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  • 301.
    Köler, Monique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Agil systemutveckling: Egenskaper hos produktägare i framgångsrika agila systemutvecklingsprojekt2012Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens moderna tid när saker och ting blir mer och mer avancerade, höjs även kraven på oss människor inom olika befattningar. Detta gäller också människor som driver och arbetar inom projekt av olika slag. Inom projekt finns de som leder och håller samman dessa mindre, men också mera komplexa utmaningar. Dessa resurser kallas för projektledare inom de traditionella projektmodellerna, medan de går under namnet produktägare i den Agila projektmodellen och vilken denna uppsats lagt sitt fokus kring. Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats i Informatik är att undersöka och identifiera om det finns unika egenskaper som en produktägare bör ha i framgångsrika agila systemutvecklingsprojekt.

    Undersökningen visar att affärskännedom, tillgänglighet och tekniskt kunnande, dessa egenskaper är viktiga hos en produktägare för att driva lyckade agila utvecklingsprojekt. Affärskännedom hos produktägare är av betydelsefull eftersom produktägaren har ett avgörande inflytande över prioriteringen och måste fatta en del affärspåverkande beslut. Produktägaren måste vara tillgänglig för teamets behov under hela utvecklingstiden och därmed produktägaren måste ha tillräckligt med avsatt tid. Tekniskt kunnande är mindre prioriterat jämfört med affärskännedom och tillgänglighet. Tekniskt kunnande kan vara en viktig faktor inom den egna verksamheten eftersom produktägaren är en kravställare, och vet vad produkten ska använda till och vilka krav som ska vara ställda.

    Det har också identifierats fler egenskaper hos en produktägare. En viktig egenskap hos en produktägare är samarbetsförmåga. Produktägaren måste kunna samarbeta med själva utvecklingsteamet, och andra intressenter. Produktägaren måste kunna samarbeta för att kunna förklara detaljerat vad det är som ska utföras, och vilken funktionalitet som produktägaren förväntar sig. Produktägaren måste även engagera sig på ett fortlöpande sätt och bör ta ställning till hur produkten ska utvecklas. Kommunikationsförmågan är också avgörande eftersom produktägare måste kunna kommunicera kundernas behov och krav. Ytterligare en egenskap har identifierats vilken är självständighet, den innebär att produktägaren måste tro på projektet och inte vara låst till en alltför snäv lösning redan från start.

    Det har också framkommit andra variablar vilka också har påverkan på framgången av agila utvecklingsprojekt. Det mest lyckade agila utvecklingsprojekt anses vara de projekt som håller det resultat som kunden förväntar sig. Lyckade agila utvecklingsprojekt fodras av ett prestigelöst arbetsklimat samt bidragandes känsla av delaktighet i resultatet. Vidare är det också avgörande i agila utvecklingsprojekt att följa de principer och värderingar som finns i det Agila Manifestet. Så länge projektgruppen följer verderingarna i det Agila Manifestet minimeras risken till att projektet blir misslyckat.

  • 302.
    Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Ledarskap i Globala Virtuella Projekt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 303.
    LILJEBORG, SOFIE
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    KONSUMENTER OCH FÖRETAG I SOCIALA MEDIER: DEN SOCIALMEDIEANVÄNDANDE KONSUMENTENS FÖRVÄNTNINGAR PÅ FÖRETAGS TILLGÄNGLIGHET PÅ FACEBOOK OCH TWITTER2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet med denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka konsumenters förväntningar gentemot företags tillgänglighet i sociala medier. Detta är ett högst relevant ämne idag då användandet av sociala medier är så pass stort bland privatpersoner och då allt fler företag söker sig till denna kommunikationskanal och inser värdet av att använda den rätt gentemot sina kunder.

    Jag genomförde en enkätundersökning med frågor som behandlade om respondenten följer företag via sociala medier, om denne förväntar sig att hitta företag på sociala medier och hur dennes inställning gentemot företaget påverkas beroende på om detta finns på sociala medier eller ej. Mitt teoretiska underlag hittade jag främst genom att använda sökmotorn Google och sökord som ”Konsumenter företag sociala medier”.

    Min enkätundersökning resulterade i siffror som pekar på att konsumenternas förväntningar på att företag ska finnas på sociala medier har ökat det senaste året och kommer fortsätta öka i och med att fler företag tar denna kommunikationskanal till sig med mål att möta konsumenten där denne finns, vilket idag är på sociala medier. Den främsta kanalen för supportärenden är fortfarande de traditionella sätten mail och telefon. Mina respondenter angav att de i första hand förväntar sig evenemang, kampanjer och rabatter, utöver den grundläggande kontaktinformationen, från företag via sociala medier.

    Min slutsats är att företag som vill utveckla sin kundkontakt och marknadsföring bör bli aktiva användare av sociala medier. Att hitta företag och att kunna interagera med dem via dessa kanaler är något som blir allt vanligare och därför ökar också konsumenternas förväntningar på dessa områden. Även om förväntningarna från konsumenterna idag mest gäller kampanjer och event så pekar utvecklingen mot att dessa förväntningar framöver även kommer att gälla möjlighet till kundtjänst och supportfunktioner i sociala medier.

  • 304. Lind, L.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Mikrofilm: En studie av tekniker, användningsområden samt erfarenheter med betoning på COM (Computer Output Microfilm)1973Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Microfilm is an informationmedium which in the last years has been met with a great interest owing to its ability of high paching density. It is important to be aware ofttwo things about microfilm:



    - microfilm can many times be seen as a complement to other storage media rather than a substitute

    - microfilm is not suitable for all applications under all conditions



    Two different microfilm techniques:

    1) traditional microfilming and

    2) computer output microfilm

    The last method means the converting of the digitally stored computer-information and human-readable text on microfilm.



    A COM-system user can either bye his own equipment or trust to a service-bureau

  • 305.
    Lindskog, Carin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Experiences of Tensions Between Exploitation and Exploration in Agile Software Development Projects2019In: NFF 2019 The 25th Nordic Academy of Management Conference: Nordic energies, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile software development (ASD) projects were assessed through the classical triple constraints of cost, quality, and schedule, as well as on communication, collaboration, and responsiveness.

    Objective: Our objective is to examines ASD practitioners' experiences of tensions or conflicting demands between adapting into processes, being structured and having continuity (also called exploitation), on the one hand, and being creative, flexible and autonomous on the other (also called exploration).

    Method: We collected data in twelve semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent themes and sub-themes in the data.

    Results: Three themes and four sub-themes were identified. The findings show ASD practitioners' experiences of tensions labeled in the three main themes: Structure and flexibility, Competence and learning, and Roles and Responsibilities. By identifying how tensions of exploitation and exploration are understood, we contribute to the debate of how organizational ambidexterity is pursued in practice.

  • 306.
    Lindskog, Carin. E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Ambidexterity in Agile Software Development Projects – A conceptual paper2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paradoxes or dilemmas have a long time been discussed in the leadership literature and one of these paradoxes, organizational ambidexterity, is developing as a new research paradigm. Organizational ambidexterity signifies an organizations ability to manage both exploitation and exploration and has been associated with higher levels of organizational performance. How leaders can orchestrate the allocation of resources to both achieve exploitation (continuity) and exploration (change), and at the same time manage conflicts that arise, are the core of leadership challenges. Projects are important aspects of human resource management(HRM) activities. For instance, scholars have point out that projects are a key factor in HRM daily processes and that project development is considered critical to competitive benefit. Today, projects are established within and between organizational functions and often span organizational boundaries. While traditional or plan-driven software development projects were assessed through the classical triple constraints of cost, quality, and schedule, agile software development (ASD) projects are also assessed on e.g., communication, collaboration, and responsiveness. ASD projects possess unique combinations of stability and turbulence. Several agile methods exist, but for all existing methods, the underlying assumption is that they are good at "everything", i.e., both exploitation and exploration. So far, very few research initiatives have analyzed how the ASD frameworks are supporting both exploitation and exploration. The fundamental underpinnings of the ASD research field must therefore be better conceptualized and theorized. The objective of the study is to understand how ambidexterity in the context of ASD projects can be defined. As a help for understanding, this study develop one conceptual framework based on interdisciplinary sources of literature. Furthermore, a second framework provide a clarification of the dynamic capability of ambidexterity from the research field of ASD and the impacts on the different organizational levels. The work will help both researchers and practitioners to understand how to prepare organizations in a better way in order to handle the variety of future business requirements.

  • 307.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Aktionsforskning - ett sätt att bedriva reflekterande empirisk forskning2001Report (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Organisational Learning through the Usage of Project Models in a Multiproject Environment2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Projectivity - an Organisation's Ability to use the Project Work Form1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Särdrag i projekt: utformning av ett ramverk för strukturerad projektanalys2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for the present thesis is the increased application of the project work form, a form that has been growing in usage since the mid 1900s. Today, multiproject environments have become increasingly common, i.e. organisations where projects are a normal part of the working environment and where they are of such great importance that project management and project steering (e.g. evaluation and follow-up) are considered important for the organisation's management. In many organisations where the ability to apply the project work form is critical for survival and profitability, there is a great need to improve the management of projects. The dominating view has long been that all projects are inherently alike, and can be effectively managed and controlled with standardised project management techniques and models. However, more and morere searchers are pointing out that because there are in fact quite distinct differences between different types of projects, project management must be adapted to the distinctive characteristics of the project, which presupposes the possibility of analysing the project in question – of being able to make a "project diagnosis".

    In an attempt to increase knowledge about projects as a type of work form, this doctoral study aims to develop descriptions of distinctive characteristics in projects that are essential for project management in multiproject environments. Three case studies have been performed in three organisations that have developed and implemented a project model to improve their project management. The case studies have been performed using action research methodology. This has made it possible to study project management during an extended period of time, creating nuanced descriptions of the distinctive characteristics in each multiproject environment. From the case studies, project research and personal experience in project environments, a framework for Structured Project Analysis (SPA) has been designed with the aim of increasing the generalisation of the results. The framework, based on three analysis models and three basic perspectives of projects, provides a conceptual model for structured project analysis independent of the case studies.

    The study shows how the various distinctive characteristics of different project types, such as the presence of dual operational logics and varying types of complexity, are crucial for both management of projects and for deciding which improvement measures are most effective in a multiproject environment. A further contribution of the study is the framework that has been designed based on the wide variation presented by different projects through a results perspective. 

  • 311.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    The Development of a Multi Dimensional Projectivity Analysis2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    To Assess the Organization's Ability to Use the Project Work form - a New Approach1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Utveckling av en projektivitetsmodell: -om organisationers förmåga att tillämpa projektarbetsformen2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Ljung, Lennart
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Rönnlund, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Jansson, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Relevance found! The result perspective as a basis for practically applicable project typologies.2013In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 74, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 315. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    A Systematic Approach to Information Systems Development - Part I: Introduction1979In: Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1979, pp. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We shall in two articles describe the ISAC approach to information systems development. ISAC (Information Systems work and Analysis of Changes) is a research group at the department of Administrative Information Processing at the Royal Institute of Technology and the University of Stockholm, Sweden. Since 1971 research has been performed in the ISAC group around a new approach to information systems development with special emphasis on analysis and design of information systems. This work has been conducted in close contact with practical applications in different business companies and other organizations.



    The ISAC approach has now been developed so far that it represents an interesting alternative with great possibilities for many applications in different organizations. Many large Swedish business companies have tried parts of the ISAC approach in one way or another. Some companies have decided that parts of the ISAC approach should be used within the company. An ISAC user group has been formed with representatives mainly from such companies. As to the other Scandinavian countries most ISAC applications are found in Norway, but also some in Denmark and Finland. Outside of Scandinavia, the ISAC approach has begun to be applied primarily in the Netherlands.



    We hope that these two articles can help you to learn as much about the ISAC approach as you are interested in e.g.

    - to be able to compare it with other approaches;

    - to find out if you could make use of it;

    - to find out if you want to learn more about it;

    or for other reasons that you may have.



    The article was prepublished as a report TRITA-IB-ADB-4223, Department of Administrative Information Processing, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Stockholm University (1978-10-03)

  • 316. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    A Systematic Approach to Information Systems Development - Part II: Problem and Data Oriented Methodology1979In: Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1979, pp. 93-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have in two articles described the ISAC approach to information systems development. The purpose of the first article was to give an introduction and overview of this approach and to describe change analysis, the development area that precedes information systems development. Information systems development consists of analysis, design and realization of information systems. In the ISAC approach we divide analysis and design of information systems into the following four areas:



    1. Activity studies (Problem oriented work)

    2. Information analysis (Problem oriented work)

    3. Data system design (Data oriented work)

    4. Equipment adaptation (Data oriented work)



    The purpose of this second article is to describe each of these four areas in the same manner as we described change analysis in the first article. We then show how these different areas are related to each other in a summary. The article ends with short discussions about the effects of information systems development and how to learn more about the ISAC approach.



    The article was prepublished as a report TRITA-IB-ADB-4224, Department of Administrative Information Processing, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Stockholm University (1978-10-05).

  • 317. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Improving Software Design Methodologies by Adding Software Analysis1978Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier issue of Datamation journal (November 1977) Peters an Tripp have compared some representative software design methodologies. The use of these - no matter which one you prefer - can be substantially improved by adding software analysis to the methodology of your choice.



    A representative list of typical problems that organizations experience today in connection with software development projects includes:



    1. Project deadlines are not met

    2. Project costs are severely underestimated

    3. Project results are often more or less out of line with the users' needs

    4. Individual or varying methods are often used in systems development

    5. Communication problems exist:

    - between users and systems analysts

    - betwen different users

    - between different categories of systems developers

    - between systems designers and computer operations personnel

    6. Maintenance of old software occupies an increasing part of the total development resources



    Improved software design methodologies may certainly help some of these problems - but only to a certain extent. Even if we had perfect software design methodologies, some problems of the first five types above would still remain, unless more also is done about software analysis methodologies

  • 318. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems Development: A Systematic Approach1981Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Systems are built for people - to help them to do a better job ... to help them improve their activities.



    The ISAC approach is a systematic aid to the development of such systems. Here you will find the culmination of nearly 10 years work in the Research Group ISAC (Information Systems work and Analysis of Changes) at the Department of Administrative Inforamtion Processing, Royal Institute of Technology and the University of Stockholm in Sweden.



    In the Scandinavian countries, the ISAC apporach is in widespread use both in academic education and business application. Recent international interest in this approach has encouraged authors Lundeberg, Goldkuhl and Nilsson to translate into English this most comprehensive of all books on the subject - for students in computer science ... systems analysts ... designers ... programmers ... and EDP managers.



    Pacing special emphasis on analysis and design, the book "Information Systems Development" will prepare you to develop information systems according to the ISAC approach. You will find that the authors' use of continuing real-life case studies of information systems development projects add to interest - and contribute to this singularly readable overview of systematic approach to information systems development

  • 319. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems Development according to ISAC: Systemering enligt ISAC1978Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is published in English, Swedish as well as Dutch version.



    Rapporten finns utgiven på svenska, engelska och holländska.



    ------------------------------------------------



    This report is a short description of an approach to information systems development of general nature which is labeled the ISAC approach.



    Information systems development, or analysis and design of information systems, means work with producing models ("drawings") of information systems. The information systems are then built ("manufactured") according to these models.



    Information systems development should only be performed if there is a need for new and changed information systems. New information systems are developed among other things in order to:



    - enhance the capacity of the activities in an organization

    - enhance the ability of the acitivities in an organization to meet changes

    - systematize certain resource demanding and repetitive information processing activities



    Information systems development is a difficult task. It is necessary to treat many different aspects of the information systems. It is therefore also necessary to work with different types of models of information systems. We distinguish between problem oriented models and data or computer oriented models. The problem oriented models describe "what" information systems shall do. These models should be produced by users and systems analysts in cooperation. The data oriented models describe "how" the information systems should be built from a computer oriented viewpoint.



    ------------------------------------------------



    Föreliggande rapport är en kortfattad beskrivning av en generell metod för systemering enligt ISAC-metoden.



    Systemering, eller analys och utformning av informationssystem, innebär arbete med att ta fram modeller ("ritningar") av informationssystem. Efter dessa modeller bygger ("tillverkar") man sedan informationssystemen.



    Systemering utförs bara om man har behov av nya eller förändrade informationssystem. Man utvecklar nya informationssystem bl.a. för att:



    - öka verksamhetens kapacitet

    - öka verksamhetens förmåga att möta förändringar

    - systematisera vissa arbetskrävande och återkommande informationsbehandlingsmoment



    Systemering är en komplex arbetsuppgift. Man måste behandla många olika aspekter på informationssystem. Därför måste man även arbeta med olika typer av modeller av informationssystem. Vi skiljer mellan problemorienterade modeller och dataorienterade modeller. Probelmorienterade modeller beskriver "vad" informationssystem skall göra. Dessa bör tas fram av användare och systemerare gemensamt. Dataorienterade modeller beskriver "hur" informationssystemen datatekniskt skall vara uppbyggda.



    ------------------------------------------------

  • 320. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems Devolopment - A First Introduction to a Systematic Approach1978Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report is about information systems development with emphasis on analysis and design of information systems. It does not require any special knowledge of the subject. This report adresses itself to:



    - information systems users, so that they can understand so much of information systems development according to ISAC that the can participate in such work together with other persons



    - systems analysts/systems designers who want to read a short version in order to form a rough opinion of information systems development according to ISAC



    The purpose of the report is to enable a good understanding of the ISAC approach to information systems development and to answer some of the questions that users of information systems usually have about information systems development

  • 321. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Systemering1978Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok handlar om systemering, dvs om analys och utformning av informationssystem. Innan systemering påbörjas, bör man ta reda på om det verkligen finns behov av att utveckla inforamtionssystem eller om behoven är av annat slag. Detta kallas för förändringsanalys. Syftet med boken är att på ett konkret sätt beskriva förändringsanalys och systemering enligt ISAC. Boken behandlar förutom förändringsanalys och de fyra systemeringsområdena (verksamhetsstudier, informationsanalys, datasystemutformning och utrustningsanpassning) även systemering som kommunikations- och inlärningsprocess. Boken innehåller rikligt med konkreta illustrationer, bl.a. i form av genomgående exempel med material hämtat från ett verklighetsbaserat prkatikfall.



    Boken vänder sig både till personer som använder informationsssytem i sin egen verksamhet ("användare") och till personer vars huvudsakliga uppgifter är att analysera och utforma sådana system tillsammans med användare ("systemerare").



    Författarna har parallellt med denna bok också skrivit en inledande bok om samma ämne med titeln "Systemering - En första introduktion". Den täcker också helheten i ISAC-ansatsen, men med en inriktning på att vara en lättförståelig orientering, när man första gången kommer i kontakt med ämnesområdet.



    Boken finns översatt och utgiven på både engelska och holländska.

  • 322. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Systemering: En första introduktion1978Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är avsedd som en första introduktion till systemering, dvs analys och utformning av informationssystem. Boken svarar på några av de frågor kring systemering som man vanligen ställer sig, när man först kommer i kontakt med ämnesområdet. Vidare introducerar den ISAC's systemeringsansats. Den riktar sig till personer som är obekanta med ISAC-ansatsern och vill bilda sig en uppfatning om denna.



    Boken ger tillräckligt underlag för att man skall kunna tolka och förstå dokumentation från systemering. Den vänder sig därför bl.a. till användare som ska delta i utvecklingsprojekt där ISAC-ansatsen kommer att användas. Däremot räcker den inte som vägledning för framställning av sådan dokumentation. För sådan vägledning hänvisas istället till den mer omfattande boken "Systemering", som författarna skrivit parallellt med denna bok.



    Boken finns översatt till engelska och även utgiven på holländska)

  • 323. Lundeberg, M.
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Systemeringsansats ISAC1978In: Data, nr 4, 1978, sid. 12-16 och nr 5, 1978, sid. 23-25 samt Data-nytt, nr 6, 1978, sid. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I företag och andra organisationer upplever man idag ett ständigt ökande behov av väl fungerande informationssystem. Samtidigt har möjligheterna att bygga bra informationssystem ökat kraftigt på grund av den snabba tekniska utvecklingen på dataområdet. Konsekvenserna av detta är att fler och fler kommer att det direkt beröras av informationssystemen av olika slag i sin dagliga verksamhet. Kraven på medverkan vid analysen och utformningen av dessa system, dvs kraven på medverkan vid systemering, kommer att öka.



    Vi skall i ett par artiklar kortfattat beskriva en anasats för systemering, ISAC-ansatsen. Det är en systemeringsansats som redan 1971 utvecklats i nära kontakt med praktiska tillämpningar och som nu utvecklats så långt att den för många tillämpningar i olika organisationer utgör ett intressant alternativ med stora användningsmöjligheter

  • 324.
    Länger, Thomas
    et al.
    Université de Lausanne Lausanne Switzerland.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Framner, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Reimer, Katrin
    XiTrust Secure Technologies GmbHGrazAustria.
    HCI patterns for cryptographically equipped cloud services2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325. MacGregor, R.C.
    et al.
    Vrazalic, L.
    Bunker, D.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Role of Enterprise Wide Business Systems in the Adoption and Use of E-commerce in SMEs: A Study of Swedish SMEs2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 326. MacGregor, R.C.
    et al.
    Vrazalic, L.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Bunker, D.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Impact of Business Size and Business Type on Small Business Investment in Electronic Commerce: A Study of Swedish Small Businesses2002In: Australien Journal of Information Systems, vol 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 327. MacGregor, Robert
    et al.
    Vrazalic, Lejla
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Pratt, Jean
    Harris, Matthew
    How Standards are the Standard Barriers to E-commerce Adoption? Empirical Evidence from Australia, Sweden and the USA2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Magnusson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Aronsson, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Projektledares upplevda stress: - En studie om fyra projektledares upplevelser och hantering av stress i arbetet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress är idag ett stort samhällsproblem. Enligt arbetsmiljöverket är stress en av de vanligaste orsakerna till sjukskrivningar i Sverige. Projektarbetsformen domineras av tidspress, osäkerheter och höga krav på projektledaren. Arbetsmiljön inom projekt är dessutom ständigt föränderlig. Dessa faktorer kan leda till upplevd stress hos individer, och arbete inom projekt kan således anses vara en potentiell källa till stress. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur projektledare upplever stress i arbetet samt vilka copingstrategier som de använder sig av. Coping kan översättas till stresshantering. Studien är kvalitativ och resultatet bygger på fyra stycken halvstrukturerade intervjuer med projektledare från två olika offentliga verksamheter i Karlstad. Med hjälp av kodning har detta resultat analyserats. Kopplingar mellan resultatet och den befintliga teori som finns inom ämnesområdet har presenterats i analysen, samt de slutsatser som undersökningen medfört. Respondenterna har placerats in i Karasek och Theorells krav/kontrollmodell utifrån hur de själva har beskrivit sina arbeten, och de bedöms befinna sig i kategorin för “aktiva arbeten”. Projektledare upplever stress i sitt arbete och de vanligaste orsakerna till stress hos respondenterna uppstod när de kände att de inte hade kontroll över situationen, på grund av att de hade en pressad tidsplan eller problem med att hålla budgeten. Att kommunicera, fysisk aktivera sig för att få tänka på annat än arbete en stund, prioritera, planera och strukturera, öka arbetsinsatsen samt ta hjälp från någon utomstående var de copingstrategier som respondenterna använde sig mest av.

  • 329.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Adoption av elektronisk handel i små och medelstora företag: Innehåll, kontext, process och samspelet mellan dessa2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    E-commerce is far more common in large firms than in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). As a result SMEs risk competitive disadvantages. A growing body of research has attended to this problem but few studies examine the adoption of e-commerce from a broader contextual perspective. To be able to understand SMEs adoption of e-commerce it is desirable to study their contextual preconditions, approaches and effects.



    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the theory building in the e-commerce area by forming a conceptual framework over SMEs adoption of e-commerce: the ECA (Electronic Commerce Adoption) framework. A central starting point for the study is Pettigrews (1985) contextual framework for strategic changes. The analysis dimensions in Pettigrews framework content, context and process are adapted to adoption of e-commerce. Thus, the ECA framework consists of analysis models that focus on a) the content, b) the context and c) the process of e-commerce adoption in SMEs. Further, the ECA framework includes an analysis model over the interplay between content, context and process and a typology over adoption situations. The SME in its role as a supplier is the unit of analysis. The study uses an abductive approach where results from previous studies in areas such as e-commerce, information systems and decision making are used as sources for forming the ECA framework. The ECA framework is then applied to the collection, interpretation and analyze of empirical data from the case studies of two small and one medium-sized enterprise. The case studies lead to the identification of additional elements that are added to the analysis models.



    One contribution from the study is the typology over adoption situations. The typology, which builds on studies of Junghagen (1998) and Engsbo et al. (2001), divides the adoption of e-commerce in SMEs into five categories of adoption situations: proactive adoption situations, adaptive adoption situations, pragmatic adoption situations, forced adoption situations and enabled adoption situations. An adoption situation describes what is being adopted (content), why (context) and how (process).



    Another contribution is the so called adoption guides. These are contextual conditions whose states indicate if a SME will adopt e-commerce or not and if so, which adoption situation they are likely to find themselves in. The adoption guides are: the relative dependence on individual customers, the degree of customer pressure, the strategic needs of e-commerce, the information complexity and, the CEOs extent of aversion towards risk taking. Consequently two major conclusions from this study are that SMEs e-commerce adoption can be divided into five different adoption situations and a small number of contextual conditions here called adoption guides determine which of them a SME tend to go through. The typology enables organizations that educate SMEs or support their development of e-commerce to design their efforts more efficiently and researchers to diversify the studied population. As the study is theory building the contributions and conclusions are propositions that need to be tested empirically in future studies.

  • 330.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    An integrated framework for e-commerce adoption in small to medium-sized enterprises2004In: / [ed] Khosrow-Pou, M, Hershey: IDEA Group Publishing , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Driv- och bromskrafter vid adoption av elektronisk handel: En fallstudie av tre små och medelstora företag1999Report (Refereed)
  • 332.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    E-business Model Design and Evaluation: the Pieces Make the Puzzle2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) nowadays have to deal with the highly complex situation of global competition, fast technology development and extensive business networking. Because of their importance for the economy, it is essential that SMEs embrace new technology and adapt to societal changes such as the increasing use of e-commerce. Few innovations in history offer as much benefits as e-commerce, at least theoretically. However, many SMEs are poor at managing technology as a strategic weapon since their human and financial resources are limited. There is a need in SMEs for elementary conceptual tools for designing and evaluating their e-commerce model. While there are frameworks and methods for business model design and evaluation, earlier research on e-commerce (or e-business) models often focus on business model categories rather than how to design a specific company's plan for e-commerce. Further knowledge of these matters would facilitate for SMEs to gain benefits from e-commerce. The purpose of this theoretical study is to suggest a conceptual framework for the evaluation and design of e-business models in SMEs. The framework integrates e-business model elements from earlier research with a model of organizational change levels. Additionally, a number of variants or values for the e-business model elements are proposed as a tool for design or evaluation together with a set of guiding questions. The importance of IT in an e-business model is acknowledged as technology factors are integrated in the framework. Furthermore, it is proposed that it is valuable to conceptually separate the business model from the e-business model as some companies chose to offer a different value proposition or target other customer segment in the e-commerce endeavor than in their traditional sales and marketing channels

  • 333.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    E-commerce in small businesses: focusing on adoption and implementation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    E-handel: en viktig pusselbit för att nå framgång2009In: Handel & EkonomiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Evaluation of e-services: Research Brief2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract

    This report discusses the evaluation of e-services, both before the adoption of an e-service and as a way to establish its worth when in usage. A model for evaluation building on existing evaluation models in government and research is presented

  • 336.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Intentions to Adopt Open Source Software ERP Systems: A Case Study of Four Swedish Municipalities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Propensity to Adopt - Categorizing SMEs' Adoption of E-commerce: Multimedia CD – September 9, 20102010In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation: ECIME, Academic Publishing International, 2010, p. 227-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few attempts to classify adopters of e-commerce have been published in research, even though such classifications enable adopter profiling for marketing campaigns and governmental intervention projects. Overall, earlier studies of e-commerce adoption have often failed to consider the situation surrounding the adoption. Without information on the contexts in which specific drivers or barriers occur, the usefulness of these findings is limited. In this study, a typology over adoption triggers for e-commerce in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is assessed and enhanced by the case studies of three SMEs. As a result five, 'adoption situations' are proposed. An adoption situation describes a company's disposition to the adoption of e-commerce and the contextual features that foster them. Five categories are identified; proactive adoption, adaptive adoption, pragmatic adoption, forced adoption and enabled adoption. Moreover, factors that determine which adoption situation a company tend to end up in are proposed. These are the relative dependence on individual trading partners, the degree of customer pressure, the company's strategic and structural needs of e-commerce, and the CEO's attitude towards risk taking. The study is theory-building in its nature and the contributions need to be tested empirically in future studies.

  • 338.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Propensity to Adopt: Categorizing SMEs' Adoption of e-Commerce2010In: / [ed] Miquela de Castro Neto, Kidmore End, Nr Reading: Academic Publishing International , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Bellström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Thorén, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Facebook usage in government: A case study of information content2012In: AMCIS 2012 Proceedings. Paper 11, Atlanta: Association for Information Systems , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is making its way into government agencies as a medium for citizen communication. A recent survey suggests that almost half of the population in Sweden uses Facebook. Consequently, government agencies such as municipalities have started adopting Facebook to ‘be where the users are’. Facebook offers new opportunities for rapid dissemination of information and dialogue with the public that may lead to greater transparency and increased e-democracy. However, relatively few studies exist that have examined the actual content in governments’ Facebook pages. In this exploratory case study of a Swedish municipality’s Facebook page, several categories of information posted on the Facebook wall are identified. While the municipality uses the wall primarily for marketing events, the public members display a diverse usage including requests for information or services, reports of service failure, and making complaints. Both parties also use the wall for community building.

  • 340.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Using Goal Modelling to Evaluate Goals for eService Development in Government2011In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Elena Ferrari, Reading: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2011, p. 312-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public eServices have had a fast spread during the last decade. While eServices could enable cost savings and improve customer service, the development may be costly and time-consuming, involving complex challenges such as business process redesign, changes in organisational culture and customer behaviour. Adding to the complexity is the hierarchy of goals for eServices at transnational, national and organisational levels. Earlier research emphasise the importance of alignment between an organisation's use of information technology and its business goals. This complex structure of multi-level goals is often implicit and difficult to handle in practice. The purpose of this study is to examine how goal modelling can be utilised to improve eService development in government by serving as a tool for evaluation of goals. In a case study of a Swedish municipality's eService development project, we found goal modelling to be valuable for evaluating goal alignment between the municipality's local action plan, the national action plan and the project plan for the EU project Smart Cities. Other benefits are e.g. the ability to detect missing or implicit goals and tasks and moreover to improve planning, management and evaluation of eService development. The recommendation is to use goal models and an 'alignment matrix' to improve goal alignment and the overall goal quality.

  • 341.
    Mirsch, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Wymark, Ewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Varför väljer organisationer att anlita både en projektledare och en förändringsledare?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally Project Managers have been responsible for managing organisational change projects. However, a growing number of organisations today use both a Project Manager and a Change Manager in order to manage large and complex organisational change projects.

    The questions researchers have asked over the last decade are: Who should have the leading role in managing change; and who have got the right skills to manage change projects. Several researchers suggest that a Project Manager should not manage large change projects alone and that a Change Manager plays at least one key role when it comes to managing change projects.

    In this study, we focus on why organisations choose to use both a Project Manager and a Change Manager. To answer this we have studied the roles and the activities that a Project Manager and a Change Manager is expected to perform when managing organisational change initiatives. We have also studied what are the expected competencies.

    For this thesis we have applied a qualitative research method. In order to collect a variety of data and also data from industries other than the IT (part of which has been studied previously with similar questions), seven respondents were selected. The organisations represent an authority, a municipality, a regional federation, and private sectors of aviation, insurance, banking and finance and telecommunications. We conducted the interviews with open-ended questions with a relatively high degree of standardization and a low degree of structuring. Data was processed and categorized on the basis of the questions. The results were then analysed and compared with conclusions of previous research.

    The conclusion is that the role of the Change Manager is very different from that of the Project Manager and that organisations in general feel that it takes a combination of both to achieve good results in change projects. Also they should be given the opportunity to focus on different phases of the project. Organisations that engage both a Project Manager and a Change Manager expect these to have different skills and competencies in order to be able to perform different and complementary activities. It is suggested that together they will manage the change project initiative supporting each other and that they will be able to focus on activities that they have the best capacity to perform. In this study the Project Manager is more often primarily responsible for planning and financial aspects, and the Change Manager is primarily responsible for handling the employees’ perspective and a human resource management approach. The study also shows that the Change Manager chosen by the organisation is frequently recruited internally and is expected to have thorough knowledge of the daily work activities.

  • 342. Moberg, B.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tägtström, I.
    Välj rätt programvara: En skrift om hur man stärker företagets affärsverksamhet genom att välja rätt programvara1991Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudbok och fristående Appendix med Checklistor och Kravlistor för inköp av programvara.



    Att köpa programvara kan ses som ett utmärkt tillfälle att utveckla företaget och därmed stärka dess affärsverksamhet. Val av rätt programvara blir därmed en fråga av stor strategisk betydelse. De nya programvaror som nu finns på marknaden kan ge stora fördelar åt den som kan utnyttja deras möjligheter.



    Vid köp av progrmavaror måste kundföretagets behov alltid stå i centrum. Att lära känna den egna verksamhetens behov är en viktig förutsättning för val av rätt programvara. Skriften "Välj rätt programvara" lär ut en enkel metod och ger med hjälp av bl.a. check- och kravlistor, konkret hjälp till att analysera den egna verksamhetens behov. Utifrån denna behovsanalys och med hjälp kravlistorna kan kunden undersöka marknaden och därmed lättare värdera de olika leverantörernas produkter. På detta sätt får kunden en inköpsguide till den "djungel" av programvaror som finns på marknaden.



    Styrelsen för Teknisk Utveckling (STU) har medverkat till att ta fram denna praktiskt orienterade bok som gör det enklare att välja rätt programvara. Den bärande idén är att stärka kundens roll på en marknad

  • 343.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Multimediautveckling - konst eller teknik? Reflektioner kring produkt, process, kravarbete och kunskapsutbyte2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Multimedia involves using a combination of text, sound, still graphic images, motion graphics, and animation in the user interface of computer based products. The general aim of the study has been to explore, describe and analyse the concept of multimedia in relation to the concept of information systems and thereby contribute with knowledge that could be used to improve the methods for multimedia development.



    The main research question has been: What are the distinguishing features of multimedia and how can multimedia be characterised from an information systems perspective? The thesis consists of four investigation areas: product, process, requirements work and knowledge exchange between developers of multimedia systems and developers of information systems. The work has been carried out with a qualitative and explorative approach where literature study and an interview survey have been the primary data collection methods.



    The investigation has shown that multimedia development demands co-operation between people from many different expertise areas who respect each others knowledge and share a holistic view. The development work requires creativity, rationality and a systematic approach. One difference between multimedia development and information systems development is that information system developers often clearly separate the problem-oriented analysis phase from the solution oriented design phase. This separation was not common among the studied multimedia developers. Another result was that quality in multimedia products is hard to describe and measure. The developers claim to have higher demands on quality than their clients have.



    The investigation further showed that detailed explicit requirements specifications seldom are produced in the studied companies. When they occur, it is often the vendor, not the client who produces the requirement specification. To specify requirements for multimedia products is complicated which seems to stem from the nature of multimedia which makes the products hard to describe using traditional means as text. Finally, the investigation showed a knowledge gap between vendor and client concerning the use of multimedia

  • 344.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Några beställares syn på kravarbete vid multimediautveckling2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tanken med den här rapporten är att komplettera bilden av kravarbetet vid multimediautveckling. Åren 1999-2000 gjordes en intervjuundersökning med leverantörer av multimediaprodukter. Dessa ansåg att deras kunder var osäkra på multimediatekniken och dess möjligheter, samt att de hade svårt att ställa tydliga krav på multimediaprodukter. I föreliggande rapport presenteras intervjuer med några beställare för att öka kunskapen om hur de tänker och agerar när det gäller att ställa krav på de interaktiva funktionerna i en multimediaprodukt. Undersökningen som gjordes i början av år 2003 visar att leverantören har initiativet vad gäller idéer till och utformning av interaktiva funktioner. Leverantörerna har stor frihet vid skapandet av inter-aktiva lösningar. I de tre undersökta projekten var det en beställare som tog fram en detaljerad vad-orienterad kravspecifikation

    som upphandlingsunderlag. Att kravarbete vid multimediautveckling kräver omfattande kommunikation och samarbete mellan beställare och leverantör styrks tydligt i beställarintervjuerna. I ett av projekten deltog en användarrepresentant kontinuerligt i arbetet med mycket gott resultat enligt respondenten.

  • 345.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Vad kan systemutvecklare och multimediautvecklare lära sig av varandra-planera eller parera!2000Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Multimedia är tekniken som ger liv och rörelse i våra datorer! Arbetet med att utveckla multimediasystem engagerar yrkesgrupper som inte tidigare varit så involverade i utveckling av datasystem. Ny teknik, nya utvecklare och ökade användningsområden skapar en spännande situation i förhållande till traditionell systemutveckling. Kan dessa två områden ha nytta av varandra? I det här kapitlet diskuteras speciella förutsättningar och innehåll vid utveckling av multimediaprodukter, bland annat behandlas multimediabegreppet, produkten, tekniken, kunden och kommunikation i utvecklingsarbetet. En jämförelse med traditionell systemutveckling görs och argument för ett ömsesidigt utbyte av kunskaper presenteras. Utvecklare förenen eder!

  • 346.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    What can systems developers and multimedia developers learn from each other - plan or parry!2001Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimedia is the technology that puts life into our computers. Developing multimedia systems is a task that engages professional groups not previously involved in the development of information systems. New technology, new developers and widening areas of applications combine to create an exciting scenario compared to traditional systems development. Can these two areas benefit from each other? In this chapter we will discuss special conditions and contents that apply to the development of multimedia products, and touch upon the multimedia concept; the product, technology, customer and communication inherent in the developing process. A parallel will be drawn with traditional systems development, and arguments for mutual exchange of knowledge will be presented. Developers, unite!

  • 347.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wizard-of-Oz Prototyping for Cooperative Interaction Design of Graphical User Interfaces2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often difficult for users to specify requirements on interactivity in multimedia products. These properties are often designed by designers or software engineers and the users run the risk of playing a passive role having low influence on important decisions made. This paper presents an attempt to improve the interactive design process by using graphical Wizard-of-Oz prototyping. The study shows that graphical Wizard-of-Oz prototyping allow cooperative design and test of computer interaction early in the design process ahead of traditional programming. It also demonstrates that this type of prototyping can promote collaboration and constructive dialogue between users and designers, thus strengthening the user as a stakeholder in the development process

  • 348.
    Molin, Lennart
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Larsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Rapid prototyping of user interfaces in robot surgery - Wizard of Oz in participatory design2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often difficult for users to specify requirements on interactivity in multimedia products. Users find it difficult to visualize and articulate interaction characteristics and they often play a minor role in the specification of interaction requirements. This paper reports on a new methodology for experimenting with graphical user interfaces to obtain acceptable design solutions through improved requirements specifications. The method-ology is based on an experimental technique called "Wizard of Oz". In Wizard of Oz experiments a test person is made to believe that he communicates with the computer in front of him, but actually the test manager sits in the next room interpreting the user's commands and giving the right responses. A prototyping tool using the Wizard of Oz technique for experimenting with graphical user interfaces was developed. The tool is called Ozlab and has been used to allow users to participate in the design of a new user interface in an application for hip surgery. The results show that this methodology can contribute to the articulation and specification of interaction requirements. It also demonstrates that Ozlab prototyping can promote user involvement as well as collaboration and dialogue between users and designers. Finally, Ozlab prototyping can be an arena for exploration and visualization of interaction requirements in early as well as later stages of multimedia system development

  • 349.
    Molin, Lennart
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    How Should Interactive Media be Discussed for Succesful Requirements Engineering?2003In: / [ed] Burnett, R., Brunström, A. & Nilsson, A.G, 2003, p. 69-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specifying requirements for a multimedia system is difficult and is often carried out in an informal way. Requirements engineering in information systems development is, on the other hand, often done in a more formal and thorough way. The chapter suggests that the difference is due to the interactive and dynamic properties of the multimedia user interface. A large proportion of the functionality has to be defined relative to the end users who are not experts in formulating system requirements.



    Successful multimedia requirements engineering is often characterized by close contacts between end user and developer; both parties have knowledge that needs to be shared mutually. One way to identify and formulate the requirements would be to work in a laboratory environment where end users themselves can try their ideas regarding interactive products. This is the motive for an on-going construction of a GUI experimental station reported in this chapter. The set-up is intended to admit non-programmers to test ideas for interactive products. This trial concerns educationalists focusing on persons, mainly children, suffering from various language disabilities. The aim is to facilitate manual simulations of the interactivity of teaching aids proposed by the educationalists now and in the future, thereby simplifying testing and making the development of ideas during test runs possible. The paper discusses manual simulation in relation to production of interactive teaching aids and other multimedia products.

  • 350. Mollstedt, Ulrika
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Odd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Company Report: Enterprise System Development in Stages: A Study of a Swedish Paper Producer2006Report (Refereed)
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