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  • 351. Aguino, Gonzalo Iglesias
    Performance of VoIP strategies for hybrid Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 352.
    Aguiño, Gonzalo Iglesias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Performance of VoIP strategies for hybrid Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Last decade, a lot of research has been done in wireless communication technologies. Mobile

    nodes such personal digital assistants (PDAs), notebooks and cell phones are nowadays used

    in human’s daily life.

    MANETs are networks consisting of two or more mobile nodes equipped with wireless

    communication and networking capabilities, but they don’t have any network centrilized

    infrastructure.

    In last few years, MANETs have been emerged to be an important researched subject in the

    field of wireless networking.

    MANETs are autonomous; however they can communicate with other external networks such

    the internet. They are linked to such external networks by mobile nodes acting as gateways.

    This kind of networks is known as hybrid MANETs.

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using

    a Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line.

    The goal of this thesis is evaluate the performance of VoIP strategies for hybrid MANETs.

    Two different aspects are evaluated, the session establishment performance and the voice

    quality.

    Network Simulator 2 is used to run several simulations, two different applications are used to

    run voice simulations (Session Initiation Protocol and Exponential traffic generator). We

    evaluate two different cases for voice traffics, voice calls between two MANET nodes and

    voice calls between MANET nodes and external nodes.

    After running the simulations, there are some performance parameters which will reveal the

    results. The key findings of the simulations are: adding gateways, number of voice traffic

    flows and the number of hops between source and destinations. There are some interesting

    results which reveal for example, that adding gateways is not always beneficial.

  • 353. Agustí, Ramón
    et al.
    Fazekas, Péter
    Gómez Barquero, David
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Oliver, Miquel
    Pérez-Romero, Jordi
    Tralli, Velio
    NEWCOM DR7.2: First report on common framework/models and activities in Department 72005Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides a description of the framework identified for the collaborative activities between different partners in the context of NEWCOM department 7 on QoS provision in heterogeneous wireless networks. The considered models, assumptions and expected results are pointed out for each activity. The deliverable also includes a report on the means to achieve the integration between the different partners

  • 354. Agustí, Ramón
    et al.
    Fazekas, Péter
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Oliver, Miquel
    Pérez-Romero, Jordi
    Studer Ferreira, Lucio
    Tralli, Velio
    NEWCOM DR7.4: Final Report on the activities carried out in Department 72007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable constitutes the final report of all the activities that carried out in the framework of the NEWCOM department 7. It contains a description of the main technical achievements for each one of the activities in which the department has been organised togehter with the list of indicators reflecting the degree of integration that has been achieved among the different partners

  • 355. Ahadi, Sina
    et al.
    Jansson, Eric
    Svensson, John
    Löfbergs Lila Arena - symbol för Karlstad?2006Student paper second termStudent thesis
  • 356.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Finding lower bounds of localization with noisy measurements using genetic algorithms2011In: Proceedings of the first ACM international symposium on Design and analysis of intelligent vehicular networks and applications (DIVANet '11), Miami, Florida, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 47-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) are wireless networks with mobile nodes (vehicles) which connect in an ad-hoc manner. Many vehicles use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide their locations. However the inaccuracy of GPS devices leads to some vehicles incorrectly assuming they are located at different positions and sometimes on different roads. VANETs can be used to increase the accuracy of each vehicle's computed location by allowing vehicles to share information regarding the measured distances to neighbouring vehicles. This paper looks at finding how much improvement can be made given the erroneous measurements present in the system. An evolutionary algorithm is used to evolve instances of parameters used by the VLOCI2 algorithm, also presented in this paper, to find instances which minimises the inaccuracy in computed locations. Simulation results show a definite improvement in location accuracy and lower bounds on how much improvement is possible is inferred.

  • 357. Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Finding Lower Bounds of Localization with Noisy Measurements Using Genetic Algorithms2011Report (Refereed)
  • 358.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Using simulated annealing to find lower bounds of localization with noisy measurements2012In: 2012 IEEE 26th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops & PhD Forum (IPDPSW), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 601-608Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 359.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ott, Max
    NICTA Australia Australian Technology Park.
    LICA: Improving Localization Given Noisy Data In GPS-Equipped VANETs Using Trilateration With Cluster Analysis2011Report (Refereed)
  • 360.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    University of Sydney.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ott, Max
    NICTA.
    VLOCI: Using Distance Measurements to Improve the Accuracy of Location Coordinates in GPS-Equipped VANETs2012In: Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: 7th International ICST Conference, MobiQuitous 2010, Sydney, Australia, December 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Patrick Sénac, Max Ott, Aruna Seneviratne, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 73, p. 149-161Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 361.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ott, Max
    NICTA Australia Australian Technology Park.
    VLOCI2: An Iterative Method To Improve Location Coordinates In GPS-Equipped VANETs in Multiple Lanes2011Report (Refereed)
  • 362.
    Ahammed, Farhan
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ott, Max
    Australian Technology Park, Australia.
    VLOCI2: An Iterative Method To Improve Location Coordinates In GPS-Equipped VANETs in Multiple Lanes2011Report (Refereed)
  • 363. Ahdrian Nordberg, Eva
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter ur ett dilemmaperspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is from a reading- and writingdisabilities perspective to find out how well the remedial pedagogy works in school. The study will also find out if there exist a school “for all” when it comes to people with reading- and writingdisabilities situation. The purpose is also to find out how well prepared the school is to handle those pupils. The study has accomplished by qualitative interviews. The respondents are remedial teachers/ remedial pedagogies. The respondents represent three different municipalities that work for the school or an organization with an overall responsibility for several schools. The study goes to that the school is prepared to handle students with reading and writing disabilities. In those schools that are subject for the study has everyone a plan for taking care of students with reading-and writingdisabilities. How we work with this pupil depends of the economic resources in the school. The remedial pedagogy has changed in our schools. It is both tutorial and individual education as called “one to one” education. The remedial teacher and the remedial pedagogy do not always agree, some of them want both individual education and supervision while other prefers to use supervision. The most need for this pupil is to have a “one to one” class. Today the circumstances are important for the education and the student’s needs. The focus is on the student’s assumption. Three of four pedagogies consists that there is “a school for all”, because every single student with be taken care of individually. Keywords: dyslexia, a school for all, reading and writing disabilities and remedial pedagogy

  • 364.
    Ahl, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Analysis of how different mesh functions influence the result in CFD-simulation of a marine propeller:  2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 365. Ahl, Daniel
    Identifiering av täppt filter för värmepumptorktumlare: Genom analys av processens temperaturer2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 366.
    Ahl, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nordberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Planning a digital transformation for a company with a process layout: A study conducted at voestalpine Precision Strip AB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is an upcoming trend that divides the manufacturing industry of today. As an increasing number of companies chose to implement digitalization as a business strategy, some companies still struggle with implementing digitalization into their businesses.

    Previous research has developed digital transformation models, but has been admitted as too generic. This thesis used the most comprehensive transformation model as base and aimed to make it practically implementable for a manufacturing company with a process layout. To enable this, a case study was conducted on a steel-processing company with this layout design. This thesis had an inductive approach, where primary data were collected from one selected company through a pilot study and semi structured interviews, and secondary data were collected through a literature review.

    During the study, it was discovered that a company can benefit from using a customized guidance of how to implement digitalization, to optimally use digital opportunities. This thesis contributed with additional steps and extensions of the previous transformation model. The contribution consisted of the involvement of competency, creation of definition, identified digitalization trends relating to a SWOT analysis, additional phenomenon to take into consideration when analyzing future scenarios, additional questions to consider when analyzing impacted areas, creation of a digital business strategy, a comparison of impacted areas with previous projects, additional identified actions to fill the gap between current state and goals, and five identified criteria’s on how to prioritize these actions. This study extends current research with details and depth regarding a digital transformation model, and hence make it more practical. For future research, a case study testing the potential of the transformation model on a similar company should be conducted, and thereby improve the model further.

  • 367.
    Ahl, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Lika förutsättningar för lärande: En studie om trumundervisning på musik- och kulturskola ur ett genusperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to, from a gender perspectice, explore how the drum kit lessons in three music and culture schools are performed. To investigate this, three qualitative interviews and six participant video observations have been implemented. Previous studies show that music teachers expect a feminine and masculine style of their students, that it is difficult as a girl to position themselves in a way that challenges the local gender regime while it is difficult to be traditionally feminine - moderate and controlled – when playing instruments such as electric bass and drum kit. In the present studies results, drum teachers’ views on drum teaching are shown but also how they conduct their teaching, and how boy- and girl students are handled in teaching. It emerges that teachers largely adapt teaching to students’ personalities and individual circumstances and not to gender, but the drum teachers express certain prejudices which may indicate that they expect to see a feminine and masculine style of their students. There is a discussion about the problems of instruments and professions being gender-coded, which can affect students’ learning conditions, and teacher prejudices and that teachers have to adapt to the students and not vice versa.

  • 368. Ahl, Linda
    et al.
    Andersson, Katrin
    Konkurrentanalys för Värmlands Fastighetsservice KB - ett företag i fastighetsförvaltningsbranschen2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har på uppdrag av Värmlands Fastighetsservice KB genomfört en analys av branschstrukturen samt en konkurrentanalys av företagets konkurrenter inom fastighetsförvaltarbranschen. Företaget vill veta vilka deras farligaste konkurrenter är och hur deras styrkor, svagheter, mål och strategier ser ut. Syftet med uppsatsen är att genomföra en konkurrentanalys för företaget Värmlands Fastighetsservice KB. Först genomförde vi en förstudie med Värmlands Fastighetsservices kunder för att identifiera företagets konkurrenter. Därefter intervjuade vi Värmlands Fastighetsservice och de konkurrenter vi identifierat. Konkurrenterna vi funnit är HSB i Centrala Värmland, Samhall Vasa, Ecuro och Riksbyggen. Vi använde oss av strukturerade intervjuer med öppna svar. Vi har även hämtat siffror från företagens årsredovisningar samt Internet. Dessa siffror har vi använt för att beräkna finansiella nyckeltal. Resultatet av våra intervjuer visar att företagets farligaste konkurrenter i nuläget är Ecuro och Samhall Vasa, men Värmlands Fastighetsservice bör för den delen inte glömma bort de övriga aktörerna på marknaden. Vi lämnar även rekommendationer till Värmlands Fastighetsservice för hur de kan förbättra sin situation på marknaden gentemot konkurrenterna.

  • 369. Ahl, Petra
    et al.
    Johannesson, Anna
    Värm, Annika
    Fastighetsmäklares branschorganisationer2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Swedish estate agents are organized in two different trade associations, Mäklarsamfundet and Fastighetsmäklarförbundet. The trade associations offer their members equivalent services, like economic and juridical counselling, liability insurance, courses and authorization. For a long time, it has been discussed whether there should be a unification of the trade associations or not. The object of this paper is to look into why estate agents choose to join a trade association and also what view the trade associations have of a unification. To be able to reach the object, we conducted qualitative interviews with estate agents, persons in leading positions in the trade associations and the persons in leading positions in the two biggest estate agent-companies in Sweden. The theories that were used dealt with organizations, power, public influences and services. The result of our investigation showed that the estate agents that we interviewed never really had thought about why they had joined a trade association or which of the associations they should join. The reason why they were members in the trade association of their choice was either because of the influence by their colleagues or because of a demand from the company, in combination with an easy way to sign their liability insurance. The trade associations show a much deeper commitment to these matters. Mäklarsamfundet has strongly shown that they want a unification of the trade associations in order to give estate agents a better position on the market and to give the public a better picture of the competence of the estate agents. They believe that it should be easier to have an influence on public opinions if there is only one big trade association. Fastighetsmäklarförbundet wishes to keep the divided associations; they believe there is a risk if there is no competition between the trade associations, a competition that maintains their engagement to create the best services and security for their members. Fastighetsmäklarförbundet also believes that there is a big risk with a unification in when it comes to cartelization, which they think that the estate agent line of business is blackened by.

  • 370.
    Ahl, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Heteronormativitet i svenskämnet för grundskolans senare år: En läromedelsanalys2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My thesisdiscusseshowthe teaching materialPortal svenska 7-9 meets goals in Lgr11 on countering traditional gender roles. In this I want to highlight how heteronormativity designed and regenerated in school in general and the teaching material Portal svenska 7-9 in particular.The compositeobjectiveof this paper isthat, based on myresearchto work out howwe areteachingshould proceedin order tomeet theobjectives ofLgr11relatingto counteracttraditional genderroles.

    My study shows that the premise of living up to the goals of Lgr11 not in a clear way, met in the discursive expression in Portal svenska 7-9. The teaching material is too heteronormative contingent and can not handle more than exceptionally challenging the prevailing heteronormativity. However, the teaching material of the quality that can serve as basis for an active educational work. Through a conscious and deliberate standard critical pedagogical work can Portal serve as a starting point to show the weaknesses of both heteronormativity and as a starting point to illustrate the possibilities of an alternative perspective.

     

  • 371.
    Ahlberg, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Naturvetenskap i förskolan: En intervjustudie om förskollärares tankar och arbetssätt2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how preschool teachers think about preschool

    science, what they consider science to be and how they deal with specific curricular objectives

    related to science.

    Science is a part of our everyday life, it is a prerequisite for understanding everyday

    phenomena and how the world is working. Nevertheless it is often dropped in favour of other

    subjects in Swedish preschools.

    The eight preschool teachers participating in this study are all working in the same

    municipality in the western part of Sweden with children aged 1- 5 years. The method used in

    this study was interviews. The interviews were recorded to facilitate the transcriptions.

    The results show that preschool teachers find that science is an important subject that should

    be introduced to the children early on in life. They also show that preschool teachers consider

    science to have a preventive effect on the learning to the children, and it is needed for them to

    understand everyday processes and phenomena. When working with the curricular objectives

    linked to science, the result show that preschool teachers perceive nature as an asset to

    develop the children’s knowledge and interest for scientific concepts. Factors that impact the

    work with science in preschool could, according to the educators, be lack of knowledge, the

    children’s age or their attitude towards the subject.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this study are that preschool teachers draw on the

    children’s interests when teaching science. They also find it important to use the correct terms

    at an early stage.

  • 372. Ahlberg, Annika
    Att utveckla elevers psykiska förmåga2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 373.
    Ahlberg, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Att utveckla elevers psykiska förmåga: Mental träning i ämnet idrott och hälsa2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out how teachers can develop the psychological ability of their pupils within the subject of physical education. To find an answer to this, two researchers were interviewed in a qualitative way and four teachers in physical education were interviewed structurally. Current literature was also red. I tried to answer if there are any differences, or similarities, between two scientists’ and four teachers’ in physical education perspectives regarding methods to develop pupils’ psychological ability. The thesis also tries to answer which practical exercises in mental training that could be used in the teaching of physical education and how teachers in physical education can use mental training to motivate the pupils to strive for high grades.

    This study shows that the pupils’ psychological ability can be developed through different mental exercises. To develop the pupils’ self-confidence by giving theme suitable exercises with a degree of difficulty that are on a slightly higher level than what the pupils think they can manage is one way. A similarity between the opinions of the scientists and the teachers in physical education is the importance of good communication with the pupils. Further, the two scientists emphasized the importance of making the pupils involved in the planning and contents of the lessons. The teachers in physical education did not share this opinion.

    To develop the pupils’ self-knowledge and make theme strive for a grade, reasonable for their personal abilities, may increase motivation. In my thesis I have realised that a teacher’s behaviour is also important. The teacher needs to have a sensitive ear, use constructive feedback to the pupils and, to a reasonable extent, get the pupils involved in the planning and the contents of the lessons.

  • 374. Ahlberg, Antoinette
    Barns förkunskaper om vattnets kretslopp2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 375. Ahlberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Råberg, Erik
    SCTP prototype developement2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 376. Ahlberg Johansson, Maria
    Frireligiös livsstil anno 20012001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 377.
    Ahlberg, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Smarta glasögons användbarhet: Hur användarnas datorvana påverkar användbarheten av smarta glasögon2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Smarta glasögon är interaktiva glasögon som har en inbyggd dator och tillåter användaren att se en bildskärm samtidigt som den materiella omgivningen kan ses. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur användarens datorvana påverkar den upplevda användbarheten av smarta glasögon. Genomförandet av undersökningen har bestått av att 34 respondenter genomfört ett användartest följt av en strukturerad intervju. Intervjuerna har sedan kategoriserats beroende av datorvana och respondenternas upplevelser, vilket har legat till grund för analysen. För att styrka analysen har en litteraturstudie genomförts av tidigare teori inom ämnena skillnader mellan individer, användbarhet och smarta glasögon. Studiens slutsatser visar på att det inte finns några tydliga skillnader i användarnas upplevelser till följd av den tidigare datorvanan. De skillnader som ändå identifierades är att det finns indikationer på att upplevelsen av svårigheter och effektivitet till viss del påverkats av datorvanan.

  • 378. Ahlberg, Maria
    et al.
    Henriksen, Emma
    Sundberg, Maria
    Focus på Marieberg - ett visionskoncept för ett turist- och fritidsområde2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport dokumenterar ett examensarbete som har utförts av innovations- och designingenjörsstudenter vid Karlstads Universitet under våren 2003 i samarbete med Kristinehamns kommun. Kommunen har i dagsläget problem med utflyttning och är därför i behov av förslag som kan öka kommunens attraktionskraft som boende- och besöksort. Projektuppgiften har bestått i att ta fram ett koncept för ett turist- och fritidsområde inom Mariebergs före detta sjukhusområde. Sjukhuset anlades i slutet på 1800- talet och ligger i en vacker parkmiljö i direkt anslutning till Vänern. Målsättningen har varit att ge kommun och övriga intressenter förslag på hur området kan utformas och planläggas för ett attraktivt område med inblandning av såväl turister som bofasta i Kristinehamn. Tyngdpunkten har därför lagts på att omstrukturera det idag osammanhängande och ”röriga” området samt att ge förslag på diverse boendeformer, upplevelser och aktiviteter för flera målgrupper. För att kunna styrka konceptets utformning har en omfattande förstudie gjorts. Avsikten med förstudien är att ge rapporten ett genomarbetat innehåll då denna ska kunna användas som underlag för en områdesplanering inriktat mot turism och fritid på Marieberg. I konceptet ges förslag på en omdragning av vägnätet på Marieberg vilket skulle medföra ett mer trafiksäkert område där människan istället för bilen sätts i centrum. Att riva ett antal byggnader på området skulle bidra till ett mer sammanhållet område med en öppen och genomtänkt land-skaps-arkitektur utan avskärmningar och baksidor. För att göra vattnet mer till-gängligt för besökare kan en offentlig badstrand, en naturnära vasspromenad och en attraktiv gästhamn anläggas. Övernattningsmöjligheter i olika former ska kunna erbjudas på området. En spännande och originell camping och ”menyboende” på områdets Palats antas locka människor från flera målgrupper. Människans behov av gemenskap och utveckling tillgodoses genom förslag på ett antal olika kurser och aktiviteter. Utöver rapporten har ett utställnings- och presentationsmaterial tagits fram i syfte att underlätta för uppdragsgivaren vid framtida presentationer av arbetet. Detta material består av ett tio minuter långt bildspel, en sammanfattande folder, nio A2 affischer med illustrationer och förklarande text samt en modell över området i skala 1:1000.

  • 379.
    Ahlberg, Marika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Konferera i solen?: En studie kring konsumentval inom konferensbranschen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, consumers get in touch with hundreds of advertising messages a day from companies. It is up to the consumer to choose the messages they want to listen to and ignore the ones they want. Today, there is an advertising saturation and this has implications for both producers and consumer. Companies must be innovative and come with fresh ideas to get us consumers to pay attention to their particular message.  It is through the marketing that companies have an opportunity to spread their message. The challenge is to make themselves visible to consumers and make them aware of their message. This challenge means that companies need to know everything and then some of his audience. A market survey is a good tool to meet this challenge. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what factors influence consumer choice of conference facilities. The company that is the focus of this investigation is Visit Karlstad, who is a company that’s providing conference services for businesses and organizations. The conference industry is a part of the experience industry and conference facilities have in pace with todays increased focus on experiences. Companies need to invest more in particular on activities to attract consumers. The advertising is now more focused on the experiences and events, and many researchers argue that there are experiences that attract consumers to consume today. Today's tough advertising climate means that firms are facing greater challenges to reach out with their message.

     A quantitative study in the form of a survey was the basis for this thesis. Respondents to the survey have been conferences buyers from all over Sweden. The results from the survey show that the determining factors in the choice of the conference are: the location, good communications, price, standard of the facility, the environment and the range of activities available. These are factors that are critical to the overall impression of the conference center and conference stay.

  • 380. Ahlberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Serial RP Bus in workstation - a bridge between simulated and real AXE-10 hardware2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 381. Ahlberg, Peter
    Bildningssällskap - sällskapet X och Minervas betydelse för bildningen av folket2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 382. Ahlbom, Lars
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Helene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Culture and Gender studies.
    Eggehorn, Ylva
    Paillard, Jean
    Mystik och gudsbilder hos Sven Delblanc2002Book (Refereed)
  • 383. Ahlborg, T.
    et al.
    Strandmark, Margaretha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Factors influencing quality of intimate realtionship, six month after delivery: First-time parents' own views and coping strategies2006In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and GynecologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 384.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden and Akershus University College, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Lilleengen, Anne-Marie
    Akershus University College, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Petersen, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Quality of dyadic relationships in Swedish men and women living in long-term ralationships and in couples of family counselling: Introduction of a new self-report meassure, QDR362009In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 23-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has long been a need for a well-balanced, comprehensive and up-dated self-report measure of dyadic relationship quality. The aim was to test the new Quality of Dyadic Relationship, QDR, on 90 men and women living in long-term relationships and on 94 men and women constituting 47 couples visiting family counselling. In the first group A, the experienced entire quality of the relationship, QDR index, was found to be 22, with a possible range between 5 and 30, which means rather a good quality in the relationship. The dimension Dyadic Consensus showed the highest marks together with Dyadic Satisfaction, indicating that these men and women did not just stay together by force of habit. In group B, the QDR-index was 20 before and 22 after counselling. Dyadic Sexuality was found to be lowest in both group A and B. QDR seems to be an instrument with good validity and reliability also in these study groups, according to the factor structure and Cronbach’s alpha. The entire QDR36 is hereby introduced and presented ready for use in different kinds of relationships.

  • 385.
    Ahlby, Josephin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagbom, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Vietnamese nurses´ conceptions of patient safety.: An empirical study about Vietnamese nurses´ conceptions of patient safety.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Building a safety net, leadership and containing quality, are some of many responsibilities that comes with the profession nursing. To maintain health care of highest quality knowledge about patient safety is important. Patient safety means prevent medical errors that may cause the patient physical or psychological damage or in worst case scenario, death. Aim: To describe Vietnamese nurses’ conceptions of patient safety. Method: The study had a qualitative design. Data were collected from interviewing nurses at Hué University Hospital with open-ended questions. The collected data has been transcribed and condensed to categories through content analysis to find key sentences which explained Vietnamese nurses’ conception of patient safety. Result: Data analysis regarding Vietnamese nurse´s conception of patient safety resulted in seven categories which affect patient safety in Hue University Hospital, Equipment effecting the patient safety, Knowledge to provide safer care, Procedures used to increase patient safety, Infections in relation to poor patient safety, Nurses´ conception of communication, Documentation effecting patient safety and Inadequate number of nurses. Conclusion: This study shows that lack of good hygiene, insufficient equipment and the great number of patients are the most common factors to affect the patient safety in a negative way in Vietnam. The study shows that the nurses are well aware of what factors affecting the patient safety as well as how to improve patient safety.

  • 386.
    Ahlbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hogmalm, Anneli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Solsken och regnskurar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av att vara familjehemsförälder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to figure out how foster parents view their task and the responsibilities that the task entails, what gives foster parents motivation to continue with the mission, as well as what kind of emotional attachment the foster parents experience they get to the placed children.

    This study consists of six interviews, of which five of them were individual and one pair interview. The gathered material was analyzed from content analysis. Three themes emerged in the results which were: The mission as a foster family, why foster family and the everyday of foster families. The results were then analyzed through previous research along with Antonovskys concept sense of coherence, SOC and Bowlbys attachment theory. The results showed that foster families have different views depending on how long they have been foster families, what kind of children they’ve had but above all, what motivated them to start a foster family. 

  • 387. Ahlbäck, Jens
    Snövit - en räknesaga - utvärdering av ett matematikprogram2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under mina praktikveckor i min utbildning har jag kommit i kontakt med många matematikprogram, både bra och dåliga. Jag anser att datorstöd i matematik är viktigt för dagens elever. Det kan hjälpa alla, svaga som starka. Men man får dock vara försiktig, anser jag, eftersom datorstöd i dagens läge inte kan ersätta läroboken. Datorstödet får istället fungera som ett komplement till den traditionella undervisningen. Jag har även sett att eleverna är mycket entusiastiska och positivt inställda till den här sortens program. Det märkte jag framför allt efter att ha gjort den här undersökningen som handlar om ett matematikprogram på CD-rom: ”Snövit – en räknesaga”. Jag har låtit ett antal elever som går år 4, arbeta med programmet. Genom mina observationer och frågor till barnen, har jag försökt att komma fram till om programmet fyller sitt syfte. Min undersökning visar att Snövit är ett mycket roligt och populärt matematikprogram. Jag har dock funnit vissa brister, som jag sedan diskuterar i rapporten, men det är inga brister som förstör programmets helhet. Jag har kommit fram till att programmet fyller sitt syfte, vilket är att eleverna ska få öva sina redan färdiga matematikkunskaper.

  • 388. Ahlbäck, Linda
    et al.
    Hedlund, Lisa
    FlexiPack - ett variabelt förvaringskoncept till kombivagnar2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This 20 points thesis deflects the courses of the Innovations- och designingenjörsprogrammet and was conducted during the spring semester 2005. Five points of the work specializes in the areas material science, project methodology and manufacturing techniques. The project was assigned by HAVD AB in cooperation with Volvo Car Corporation. HAVD AB is a development and consultant company within the automotive industry and is specialized on interior design. The aim was to develop concept solutions to store items in a simple, smart and safe way in the trunk of a station wagon. The concepts should fit several car models regarding size and compatibility to make a universal solution. Today station wagons are popular for both small and large families and as company cars. The cars offers large storage space, thus they can store a large variety of items, for example groceries, bags, clothing etc. A problem is that the items never stays where they were placed. The purpose of this thesis was to develop new solutions to this problem. The disposition of this project follows a structure used by HAVD AB and larger companies, for example Volvo CC. All activities in these companies follow a time plan that is divided into three phases: idea, prestudy and implementation. The used structure in this thesis has been supplemented with knowledge obtained form the education. The result is a product series that includes the three largest categories of storage items; groceries, bottles and clothing. The trunk floor, walls and sealing were used. Three concepts was visualized by prototypes assembled in a Volvo V70 station wagon.

  • 389. Ahlenius, Brita
    Hinduisk religiös utövning i vardagen - brahminska kvinnors puja i Benares2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 390.
    Ahlenius, Brita
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Hinduisk religiös utövning i vardagen: En studie av brahminska kvinnors puja i Benares2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen bygger på en fältstudie utförd bland 10 gifta, brahminska kvinnor i området Assi i Benares (Varanasi)i Indien. Avsikten med fältstudien var att ta reda på om och i sådana fall vad, hur och varför kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen utför några dagliga religiösa handlingar. Varje kvinna har intervjuats vid två tillfällen. Intervjuerna har skett med hjälp av tolk som översatt från engelska till hindi och hindi till engelska.

    Uppsatsen besvarar tre inledande frågeställningar:

    1. Utför kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen några dagliga religiösa handlingar?

    2. (I sådana fall) Vilka religiösa handlingar utför de dagligen? (Tillvägagångssätt? Finns det några likheter/olikheter?)

    3. Varför utför kvinnorna dessa handlingar? (Hur förklarar de ritualerna de utför?)

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att alla kvinnor i gruppen varje dag utför en puja ("gudstjänst") på morgonen och att en majoritet även utför en puja varje kväll. Fokus kom därmed att hamna på just pujan och dess utförande.

    Vissa små skillnader finns i de olika kvinnornas tillvägagångssätt när de utför sina pujor, men det finns också en tydlig stomme, eller kärna, som återfinns hos alla. När det gäller morgonens puja består denna stomme av sex steg, upacaras, och hos kvällens puja, som

    oftast är mindre, hittas en stomme av två steg. Stegen redovisas och diskuteras utförligt i uppsatsen.

    Kvinnorna förklarar sitt tillvägagångssätt med att de olika stegen utförs för att ta hand om gud och göra gud nöjd. För att förstå detta resonemang bör man ha kunskap om det hinduiska gudsbegreppet, synen på gud som personlig och närvarande. Synen på gud diskuteras ingående i uppsatsen. Kvinnornas tillvägagångssätt är också ett resultat av traditionsförmedling. Ingen i undersökningsgruppen har läst sig till hur hon ska göra utan har lärt sig av sina föräldrar och svärföräldrar och ibland har hon också lagt till egna inslag.

    För kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen är det viktigt att varje dag utföra sina pujor. Den vanligaste förklaringen till detta är att pujorna skänker dem frid i sinnet, "mann ki shanti".

    Uppsatsen är beskrivande och den är fokuserad på den empiriska undersökningen. Resultatet av fältstudien diskuteras och fördjupas av litteratur med anknytning till innehållet.

  • 391. Ahlenius, Brita
    Serietidningar - en källa till kunskap om hinduisk tradition2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om fenomenet serietidningar som en spridare av kunskap om en religiös tradition. Den religiösa tradition som behandlas är den hinduiska. I Indien finns ett förlag som heter Amar Chitra Katha som tillverkar serietidningar som bl.a. behandlar hinduiska myter. Dessa tidningar är mycket populära och spridda bland framför allt barn och ungdomar i det indiska samhället. I tidningarna ges inte bara kunskap om de olika myterna, utan läsarna lär sig också hur man skall bete sig i samhället, vilka värderingar som skall eftersträvas, etc. Det som detta arbete fokuserar på är vilka genomgående drag som man kan finna i serierna och om dessa serier på något vis kan sägas förändra den hinduiska traditionen. De genomgående drag som står att finna är Amar Chitra Kathas strävan efter att skapa förståelse mellan olika traditioner. Man poängterar också att det är viktigt att inte göra skillnad på folk och folk, det medför att man är kritiskt inställd till kastsystemet. Man finner också att det i serierna framhävs som viktigt att kunna förlåta och att inte döma utan grund. En viss förändring sker av myterna, dels för att de skall passa in i ovanstående strävanden och dels för att locka köpare. Det senare medför att en fokusering på strid och ”action” är tydlig. Som tidigare nämnts vill man genom serierna skapa ett tolerantare samhälle. Serietidningarna för också med sig en annan förändring av samhället. De gör berättelserna tillgängliga för den stora massan. Tidigare var det så att kunskap om de religiösa berättelserna var begränsade till en skriftlärd elit, men genom, bl.a., Amar Chitra Katha görs nu informationen tillgänglig för allt större grupper. Genom samtal med några personer med erfarenhet av att läsa dessa serier har jag också kunnat konstatera att dessa tycker att tidningarna är bra som kunskapskällor. De gör lärandet till något underhållande.

  • 392. Ahlenius, Brita
    et al.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    Den ekologiska aspekten i Shiva-mytologi och ikonografi - en fältstudie utförd i Varanasi 19992000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 393.
    Ahlenius, Emil
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Menchini, Evelina
    Karlstad University.
    Säll, Julian
    Karlstad University.
    Den unga Hannahs lidande: En kvalitativ textanalys om representationen av psykisk ohälsa i 13 Reasons Whys första säsong2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Första säsongen av tv-serien 13 Reasons Why fick stark kritik efter att den lanserats på Netflix 2017. Tv-serien behandlar ämnena psykisk ohälsa och suicidalitet. Kritiken riktades främst mot hur dessa ämnen glorifieras och kan uppmana tittare att reagera destruktivt. Trots att psykisk ohälsa och suicidalitet inte är några ovanliga ämnen att representera inom populärkulturella verk har tv-serien fått oönskade negativa konsekvenser och kritik. Genom en kvalitativ textanalys med inriktning på representation och semiotik har vi analyserat det empiriska materialet utifrån diverse element som representerar psykisk ohälsa i första säsongen av tv-serien 13 Reasons Why. Detta för att undersöka hur psykisk ohälsa representeras i serien och huruvida den förtjänar den kritik som den har mottagit. Studiens syfte är att frilägga de representationer av psykisk ohälsa som kan leda till negativa konsekvenser för mottagaren av texten, som vi benämner som fallgropar. Att bilda kunskap kring hur psykisk ohälsa inte bör representeras är viktigt för att kulturproducenter ska kunna undvika fallgropar som kan få negativa konsekvenser för mottagare av deras verk. 

    Med stöd från det teoretiska ramverket har vi kunnat identifiera fyra fallgropar som seriens skapare inte har lyckats undvika i representationen av psykisk ohälsa i tv-serien 13 Reasons Why.

  • 394. Ahlenius, Emma
    et al.
    Eklöf, Nathalie
    Hur påverkar nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter ett köpcentrums attraktivitet?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Köpcentrum har under de senaste 20 åren utvecklats och blivit en plats för mer än bara inköp av varor. I och med nöjesrevolutionen är nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter inte längre ett främmande inslag i köpcentrum för konsumenter. Flertalet författare har identifierat faktorer som skapar attraktivitet och ofta nämns dessa aktiviteter som en faktor. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur dessa nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter påverkar ett köpcentrums attraktivitet. I teorin förklaras begreppet attraktivitet och hur det kan påverkaa konsumenternas syn på köpcentrumet. Konsumenternas ständiga efterfrågan av olika form av underhållning beskrivs och dessutom redogör teorin för hur adderandet av nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter har påverkat köpcentrum. I denna studie har det använts en kvantitativ metod och datainsamlingen utfördes med strukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes personligen med totalt 140 respondenter vid två separata tillfällen. I empirin presenteras de resultat som sammanställts i form av tabeller. Intervjublanketten placeras som bilaga (bilaga 1) och tabellerna (tabell 1-8) diskuteras vidare i analysen. Analysen diskuterar och kontrollerar huruvida resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som finns i teorin. Slutsatsen är att nöjes/fritidsaktiviteter påverkar ett köpcentrums attraktivitet genom att skapa ett positivt helhetsintryck.

  • 395.
    Ahlfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Byström, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hur satsar arbetsgivaren på hälsofrämjande åtgärder och hur uppfattas i så fall dessa av personalen?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 396.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Arahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks2019In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the latency-aware multipath schedulerZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities ininformation-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is touse the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows,and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimatorcalled zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiplepaths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths sothat the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is,so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow withoutcreating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation usingsimulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

  • 397.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Are MIRCC and Rate-based Congestion Control in ICN READY for Variable Link Capacity?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) has been introduced as a potential future networking architecture. ICN promises an architecture that makes information independent from lo- cation, application, storage, and transportation. Still, it is not without challenges. Notably, there are several outstanding issues regarding congestion control: Since ICN is more or less oblivious to the location of information, it opens up for a single application flow to have several sources, something which blurs the notion of transport flows, and makes it very difficult to employ traditional end-to-end congestion control schemes in these networks. Instead, ICN networks often make use of hop-by-hop congestion control schemes. How- ever, these schemes are also tainted with problems, e.g., several of the proposed ICN congestion controls assume fixed link capacities that are known beforehand. Since this seldom is the case, this paper evaluates the consequences in terms of latency, throughput, and link usage, variable link capacities have on a hop-by-hop congestion control scheme, such as the one employed by the Multipath-aware ICN Rate-based Congestion Control (MIRCC). The evaluation was carried out in the OMNeT++ simulator, and demonstrates how seemingly small variations in link capacity significantly deterio- rate both latency and throughput, and often result in inefficient network link usage. 

  • 398.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    ICN Congestion Control for Wireless Links2018In: IEEE WCNC 2018 Conference Proceedings / [ed] IEEE, New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) with its design around named-based forwarding and in-network caching holds great promises to become a key architecture for the future Internet. Still, despite its attractiveness, there are many open questions that need to be answered before wireless ICN becomes a reality, not least about its congestion control: Many of the proposed hop-by-hop congestion control schemes assume a fixed and known link capacity, something that rarely – if ever – holds true for wireless links. As a first step, this paper demonstrates that although these congestion control schemes are able to fairly well utilise the available wireless link capacity, they greatly fail to keep the link delay down. In fact, they essentially offer the same link delay as in the case with no hop-by-hop, only end- to-end, congestion control. Secondly, the paper shows that by complementing these congestion control schemes with an easy- to-implement, packet-train link estimator, we reduce the link delay to a level significantly lower than what is obtained with only end-to-end congestion control, while still being able to keep the link utilisation at a high level. 

  • 399.
    Ahlgren, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Cellen är den minsta levande delen hos allt liv": Om hur centrala termer förklaras i tre läromedel i biologi för grundskolans senare del2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 400. Ahlgren, Bodil
    Cellerna pratar: Om metaforer i läroböcker i biologi för grundskolans senare del och gymnasieskolan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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