation använder sig av retoriska grepp för att övertyga sina mottagare genom kampanjfilmer. Den här studien är relevant för att kunna förstå hur biståndsorganisationer påverkar mottagarna av kampanjfilmer. I den här studien har Unicef Sverige varit studieobjektet och de är en av Sveriges största biståndsorganisationer och en organisation som regelbundet visas i media.

    De teorier som är relevanta i den här studien är retorik och retoriska inriktningar på exempelvis

    marknadsretorik och visuell retorik. Huvudfrågeställningen i studien är att se på vilket sätt Unicef Sverige använder sig av retorik i sina kampanjfilmer för att övertyga människor att bli givare. Delfrågor i studien är att undersöka, vilka är de marknadsretoriska begrepp och medel som Unicef Sverige använder i kampanjfilmer för att övertyga sina mottagare samt på vilka sätt använder sig Unicef Sverige av visuell retorik i sina kampanjfilmer.

    I studien har två kvalitativa innehållsanalyser utförts på tre till fem filmer i utvalda filmkategorier. Totalt har 16 kampanjfilmer analyserats. De olika kategorierna är: informationsfilm om aktuella händelser, uppmaning till olika kampanjer, svenska kändisar besöker utsatta barn och humor. På de utvalda filmerna gjordes en retorisk innehållsanalys och en bildanalys. Från det resultat som har tagits fram i den här studien kan det tydligt ses att Unicef Sverige använder sig av retorik på många olika sätt. De tre sätten att övertyga inom retorik är ethos, logos och phatos och de är stora byggstenar i kampanjfilmerna och den mest frekventa är phatos. De använder sig även av olika typer av retorik och då är den deliberativa och epideiktiska retoriken de språktyper som förekommer. De använder sig även av marknadsretoriska modeller genom att disponera kampanjfilmerna på ett passande sätt. Även att inkludera kändisar i filmerna, samt göra filmerna lite längre, är enligt marknadskommunikation ett bra sätt för att mottagarna ska uppfatta budskapet lättare. Visuell retorik används också till stor del och det kan tydligt avläsas att filmerna överlag innehåller dystra färger och de använder sig även av färg för att informera om vissa situationer. Det är på det sättet som Unicef Sverige använder sig av dessa tre olika retorikbegrepp och det visar hur de använder retoriken för att övertyga sina mottagare att ta till sig budskapet med filmerna och bli medlemmar hos Unicef Sverige.

  • 360.
    Erlebach, Chanett
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Webbhotell och deras tjänster: En jämförelse av kostnader, funktioner och service2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att ge en inblick i webbhotellens värld då det idag finns 1 706 webbhotellstjänster (inklusive dataservicebyråer och hostingföretag) i Sverige, varav 245 är namngivna webbhotell. Uppsatsen ska redogöra skillnader mellan kostnader, funktioner och service utav elva webbhotell som ingick i undersökningen.

    Uppsatsen vänder sig till privatpersoner, organisationer och företag som vill införskaffa sig kunskap om webbhotell och deras tjänster. Genom att läsa denna uppsats kan målgruppen få bättre kännedom om de kostnader, funktioner och service som webbhotellen förmedlar innan man t.ex. ingår ett avtal.

    Undersökningen visar bland annat att antalet anställda och priset utgör ett tydligt samband, att webbhotell som har minsta antal anställda samtidigt har de lägsta priserna.

    Det har även tidigare varit priset som har varit ett konkurrentverktyg mellan webbhotellen men undersökningen visar att priset inte längre har någon betydelse och att priset i förhållande till webbutrymme och datatrafik håller på att förändras.

    Konkurrensen i framtiden mellan webbhotellen kommer inte att baseras på prissättningen, datatrafiken eller webbutrymmet utan support, kontrollpanel och prestanda kommer att bli webbhotellens centrala konkurrensverktyg.

    Webbhotell anses ha bättre prestanda om webbhotellets placering är i Sverige men undersökningen visar att ett utländskt webbhotell vann sidladdningstestet.

    Om månadens datatrafik överskrids kommer webbplatsen att stängas ner eller prestandan kommer att bli märkbart försämrad.

    Webbhotell utlovar 100 % upptid, dvs. de garanterar att webbservern alltid kommer att fungera, vilket är viktigt för företag som har sina affärssystem online.

    Fjorton webbadministratörer som använder sig av webbhotell både privat och genom sitt företag har svarat på en kvalitativ frågeformulärsundersökning med 43 frågor och svaren på frågorna visar att skillnader mellan de elva webbhotellen i undersökningen förekommer.

    Rekommendationer lämnas till målgruppen i valet av ett webbhotell samt andra tips om hur man kan kontrollera t.ex. prestandan och antal domäner på webbservern.

  • 361.
    Ersson, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Dressed for success: En undersökning rörande enhetlig arbetsklädsel och dess roll för organisationsidentiteten2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 362.
    Espino Colin, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Höglind, Moa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Samklang, taktkänsla och utstrålning: En studie av Värmlandsoperans profil och image2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens teknologiska och samhälleliga utveckling har förändrat organisationens plattform och sätt att kommunicera. Dessa förändringar har gjort att vissa komponenter som begreppet varumärke har blivit allt viktigare och fått mer uppmärksamhet av organisationer och inom medie- och kommunikationsområdet. För att ett varumärke ska ha ett värde måste begreppen image och profil stämma överens med varandra, det gör dessa begrepp lika viktiga som hela varumärkesbegreppet. Därför är det intressant att klarlägga och få mer kännedom om begreppen samt att få insikt i hur dessa kan se ut för en organisation i dagens samhälle. Detta gjordes genom att undersöka organisationen Värmlandsoperan.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka en organisations profil, den image unga har av organisationen samt överensstämmelsen och samspelet mellan profilen och imagen. Syftet är även att hitta samband och orsaker till varför profilen och den image unga har av organisationen stämmer eller inte stämmer överens med varandra. Frågeställningarna uppsatsen utgår ifrån är:

    • Hur profilerar Värmlandsoperan sig gentemot musikintresserade unga?
    • Vilken image har musikintresserade unga av Värmlandsoperan?
    • Finns det en överensstämmelse mellan Värmlandsoperans profil och den image som musikintresserade unga har av organisationen?

    Detta genomfördes genom att få insikt i samt redovisa olika teorier, begrepp och tidigare forskning som kastar ljus över det ämne som undersöks. Med detta som grund genomfördes en samtalsintervju, fokusgruppsintervjuer samt en dokumentanalys.

    Analyserna pekar på att Värmlandsoperans profil bara speglas i vissa avseenden i den unga målgruppens image. Orsaken till denna skillnad har grunden i organisationens kommunikation till målgruppen. Denna kommunikation har lett till att målgruppen inte konsumerar organisationens produkt eller blir en del av dess publik. Avslutningsvis pekade slutsatserna på att Värmlandsoperan behöver planera sin profil noggrannare för att göra den fungerande och få den att speglas i målgruppens image av organisationen.

  • 363.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet. Bonn University.
    Participation in Flood risk Management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving interested parties in Flood Risk Management is a crucial and challenging issue. The implementation of the European Flood Directive requires the active participation of stakeholders. But how can this be achieved successfully? This publication gives a brief overview of participation issues in Flood Risk Management in order to prepare for and to assist participatory processes. It provides a synopsis of key issues, findings of literature research and project results in (public) participation in the field of water and flood risk management. 

    The focus here is on general aspects of (public) participation. This publication describes an understanding of what participation is and gives some definitions of relevant terms. Furthermore the question “why is participation important?” is considered and reasons for and against participation and potential barriers are described. Guidelines for the key questions that should be addressed before a participation process is started are offered and different working steps are explained. Finally, some examples of methods and tools for participation are described.

    However, this short description can only give an overview and orientation of this broad field. In fact, each project and process has to be adapted to the respective situation and conditions. Nevertheless, this brochure might contribute to the participatory process in Flood Risk Management and help to involve interested parties as required by the EU Floods Directive.

  • 364.
    Falck, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Emil, Jansson
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Potentialer för det interaktiva berättandet som pedagogiskt verktyg: En utforskande kvalitativ fokusgruppsintervju, med inslag av co-design2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker interaktivt berättande och lärande på webben som medium. Syftet är att studien ska resultera i kunskap om hur man kan gå tillväga för att skapa en interaktiv berättelse som kommunicerar och lär ut till målgruppen. Det grundläggande forskningsproblemet som försökte lösas var att besvara hur man kan skapa en interaktiv berättelse som genom sina komponenter assisterar i att lära ut till målgruppen. Studien har haft kvalitativa fokusgruppsintervjuer som metod. I anslutning till fokusgruppsintervjun hölls en workshop med inslag av co-design. Detta för att undersöka målgruppens syn på interaktivt berättande och lärande på webben. Målgruppen har definierats som digital natives i åldern 18–25 år. Valet av målgrupp motiveras med att de spenderar en övervägande stor tid på internet.

    Det teoretiska ramverket för studien är teorier som berör interaktivt berättande, co-design samt lärande. Studien utgick från detta ramverk i analysen av insamlade data från fokusgruppen. Därefter skapades en prototyp baserat på resultatet från studien och efter det utvärderades prototypen tillsammans med två deltagare från tidigare fokusgrupp.

    Genom analysen framkom flera insikter utifrån målgruppens syn på interaktivt berättande. Några av dessa insikter var att de interaktiva aspekterna av webbsidan ska harmonisera med innehållet. Webbsidan ska vara dynamisk och multisensorisk, bild och ljud ska assistera övrigt innehåll. En webbsida med en hög grad interaktivitet är möjligen fördelaktig för att skapa engagemang och få uppmärksamhet men kan samtidigt vara förvirrande i brist på struktur. Detta sammanfattades och konkretiserades i en första iteration av prototypen.

    Uppsatsen presenterar en lösning på problemet gällande hur en interaktiv berättelse kan användas för att lära ut på webben. Prototypen som skapades är en möjlig lösning på denna problematik. Implikationer till fortsatt forskning är att undersöka den äldre målgruppen digital immigrants.

  • 365. Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies2006Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 366.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A Discursive Approach to Mediatisation: Corporate Technology Discourse and the Trope of Media Indispensability2018Ingår i: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 15-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatisation research has informed us regarding the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatisation is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatisation has been explicated, e.g., by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatisation studies that consider the economic interests of mediatisation stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this article scrutinizes what the alleged 'mobility revolution' entails according to some who would benefit most from such a revolution. More concretely, the article studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei,and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatisation theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the article asks: if mobile media changes 'everything' in life-whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are 'indispensable' to modern ways of living-what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the article speaks to the theme of this thematic issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatisation is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: 'technologies of cosmos', 'technologies of self', and, ultimately, 'technologies of life'. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatisation by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern-notably, urban and privileged-lives. In addition to providing answers to the study's empirical questions, the article includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatisation theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the 'discursive turn' in mediatisation studies.

  • 367.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    A discursive approach to mediatization: ICT companies, coworking spaces, and the construction of media indispensability2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When the ‘World Wide Web’ started to mature, the ‘information revolution’ was celebrated by researchers, politicians, policy makers, and others. Today, a new kind of technologically driven revolution is said to emerge: the ‘mobility revolution’. Unsurprisingly, the revolutionary potentials of mobile media tend to be particularly promoted by ICT companies. By all means, ICT corporations have a stake in marketing their technological gadgets as useful. Beyond this, however, they have an interest in constructing and safeguarding the idea of media as indispensable; as things necessary to lead a good life. While heavily promoted by technology producers, the media indispensability trope is not exclusive to the ICT industry. Rather, the trope also occurs in media research and in mediatization theory especially. Although there are still many suggestions as to how to define ‘mediatization’ (cf. Lundby, 2009; Hjarvard, 2013; Couldry & Hepp, 2013; Hepp & Couldry, 2016; Ekström et al, 2016; Krotz, 2009, 2017), some researchers foreground media indispensability as key to the concept. Jansson argues that ‘Today, we can see that media are generally, and to an increasing extent, perceived as indispensable to the interactions between individuals and groups’ (2015a, p. 380). Notwithstanding other areas of potential dispute, then, mediatization researchers and the communications industry unite in the recognition of technology as agents of social change. As noted by Krotz (2017), mediatization is not a natural, automatic process, but accomplished by humans. As such, he argues, it ‘must be reconstructed critically in order to find the points where the civil society was not asked’ (p. 114). Krotz calls for critical mediatization studies that consider the economic interests of mediatization stakeholders, including the ICT industry. My paper responds to recent calls for critical mediatization studies (see also Jansson, 2018), by scrutinizing the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the ICT sector: IBM, Huawei, and Ericsson. My overall objective is to approach the ‘mobility revolution’ from a constructivist standpoint in order to inspect what the alleged, media induced, social transformations entails according to some of those who would benefit the most from such a revolution. Stimulated by mediatization theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship (e.g. Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Williams, 1974; Pinch & Bijker, 1984; Marvin, 1988; Fisher, 2010), this paper asks: if mobile media changes ‘everything’ in life – whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are ‘indispensable’ to modern ways of living – what are they supposed to do? Addressing these questions, the paper ultimately informs us about how mediatization is discursively constructed and sold to people.Findings suggest that mediatization is embraced and sold back to consumers as the response to an internal human drive and presented as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified in the empirical data set: ‘technologies of cosmos’, ‘technologies of self’, and, ultimately, ‘technologies of life’. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatization by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern – notably, urban, middle-class – lives.

  • 368.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Affective Mobility: Mediated Connectivity among 'Elastically' Mobile Elites2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 369.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Marketing for the Active Consumer in the Era of Media Convergence: Transformers and the Sector Seven Campaign2013Ingår i: Making Sense of Consumption: Selections from the 2nd Nordic Conference on Consumer Research 2012 / [ed] Lena Hansson, Ulrika Holmberg & Helene Brembeck, Gothenburg, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 370.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    More Than Meets The Eye: The Marketing of Transmedial Brands In the 21st Century2008Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Convergence has become a buzzword to explain all sorts of processes in contemporary society. Predominantly, the concept has been used to signify ongoing changes in how media content is being produced, distributed and consumed. In this paper, I present some initial

    findings from my ongoing dissertation project. The entertainment franchise Transformers, which is used as a case-study in my research, seem to indicate that present-day marketing practices used to promote transmedial brands (such as the Transformers brand) contribute to a convergence of media content. By the utilization of various activities to extend and promote

    the brand, such as transmedia storytelling, licensing, cross-promoting and a mixture of clever marketing initiatives, the boundaries between entertainment and advertising tend to become indistinct, if not dissolved entirely

  • 371.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    More than Meets the Eye: Transmedial entertainment as a site of pleasure, resistance and exploitation2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s converging entertainment industry creates ‘transmedial’ brand worlds in which consumers are expected to become immersed. Integrated marketing campaigns connected to these worlds encourage various kinds of consumer productivity and invite consumers to partake in brand-building processes. Consumers, thus, are increasingly counted on to act as co-producers of contemporary entertainment. While such an altered consumer identity has been taken as evidence of enhanced consumer agency, it has also been recognized as a source of consumer exploitation. 

    This thesis aims to further our understanding of the increasingly ambivalent power-relationship that exists between agents in the entertainment industry and their most dedicated customers – the fans. The study employs a multiperspectival theoretical framework, in that cultural studies theory is enriched with perspectives from political economy. This integrated approach to the object of study yields a better understanding of the values of consumer activity, and fan productivity in particular, to industry and consumers respectively.

    The study applies existing theory on transmedial textuality, branding, and fandom to one particular franchise, Hasbro’s Transformers. This brand world, home of both industrial and fan-based creativity, is studied through analyses of official and unofficial contents, and through interviews with professionals and fans. The focus is on the brand environment established around the first live action film ever made within the franchise. Special attention is given to the all-encompassing film marketing campaign that contributed to forming this environment and to fan productivity taking place in relation to it. 

    The case study shows that companies and fans contribute to the building and promotion of the Transformers brand world – in collaboration and in conflict. While fan productivity occasionally takes place without direct encouragement from the companies involved, it is also largely anticipated and desired by marketing campaigns. The findings suggest that consumer enjoyment potentially translates into industrial benefits, including free brand promotion. Ultimately, the thesis acknowledges transmedial worlds of entertainment as concurrent sites of pleasure, resistance, and exploitation.

  • 372.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Play Labour and the Search for Mass Fandom: A Transformers Brand Experience2013Ingår i: Digital Games and Playful Media (TWG), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s entertainment industries encourage consumer activity as a way to gain brand loyalty. Participatory marketing campaigns are calculated to promote such activity, especially when designed as transmedia entertainment and require various types of play labor. This paper seeks to add to our mounting yet still limited understanding of industry branding practices in an era of media convergence and against the background of recent theoretizations on the ‘new’ active consumer. Ultimately, awareness of such practices will help us understand the increasingly complicated relationship between producers and consumers of mediated entertainment. The paper is based on empirical data that were generated by the author in relation to her PhD thesis. Focusing on a specific marketing campaign that was launched in support of Michael Bay’s and Steven Spielberg’s 2007 Transformers film, the paper argues for the need to make manifest the interplay between the pleasurable and, at the same time, potentially exploitive traits of consumer activity in general and of fan productivity in particular.

  • 373.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Selling (the idea of) mediatization: Contemporary technology discourse and the indispensability of mobile media in work/life2017Ingår i: NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatization research has informed us about the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatization is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatization has been explicated e.g. by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatization studies that consider the economic interests of mediatization stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this paper scrutinizes what the alleged ‘mobility revolution’ entails according to some of those who would benefit the most from such a revolution. More concretely, the paper studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei, and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatization theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the paper asks: if mobile media changes ‘everything’ in life – whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are ‘indispensable’ to modern ways of living – what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the paper speaks to the theme of this special issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatization is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: ‘technologies of cosmos’, ‘technologies of self’, and, ultimately, ‘technologies of life’. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatization by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern – notably, urban and privileged – lives. In addition to providing answers to the study’s empirical questions, the paper includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatization theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the ‘discursive turn’ in mediatization studies.

  • 374.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    The Longue Durée of Transmedia Work2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the transformation of work under the pressures of mediatization. Mediatization is here understood as a historical process of media-induced change that establishes tensions between emancipating forces and increasing socio-technological dependence. The paper seeks to make sense of mediatized work and its implications by covering forms of work that has either been reconfigured through changes in the media system or developed as a direct response to mediatization and the accompanying post-Fordist regime of work.

  • 375.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Transmedia work: Privilege and precariousness in digital modernity2019 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Transmedia Work Karin Fast and André Jansson explore several key questions that frame the study of the social and cultural implications of a digital, connected workforce. How might we understand 'privilege' and 'precariousness' in today's digitalized work market? What does it mean to be a privileged worker under the so-called connectivity imperative? What are the social and cultural forces that normalize the appropriation of new media in, and beyond, the workplace? These key questions come together in the notion of transmedia work - a term through which a social critique of work under digital modernity can be formulated. Transmedia work refers to the rise of a new social condition that saturates many different types of work, with various outcomes. In some social groups, and in certain professions, transmedia work is wholeheartedly embraced, while it is questioned and resisted elsewhere. There are also variations in terms of control; who can maintain a sense of mastery over transmedia work and who cannot? Through interviews with cultural workers, expatriates, and mobile business workers, and ancillary empirical data such as corporate technology and coworking discourse, Transmedia Work is an important addition to the study of mediatization and digital culture.

  • 376.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, AndréKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Lindell, JohanKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Ryan Bengtsson, LindaKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Tesfahuney, MekonnenKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book introduces and develops the concept of geomedia studies as the name of a particular subfield of communication geography. Despite the accelerating societal relevance of 'geomedia' technologies for the production of various spaces, mobilities, and power-relations, and the unquestionable emergence of a vibrant research field that deals with questions pertaining to such topics, the term geomedia studies remains surprisingly unestablished. By addressing imperative questions about the implications of geomedia technologies for organizations, social groups and individuals (e.g. businesses profiting from geo-surveillance, refugees or migrants moving across national borders, or artists claiming their rights to public space) the book also aims to contribute to ongoing academic and societal debates in our increasingly mediatized world.

  • 377.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för geografi och turism.
    Introducing Geomedia Studies2018Ingår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 378.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Introducing geomedia studies2017Ingår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Karin Fast, André Jansson, Johan Lindell, Linda Ryan Bengtsson, Mekonnen Tesfahuney, Routledge, 2017, s. 1-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 379.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Introduction to Geomedia Studies2018Ingår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan-Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, mekonnen, Routledge, 2018, s. 1-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 380.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    On the Reluctant Cosmopolitanism of Kinetic Élites2015Ingår i: 12th Conference of the European Sociological Association, August 25-28, 2015, Prague, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 381.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The elastic mobility of business elites: Negotiating the 'home' and 'away' continuum2016Ingår i: European Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1367-5494, E-ISSN 1460-3551, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 435-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to provide an understanding of internationally mobile elites from a perspective that takes into account the social costs that come with being away from localized, everyday life. We show that mobile elites are often reluctant travellers and employ Bude and Dürrschmidt’s notion of ‘transclusion’ to understand the often-unrecognized ambivalence of mobile lifestyles. One way of coping with

    the existential dilemma of being away is to stay connected with family and friends through technologies of communication, which are deployed by the mobile elite under the regime of what Tomlinson calls ‘technologies of the hearth’. We arrive at the concept of ‘elastic mobility’, which highlights central push-and-pull processes in mobile lifestyles. The concept forwards a perspective on the social consequences of globalization that goes beyond contemporary ‘flow speak’.

  • 382.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ljungberg, Emilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Braunerhielm, Lotta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    On the social construction of geomedia technologies2019Ingår i: Communication and the public, ISSN 2057-0473, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 89-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geomedia technologies represent an advanced set of digital media devices, hardwares, and softwares. Previous research indicates that these place contingent technologies are currently gaining significant social relevance, and contribute to the shaping of contemporary public lives and spaces. However, research has yet to empirically examine how, and for whom, geomedia technologies are made relevant, as well as the role of these technologies in wider processes of social and spatial (re-)production. This special issue contributes valuable knowledge to existing research in the realm of communication geography, by viewing the current “geomediascape” through the lens of social constructivist perspectives, and by interrogating the reciprocal shaping of technology, the social, and space/place. Scrutinizing the social construction of geomedia technologies in various empirical contexts and in relation to different social groups, the essays deal with important questions of power and control, and ultimately challenge the notion of (geo)mediatization as a neutral process.

  • 383.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production.

  • 384.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production

  • 385.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Conceptualizing and Analyzing the 'Transmediascape'2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 386.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

    The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

  • 387.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Transmedia world-building: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present)2017Ingår i: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 636-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of transmedia storytelling has in recent years turned towards a more historicized understanding of its object of study, and also shifted to a wider perspective on narrative and narrative elements, focusing more on the transmediality of story-worlds and world-building rather than just narratives (‘plots’) in the stricter sense. This article combines these interrelated perspectival shifts in an analysis of story-worlds/world-building in two transmedia franchises: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present), with a focus on the mechanics and processes of world-building in relation to transmedial change (i.e. how world elements are transformed over time as well as when story-worlds move across media platforms).

  • 388.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Metaphors of free labor: A typology of unpaid work in the media sector2016Ingår i: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 963-978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This article critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents seven metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This necessitates a more fine-grained and historicized use of the concept of free labor.

  • 389.
    Fernström, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Olander, Jessica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Bornstedt, Sandra
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    April, april din dumma sill, har media lurat dig dit dom vill?: En kvalitativ textanalys av aprilskämtet Nylonstrumpan från 19622018Studentarbete övrigt, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The first of April, the day of the year everyone go on needles and wondering who will fool you today. Every year at least the mass media try to create an inventive, or less inventive news about something that may became a topic that everyone talks about. Sometimes an April joke becomes a classic one and something that will be remembered a long time after. Therefore, this study will contain a qualitative text analysis on the famous Swedish April joke from 1962, which was about to pull over a nylon stocking over the television to create color TV. A classic, that even the younger generation knows about and is the second-best April joke in the world. We, in this study group belongs to the younger generation which has become a challenge to analyze this April joke which is 56 years old and were before our time. That's why the context of the 60’s has been an important part of this study to have an opportunity to get in to that situation and understand the context.

    This study is going to analyze which rhetorical means in conjunction with the context that has affected this April joke in the way it did, and with help of rhetorical analysis, study how the theory was used and had an impact on the successful joke. The rhetorical analysis will mainly focus on the arguments used in the April joke, and also the visual language such as body language and the way of talking. The study will make observations in the context, how society and the population looked up to the media and its responsibility for the people. A central part of the context will be the new media, television, that quickly developed during the current decade. Public service with power over the television gave together an important position and a big part in the April joke’s significant context.

    Our analysis shows good reasons to believe that rhetoric and its arguments are a prerequisite for succeeding in reaching such type of message, and that the position of public service and television at that time had a major role in how April jokes became a general topic and perhaps gave color TV a chance earlier than was meant in Sweden. All those elements together will prove to be a major part of the successful April joke, and through our analyze we find the answer to our question. Discussion and conclusion explain the positive and negative aspects of the analysis and what it has come to, and put it in relation to the context. The study presents interesting topics and suggestions on future research that have emerged after the work has been completed. 

  • 390.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Camouflaging Church as State: An exploratory study of journalism’s native advertising2016Ingår i: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 17, nr 7, s. 1-13, artikel-id SIArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the increasing trend of adopting native advertising in the digital editions of traditional news media outlets. Native advertising is defined here as a form of paid media where the commercial content is delivered within the design and form of editorial content, as an attempt to recreate the user experience of reading news instead of advertising content. Methodologically, this study examines 12 news websites of legacy newspapers from Sweden, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and analyzes the adoption of native advertising during the span of January 2015. Subsequently, these advertisements are analyzed in terms of type, form, function, integration, measurement, disclosure, and authorship. The results show that while the degree of implementation is still modest, the way in which it is implemented is uneven across countries.

  • 391.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Feeding the RedCritter: The gamification of project management software2016Ingår i: The Business of Gamification: A critical analysis / [ed] Dymek, Mikolaj & Zackariasson, Peter, New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 21-39Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The narrative of this chapter focuses on the intersecting points between motivation and productivity, of fun and work, and the potential benefits and dangers of gamifying project management software. Since gamification is a new trend, a thorough look at the case study of Red Critter and their choice of gamification techniques to enhance employee engagement and motivation can bring a better and nuanced understanding of gamification of project management to academics, researchers, and industry practitioners.

  • 392.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Gamification in Virtual Organizations: Engaging with fun and play2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multiplicity of factors that can explain the ever-growing adoption of virtual organizations in the current international workplace. These factors are interwoven in a way that feeds each other in an ebb and flow of the trends of virtualization.

    Virtual teams, as groups that are geographically and organizationally dispersed, tend to feel alienated from the rest of the organization and team members. Organizations that used to depend on the synergies of team dynamics can no longer rely on the social aspects of work life. Accordingly, a new approach needs to be applied to effectively motivate teams that work in virtual environments. Managers must rely on a new set of tools and technologies to reach their teams. The rich and varied examples of applications of gamification techniques in various industries ask for further research the application of gamification within the framework of virtual organization management software.

    Gamification is loosely defined as a process that incorporates game design elements in non-game contexts. Applied to virtual organization management software, there is a vast opportunity to provide game elements in the systems that not only engage the team members, but also crystallizes a sense of progress, helping the members create the habit of using the software regularly. In addition, gamification provides the tools for other members to motivate their team members, or even applying automatized features where human-computer interaction (HCI) features motivate members automatically. This is particularly important, as it widens the sources from which an individual receives motivational inputs.

    This study aims to explore the role of gamification and gamified software as an outlet to re-route motivating strategies for virtual environments, as well as the characteristics of motivation in such project configurations, and its contribution to enhance the organization´s outcomes.

    The methodology follows a three-pronged. First, a in-depth literature review that lays out the major characteristics of gamification as a motivator, as well as the characteristics of virtual project management. Second, a qualitative study of gamified systems in real life virtual organization, with semi-structured interviews to a group of eight experienced virtual project managers. Third, a quantitative study of current software features aimed to manage virtual projects.

    There is an undeniable theoretical benefit from applying gamification into virtual team management software. It would automatically lift some of the responsibility of motivating a team off the manager's shoulders, and redirect it to the software and the interactions of the team, making it a much more tight and engaged team. It offers the potential to generate the stimuli to amplify small wins generating engagement, user habit, and enhanced motivation.

    This study shows the importance of motivation in new organizational settings as well as the special challenges that it poses when translated to virtual environments. It shows that managers can no longer rely on the traditional motivational strategies. It shows the lack of gamified features in the current software for manage virtual projects. Finally, the study explores the possibilities of gamification as an approach to bridge the gap of motivation within project software. 

  • 393.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Gamification in Virtual Project Management: a mixture of curiosity and reluctance2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multiplicity of factors that can explain the ever-growing adoption of virtual project management in the current international workplace. These factors are interweaved in a way that feeds each other in a ebb and flow of the trends of virtualization. This current increase of virtual projects and their economic importance has led to a new set of challenges that project managers need to overcome. The lack of face-to-face interaction has distorted the traditional ways in which motivation was fostered within project teams.

    Virtual teams, as groups that are geographically and organizationally dispersed, tend to feel alienated from the rest of the organization and team members. Projects that used to heavily depend on the synergies of team dynamics, can no longer rely on the social aspects of work life. With that in mind, a new approach needs to be applied to effectively motive teams that work in virtual environments. The current theories of motivation lead the way to a new paradigm where progress and inner work life are the major drivers of motivation. Project managers must rely on a new set of tools and technologies to reach their teams. The software industry has evolved to provide solutions to remotely manage and coordinate teams and projects, but it is still far from being a solution to the challenge of motivating a virtual project team. The rich and varied examples of applications of gamification techniques in various industries ask for further research the application of gamification techniques within the framework of virtual project management software.

    Gamification is loosely defined as a process that incorporates game design elements in non-game contexts, to improve the user experience.

    In other words, a gamified system is a system that has been adapted with the aid of components, mechanics and dynamics in order to engage and motivate users. There are several elements that can be used to gamify a system and the approaches are endless. Applied to virtual project management software, there is a vast opportunity to provide game elements in the systems that not only engage the team members, but also crystallizes a sense of progress, helping the members create the habit of using the software regularly without it being a tedious task. In addition, gamification provides the tools for other members to motivate their team members, or even applying automatized features where human-computer interaction (HCI) features motivate members automatically from the software.This is particularly important, as it widens the sources from which an individual receives motivational inputs. The potential of gamification is still new, but offers a promising alternative to actively engage and motivate virtual teams.

    However, adopting gamification blindly in order to boost workers motivation and engage them in particular routines can produce an effect completely opposite to the desired one. The suitability for a gamified experience within the realms of labor is still under scrutiny, as themes like reluctance, misrepresentations of the organizations goals, and enhanced motivation and engagement for extended periods of time, are still widely unclear.

    Departing from my master’s thesis Motivation in Virtual Project Management: On the Challenges of Engaging Virtual Teams and the Features of Project Software, this study aims to explore the role of gamification and gamified software as an outlet to re-route motivating strategies for virtual project environments, as well as the characteristics of motivation in such project configurations, and its contribution to enhance virtual project outcomes.

    This article follows a three-pronged approach with the aim of answering its research questions. First, a in-depth literature review that lays out the major characteristics of gamification as a motivator, as well as the characteristics of virtual project management. Second, a qualitative study of the expectations of gamified systems in real life virtual projects, done through semi-structured interviews to a group of eight experienced project managers. Third, a quantitative study of the features of current software aimed to manage virtual projects, by benchmarking their features and analyzing the motivational aspects in them.

    There is an undeniable theoretical benefit from applying gamification into virtual project software. It would automatically lift some of the responsibility of motivating a team off the manager's shoulders, and redirect it to the software and the interactions of the team, making it a much more tight and engaged team. It offers the potential to generate the stimuli to amplify small wins generating engagement, user habit, and finally feeding a progress loop that leads to enhanced motivation. However, there is risk, there is skepticism, and there is a whole lot to learn. These may be the key issues for such a low number of motivation features in projectware packages.

    The response of the interviewees is one of curiosity, anticipation, and veiled skepticism. Through the interviews, respondents argued in favor of the need of motivating teams, the importance of doing so, but also the challenge that it poses. There is a more than apparent difficulty to apply gamification or motivation techniques to a software that tackles such a broad topic as “virtual projects”. The implementation of successful strategies and techniques that could directly address the problems of motivation in virtual environments is not to be underestimated, but it could also cause serious repercussions to an organization. Thus, taking this approach is sensitive issue, and it is addressed with certain reluctance, while acknowledging that the positive effects of those features might be worth the try.

    This study shows the importance of motivation in project settings as well as the special challenges that it poses when translated to virtual environments. It shows that project managers can no longer rely on the traditional motivational strategies, due to the lack of physical interaction. The benchmarking of project software shows the lack of gamified features in the current software for manage virtual projects. Finally, the study explores the possibilities of gamification as an approach to bridge the gap of motivation within project software, providing an image of mixed feelings. Curiosity and reluctance towards gamification from the very same people that could benefit from it, the virtual project managers.

  • 394.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Gamified social media: User engagement and the individualization of online communities2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A decade after the launch of Facebook, social media has expanded and established itself as one of the everyday life arenas for communication for millions of users. However, the standardized services such as communities without thematic approaches (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) have started to see a dip in user engagement.

    This paper examines the introduction of gamification techniques within new theme-oriented social media. Gamification, defined here as the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-gaming environments, adds a layer of game elements primarily in order to improving user engagement. Methodologically, this paper uses three gamified social media communities as case studies to analyze some of their functionalities and how they are implemented in order to promote user engagement. This paper deconstructs gamification into elements that can be implemented into an online community system. These elements are placed in three different categories: dynamics, which relate to the narrative and purpose of the gamified layer, providing the system with a sense of direction; mechanics, which relate to the processes aimed to create engagement and the strategies aimed to provide the system with momentum; and components, which relate to the visible game elements embedded in the system aimed to create flows of interaction with the users. These elements are then evaluated in terms of level of playfulness and the underlying intention of implementation, whether it is to motivate engagement, participation, or to promote social change.

    Gamification has shown to be an effective method to attract the attention and engagement of users in various domains, and it has been widely implemented in digital communities as an attempt to increase user engagement, by individualizing social media and placing the user at the center of the service and providing tools for self-reflection and interactions with users that share similar interests. Theoretically, this paper focuses on the motivational aspects of games and discusses the approaches on which they can be incorporated in social media systems.

    With the aim of contributing to a fairly under researched topic in academia, but with large implications for the industry, this paper ends with a discussion on the potentialities of this new approach of social media in terms of positive ideals and dangerous abuses, as well as the shift of focus from the social aspect of communities to an individualized user-centric view, and what it represents for the digital public sphere.

  • 395.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Gamifying the news: Exploring the introduction of game elements into digital journalism2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For over a century, crosswords, puzzles, and quizzes have been present in newspapers. Digital journalism has only increased the trend of integrating game elements in news media, often blurring the traditional boundaries between news and games.

    This dissertation aims to explore and understand how and why news organizations and newsworkers use gamification in digital news websites and to analyze the objectives behind its implementation in news production. The importance of trying to understand this development stems from the different roles that digital games and news have in contemporary democratic societies. While journalism is often regarded as the main source of information for the public to act as citizens, digital games predominantly remain considered as entertainment media.

    Drawing from media sociology and new institutionalism, this study engages with the literature on converging processes of popularization and professionalization of journalism, and how different institutional logics of gamification and journalism interact. Methodologically, this qualitative multiple case study analyzes four diverse news organizations (the Guardian, Bleacher Report, the Times of India, and Al Jazeera), interviewing 56 newsworkers, and conducting game-system analysis of their respective gamified systems.

    The findings suggest that while news organizations often frame their motivations within the celebratory rhetoric of gamification, a deeper look into the material manifestations of gamified news systems tend to problematize the empowering claims of gamification. Instead, a complex interplay between the professional and commercial logics of journalism and the hedonic and utilitarian logics of gamification shapes how news organizations and newsworkers implement gamified systems. This dissertation contributes to a larger debate on the friction professionalism and the market, on institutional interaction, and the increasing transgression of journalistic institutional borders.

  • 396.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Hierarchical channels: Conflicts of communication in crisis environments in Ghana2013Ingår i: Why should I trust you? Challenges for communication in times of crisis, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of trust is of vital importance in crisis environments. In developing countries, where vulnerabilities, threats, and risks are higher, establishing proper channels of communication that can generate trust in the population are even more important. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the channels of communication during a crisis situation in Ghana, and to assess the degree of trust generated while transmitting the information. To address this call, this study examines the role of trust in citizens in the social structures and hierarchical settings through a series of interviews with crisis managers from the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO). The results of this study show that while government officials convey information to the public through all means possible, a large amount of the population decide not to follow the recommendations, and large communities need to be addressed through their chiefs, and not individually. The trust in the local chief as communities feel reluctant to follow a distant governmental agency, makes the relationship with the chiefs of outmost importance, as they become the sole channel of communication with communities and settlements in some developing countries.

  • 397.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Incorporating native advertising: Assessing journalism’s new trend of camouflaging church as state2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism has several gears for motivating its existence, alongside with information, entertainment, and advertisement (McQuail, 1994). The conflicting powers that drive journalism are entangled within tensions between commercial logics and professional logics (Altheide & Snow, 1991; Karlsson & Clerwall, 2013), trying to dictate the future of the trade.The professional logic, which regards audiences as citizens, is the driving force that nurtures the civic and democratic properties of journalism (Bennet, 1993; McNair, 2009; Merrill, 2011) and establishes the ideal-typical values of journalism as public service, objectivity, autonomy, immediacy, and ethics (Kovack & Rosenstiel, 2001). The commercial logic, which regards audiences as consumers, addresses the fact that most news outlets are subjected to commercial urges in the need for funding that help sustain the organization. This logic is widely regarded as the responsible for the decline within several fronts of the journalist profession such as work practices, output quality, and norms, leading to tabloidization, popularization, and commodification of news (Lewis, Williams, & Franklin, 2008; Bird, 2009; Örnebring & Jönsson, 2011, Reese and Lee, 2012).Traditionally, even within the confines of commercial-oriented news outlets, journalists adopt the ideals of what journalism is supposed to be with more ease than the institutions they work for (Stensaas, 2005) calling for autonomy, keeping editorial lines independent from commercial influences. This has been historically named as the separation of church and state. While the general trend has been of keeping advertising and other forms of revenue separate from journalism, the attempt to keep these concepts on separate lanes has suffered a fluctuating degree of success, influenced by the conflicts outlined above. These tensions intensify within the current context of media convergence, digital and new journalism formats, audience reconfigurations, and sets the context on which legacy news media address the balance between editorial autonomy and funding sources (Deuze, 2004).This paper examines the increasing trend of adopting native advertising in the digital fronts of traditional news media outlets. Methodologically, this study looks at news websites that are digital counter parts of 12 legacy newspapers from Sweden, Spain, the UK, and the USA, and analyses the adoption of native advertising during the span of a month. Consequently, these advertisements are analyzed in terms of content, format, and the degree of transparency when linking each piece to the marketer who pays for the ad. The study finishes with a brief comparison of the results in terms of country, specifically, in light of Hallin and Mancini’s (2004) media systems composition.For the purpose of this study, native advertising is defined as a form of paid media where the commercial content is delivered within the design and form of editorial content with the attemptto recreate the user experience of reading news instead of advertising content. In terms of form native advertising matches the visual design of the main outlet they are placed in, and are meant to look and feel like natural content. In terms of function, it behaves consistently within the native modes of consumption while addressing themes and issues that are related to the paying advertiser. In other words, native advertising camouflages commercial advertising content as real news and editorial content in order to entice the user to read the news without becoming apparent that this is indeed a paid for commercial.As regular digital advertising revenues plummet, and drawing from new configurations of digital journalism, where popularized news services and aggregators have found viable sources of revenue in in-feed and recommended content features within the frame of native advertising, legacy media started adopting paid inclusion of commercials within their own formats. One of the first cases, the inclusion in the news site of the Atlantic a native ad feature the Church of Scientology, raised controversy and concerns about placing advertising formatted and distributed in the same fashion as regular news (Carlson, 2014). Since then, several other major legacy media outlets such as The Washington Post and The New York Times have adopted similar strategies that blur the boundaries between advertising and editorial content.Digital revenue has been growing steadily during the last years, and these new forms of advertising formats are in part responsible for this rise, especially because they are created by marketers, aiming to persuade consumers, but disguised as legitimate content (Tutaj & Van Reijmersdal, 2012; Cole II & Greer, 2013). Thus, the communicative ethos of journalism is immersed in a constant formative process similarly affected by technological configurations, institutional and organizational dispositions, professional practices, and economic and societal contexts (Ekström & Djerf-Pierre, 2013). A single factor cannot explain the meanderings of journalism practice. This constant re-conceptualization of journalism is what limits the formation of a common idea of what journalism is, and what journalism is supposed to be (Conboy, 2010).It is clear that since the beginning of commercial journalism, news media have a dual goal to serve and satisfy both citizens and the entrepreneurs who own the media (Schudson, 1997). However, the preliminary results of this study show a steady increase of native advertising, tipping the scales towards a re-formulation of journalism that adopts commercial actors and marketers within the arena that used to be run by journalists. The unique economic and technological context of online news could lead to a compromised autonomy, independence and credibility for journalistic practice as the economic urges to attract revenue transcend the editorial lines incorporating advertising that looks just like news. If this practice proves to be a lucrative one in the long term, the new commercial journalism might be based on camouflaging church as state.

  • 398.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Locative and augmented journalism: Towards a new framework to researching the use of geoposition to deliver space-bound news2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As digital technology has been embedded in journalism practice, the notion of space seemed to transcend physical barriers. However, during the last years, mobile technology and augmented reality (AR) have allowed reformulating the bind between news and space. Locative journalism has emerged as a novel source of news services delivering news according to the users’ geolocation, providing hyper-local and context-aware news. When combined with AR, locative news transforms the digital storytelling virtually merging media and place.

    This paper discusses the intersecting points between mobile technology, geolocation, and AR in order to provide hyper-local news. By benchmarking a large series of locative and augmented news apps and websites, and by doing a content analysis of their features and storytelling techniques, this paper introduces a new framework to researching space-bound journalism.  

  • 399.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för informatik och projektledning.
    Mobile Accessibility in Disaster Environments: Assessing the role of Mobile Technology in Crisis Management in Ghana2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the age of the risk society, when several actors at an international, national, and local level converge in order to find solutions that help mitigate the global effects of natural disasters, there is a need to study the patterns for communicating and interacting with the public that eventually feel the impact of crises.

    In the richer parts of the world ICTs have facilitated a framework for having instant information regarding threats that make crisis management a discipline that is centered more in preparing and planning, rather than mitigating actual crises.  In developing countries, the contextual idiosyncrasies of each nation provide a fragmented array of settings that prevents a rapid flow of information in the event of natural disasters. The phenomenal growth of mobile telephony use and its rapid diffusion in developing countries offers a game changing scenario where crisis managers could benefit from new applications and functionalities of mobile devices.

    In a confluence of multidisciplinary nature, this study aims to explore the role of mobile technology and internet in crisis management, as well as the state of accessibility of mobile technology when addressing the general public in Ghana.

    This study follows a three-pronged approach with the aim of answering its research questions. First, a qualitative study of the communication processes between crisis managers and the public and the role of mobile technologies during those processes. Second, a quantitative study of the uses of mobile internet and the current mobile internet infrastructure. Finally, a study on the accessibility level of Ghana’s national crisis management organization’s website.

    Several conclusions can be drawn from this study. Mobile technologies have an important role in the communication process of crisis managers and the public, however the use of internet still has no part in the flows of communication due to deficits in infrastructure and socio-economic factors, leading to a disconnection between international risk policy requirements and local needs. The lack of resources is seen as the biggest challenge for crisis managers; a challenge that leads to issues of trust in the public and non-compliance. Finally, while there have been improvements in accessibility efforts, there is still a wide gap between international web accessibility best practices and the one provided by authorities in Ghana.

  • 400.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för informatik och projektledning.
    Motivation in Virtual Project Management: On the Challenges of Engaging Virtual Teams and the Features of Project Software2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As global markets transcend nationalities in search for key advantages in cost,quality and flexibility, the once unbridgeable limit of geographical location isovercome by faster Internet speed lines, online services and tools that allowindividuals and businesses to interact regardless of space and time.

    This thesis studies the transition from traditional project management to virtualenvironments and the impact that this new paradigm has over dispersed teamsand their interactions among themselves and the project manager.

    The focus of the study lays on the concept of motivation within virtual projectmanagement and the role of the project manager to overcome the specificchallenges of this new working scenario. Additionally, parallels are drawn on themotivation features that virtual project management systems offer to projectmanagers as well as team members.

    This study shows the importance of bridging the difficulties of motivatingdispersed teams and how traditional techniques of motivation have a muchlesser impact on team members. The idea of progress and self accomplishmentare brought forth as the strongest motivators for dispersed teams.

    Finally, this study exposes the shortcomings of current projectware as a tool tomotivate teams and explores the idea of applying gamification techniques tothese software packages to lift the motivation responsibilities off the shoulders ofproject managers.

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