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  • 351.
    Lund Björnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Spatially explicit models: planning salmonid habitat restoration in regulated rivers2019Report (Other academic)
  • 352.
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Modeling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) population responses and interactions under increased minimum flow in a regulated riverManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Modifying and parameterizing the individual-based model inSTREAM for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the regulated Gullspång River, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 354.
    Luning, H.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Mangelus, C.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Carlstrom, E.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Borjesson, M.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Incidence and characteristics of severe exercise-associated collapse at the world's largest half-marathon2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0217465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whilst many health benefits are associated with regular exercise, medical complications may occur during higher-intensity activities, such as long distance running contests. The most common complication is collapse. However, the incidence and characteristics of these collapses are not very well studied. Method This is a retrospective study of severe collapse, defined as a patient in need of advanced medical care after a collapse, during the large Gothenburg's half marathon, Goteborgsvarvet. The study included 230,501 competitors during the study-period of 5 years (20132017) with data being collected from medical race tents and using ambulance data. Vital signs, treatment and blood gas samples were noted and analyzed. Results The incidence of severe collapse was 1.53 per 1000 starting runners. The average age for patients was 34 years old and no difference in incidence were seen between male and female runners. The typical collapsed runner presented with tachycardia, normal systolic blood pressure, elevated body temperature and metabolic acidosis. The most common medical encounter was exercise-associated collapse. Conclusion The incidence of severe collapse was similar to findings in other studies, even though this study was set in different part of the world. Typical characteristics of a collapsed runner were identified providing new information which could be beneficial in the medical planning of larger running competitions and future preventative interventions. Importantly, life threatening conditions seem uncommon; no case of hyponatremia and only two cases of hypoglycemia were seen.

  • 355.
    Långkvist, Isabella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Storleksskillnader i rörelsemönster hos gädda (Esox lucius)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 356.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Information Systems for Disaster Management Training: Investigating User Needs with a Design Science Research Approach2018In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM2018 / [ed] F.K. Boersma & B. Tomaszewski, ISCRAM , 2018, p. 841-850Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal threats such as global warming and terror attacks make crisis preparedness and crisis training a major priority in governments worldwide. Unfortunately, training is limited, partly due to complex and resource-demanding planning of traditional exercises. Several crisis training software have been developed as a complement. However, reports in research on their usage are rare, which indicates that the diffusion is limited. A potential explanation is that the systems fail to meet important needs in the organizations and/or sound information systems (IS) design principles. This paper describes the first phase of a design science research (DSR) project aiming at developing information systems for disaster management (ISDM) training, and accompanying training methods in local and regional governments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate perceived problems in current crisis training and identify opportunities for ISDM training in the application domain. Another purpose is to outline expected artifacts in the project.

  • 357.
    Majlöv Modig, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Om dammen brister: En kvantitativ studie om hur risken med dammbrott uppfattas av invånare i Bodens kommun2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of how the inhabitants of the municipality of Boden perceived risk of dam failure based on the following questions: What knowledge do the residents have of dam failure and its risks? How do the residents perceive that their risk perception has been affected by the municipality's risk communication? Does the residents risk perception differ from that of the risk picture that the municipality has and in such case how?Data were collected through a web survey in August 2014. The link to the online survey was sent to all county employees, all registered sports, and other, clubs, and posted on the municipal website, to acquaintance in Boden and was also posted on a Facebook page. A total of 677 responses were obtained. Responses were collected and different variables were compared with each other.In this study it was found that generally Boden Municipality's residents have a good knowledge of the risk of dam failure. Variables such as the respondents gender, age, your homes distance to the water and how long they have lived in Boden had only a marginal effect on the responses. The municipality and the respondents have the same understanding of risk dam failure.

  • 358.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Clemént, Pierre
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Eva
    Hagman, Mats
    Landström, Jan
    Female and male teachers’ pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment do not differ: Ecofeminism put to the test2015In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-25, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre-and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one questions were further analysed in terms of ecofeminism. Ecofeminism claims that women and men's conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the ...

  • 359.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Guiding Principles of Transformative Education for Sustainable Development in Local School Organisations: Investigating Whole School Approaches through a School Improvement Lens2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of an education that empowers students to engage with real societal problems to promote a sustainable future is widely acknowledged. However, the organisational characteristics of schools that facilitate such education for sustainable development (ESD) have received little attention. This thesis aims to fill this research gap by contributing new knowledge on ways that school organisations can implement transformative ESD, while aligning with a whole school approach.

    Swedish upper secondary schools actively implementing ESD were selected for the study. The research design used a mixed-method approach developed from the field of school improvement research. Methods included semi-structured interviews with school leaders and questionnaire surveys for teachers. School leaders’ and teachers’ understanding of quality in their local school organisation was studied.

    The thesis identifies the guiding principles that school leaders and teachers found important for promoting transformative ESD. These include four principal quality criteria that need structural support through collegial meetings to establish a holistic idea of ESD, namely collaborative interaction and school development, student-centred education, cooperation with local society, and proactive leadership and long-term perspective. With the support of the guiding principles, the whole school organisation contributes to teaching and learning practices in ESD active schools.

    The two main contributions are 1) identification of the school organisation that provide firm ground for local implementation of transformative ESD, and 2) that the internal school organisation is a prerequisite for school collaboration with the surrounding society, which is a main goal of ESD, according to policy and theory. In the case of the latter, a student-centred approach in organising education was found to facilitate such links between education and the community, which is a main goal of ESD, according to policy and theory. The results may provide useful recommendations for schools and ESD implementation programmes.

  • 360.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling: En studie av rektors förståelse av kvalitet i skolans organisation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Student outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is reported to be weak and empirical studies investigating the underlying causes have been called for. School organization is pointed out as essential, which highlights the role of school leaders in realizing ESD. This study aims to identify characteristic features of ESD active school organizations, by investigating how school leaders maintain high quality in their organizations. ESD is thus studied from an internal organizational perspective. Fourteen school leaders at ten upper secondary schools, active in ESD implementation, were interviewed and qualitative data quantified. A special focus was on school leaders’ transformative statements, in response to earlier criticism that ESD implementation has been too structural. Results consist of 26 identified quality criteria. By means of cluster analysis, the quality criteria were merged into four principal quality criteria: collaborative interaction and school development, student-centred education, cooperation with local society and proactive leadership and continuity. The school leaders’ quality strategies were identified through correlation analysis of their principal quality criteria. The quality strategies reveal a difference in the schools’ internal or external focus. An analysis of the school leaders’ quality statements in relation to their quality strategy implementation indicates that ESD to a large degree is introduced from a transformative perspective. One school in the study stands out as highly transformation-oriented, and has a quality strategy combining an internal and external focus, thus making it a possible benchmark for successful ESD-implementation. The study contributes a suggestion on how a progression of ESD implementation can take place and as well as possible obstacles.  

  • 361.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education forSustainable Development, ESD implementation and transformative schoolorganization: a Swedish perspective of Whole school approach2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 362.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD, a matter of School Organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 363.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 1 – investigating the quality criteria guiding school leaders’ work at recognized ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 972-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level. Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level.

  • 364.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 2 – investigating the transformative perspective in school leaders’ quality strategies at ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 993-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has suggested that adopting a transformative school organisation perspective when implementing ESD may be more productive than the previously recommended transmissive perspectives, but it is not clear how transformative perspectives could be introduced. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ leaders, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. The arguments used by the leaders to justify their criteria were analysed and categorised based on their relationships with the transmissive and transformative quality strategies. Both school organisation perspectives were found to co-exist within the schools. A detailed analysis of schools where the transformative perspective was dominant revealed three distinct quality strategies, one of which was found to embody a strong focus on a transformative approach. This specific quality strategy is discussed and suggested as a way for interested schools to implement ESD in a more transformative way at the school organisation level.

  • 365.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Failed Quality in ESD Implementation: School Leaders in Evidence Seeking of School Legitimacy to Become Whole School Organisations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to investigate and understand the already established anchoring structures of quality education in schools that actively implement ESD (Laurie, Nonoyama-Tarumi, Mckeown and Hopkins 2016). The anchoring structures on leadership level are criticised for building   cultures of standards and conformity (Bottery Wright and James 2012), rather than progress change and renewal in education, which is considered a way to prevent a negative societal development (Huckle and Wals 2015). Standards and conformity is found to coexist with transformative expressions of progress and change in education.  In recent research the anchoring qualities are criticised as being too structural, predefined and apart from a real school context (Scott in Jucker and Reiner 2015) and referred to as counteracting a fruitful ESD implementation (Peters, Michael and Wals 2016; Lotz-Sisitka, Wals, Kronlid and McGarry 2015).

    The focus of this study is to outline which role the qualities that constitute structures and conformity (in this study called transmissive) play in schools, and what specific quality criteria the empirics underpin as necessary structures that anchor quality at ESD active schools? Qualities in transformative ESD implementation distinguish from qualities in transmissive ESD implementation. The gap between these two ESD implementation strategies can be described by qualities related to improve schools in transmissive ESD implementation to qualities used to develop schools in transformative ESD implementation (Hargreaves 2008).    

    The term ESDquality criteria is a specific term used in studies that directly inquired about the qualities related to ESD settings in education (Breiting, Mayer and Mogensen 2005). The study investigates the school leaders understanding of transmissive quality criteria at ESD active schools and especially those appointed high importance in the school organisation.

    The authors have in earlier studies investigated ESD implementation at school organisation level with the focus of qualities that are process orientated (transformative). It was found that the school organisations most frequently based on transformative qualities in education also displayed the highest degrees of transmissive qualities (Mogren and Gericke a, b). The result of high levels of transmissive qualities in schools with a successful ESD implementation created research interest for their role. The study also intends to indicate transmissive quality criteria that seems to threatens a sound ESD implementation in that they display a vague anchoring function or hinder the transformative ESD implementation. 

    The study will answer the questions:

    1, What characterizes the transmissive weighted quality criteria that ESD active schools use (as anchoring) in governing a school organisation of high quality?

    2, Can the realization of ESD WSA at teacher level indicate which transmissive weighted quality criteria (anchors in quality criteria) that is important for a school organisation to consider?

    The experience of schools with an active ESD implementation is informative and crucial in breaking new ground for ESD of a high quality (Jucker and Reiner2015). Research based on school leadership within such schools is accounted for in the study.  Temporarily ´role model-schools´ are used to stand model and learn from for schools seeking information and proof on the power of a transformative ESD implementation as to redirect education to a higher quality in accordance to the local and global sustainability problems (Hargreaves 2008; Laurie, Robert, et al. 2016).The attention given to the transmissive quality criteria in this study is an attempt to find the anchoring structures  that not previously  has been the central interest for researchers  studying ESD implementation (Schwarzin 2012). Rickinson, Hall and Reid (2016) urge the need to be more curious to which factors that do make implementation programmes to work overtime beyond the fact that they are present as a tool within educational settings.

    In this study two different datasets are used that relates to two levels of the same school organisations. One dataset is collected at the school leader level by interviews with principals. The other dataset is based on a questionnaire study with teachers. ESD schools from a Swedish nationwide sample are identified. This is done by investigating the schools ESD activity in national ESD award systems and national databases on ESD schools. The 10 most active ESD schools are selected and validated by interviewing local school personal and ESD stakeholders. In the first data collection semi structured interviews were conducted with the principals. The main objective for the interviews was to collect data about the way principals choose to organize their schools in relation to their perception of high quality in education. During the interviews concept maps were constructed by the researcher based on the interviewees’ statements. The concept maps hold information of which quality criteria that were highlighted by different schools, and the argumentation for those choices. The trustworthiness of the concept map is confirmed by each principal. Qualitative data in the form of concept maps are translated into quantitative data by using an assessment system in which each quality criteria were given a score depending on the emphasis given by the principal. The scores separate transmissive and transformative statements. The statements formed 26 quality criteria. In this study, we compare the ranking of single quality criteria to their ranking as transmissive weighted. We identify in that way the transmissive quality criteria that is used to anchor ESD. Excerpts by school leaders help us to interpret quantitative data. The datasets on teacher level at selected ESD schools consist of a survey about school development measuring the teacher’s opinion on quality in school development. This survey was developed and used within a larger school development project in Sweden (Scherp 2013). It is an operationalisation of a school organisation model. The model is used to understand high quality in ESD active schools in an earlier study by the Authors. This study assumes the use of the model one step further; as a tool to define ESD Whole School Approach, WSA. We define what is meant by WSA and explain how the model can be used to judge the realisation of WSA at ESD active schools. This allows an identification of transmissive qualities used in schools realising ESD.

    Our research contributes to an empirically based understanding on the impact of the transmissive quality criteria at school organization level in schools with an active ESD implementation. This gives new arguments and input to the design of implementation programmes on ESD that holds the ambition to scale up ESD. Universally the study also contributes to the definition on quality education related to actual policy documents on ESD realisation, Global Action Programme on ESD (UN 2014). The concept of Whole School Approach, WSA is introduced as the benchmark for high quality in education. Finally, the study is designed with an interdisciplinary approach where the ESD research field rapproach the research field of educational organisation and leadership, which contributes to a modest field of research. Our first results indicate that political support is an important transmissive weighted quality criterion that leads to ESD WSA implementation. I Hence, the sharing of ideological ideas within the school or networks to measure one owns practice and organisation against seems to be an important anchoring for ESD implementation. School organisation with a lower realization of ESD WSA search their legitimization of school organisation in evidence by external actors but seems less successful in their strategy. At time for the ECER conference we foresee that we will have even more detailed results to share.

  • 366.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling – den skolorganisatoriska nivån som ett stöd eller hinder?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 367.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    School leaders’ experiences of implementing education for sustainable development: Anchoring the transformative perspective2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we consider the problem of ensuring that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is firmly embedded in a school through appropriate management and planning of the school’s activities (or characteristics of the school organization). To this end, we identify the domains of school organization that would benefit from particular structures and routines in order to embed ESD. We identify these domains by thematically analyzing responses of interviewed leaders of schools employing a transformative approach to ESD. We divided the leaders into two groups, based on the extent to which their respective schools employed a transformative approach to ESD. We analyzed the differences in responses of the two groups, enabling us to identify and compare the structures that school leaders in the respective groups believe to be important. In addition to reporting the results, we discuss their implications. We focus particularly on how structures identified by leaders of highly transformative schools could contribute to long-lasting transformative implementation of ESD, and how structures identified by leaders of the other group could be used to circumvent barriers to such implementation.

  • 368.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The role of school organization in ESD implementation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 369.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), a matter of school organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 370.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Whole school approaches to education for sustainable development: A model that links to school improvement2018In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 508-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies a model of school organisation developed by one of the authors to investigate school improvement processes leading to a whole school approach in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) literature. The model is operationalized to a survey instrument and distributed to Swedish upper secondary teachers. The instrument provides empirical indications of teachers’ perceptions of their schools in terms of four major dimensions of an ESD whole school approach, the importance assigned to a holistic vision, routines and structures, professional knowledge creation, and practical pedagogical work. The aims of the study are to compare the teachers’ perception of their school organisation. We compare perceptions of teachers working in schools actively implementing ESD and teachers in comparable reference schools. Comparisons are also made between teachers from schools applying different strategies and quality approaches in implementing ESD. The results indicate that, relative to teachers in ordinary schools, those in ESD schools perceive their school organisations to have higher quality and coherence, with greater potential to support teaching and pedagogical work in practice. However, there is substantial variation in perceptions of teachers from different ESD schools. The model’s robustness is validated by coherence of earlier results in the same schools.

  • 371.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nikel, Jutta
    Pädagogische Hochschule Freiburg, Germany.
    Varga, Attila
    University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Wals, Arjen
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Könczey, Réka
    Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary.
    Saly, Erika
    Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary.
    Conceptual work on ESD from a school improvement perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chair: Anna Mogren, PhD, Karlstad University Sweden

    Discussant: Professor Arjen Wals, Wageningen University, The Netherlands & Gothenburg University,

    Sweden

    This symposium places Education for Sustainable Development ( ESD) within the field of school improvement

    theory and research. In a number of studies, the Whole school approach in ESD is suggested and referred to

    as the work of embedding ESD into existing school visions and action plans (Breiting, Mayer & Mogensen

    2005 “Quality Criteria for ESD-schools”; Hargreaves 2008; Scott 2013.) The symposium therefore focuses on

    how the research field of school improvement – which investigates, how efforts to help schools become

    increasingly effective learning environments for the full range of their students have been more or less

    successful – might inform and challenge ESD and the ESD the Whole school approach.

    If ESD is to be framed and studied from a “within perspective” as an ongoing school improvement process

    rather than as an add-on activity to existing organisational arrangements and educational practices, it is

    necessary to discuss models of school improvement in terms of their contribution to ESD. It is also important

    to identify models of school improvement that can identify drivers and barriers for ESD implementation at

    organisational level as well as on teaching and learning level (see Scherp 2013; Reezigt & Creemers 2005

    “Comprehensive framework for effective school improvement” ; Rolff 2010 “Trias of school development”;

    Rolff 2002 “P.dagogische Qualit.tsmanagement (PQM)”.

    In school improvement theory, a school’s organisation is commonly understood as reflexive in relation to

    context and supportive to the action of all members of the school community and their cooperation.

    Further, research suggests there are basic mechanisms contributing to effective school improvement such as

    goal setting for improvement, pressures to improve, cyclical improvement processes and autonomy (see

    Scheerens & Demeuse 2005). Further, the school culture ought to be build up on dialogue supported by

    school leadership. By this definition of school organisation, school improvement refers to collectively

    supporting factors in the organisation, to the end that students’ possibilities for learning in relation to a

    complex surrounding world are enhanced.

    The recognition of multiple perspectives within the school organisation, e.g. cultural, structural, political and

    transformational is central in investing possible models of school improvement. The search for school

    improvement models that can discern those perspectives that are closely linked to ESD is crucial. Such

    models of school improvement have the potential to constitute the link between the research fields of ESD

    and school improvement. They could serve as a tool for further research on how the Whole school approach

    is constructed in formal education, which is searched for in the practical work on ESD implementation.

    In this symposium examples from ongoing research projects on ESD where models of school improvement

    are used, considered or asked for in a German, Swedish and Hungarian context are presented. The

    symposium will explore the potential of integrating, adapting and rejecting theoretical perspectives and

    empirical evidence from school improvement into the ESD research field through intention papers with the

    goal of developing knowledge about

    - how selected conceptual work on the Whole school approach in ESD draw on models and

    perspectives from school improvement theory,

    - how in an empirical case study a school improvement model was used to measure the ESD Whole

    school approach,

    - how school improvement has informed efforts and plan for upscaling ESD implementation in Eco-

    Schools to a larger number of public schools.

    Following questions from the audience, Arjen Wals (Wageningen University, The Netherlands & Gothenburg

    University, Sweden) will draw together the discussion and to explore implications for research in ESD.

  • 372.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sund, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    The work of higher education institutions to promote sustainable development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2016, the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) was tasked by the Swedish government to conduct an evaluation of how universities and university colleges promote sustainable development, pursuant to the provisions of the Higher Education Act (1992:1434) introduced ten years earlier, 2006. The evaluation has resulted in a unique collection of empirical material that would have been difficult for an individual researcher to collect independently. The evaluation includes an analysis, but is related to background theory not a strict scientific study.  The empirical material could, however, form a basis for numerous interesting studies on, for example, the important factors for successfully working to integrate sustainable development into higher education. A comparison between nations is also possible to conduct based on the methodology of self-reporting by Higher Education institutions, HEI:s. 

     

    The evaluation defined sustainable development by the Bruntland detention, that the present and future generations are ensured a healthy and good environment, financial and social welfare, and justice. The evaluation was limited to the educational area of sustainable development, education for sustainable development ESD. 

     

    The purpose of the evaluation was to contribute with knowledge and a national comparison of HEIs, work with ESD,  and also to present the results that have been achieved so far. The evaluation was further conducted to give support to the HEIs development work on ESD.

     

    Success factors of a positive ESD implementation due to pre-defined criteria were identified in the  evaluation; the significance of management and control, building institutional support and providing support in implementation.  Apart from investigated criteria, factors that showed effects on a positive ESD implementation was also identified in the evaluation. An example is that several of the large and medium-sized HEIs referred their ESD work from teaching- and engineering programmes, which is the only two programmes where sustainable development is included in the national qualitative programme targets. Central bodies with specific responsibilities for sustainable development was also appointed an important structure in translating ESD policy document to the local context and practice. An interesting finding  was the link between HEIs rated high in this evaluation, to institutions with an environmental management system intended to improve the organisation’s environmental performance and contribute to national environmental goals and to the achievement of UN global goals for sustainable development. Such system takes a wider responsibility of sustainable development than education but seems influential and important in HEIs ESD work. A remaining challenge for a majority of HEIs in Sweden is the process of sustainable development in education where the ESD perspective is not only accounted for as a specific content in education but also a driving force to reach high quality education and society transformation.

  • 373.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eskandari, Samieh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Life cycle assessment of combination of anaerobic digestion andpyrolysis: focusing on different options for biogas use2019In: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, Vol. 49, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysistechnologies could be a novel energy-biochar productionsystem to maximize energy and nutrient recovery frompulp and paper mill sludge. Herein, the life-cycle energy productionand emissions reduction of sludge treatment from atypical pulp and paper mill were investigated, in which alternativeuses of biogas for industrial or household application,in different regions of the world, were assessed. Thethree scenarios considered for different end-uses of biogasare: (A) biogas for vehicle fuel in the transportation sectorin Sweden, (B) biogas for heat and electricity in the powersector in Brazil, and (C) biogas for cooking in households inChina. The results of Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment(E-LCA) show that for all these three scenarios, the use ofbiogas and pyrolysis gas contributes most to emissions mitigation,while the dewatering and drying processes carriedout on the sludge, contribute the most to the environmentalemissions. Addition of biochar to the soil, contributes significantlyto a reduction in global warming by sequesteringcarbon in the soil. Compared to scenarios B and C, ScenarioA, in which biogas substitutes gasoline in transportation, andheat from combusted pyrolysis gases is used for district heatingin Sweden, demonstrates the highest environmental performancefor all the evaluated impact categories.

  • 374.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eskandari, Samieh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Dalgaard, Tommy
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Environmental analysis of producing biochar and energyrecovery from pulp and papermill biosludge2019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the largest exporters of pulp and paper products in the world. It follows that huge quantities of sludge rich in carbonaceous organic material and containing heavy metals are generated. This paper carried out a comparative environmental analysis of three different technologies, which can be adopted to produce biochar and recover energy from the biosludge, using landfilling as the reference case. These three thermochemical biosludge management systems—using incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)—were modeled using life cycle assessment (LCA). Heat generated in the incineration process (System A) was considered to be for captive consumption within the kraft pulp mills. It was assumed that the biochars—pyrochar and hydrochar—produced from pyrolysis (System B) and HTC (System C), respectively, were added to the forest soils. The LCA results show that all the alternative systems considerably improve the environmental performance of biosludge management, relative to landfilling. For all systems, there are net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (–0.89, –1.43, and –1.13 tonnes CO2‐equivalent per tonne dry matter biosludge in Systems A, B, and C, respectively). System B resulted in the lowest potential eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity impacts, whereas System C had the least acidification potential. The results of this analysis show that, from an environmental point of view, biochar soil amendment as an alternative method for handling pulp and paper mill biosludge is preferable to energy recovery. However, an optimal biochar system needs to factor in the social and economic contexts as well.

  • 375.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Divergent trends in emergency department visits for poisonings by intent in Varmland, Sweden2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A227-A227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 376.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Divergent trends in emergency department visits for poisonings by intent in Värmland, Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 377.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    SELMA - Research for a healthier future2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 378.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Perceptions and perspectives of child maltreatment in Bangladesh: a pilot study2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A160-A160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 379.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Via Spatiosa: Festschrift to Ragnar Andersson on his 67th birthday2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk management is a comparatively new, and most definitely complex, research field, combining knowledge from several other disciplines such as medicine, engineering, economics and psychology, to name a few. Consequently, risk management is important in a variety of subjects and disciplines, clearly illustrated in this festschrift. Professor Ragnar Andersson has played an important roll in not only promoting the importance of risk management and injury prevention, but also developing a deeper understanding of the field through always actively choosing a broad, multi-disciplinary perspective. In other words, he has always chosen “via spatiosa”. Or in Swedish, “den breda vägen”

  • 380. Moora, Mari
    et al.
    Opik, Maarja
    Davison, John
    Jairus, Teele
    Vasar, Martti
    Zobel, Martin
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    AM fungal communities inhabiting the roots of submerged aquatic plant Lobelia dortmanna are diverse and include a high proportion of novel taxa2016In: Mycorrhiza, ISSN 0940-6360, E-ISSN 1432-1890, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 735-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to be widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, there is growing evidence that aquatic plants also form the symbiosis. It has been suggested that symbiosis with AM fungi may represent an important adaptation for isoA << tid plants growing on nutrient-poor sediments in oligotrophic lakes. In this study, we address AM fungal root colonization intensity, richness and community composition (based on small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing) in five populations of the isoA << tid plant species Lobelia dortmanna inhabiting oligotrophic lakes in Southern Sweden. We found that the roots of L. dortmanna hosted rich AM fungal communities and about 15 % of the detected molecular taxa were previously unrecorded. AM fungal root colonization intensity and taxon richness varied along an environmental gradient, being higher in oligotrophic and lower in mesotrophic lakes. The overall phylogenetic structure of this aquatic fungal community differed from that described in terrestrial systems: The roots of L. dortmanna hosted more Archaeosporaceae and fewer Glomeraceae taxa than would be expected based on global data from terrestrial AM fungal communities.

  • 381.
    Mugiraneza, Theodomir
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Urban land cover dynamics and their impact on ecosystem services in Kigali, Rwanda using multi-temporal Landsat data2019In: Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, ISSN 2352-9385, Vol. 13, p. 234-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land cover change monitoring in rapidly urbanizing environments based on spaceborne remotely sensed data and measurable indicators is essential for quantifying and evaluating the spatial patterns of urban landscape change dynamics and for sustainable urban ecosystems management. The objectives of the study are to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of urbanization patterns of Kigali, Rwanda over the last three decades (from 1984 to 2016) using multi-temporal Landsat data and to assess the associated environmental impact using landscape metrics and ecosystem services. Visible and infrared bands of Landsat images were combined with derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) variance texture and digital elevation model (DEM) data for pixel-based classification using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Seven land cover classes were derived with an overall accuracy exceeding 87% with Kappa coefficients around 0.8. As most prominent changes, cropland was reduced considerably in favour of built-up areas that increased from 2.13 km2 to 100.17 km2 between 1984 and 2016. During those 32 years, landscape fragmentation could be observed, especially for forest and cropland. The landscape configuration indices demonstrate that in general the land cover pattern remained stable for cropland, but that it was highly changed for built-up areas. Ecosystem services considered include regulating, provisioning and support services. Estimated changes in ecosystem services amount to a loss of 69 million US dollars (USD) as a result of cropland degradation in favour of urban areas and in a gain of 52.5 million USD within urban areas. Multi-temporal remote sensing is found as a cost-effective method for analysis and quantification of urbanization and its effects using landscape metrics and ecosystem services. 

  • 382.
    Mugiraneza, Theodomir
    et al.
    KTH; University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    Spatiotemporal analysis of urban land cover changes in Kigali, Rwanda using multitemporal landsat data and landscape metrics2017In: The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-3/W2, 2017, COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH , 2017, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping urbanization and ensuing environmental impacts using satellite data combined with landscape metrics has become a hot research topic. The objectives of the study are to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of urbanization patterns of Kigali, Rwanda over the last three decades (from 1984 to 2015) using multitemporal Landsat data and to assess the associated environmental impact using landscape metrics. Landsat images, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) variance texture and digital elevation model (DEM) data were classified using a support vector machine (SVM). Eight landscape indices were derived from classified images for urbanization environment impact assessment. Seven land cover classes were derived with an overall accuracy exceeding 88% with Kappa Coefficients around 0.8. As most prominent changes, cropland was reduced considerably in favour of built-up areas that increased from 2,349 ha to 11,579 ha between 1984 and 2015. During those 31 years, the increased number of patches in most land cover classes illustrated landscape fragmentation, especially for forest. The landscape configuration indices demonstrate that in general the land cover pattern remained stable for cropland but it was highly changed in built-up areas. Satellite-based analysis and quantification of urbanization and its effects using landscape metrics are found to be interesting for grassroots and provide a cost-effective method for urban information production. This information can be used for e.g. potential design and implementation of early warning systems that cater for urbanization effects.

  • 383.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Deal, Brian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Integrating ecosystem services in urban energy trajectories2015In: Biwaes 2015 9Th Biennial International Workshop Advances In Energy Studies: Energy and urban systems / [ed] Hans Schnitzer, Olga Kordas, Sergio Ulgiati, Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz , 2015, p. 89-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in urban development trajectories towards renewable energy sources and compact, energy- efficient urban agglomerations will have major impacts on ecosystem services, which cities are dependent on but tend to overlook. Such ecosystem services can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services, around which competition over land and water resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of the land and water use conflicts can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions, which simultaneously is the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical policy decisions, integrated assessment of urban energy system options and ecosystem services is necessary. For this purpose, the model integration platform Land Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM) is built and empowered with models representing urban form, energy supply and use, transportation, and ecological processes and services, all related to the land and water use evolution. These types of analyses of interacting sub- systems require an advanced model integration platform, yet open for learning and for further development, with high visualisation capacity. Case studies are performed for the cities of Stockholm, Chicago and Shanghai, where urbanisation scenarios are under development. In the case study LEAMStockholm, scenarios for urban compaction and urban sprawl with different energy and water system solutions are being developed, in order to explore the sustainability of urban policy options. This will enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal to increase their sustainability.

  • 384.
    Naslund, Joacim
    et al.
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Malin
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Del Villar, Diego
    Technical University Denmark, Denmark.
    Gansel, Lars
    SINTEF Fisheries & Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway.
    Norrgard, Johnny R.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Persson, Lo
    Swedish University Agricultuaral Sciences, Sweden.
    Winkowski, John James
    Canada.
    Kvingedal, Eli
    Norway.
    Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocking programs using hatchery-reared salmon are often implemented for augmenting natural populations. However, survival of these fish is often low compared with wild conspecifics, possibly because of genetic, physiological, and behavioural deficiencies. Here, we compared presmolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter, potentially owing to higher aggression levels. These results suggest that enrichment can reduce the impact of stressors experienced in the hatchery and thus increase fish welfare. Tank enrichment may also be used to produce salmon better adapted for the more complex environment encountered after release.

  • 385.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fall-Related Injuries Amongst Elderly in Sweden: Still an Emerging Risk?2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, injuries due to falls are the most common cause of injury-related hospitalization and injury-related death amongst elderly. Also, during the 20th century, increasing trends in fall-related injuries have been observed in many high-income countries. Whilst fall-related injury trends have been reported from national studies in other comparable countries, no studies from Sweden using national data have been published, despite this issue sometimes being pointed out as one of the most important emerging societal risks both in Sweden and elsewhere. With large individual and societal costs, as well as prognosticated continued increases in high-income countries, the aim of this thesis is to update the knowledge on the trends of fall-related injuries amongst elderly in Sweden and to determine whether the issue is still to be considered an emerging risk.

    National injury morbidity and mortality data from Sweden can show that with regards to all hospitalized fall-related injuries as well as hip fractures, the risk is decreasing. However, diverging trends are observed in age- and sex-specific groups, with younger elderly now having considerably lower rates of fall-related injuries, whilst older elderly are increasingly hospitalized due to minor fall-related injuries. Also, amongst older elderly, increasing hip fracture mortality trends are observed. With regards to sex-specific groups, although fall-related injuries in general are more common amongst women, the injury trends for women are generally decreasing at a quicker rate than for men. Also, contradictorily to almost all fall-related injury morbidity, hip fracture mortality risk is higher amongst men.

    This thesis can show a change in trend in fall-related injuries amongst elderly in Sweden since the turn of the century, apart from amongst older elderly and with regards to hip fracture mortality. The implications on prognoses needs to be studied further as do the underlying causes behind this shift in trend.

  • 386.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trends in hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden 1987-20092012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 387.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Div Risk & Environm Studies, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Div Risk & Environm Studies, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Household Fire Protection Practices in Relation to Socio-demographic Characteristics: Evidence from a Swedish National SurveyIn: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sociodemographic inequalities in the ownership of residential fire safety equipment, fire prevention practices and fire protection knowledge was studied using an inductive and data-driven approach based on the responses to a national Swedish survey containing individual-level data on several dimensions of home fire safety practices (n = 7507). Cluster analysis was used to summarise home fire safety data and sociodemographic characteristics of the sample were then regressed on the data ordinal regression analysis. The results showed significant correlations between the level of fire protection and a range of factors (sex, age, family composition, income, housing type and country of birth), suggesting a positive effect of socioeconomic success. Further, the results imply that having experienced a residential fire has a positive impact on future fire protection practices, and that higher levels of fire protection interest increases the probability of having a functional smoke detector.

  • 388.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of the transition from the ninth to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases on external cause registration of injury morbidity in Sweden2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 189-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) have previously been shown to cause dramatic effects with regard to injury mortality data when implemented. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects on the coding of external causes of injury morbidity, despite this being an important aspect with regard to injury prevention.

    Method Hospitalised injuries in Sweden were studied using time series intervention analysis to observe the effect of the ICD change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 in 1997 on external cause coding.

    Results The results would suggest considerable coding issues with a large spike in the proportion of injury admissions registered without an external cause code in 1997, with continuing, although gradually diminishing, problems up to 2002. The coding change seems to have had an immediate effect on all external cause of injury categories, although the categories that were not directly convertible from ICD-9 to ICD-10 were seemingly more greatly affected.

    Discussion The study illustrates the potential issues associated with changes between ICD revisions and the importance of data quality control both during surveillance and collection of data, but also when presenting injury trends across ICD versions.

  • 389.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in Sweden – results from a cross-sectional study 2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in sweden-: results from a cross-sectional study2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A40-A40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 391.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007–20162018In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the last decade, an increasing popularity of marathons has been seen. Although running has been shown to have considerable positive health effects, the risk of sudden death, most often due to sudden cardiac arrests, is also a risk runners expose themselves to. Whilst there are some studies on the mortality amongst long-distance runners, much of the evidence is dated. Given the increased popularity in running during the 21st century as well as the improvements in medical care at marathons, more knowledge is required on the mortality risk. Materials and method Publicly available racing and news databases were used to identify the number of entrants and finishers in half to full marathons in Sweden between 2007 and 2016 and the number of deaths that occurred in conjunction with the races. Results A total of 1,156,271 runners entered a long distance (21-42km) running race in Sweden between 2007 and 2016, and 834,412 runners finished the races (72.2%). A large majority of the finishers (677,050 (81%)) competed in distances under a full marathon. Two deaths occurred during the time period, meaning that the death rate was 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.79) per 100,000 finishers. Conclusions This study can show that death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies. When added to the existing literature, the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s. 

  • 392.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Damsager, John
    Lauritsen, Jens
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The effect of breed-specific dog legislation on hospital treated dog bites in Odense, Denmark: A time series intervention study2018In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0208393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As dog bite injuries are a considerable problem in modern society, in order to reduce such injuries, breed-specific legislation has been introduced in a number of countries. Whilst many studies have shown a lack of effect with such legislation, the commonly used methodology is known to be flawed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the Danish breed-specific legislation on the number of dog bite injuries using more credible methods. A time series intervention method was used on a detailed dataset from Odense University Hospital, Denmark, regarding dog bite injuries presented to the emergency department. The results indicate that banning certain breeds has a highly limited effect on the overall levels of dog bite injuries, and that an enforcement of the usage of muzzle and leash in public places for these breeds also has a limited effect. Despite using more credible and sound methods, this study supports previous studies showing that breed-specific legislation seems to have no effect on dog bite injuries. In order to minimise dog bite injuries in the future, it would seem that other interventions or non-breed-specific legislation should be considered as the primary option.

  • 393.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Increasing hip fracture mortality amongst elderly in Sweden - a new emerging risk?Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 394.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Palm, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lundgren, Linnea
    Ersta Sköndahl.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Khorram‐Manesh, Amir
    University of Gothenburg.
    Carlström, Eric
    University of Gothenburg.
    Can participants predict where ambulance‐requiring cases occur at a half marathon?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2760-2766Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 395.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Lundkvist, Erik
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Has the second ‘running boom’ democratized running? A study on the sociodemographic characteristics of finishers at the world’s largest half marathon2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that runners differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. However, given the increase in participants at running races, the question arises whether these sociodemographic differences have been erased and if the second running boom has democratized running. An online questionnaire was sent to a randomized sample (n = 2378) of finishers at the 2017 Gothenburg half marathon (Göteborgsvarvet). The self-reported sociodemographic variables were then compared to Swedish national averages. The results show that Göteborgsvarvet finishers are considerably more likely to be men, well-educated and employed, compared to the general population of Sweden. This study indicates, therefore, that half marathon finishers are still distinctly different in terms of sociodemographic variables compared to the general population. These differences need to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn concerning running and its health effects on runners.

  • 396.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 397.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fall-related fracture trends among elderly in Sweden – exploring transitions among hospitalized cases2013In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, no 45, p. 141-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Fall-related injuries have been a cause of worry during the end of the 20th century with increasing trends among the elderly.

    Method

    Using data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) based on hospital admissions, this study explores the trends in fall-related fractures between 1998 and 2010.

    Results

    The data shows a decreasing trend in fall-related fractures in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from men 80 years and above. While hip fracture incidence rates decreased in all age- and sex-specific groups, both central fractures and upper extremity fractures have increased in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from women 65–79 years. Lower extremity fractures have increased in the older age groups and decreased in the younger. Discussion: The differences found between the groups of fractures and by age- and sex-specific groups indicate a possible transition where more serious fractures are decreasing while less serious fractures increase among hospitalized cases.

    Summary

    Perhaps due to a focus on hip fracture prevention, this study shows that while the incidence rate of hospitalized hip fractures has decreased, other fall-related hospitalized fractures have increased.

    Impact on industry

    Potentially, this could be indicative of a healthier younger elderly, coupled with a frailer older elderly requiring more comprehensive healthcare also for less serious injuries. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  • 398.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hospitalized fall-related injury trends in Sweden between 2001 and 20102016In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated increasing trends of hospitalized fall-related injuries amongst elderly. Whether this is true also in Sweden is unknown though it is important to study considering the potential societal impact. Data were obtained regarding hospitalized injuries with falls as external cause among those aged 65 years and above with information on injury type, gender and age, on a yearly basis, from 2001 to 2010. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated (per 100,000 population) for all fall-related injuries, and for each injury type and trend lines were drawn. Linear regression analyses and percentage change were calculated for the types of fall-related injuries. A decreasing incidence was observed in the younger age groups (65-79 years) with greater decreases amongst women (women: -14.6%, men 65-79 years: -10.5%). However, increasing rates were observed in the older age group (80 years and above), with greater increases amongst men (women: 4.3%, men: 11.4%). Superficial injuries showed greater increases than fractures amongst those aged 80 years and above. This study indicates that older elderly in Sweden are increasingly being hospitalized for less serious injuries. This changing injury panorama is important to include in the future planning of both health care and fall-related prevention.

  • 399.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trends in hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden 1987-20092013In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1741-3842, E-ISSN 1741-3850, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous trend studies have shown large increases in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly. International research, however, suggests a levelling off, or decline, of hip fracture incidence rates, although for Sweden this remains to be studied.

    Methods Data were obtained regarding hip fractures among individuals 65 years and above from 1987 to 2009. Analysis was performed in three steps. First, age- and sex-specific trends in hip fracture rates per 100 000 and the mean age when sustaining a hip fracture were analysed. Secondly, the annual percentage change was used to compare time periods that helped to quantify changes in secular trends. Finally, linear and Poisson regression models were used to examine the trend data and observed rates.

    Results The absolute number of hip fractures among the elderly in Sweden has largely remained constant between 1987 and 2009, while incidence rates have decreased for all age- and sex-specific groups, with the largest changes in the younger age groups and among women. The mean age of sustaining a hip fracture has increased for both men and women.

    Conclusions This study supports other international studies in showing a decrease in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly, especially since the mid-1990s.

  • 400.
    Nilsson, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    En jämförelse av mängden död ved i kalhygge och produktionsskog2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Woody debris is an important part in many ecosystems and has several different functions. Many species depend on the existence of woody debris, where it is used for example as a food source, nesting site, growing site or as a refuge. In clearcut areas, where the natural production of woody debris no longer exists, it is therefore important that a certain amount of woody debris is left behind to make sure that the area continues to have good biological function? In this investigation, I compared clearcut areas with production forest to see if there was a difference in the volume of woody debris. Five sites with 70–100-year-old spruce- and pine forests were inventoried. Every site consisted of one clearcut area that was adjacent to an area with production forest. No difference in volume of woody debris was found between the areas. The inventory showed that many of the measured trunk diameters that were found in the clearcut areas were around 10 centimeters, whereas in the areas with production forest the diameter varied more. Larger volumes of woody debris were found in spruce forests then in pine forests. Thus,the conclusion is that clearcutting an area with production forest does not seem to have a big impact on the volume of woody debris. Nevertheless, the measured amounts of woody debris are far less then what are found in natural forests, which indicates management needs to see what improvements can be done to increase the amount of woody debris in many of our forests.    

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