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  • 351.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The Unceasing Reframing of the Swine Flu: Immediacy of online news, Crisis communication and Swedish online media coverage of outbreak of the Swine flu2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 352.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Vem skall man tro på?1998In: Vem skall man tro på? / [ed] Börje Alström, Sundsvall: Demokratiinstitutet , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Visibility of journalistic processes and the undermining of objectivity2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 354.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Värmlänningars nyhetskonsumtion via mobiltelefon2012In: Värmländska landskap: politik, ekonomi, samhälle, kultur, medier / [ed] Lennart Nilsson, Lars Aronsson, PO Norell, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 447-456Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 355.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Convergence in Swedish Online News 2005 - 20092009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 356.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Do not stand corrected: Transparency and users’ attitudes on inaccurate news and corrections in online journalism2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accelerating news cycle means there is a risk that errors become more common but digital media also allows for correcting errors continuously and being transparent about this. In this study we investigate Swedish citizens’ attitudes towards errors and corrections. The results demonstrate that citizens have strong expectations that news media publish correct information and they have little tolerance for errors. People’s background and media use does not affect attitudes towards errors and corrections to any large extent but media trust explains a small fraction of the results – it is only those who already trust the media that appreciate corrections.

  • 357.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Negotiating professional news judgment and "clicks"2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 358.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Negotiating Professional News Judgment and “Clicks”: Comparing tabloid, broadsheet and public service traditions in Sweden2013In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital media allow for instant tracking of audience behaviour, thus enabling a potential negotiation between journalists’ traditional authority and professional news values, on the one hand, and the audience’s power in terms of ignoring or paying attention to the journalistic outcome, on the other. The present study investigates whether clicks change news values and have an impact on news routines in tabloid, broadsheet and public service newsrooms. The findings indicate that audience metrics bring a new dimension to the news evaluation process regardless of publishing tradition, but that the commercial media seem to keep a closer tab on traffic. In general, journalists strive for a “good mix” between customization to achieve audience satisfaction and a desire for editorial independence.

  • 359.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Patterns and origins in the evolution of multimedia on broadsheet and tabloid news sites: Swedish online news 2005-20102012In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 550-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study compares the development and implementation of multimedia on Swedish broadsheet and tabloid online news sites between 2005 and 2010. It also seeks the reasons behind these developments by interviewing journalists working on the sites. The results show that the initial implementation of multimedia was slow but increased sharply in pace between 2007 and 2008. By 2010, on average, one in four news items had some element of multimedia attached to them. Furthermore, results show that it was the quality papers that were the quickest off the mark rather than tabloids. The antecedents for this advance seem to be a mix of technological capacities, professional norms and economic needs.

  • 360.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Patterns and origins in the evolution of multimedia: Swedish online news 2005-20102011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Emergence of Convergence in Swedish Online News2010In: Transcultural Communication: Intercultural Comparisons, Hamburg, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convergence is often said to have great impact on journalism. More specifically, multimedia, as one dimension of convergence, is predicted to have impact on the journalistic skill-set. Moreover, convergence, in the form of online content syndication, has been suggested to affect the quality and diversity of online news. Some studies indicate that convergence does not have any significant effect, whereas others indicate that it does. So far, few studies have investigated the impact of convergence on online news over time. The small number of existing longitudinal studies has only investigated the existence of convergence (in various aspects) on American news sites, which indicate presence but not the level of impact. Furthermore, none of the longitudinal studies examine the reasons for the development, as they focus on news content and not the processes behind the creation of news. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine impact of convergence on online news content over time as well as the reasons for this impact.Previous scholarship highlights that convergence is a term with many facets that may be investigated on numerous levels. In this paper two dimensions of convergence of news content are investigated: multimedia and online content syndication. Multimedia refers to content which integrates images, text, graphics, moving images, and/or sound in a way that is not possible in a regular paper magazine. Online content syndication refers to content presented on the web site, but which is originated (and sometimes stored) on another web site.The paper studies the evolution of convergence on four major Swedish news sites, and it presents results from a two-legged study comprising interviews with executives at news sites and a longitudinal quantitative content analysis of news sites spanning from 2005 to 2010. Preliminary results indicate that all four news sites increasingly adopt multimedia and online content syndication over time. Since 2008 1 in 5 news stories has some multimedia features and since 2009 1 in 6 news stories are syndicated on average. Furthermore, the rise of multimedia in news content is concentrated to 2007 and 2008 on all four news sites while the implementation of content syndication is more dispersed.The main reasons given for adopting multimedia is that the technology and software now supports multimedia content. The main reasons stated for adopting online content syndication are economic incentives and that it is seen as a way to help the readers find information in an information-rich environment. The development and the reasons behind it, as well as its implications for journalism are discussed.

  • 362.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Digital Political Public Relations and Relationship Management: The Swedish Case2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 363.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet.
    You ain´t seen nothing yet.: Transparency’s (lack of) Effect on Source and Message Credibility2014In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 668-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency has been proposed to both change the way journalism is being produced and increase its credibility. However, little research has been conducted to assess the connection between transparency and credibility. This study utilizes an experimental setting (N=1320) to measure what impact transparency have on source and message credibility from the user perspective. The results reveals an almost absence of any transparency effect on both source and message credibility although some small significant effects could be observed primarily regarding internal hyperlinks, comments and contextual information. Although further research is desperately needed in this area the study suggest that transparency does not affect the credibility of journalism in the eyes of the contemporary audience and thus have limited appeal as a new norm in journalism.

  • 364.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Freezing the Flow of Online News: Exploring Approaches to Study the Liquidity of Online News2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 365.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Freezing the Flow of Online News: Exploring approaches to the study of the liquidity of online news2010In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous research, two characteristics of online news as opposed to traditional news are interactivity and immediacy. However, most research in this area has focused on the news site-level of analysis, and there are only a few studies on how interactivity and immediacy affect online news on the news story-level of analysis. The main reason for this appears to be that the very nature of online news makes observation by traditional research methods, such as quantitative content analysis, problematic. Against this background, the overall purpose of this paper is to explore methodological approaches for the study of interactivity and immediacy on the news story-level of online news. The paper develops a three-pronged strategy for freezing the flow of online news to enable systematic content analyses of interactivity and immediacy, and tests this strategy in a comparative analysis of the online news sites Guardian.co.uk in Britain and Aftonbladet.se in Sweden.

  • 366. Karppinen, Kari
    et al.
    Moe, Hallvard
    Svensson, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Habermas, Mouffe and Political Communication: A case for theretical eclectisism2008In: Javnost-the publicArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the research on communication and democracy continues to lean on Jürgen Habermass work. However, many aspects of his approach have been intensely criticised in recent debates, both in communication studies and political theory. Habermass emphasis on rational consensus as the aim of public communication has particularly been problematised. One of the most prominent critics, Chantal Mouff e and her agonistic model of democracy, have increasingly drawn the interest of media scholars. Mouffe explicitly contrasts the dominant Habermasian concept of the public sphere, and it appears that her model is impossible to combine with the Habermasian approach. But how substantial are the diff erences? What are the disagreements centred on? And what are their consequences for empirical media and communication research? In this article we argue that rather than accepting the standard readings or polar positions accredited to the two, we need to retain a certain theoretical eclecticism in combining normative theories with empirical research. Despite their controversies, we argue that both Habermass and Mouff es theories have value as critical perspectives that help us refl ect on the ideals of democratic public communication

  • 367.
    Klonova, Anastasiia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The Role of Mega-events in Country Branding: Case Study on Brand of Ukraine before European Football Championship 20122012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Successful presentation of a country as a brand and positioning its unique image on the global level can give significant opportunities for development and progress of the state in the different areas. This research applies theories on the country branding to estimate impact of mega sport events on the image of state. To accomplish these goal I used case study – formation of brand Ukraine before hosting European Football Championship 2012 (EURO 2012). To investigate  brand strategy of Ukraine and analyze implemented projects I conducted in-depth interviews with government officials and independent experts, who are involved in promo campaigns of Ukraine.

    The research concluded that Ukraine is in the process of  brand formation, but it is too early to to assume the existance of the comprehensive brand of the country. For Ukraine, EURO 2012 impulses change of negative perceptions of the country and  is a step towards complex strategy of brand creation. Future of this strategy therefore depends on conducting preliminary studies of each promo project and coordinated collaboration between all actors who take part in creation of brand Ukraine. Research also provides recommendations on how to make brand campaign more efficient. 

  • 368.
    Krakhmaleva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Lindell, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    En studie om Scandic Hotels miljökommunikation2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 369.
    Kumar, Vikas
    et al.
    Society for Education and Research Development.
    Svensson, JakobKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Proceedings of M4D 2012 28-29 February 2012 New Delhi, India2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 370.
    Köpsén, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Prinsessan och lusten: En kvalitativ studie om hur kvinnors sexualitet skildras i livsstilsmagasin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the media can be defined as a socialization factor and that sexuality is a topic that is often aired in various media, the purpose of this qualitative analysis is to examine how the media portrays sexuality and more specifically women's sexuality. The reason for examining women's sexuality is that women during the 17th century were constrained in their sexuality compared to men, and this constraint most likely has made an inprint on society to this day.

    This study poses three questions, the first concerns if the desexualisation of women characterizes the lifestyle magazines today. The second question examines which words that are used in lifestyle magazines to describe the female genitalia. The third question focuses on to which extent the media content in lifestyle magasines is characterized, directly or indirectly, by sexuality.

    From a media and communications perspective the study has a theoretical framework based on agenda setting and how media is able to influence its users, the young users in particular. The research done by Jenny Kitzinger plays a central part. From a sociological and a sexological perspective the theoretical framework revolves around Gisela Helmius' definitions on ideas of sexuality in society and Gayle Rubin's hierarchical valuation of sex acts. The methods that have been used are a critical discourse analysis which examines the constructivist function of the texts and a smaller quantitative analysis to examine to which extent the media content concerns sexuality. The empirical data is based on eleven lifestyle magazines aimed at young women.

    The analysis reveals that nine percent of the content in the examined magazines concerns sexuality in some way. It also reveals that the examined magazines are characterized by the idea of a restrictive sexuality which prevails in Sweden, which problably is a result of the above mentioned desexualisation. This manifests primarily in the consolidation of the prevailing ideology of love, where sexuality only is allowed within a framework of love, heterosexuality and monogamy. The magazines also contribute to making invisible the female sexual genitalia.

  • 371.
    Larsson, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Johannesson, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Struktur är A och O: En kvalitativ studie om internkommunikation med fokus på kommunikationshinder i en offentlig förvaltning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den interna kommunikationen är sällan problemfri inom en organisation, men den är av stor vikt för att en organisation ska fungera. Uppsatsen syftar till att ta reda på hur den interna kommunikationen fungerar i en organisation, och vilka eventuella problem som kan uppstå. För att undersöka detta närmre har det gjorts en studie på två skolor i Sverige där organisationsmedlemmarnas syn på informationsflödet och kommunikationen inom organisationen studerades. Dessa skolor är en del av en och samma förvaltning i en kommun och undersökningen genomfördes i samråd med dem. Vidare har vi använt oss av tre frågeställningar som hjälpt oss på vägen:

    - Vilka kanaler används främst för att sprida intern information inom organisationen och är det i så fall olika kanalval beroende på vilken information som ska förmedlas?

    - Finns det några hinder i kommunikationen mellan ledning och medarbetare och hur visar de sig?

    - Hur jobbar organisationen med att skapa dialog och delaktighet mellan medarbetare och ledning?

    För att studera internkommunikationen krävdes ett brett teoretiskt ramverk. Till grund för studien ligger teorier om internkommunikation och kommunikationsproblem, som till exempel ryktesspridning, feltolkningar och MUM-effekten. Som metod valdes kvalitativa samtalsintervjuer och dessa genomfördes med både ledning och medarbetare inom organisationen. Med ledning avses anställda tjänstemän som bland annat skoldirektör, personalchef, planeringschef, kommunikatör och rektor. Kategorin medarbetare syftar till lärare på skolorna. Vi genomförde sju personliga intervjuer och en bakgrundsintervju med två respondenter samtidigt. Sammanlagt gjordes alltså åtta intervjuer, med nio personer.

    Resultatet visar att ledningen och medarbetare har olika syn på vilka problem som finns inom organisationen. Ledningen upplevde att medarbetarna inte tog del av all utsänd information och att det förekom ryktesspridning och feltolkningar bland medarbetarna. Medarbetarna hade istället svårt att hitta information de letade efter och missade ibland information på grund av informationsöverflöd. Det största problemet som medarbetarna upplevde var brist på struktur på de olika informations- och kommunikationskanalerna. Information från ledningen kunde komma lite varstans, på de olika kanalerna som organisationen hade att tillgå.

  • 372.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Asocial Media Studies: Bourdieu as Remedy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary media studies has a tendency of ‘bracketing out’ the social dimension, and thus it needs to be better versed in social theory. Failing to account for "the social" is problematic since all media, and all communication are located in social contexts. This paper offers an exploration of the epistemological consequences of insisting on the location of media production, media content, and media use in social contexts in terms of Bourdieu’s social theory. A Bourdieusian approach to media and communication involves understanding that media production is always situated in complex, multi-leveled relations of power, be it the journalistic field, the field of cultural production or the wider social space occupied by the ‘produser’ of mediated content. The perspective furthermore implicates a refusal to succumb to an ‘internalist vision’ when studying communication or the content of the media that is the result of isolating communication from its context of production and consumption, which is where meaning is ultimately generated. Finally, it involves studying media use as a classifying practice that is becoming increasingly mediated through the habitus and an agents’ position in social space as the media landscape gains in appeal to persons – as individuals with preferences, tastes and lifestyles – rather than masses. It is argued that a move towards Bourdieusian media studies ushers the study of old and new forms of media production, content and use onto paths that provoke critical and enduring questions of the role of media in society.

  • 373.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Beyond ´Distant suffering´ and Pity-Compelled Cosmopolitanism: Examining the Relation Between the Consumption of Ordinary News, General Media Consumption and Cosmopolitan Outlooks in Scandinavia2012In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions arising out of the global character of the media include whether or not one can become a kosmou politês (citizen of the world) by consuming and using different media whose “relay function” (Schulz, 2004) potentially draws the world into the sphere of the everyday. This potential has mainly been researched from a reception-of-distant-suffering paradigm where what is at stake is the possibility for news reporting to set in motion an “electronic empathy” (Hannerz, 1996). This study ventures beyond this dominant paradigm and uses ESS (European Social Survey) Round 5 2010 to examine the impact of the empirically neglected variables of ordinary news consumption and media consumption in general to see to what extent they cultivate a cosmopolitan outlook in audiences and users. The results indicate that ‘the media’ display ambivalent and multi-directional effects and thus that the notion of “mediated cosmopolitanism” does not withstand empirical testing

  • 374.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Book review: Digitala distinktioner: Klass och kontinuitet i unga mäns vardagliga mediepraktiker2015In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 127-129Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 375.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Book review: Media and Cosmopolitanism2015In: Communications: the European Journal of Communication Research, ISSN 0341-2059, E-ISSN 1613-4087, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 263-265Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 376.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Bourdieusian Media Studies: Returning Social Theory to Old and New Media2015In: Distinktion Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, ISSN 1600-910X, E-ISSN 2159-9149, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 362-377Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 377.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Class and media repertoires in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 378.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Classified News Consumption: A Bourdieusian Take on Fragmented News Publics2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper posits the issue of the increased fragmentation of news consumers as part of an overarching shift from mass media to “class media”. To this end, the sociological thinking of Pierre Bourdieu, and the notion that media consumption is conditioned by one’s social position, is particularly useful. Generally, previous research fail to account for news fragmentation as included in processes that uphold relations of power between different, more or less privileged, groups in society. In terms of news consumption, one such instance of social reproduction is that news diets become avenues for “legitimating social differences” as the media landscape diversifies. The purpose of this paper is to study this empirically by focusing on how young people with different sets and volumes of capital orient themselves in a diversifying news landscape. More specifically, the paper asks about the role of capital and habitus in relation to news related attitudes (for example what is considered newsworthy or what sense one makes of the news outlet) and behaviors (such as news avoidance). The paper will draw on focus group interviews to be conducted in the spring of 2015.

  • 379.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication as spatial production: Expanding the research agenda of communication geography2016In: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The founders of the interdisciplinary field of communication geography argue that the field carries the potential to provide a processual view of communication as spatial production. This article sets out to delineate this underexplored aspect of communication geography. The aim is to expand the research agenda of communication geography by acknowledging the role of everyday social interaction on the one hand, and media environments on the other, in producing and maintaining peoples' taken-for-granted senses of space. This focus is guided by combining central insights of social phenomenology and medium theory. In synthesizing these positions, a research agenda emerges that emphasizes the capacity of media to mold the scope and character of communication that in turn maintain the scope and character of taken-for-granted space in everyday reality.

  • 380.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Cosmopolitan Divide?: Examining the Tension Field Between Media, Residential Patterns and Cosmopolitan Attitudes2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Today, global media such as the Internet provides media audiences scattered across the globe with the possibility of cross-cultural moral interaction upon a plethora of global digital public spheres. Such trends have been the catalyst for increased academic attention to the field of media and morality and the notion of media audiences as global citizens – ‘cosmopolitans at home’, consuming a wide array of mediated, global images and thus enforcing a proximity with the ‘distant Other’. Parallel to such trends is the dichotomous relationship between rural- and urban areas that have emerged as increasingly ambivalent in ‘network society’. Due to the ‘urbanization of media culture’ and the ‘digital divide’, it is argued that rural areas, in an era characterized by global interconnectedness, are rendered dysfunctional. On the other hand however, media can be argued to promote inclusion and new possibilities for rural people.

     

    This study set out to empirically examine the tension field between residential patterns (rural/urban), the media (Internet) and cosmopolitanism. Setting out from the research questions: (1) What variables determine a ‘cosmopolitan outlook’ in Sweden?, (2) Does media use/access promote a ‘cosmopolitan outlook’, and under what circumstances?, and (3) Is there a ‘cosmopolitan divide’ between different residential patterns – and if so: how does it relate to different patterns of media use and access?. To attend the research questions, data from the annual national survey, Riks-SOM 2008, was analysed and the findings indicated the general trends for the Swedish cosmopolitan was, in accordance with other empirical accounts, young and well educated. Furthermore, respondents ‘high’ on Internet use where more likely to be cosmopolitans – confirming theoretical accounts of e.g. Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck and Dick Hebdige. Also, ‘locality’ proved to be more important for rural people than for people living in metropolitan areas. Finally, men and women displayed different ‘cosmopolitan patterns’: rural women being more cosmopolitan than metropolitan women in terms of a ‘willingness to move to a country outside of Europe’ while men displayed the opposite, following the hypothesis.

     

  • 381.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Expanding Social Imaginaries: Studying the Relationship between "Actually Existing Cosmopolitanisms" and Media Practices2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 382.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Media, Power & Cosmopolitanism: Rethinking Cosmopolitanism in a Digital Age2010In: Transcultural Communication: Intercultural Comparisons, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 383.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Mediated Cosmopolitanism?: Examining the Tension Field Between Media, Communication and Social Reality2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 384.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Medier och Kosmopolitism: Varthän?2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 385.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Medierad kosmopolitism: en empirisk inblick2011In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 386.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The City as Spectacle: A Debordian Critique of the City as Commodity and Brand2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper focus is put on how the ”meta-processes” (Krotz, 2007) of mediatization and commercialization are expressed in relation to the city – how they conflate and create the conditions from which the being of the contemporary city is renegotiated from polis to postpolis. The contemporary “commodification of everything” (Harvey, 2005) and the logic of the global market economy means that the city expresses a need to create a “competitive identity” (Anholt, 2007) and elevate to the fore of attention its’ “collective symbolic capital” (Harvey, 2012). This involves turning the city into a brand and as such, the city becomes dependent upon the logics of the media and the symbol – the contemporary city is “the realm of the sign” (Tesfahuney & Schough, 2009: 142). In all its shapes, suggests Debord, “the society of the spectacle constitutes the model for the dominant perspective in society” (2002: 22). Thus the representation of the city – the city-as-a-brand - is both ideological and political in the sense that makes claims as to “represent the entirety of the city when the image is actually a strongly selective and partial ideal image” (Ek, 2007: 97). But the city-as-a-brand is also political in its attempts at reifying the city as a non-political entity. The spectacle-city – the city which turned in to a commodity which turned into a brand which lost itself in its own appealing mirror image like Narcissus - embodies an extreme commodity fetishism in the way in which its’ social relations (criminality, segregation, unemployment, gentrification) are placed in the shadows. The resources spent on city-branding amplifies the image of the city as the “space of ultimate experiences” (Tesfahuney & Schough, 2009: 120) while the consequences of neoliberal doctrine veils itself behind the curtains. 

  • 387.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The Cosmopolitan Ethos: An Empirical Inquiry into the Question of a 'Mediated Cosmopolitanism'2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 388.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Danielsson, Martin
    Trading Cultural Capital for Cosmopolitan Capital: Media Practice as Reconversion Work in a Globalizing World2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 389.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Hovden, J. F.
    Bergen University.
    Distinctions in the media welfare state: audience fragmentation in post-egalitarian Sweden2017In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study draws on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture in order to shed new light on the ongoing fragmentation of media audiences and users. We use a multiple correspondence analysis on national survey data (n = 1604) collected in Sweden in 2015–2016 to (1) create a statistical representation of the contemporary Swedish class structure and proceed to (2) analyze the distribution of a broad range of media practices and media preferences in that space. Results show that social groups reproduce their social status by monopolizing distinct media repertoires. We are able to show that class matters for how people orient themselves in an increasingly high-choice media environment – even in a so-called media welfare state. Following the results of our media-sociological approach, we introduce the concept of audience islands which promotes a non-media-centric understanding of the fragmentation of society and media audiences. 

  • 390.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyhetsvärdering, omvärldsorientering och regional identitet2012In: Värmländska landskap: Politik, ekonomi, samhälle, kultur, medier / [ed] Nilsson, Lennart; Lars Aronsson och PO Norell, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2012, p. 457-472Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 391.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The Geo-Social Structuration of Mediatized Lifeworlds: An Empirical Re-Assessment of "Local" and "Cosmopolitan" Modes of News Consumption2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “cosmopolitanization” (Beck) holds a complex, even contradictory, meaning. On the one hand, globalization has created growing opportunities for geo-socially expanding the lifeworld beyond local and regional boundaries, as well as for exploring different parts of the world in a cosmopolitan way. On the other hand, new global connectivities and cultural flows are in certain social contexts seen as a threat to local communities and the existing social order. Thus, also in a cosmopolitanized society, where fewer boundaries can be taken for granted, there exist tensions between “cosmopolitans” and more protectionist groupings. In a certain sense, this tension (which is of course much more complex than a one-dimensional continuum) corresponds to Merton’s classical distinction between “locals” and “cosmopolitans” – a distinction that refers to whether people are oriented towards issues and events related to their local environment or to the world at large, for example in their media use and political engagement. In this paper we provide an empirical illumination of how the expansion of the lifeworld, via news media consumption, is related to various structural and positional factors. Analyzing the results from a statistically representative survey, conducted in the region of Värmland, Sweden, in 2010, we show how different groups of media users value news content pertaining to different regional and extra-regional levels. In particular, we explicate how these preferences are distributed in social space (Bourdieu), and in relation to cultural value structures (notably in terms of “cosmopolitanism”). Firstly, the statistical pattern actualizes the relevance of Merton’s distinction between “locals” and “cosmopolitans” (given its original, very confined understanding of “cosmopolitan”); there is indeed a socio-cultural polarization related to whether people think news from extra-regional centres are important or not. These findings confirm that there are significant social tensions integral to the cosmopolitanization process. Secondly, our results show that the regional centre, the city of Karlstad, is generally understood as the most important “news-space”, across social space. Accordingly, one must conclude that the mediatization process also today is perhaps more significant in terms of reproducing regional identity and a local lifeworld, than in fostering cosmopolitan outlooks

  • 392.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Cosmopolitan Journalists?: Journalist professional values across a local-global continuum2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of cosmopolitanism has gained momentum in contemporary social sciences. The term has come to describe identities, belongings and moral geographies that reach out beyond various localities to encompass “the world as a whole”. In the literature discussing how cosmopolitanism is becoming “real”, journalists are often treated as agents of cosmopolitan cultivation since they report “the world” to their publics. However, empirical studies on the relationship between media and cosmopolitanism have mainly turned to the particular cosmopolitan “invitations” of various messages of the media, and to some extent the sense that audiences are making of them. While the issues of a “global media ethics” and “cosmopolitan journalism” have been theorized from various directions there are nearly no empirical studies on the extent to which journalist professional values comprise cosmopolitan values. It is against this background we will draw upon a survey with journalists from across various positions in the Swedish journalistic field, to be conducted in the spring of 2015, to chart journalistic values across a local-global continuum. We thus ask about a.) the extent to which global, or “cosmopolitan”, professional values exists amongst Swedish journalists and b.) which factors (age, gender, education, position, type of organization) that explain such values. Findings will shed much needed empirical light on a highly topical, yet almost exclusively theoretical discussion on the (in)capacity of the media to sustain cosmopolitan imaginations. 

  • 393.
    Lindholm, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Sätherberg, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Hur ser jag ut?: En studie om hur svenska kvinnor framställer sig på Twitter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala nätverkssidor är för människor idag en del av vardagen då vi skapar nya umgängen, bekantskaper, vänskaper och fiender. Vi träffar framtida arbetsgivare och finner i visa fall kärleken med hjälp av detta nu vardagliga verktyg. Eftersom vi gör allt detta är uppbyggnaden och utvecklingen av användarens profil ett viktigt hjälpmedel för att lyckas presentera sig själv på ett positivt sätt.

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur svenska kvinnor framställer sig själva inför andra användare och vad de delar med sig av sin identitet på det sociala nätverket Twitter. Vi utgår från tre frågeställningar:

    • • •

    På vilka sätt framställer sig svenska kvinnor på Twitter? Vilka skillnader finns mellan användare beroende på antal följare? Vilken gräns sätter kvinnor för vad de delar med sig till sin publik på Twitter?

    De teoretiska utgångspunkterna för denna studie är i Erving Goffmans teorier om ”front stage”, ”back stage” och ”impression management” och nyare forskning gjord av bland andra danah boyd samt begreppet representation. Vi har använt oss av kvantitativ innehållsanalys och kvalitativa intervjuer för att få svar på våra frågeställningar.

    Resultatet visar att användarna är medvetna om hur de framställer sig och är försiktiga med vad de delar med sig av på Twitter. Användandarna på Twitter i denna undersökning anser att det är jobbigt att deras uppdateringar är sökbara på Google och genom detta finns det en viss censur hos användarna. Det är inte bara Twitters öppenhet gentemot sökmotorn Google som gör att användarna själva censurerar sig utan detta kan även påverkas av arbetsgivare och läsare som är inom samma bransch. Det är viktigt för användarna att de ger en korrekt framställning av sig själva för att inte kränka någon eller få negativa följder i till exempel arbetslivet. Genom undersökningen har vi sett att användarna är medvetna om sin framställning och agerar på Twitter på olika sätt för att lära sig hur just de vill framställa sig själva. Det tar lång tid för användarna att lära sig hur de ska hantera och framställa sig på Twitter.

  • 394.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tindefjord, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Henkelfilmen: En informationsfilm om Henkels industriprodukter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 395.
    Lundberg, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Verkstadens webb: Utveckling av ett verkstadsföretags webbplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has yielded a new web page for the mechanical shop Löfman & Co VerkstadAB, the final result is that of a WordPress built site, built ontop of a foundation oftheoretical knowledge regarding readability and responsive web design. The report coversboth the theoretical groundwork as well as the final technical solutions used on the web site.Two studies of the companys old web site have also contributed to the creation of the newweb page. Another important aspect of the development have been the on-going contactwith the customer. The end result is a standing evidence that there is a use for students fromVisuell kommunikation och design at Karlstad University at the current job market.

  • 396.
    Lundberg, Elena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Musikens gestaltande och funktion i film: En kvalitativ studie om musikens gestaltande och funktion i musikalfilmen Les Misérables2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A film can attract all kinds of emotions and moods of the audience through its audiovisual communications and cinematic expression, in which music plays a significant role in both understanding and interpretation of film content.

    It is interesting to explore the musical significance and the emotional aspect of the film out of a media and communications perspective and visual communications perspective because it’s a subject that belongs to the communications of scientific discipline as film is a media text which is working both as communicative and as audio-visual medium with its expressive aspects.

    The purpose of this bachelor’s paper is to increase and deepen the understanding of music's function and significant role in context with its reinforcing sense of visual expression in film. More specifically, it aims to explore the musical value of the expressive aspect of the media text in form of film musical Les Misérables (2012), which has been transmedialised from the novel of the same name, referring to the sound, music and song in relation to the film's visual expression.

    The research questions are at the core of the essay study: "how is music used to reinforce the cinematic visual expression?" and "how can music signify the narrative and highlight the emotional aspect of the film?"

    The theoretical framework is based on some of the key scholars assumptions such as Michel Chion (1994) and Claudia Gorbman (1987), who share the same theoretical views that the soundtrack seems powerful when it expresses its participation in a scene’s emotional moods as the music follows the scene’s rhythm, the image’s flow and contributes emotional and musical codes of emotions and expressions. According to Chion sound and image interact together to tell a story where sound enrich the image with expressive and informative values. Other important researchers in the field and their theoretical frameworks are included in the theory chapter. As in whole, aspects of musical communication and sound emotionalisation are seen by the previous research as a form of expression, where visual communication in the film is considered as important as the aural and musical for the narrative storytelling, and where the musical aspect with the interaction of the cinematic visual expression highlights the characters emotions and moods.

    The results of the empirical work is presented in about twenty pages qualitative content analysis together with its analytical perspectives that focus on the close reading of the narrative, visual and musical elements and their abstract narratives (emotional moods) in the media text’s seven selected film–song sequences. In performing of the analysis and interpretation of the media text content, the regard was taken to these before mentioned elements to answer the research questions and emphasize the purpose of the study as relevant as possible.

    The conclusion is based on the empirical work analysis and results, and the scholars previous theoretical assumptions in connection with my observations.

    Keywords:  musical  film  les miserables  soundtrack  emotions  moods narrative audio           visual expression  communication musicology

  • 397.
    Lundborg, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Florberger, Carl-Filip
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Understanding Satire with The Simpsons: A qualitative study on providing information and knowledge through animated television2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Satire is a form of humor used to criticize society and ridicule those who govern through irony, exaggeration and humor. What separates satire from other forms of social and political protest is that it uses humor to change human behavior. With our study, we ask ourselves if satire can be used to spread information and knowledge via animated entertainment shows such as The Simpsons.

     

    • Our main research question is: Can the audiences of The Simpsons understand messages within the show’s entertainment context through its use of satire? To help us answer this we also have secondary inquiries such as: Is the satire within The Simpsons comprehended by its audiences? And, Is animation an appropriate method to engage information at hand?

     

    The main purpose of this study is that we are curious if you can more easily become aware of new information and serious matters through the combined use of humor and entertainment. We have chosen The Simpsons to focus on because they were the show that started a new genre of animated satirical comedy on TV. This genre is in today's television society very popular and as a result has created new satirical hit shows as Family Guy and South Park. Moreover we also reasoned that it is possible to make use of an American TV series in a Swedish study, since the world is now very connected, so influences and products move between land borders with relative ease, such as between the U.S.A and Sweden.

     

    We have based our theoretical framework around different types of genres that together with satire can help form an idea regarding if The Simpsons uses its perceived satire to possibly spread information and knowledge. As a use of method we have in this study chosen focus group interviews.  The groups are to view a selected episode of The Simpsons, and then discuss aspects of the program. Using these focus groups, we want to distinguish The Simpsons use of satire and if it is effective in spreading information and knowledge.

     

    With our research, we concluded that there are different views on the use of animation to spread knowledge and information. One side argues the fact that the animated form is effective since restrictions are few. There are some who claim that animation can result in diluting the impact of satire. Participants in the focus groups clearly saw the episode 's message and theme and many of the satirical references. Ultimately the use of satirical humor to spread knowledge and information can to some degree be claimed to be an effective way to reach out to the audience with messages and opinions.

  • 398.
    Lundgren, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Praktikens didaktik och metodiklärarens praktikbesök1996Report (Other academic)
  • 399.
    Martin, Irina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Larter, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Demokratins omedvetna språkrör: En studie av kommunikatörers arbete för organisatorisk demokrati2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational democracy has been a popular research area in recent decades but the implementation in real organizations is slow (Kokkinidis, 2012; Verdorfer, Weber, Unter Rainer & Seyr, 2013). Several researchers (Schön Jansson, 2012; Falkheimer, Heide & Johansson, 2013) argue that communication practitioners have a key role in democratic processes and that because their job role is under constant change there are only a few modern studies regarding the subject. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how communication practitioners in private and public organizations experience their role in the process of internal communication and to what extent they are aware of, and work with internal organizational democracy.

    The practitioners we interviewed had a strong feeling that they were a support function for the business and the organizational management. As a result of the study it is clear that communication practitioners are very loyal to their employers and to the organization they work for. They are, therefore, not neutral in their professional role and argue that their task is to represent the management's interests. All interview respondents managed to unite their loyal mission with an employee perspective in their work.

    We found that the communication practitioners in our study worked unconsciously for organizational democracy. We have been able to draw this conclusion from the respondents’ discussions of how they work with democratic conditions such as transparency, freedom of speech and values within the organization. However, they lack understanding of organizational democracy as a concept or process. The respondents did not feel that they were responsible for enabling democratic conditions such as participation and dialogue, but rather that they should set the tone for the organization's communication and provide guidelines for communication environment and language. The democratic conditions that the respondents were working with are cultural norms and values that they carry with them in their work. We therefore argue that the practitioners’ work is very much influenced by Sweden's democratic form of government and the society in which the organization operates.

  • 400.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    On the Crossroad of Art and Politics: Reflections on Video Activism2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas in the early years of 'video age' of 1960s video art and video activism were inseparable from each other, later on the two became associated with quite separated spheres of daily life, video art becoming the common practice of high-culture in museums and art centers, and video activism moving more into the marginal strata of society, focusing more on oppressed and underrepresented people. However, as video becomes a more common tool of resistance in the hands of political movements of the developing countries, these two separated spheres, art and politics with the means of video, are now once more becoming more connected with each other, providing an important tool of self-representation, political activism and alternative media production. This paper focus on practices of video, conducted by the Turkish video collective Karahaber, and how its videos function as an interconnected interplay of video art and video activism.

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