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  • 301.
    Albinsson, Ronja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Biologi i förskolan: En undersökning om förskollärarnas inställning till biologi i jämförelse med ämnets användning i förskolan.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the preschool teachers knowledge and interest in biology and how they teach the subject. To answer my questions in this study, I used the survey questionnaire. A total of 88 preschool teachers responded to the survey. They answered questions about their own views regarding biology and how they teach the topic. Results showed that approximately half of the participants mentioned that they did not teach, in equal terms, all areas of biology, the focus was primarily on the areas of animals and nature. It was important for the teachers to consider the children’s interest, and they focus on what they themselves were interested in and had knowledge about.

  • 302.
    Albonius, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Hagbok, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Projektledning för kreativitet: En fallstudie om hur projektledare skapar förutsättningar för kreativitet i ett distansbaserat datorspelsutvecklingsprojekt2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies and projects often face the challenge of creating something new to increase their competitiveness. In this process of creating something new creativity is an important factor. By using a creative approach and utilizing creative processes new innovations emerges. An industry that has grown in recent years is the computer games industry. Competition is fierce and for the companies to succeed, the product need that extra something to make it stand out among all the produced games.

    The project manager's role in the creative process and the ability to be creative within a distance based company is not something highlighted by previous research. This formed the basis of our research question:

    How do project managers act to create conditions for creativity among employees in a remotely organized computer game company?

    To answer our question, we chose to make a descriptive case study. The project is based in the Nordic countries with employees worldwide. It is altogether a distance based project with no shared workspace. We interviewed the projects two project managers, and supplemented with a qualitative survey amongst the employees. The collected material was analyzed with a methodology inspired by Grounded Theory and previous research results.

    Three approaches of how the project managers act to promote creativity are evident in their stories. These approaches are trust, availability and tolerance. They form the basis of our model on how the project managers in this case act to promote employee creativity. Besides the three approaches, two concepts emerged as important tools for creativity in the project: motivation and communication. Our conclusion can be described as follows:

    Motivation provides the conditions for creative thinking. By building an organization where project leaders show trust in the ability of employees, and allows tolerance to be a watchword for collaboration, project managers work to improve employee motivation. This will create opportunities for creativity among the employees in this distance based project. Communication is essential for creative work in the project and virtual means of communication a way to increase availability.

  • 303. Albrechtsen, D.
    et al.
    Evensen, L.
    Lindeberg, A.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Nordwrite Reports II1987Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 304. Albrechtsen, D.
    et al.
    Evensen, L.
    Lindeberg, A.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Nordwrite Reports III,1988Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 305. Albrechtsen, D. L.
    et al.
    Evensen, A.
    Lindeberg, M.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Analysing developing discourse structure:the NORDWRITE project1991In: Foreign/Second Language Pedagogy Research ed. by R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood-Smith & M. SwainArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Albrektsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Det dialogiska klassrummet: En studie om lärares olika undervisningsmetoder2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Theory

    Which education model has the ultimate learning potential? According to Olga Dysthe a varied education predominated by a dialogical nature is the best way of teaching.

    Purpose

    My main purpose in this essay has been to investigate three different ways of education models and decide, on the basis of Dysthes’ model, whether they can be classified as a monological or a dialogical model.

    I have also investigated if the thesis of Dysthes, “The teachers view of knowledge determines the choice of teaching method”, is anchored in the reality.

    Furthermore, I have surveyed how the teachers educate concerning democracy. For example, on the basis of certain rules, are all sudents able to make the selves heard in a classroom that is characterized as dialogical? In such a classroom the teacher works whith activities to involve everyone and according to Dysthe, democracy is an attitude rather than a political system. Democracy is necessary in a classroom that is classified as dialogical.

    Result

    The essay is exclusively qualitative and builds upon interviews with three teachers on different upper secondary social schools witin the Gothenburg area.

    My results indicate that the teathers way of educating totaly differs from each others and that the thesis of Dysthe can be applied on only two out of three cases. Only one of the three teathers includes the dialogue to its full extent. This teacher is the only one to apply democracy in its classroom. The second teacher uses as much monologue as dialogue. The third teacher is categorized as a person who applies the monological education entirely.

  • 307.
    Alcazar, Amelia
    Karlstad University.
    "Gud är teknisk, han har byggt jorden": En studie om barns föreställningar om teknik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 308. Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars-Erik
    Jönsson, Mats
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Lindberg, Ulf
    Roeraade, Johan
    Hamp, Sven
    Escherichia Coli Behavior in an Open Dielectrophoretic Microsystem2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 309. Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    Yuan, Lin
    Jönsson, Mats
    Johansson, Lars-Erik
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Roeraade, Johan
    Amberg, Gustav
    Dielectrophoresis of Living Cells - New Concepts and Challenges2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 310.
    Aldaron, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Anaerob rening vid StoraEnso Skoghalls Bruk2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a specific application of anaerobic wastewater treatment at a pulp and board mill, Stora Enso Skoghall, was carried out. A literature study was done and effluent wastewater from CTMP pulp production was analyzed. The analysis consisted of a broad constituent analysis and an anaerobic treatment trial. Results from these test where used to calculate the treatment effectiveness and resulting energy potential at the mill.

    The literature study and constituent analysis showed that toxicity of the water to be treated, due to wood extractives and sulphur content, was of concern. Detoxification chemicals targeting these constituents where used in the anaerobic treatment trial. The trial consisted of a two chamber upflow reactor and aerobic post treatment. The result of the trial is that the water of concern has about 50% anaerobically degradable content. A full scale implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment would result in a methane production of 3,76 to 7,76 GWh/yr. An application of anaerobic wastewater treatment will also result in electricity savings, in aerated pond, and increase the capacity margin on current sludge handling techniques.

  • 311.
    Aldaz, J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, ICMAT, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Matemat, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Barza, Sorina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Fujii, M.
    Osaka Kyoiku Univ, Dept Math, Kashiwara, Osaka 5828582, Japan..
    Moslehian, Mohammad Sal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Advances in Operator Cauchy-Schwarz Inequalities and their Reverses2015In: Annals of Functional Analysis, ISSN 2008-8752, E-ISSN 2008-8752, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 275-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cauchy-Schwarz (C-S) inequality is one of the most famous inequalities in mathematics. In this survey article, we first give a brief history of the inequality. Afterward, we present the C-S inequality for inner product spaces. Focusing on operator inequalities, we then review some significant recent developments of the C-S inequality and its reverses for Hilbert space operators and elements of Hilbert C*-modules. In particular, we pay special attention to an operator Wielandt inequality.

  • 312.
    Aldelöv, Jennie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Vilka lekar är tillåtna att leka i förskolan?: Om bra och dåliga lekar i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I want to survey which plays preschool teachers thinks are accepted in preschool and wish aren’t. I also found it relevant to investigate when and why they choose to interrupt a play and what happens when they do? My interest for the possibility that we might judge by some values was the reason for my question formulations and for the follow-up questions in my interview.

    For my survey I used semi-structured interviews to get a deeper knowledge about this domain and for the opportunity to ask further supplementary questions.

    The results show how preschool teachers accept most of the plays and that those plays that aren’t accepted and in need of being disrupted or to be changed mostly are plays where someone could be hurt or violated.

     

    It also shows that the preschool teachers think that they should regulate or interrupt children´s plays as little as possible because most of the time interruption turns the plays in a negative direction.

    My conclusion is that preschool teachers are willing to see children’s intentions but there are also norms and values that regulate what´s accepted or not.

  • 313.
    Aldrin-Kirk, Fredrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    The Choice: An examination of young peoples commuting habits2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Aldzic, Almir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Läraren får gärna också visa mer hur man ska göra": En studie av årskurs nio elevers inställning till idrott samt idrott och hälsa och deras uppfattning kring ämnets innehåll och arbetssätt.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Aldén, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Division for Educational Sciences.
    På vilket sätt arbetar en Barn- och utbildningsförvaltning i en kommun med ett arbetssätt som motsvarar problembaserat lärande?: In what/which way works a child-  and educations administration in a rural district with a method as fulfil a problem based learning?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Several of researchers have reflected that the school ought to be developed to a learning organization. A method as proceed from such a perspective and should be able to match a local child- and educations administration is problembased school development. To investigate in which ways a child- and educations administration prosecute a problem based learning inside the organization a case study was used as research strategy. The question this report gives answer to is:

    In what/which way works a child- and educations administration in a rural district with a method to fulfil a problembased learning.

    To collect empiric data a canvassing inquiry was accomplished among the child- and educations administrations group of management. According to the research result it can declares that there are good conditions for the organization to prosecute problem based school development, but there is yet a great deal to do before it´s can be said totally fulfilled. In the organizations group of management there is a varying understanding of the school’s mission, because they are seeing the mission from different perspectives. To be able to develop the organization there is important in the future to establish a common dialogue how the coming vision are going to elaborates, because the vision of today is apprehend as indistinct. Within the organization their communication system is well-developed and the culture of the organizations group of management is cooperating. The group of managements meeting ought to engage more time in having challenging conversations how the pedagogical activities in the organization are going to be continuously developed.

    Keywords:

    the mission, the vision, school development, the culture of the organization and communication

  • 316.
    Aldén-Eriksson, Marie-Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Andraspråksundervisning för döva: En attitydundersökning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 317.
    Aldén-Eriksson, Marie-Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Samtalets betydelse i undervisningen: en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 318.
    Aleali, Seyed Amir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Qasim, Muhammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Can Sustainability be a Key Driver of Innovation and Competitive Advantage?: Case of IKEA2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a practice of companies on their way towards sustainability. It allows them to measure their impact on environment and society, and to create a balance between economic, social and environmental aspects. Becoming more and more sustainable means that companies need to find new ways of operating throughout the whole value chain that creates competitive advantage by providing an innovation opportunity. Innovation that concerns environmental as well as economic impact of the product/service on the society; that is called eco-innovation. Eco-innovation can be a guarantee of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) to the companies that practice sustainability.     

    The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate the reasons companies practice sustainability and whether or not sustainability is a driver of innovation and competitive advantage. Since the global company IKEA is among top sustainability leaders in the Scandinavian region, we decided to study this company for our research.

    Qualitative research and case study design were chosen as appropriate research methods to conduct this study. The global company ”IKEA” was chosen as the case for the empirical studies of this thesis.

  • 319.
    Alem, Peggy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Marketing towards students: A study of Swedish companies' accumulated budget and attitudes towards students2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 320.
    Alemi, Beheshta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Job Satisfaction among Afghan Teacher Educators.: A study of Job Satisfaction in four Teacher Training Colleges in northern Afghanistan.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Job satisfaction is a much disputed issue in the field of education, because it affects the system in many ways and may affect productivity and achievements of an organization. This descriptive study is aimed to find out the level of teacher educators’ job satisfaction in relation to their personal demographics such as gender, age, years of experience, level of education, marital status and location.

    The study was conducted by using convenient sampling with the participation of 132 teacher educators of four neighbouring provinces (Balkh, Jawzjan, Samangan and Sarepul) in the north zone of Afghanistan. The data of the study were collected via five-point Likert scale questionnaire including six aspects of job satisfaction (job itself, supervision, promotion, colleagues, salary and work condition).

    The data analysis was based on the frequency and percentages of the responses and the following results are reported:

    Most of the teacher educators were satisfied with the job itself and with relation to colleagues. The least satisfying aspects among them were salary and work condition. The study also revealed the fact that apart from location there were no significant relations between job satisfaction aspects and other selected demographics of this study. Location had a significant relation with two aspects of job satisfaction namely supervision and work condition. Finally, according to the findings of the present study some recommendations are added.

  • 321.
    Alestam, Lina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Jag behöver någon som förstår mig": En kvalitativ studie om mödrars upplevelse av relationen till handläggaren under kontaktfamiljsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur mödrar upplevde relationen till handläggarna under hela kontaktfamiljsprocessen på Familjeavdelningen i Karlstad kommun. För att undersöka detta valdes en kvalitativ metod där fem mödrar med minst ett års erfarenhet av kontaktfamiljsinsatsen intervjuades. Frågeställningarna var hur mödrarna upplevde delaktighet, bemötandet och vad de tror kunde påverka relationen med handläggaren. För att djupare kunna undersöka vad som sker i mötet mellan mödrarna och handläggarna analyserades materialet utifrån kommunikationsteori samt begreppet makt. Resultatet i studien visade att mödrarna till stor del kände sig delaktiga och väl bemötta av handläggarna på Familjeavdelningen. Denna känsla uppstod när de kände sig lyssnade på och upplevde tillit till handläggaren. En utmaning i relationen var handläggarbyten eller när mödrarna upplevde att de blivit bemötta alltför rutinmässigt. Mödrarna upplevde då otrygghet, vilket kunde resultera i en sämre relation till handläggarna. Vidare kunde vi även identifiera att det finns en rädsla för socialtjänsten hos mödrar med negativa erfarenheter av socialtjänsten, vilket i vissa fall påverkade deras möjlighet till delaktighet.

  • 322.
    Alex, Alexeev
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Katrin, Johansson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Riskfaktorer som kan påverka patientsäkerheten när sjuksköterskor upplever arbetsrelaterad stress: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Patientsäkerhet har en betydande roll i omvårdnaden och baseras på att skydda patienten från vårdskador. Årligen drabbas upp till 100 000 personer i Sverige av vårdskador, och vårdskador drabbar patienter dagligen. I den moderna omvårdnaden hanterar sköterskorna dagligen stress, som orsakas av stressfaktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskornas utförande av patientsäker vård. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva riskfaktorer som kan påverka patientsäkerheten när sjuksköterskor upplever arbetsrelaterad stress. Metod: Litteraturstudiens grundades på Polit och Becks (2012) niostegsmodell med ett induktivt arbetssätt. Efter urval framkom det 13 artiklar som var relevanta för studien. Efter granskningen av artiklar skapades tre huvudkategorier och en underkategori. Resultat: Litteraturstudiens resultat visas i tre huvudkategorier och en underkategori av riskfaktorer som kan påverka patientsäkerheten negativt. Dessa kategorier var Arbetsbelastning, med underkategorin Tidsbrist, Avbrott i arbetet samt Kommunikation och samarbete. Resultatet visade att många sjuksköterskor upplever höga nivåer av utmattning och utbrändhet, vilket kan påverka patientsäkerheten negativt. Slutsats: När sjuksköterskor upplever arbetsrelaterad stress finns det flera riskfaktorer som kan leda till misstag och vårdskador. Dessa riskfaktorer kan leda till att den arbetsrelaterade stressen ökar, vilket kan leda till ökad utmattning, missnöje samt att sjuksköterskorna slutar på sitt arbete. Arbetsrelaterad stress och riskfaktorer som upplevs av sjuksköterskor på arbetsplatsen ökar även risker för att begå flera misstag och orsakar flera vårdskador som egentligen kunde undvikas.

  • 323. Alexanderson, K
    et al.
    von Knorring, M
    Parmander, M
    Tyrkkö, Arja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Hälso- och sjukvårdens ledning och styrning av arbetet med patienters sjukskrivning2007Report (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Alexandersson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University.
    Tid för återhämtning: Ett möte mellan flyktingbarn och FMT-metoden2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete beskriver jag FMT – Funktionsinriktad MusikTerapi. Mitt syfte har varit att undersöka om denna ickeverbala metod, kan stödja utvecklingen för flyktingbarn som ännu inte tillgodogjort sig det svenska språket. De fyra barnen, som alla går i förberedelseklass, visar olika symtom på traumatisk stress som kan härledas till deras erfarenheter av krig.

    Examensarbetet inleds med en historisk tillbakablick på musikterapi i allmänhet. Sedan beskrivs FMT-metoden ingående. Jag redogör för olika erfarenheter av att vara flykting och vad det innebär att gå i en förberedelseklass. Därefter följer en bakgrundsbeskrivning av barnen och arbetet med metoden, samt en avslutande del som grundar sig på de erfarenheter och slutsatser som jag har kommit fram till.

    Mina studier visar att FMT är en användbar metod för att stärka och utveckla funktioner hos barn, där erfarenheter av krig kommit att hämma individens fortsatta utveckling.

  • 325.
    Alexandersson, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Motiverande uppgifter i matematikboken: En kvalitativ studie om egenskaper i matematikuppgifter som elever i årskurs 2 finner motiverande.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that students largely work individually in math books and a lot of literature suggests that students' interest in mathematics decreases with age. As the source for the choice of my research is an interest in how the tasks and information in the textbook contributes to student motivation and desire to learn mathematics. One way to examine this is to find out what students think about the information in the mathematics textbooks by allowing them to describe the characteristics of the data that they are motivated by. The survey will contribute to the knowledge about the types of tasks which, according to the students, is more motivating to them than others. It provides a knowledge that teachers can weigh into their choice of textbooks and other teaching resources. The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of mathematic tasks students in second grade will find motivating. The information contained in the students' regular teaching materials and students' stories or descriptions are the starting point for the study. My research question is: what characterizes mathematic tasks that students experience that is motivating to learn math? The research strategy and research design is qualitative study. Information collected from interviews at a certain time. Of the result and the analysis I have concluded that what characterizes a motivating task is based on the difficulty of the tasks.

  • 326.
    Alexandersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlström, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskans erfarenhet av att vårda tillsammans med närstående: resurs eller börda?: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: District nurses meet informal caregivers of different ages, family constellations and in diverse contexts such as health care centers, child health care centre, home care and school health care. In the home, informal caregivers care a large part of the care provider's nursing and healthcare. In addition to family members, there may also be friends who are close to the care recipient. The aim: To describe the district nurse's experiences of caring together with informal caregivers. Method: The method used was a literature study with manifest content analysis. 14 articles were included in the essay analysis. Results: Six categories emerged: building relationships (subcategory: trust and trust), good communication, cooperation (subcategory: involvement of close relatives), support and accessibility, lack of communication (subcategory: conflicts of interests), factors in the family. These categories are summarized in two themes: informal caregivers as resource and informal caregivers as a burden. Conclusion: The results of the study show that the district nurse's experience of caring with informal caregivers is that it can both be a resource and a burden. The district nurses experience is that informal caregivers are a resource if they are included. The results show that the relationship between the nurse and informal caregivers is important for the cooperation and planning of the patient's care in the absence of the district nurse. District nurses need to raise awareness for the encounter with informal caregivers and patients who have other cultural beliefs and lifestyles than their own.

  • 327.
    Alexandersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Thörnqvist, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Livskvalitet hos kvinnor som överlevt bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Alexandersson, Natalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Den fria lekens betydelse: Förskollärares tankar kring den fria lekens betydelse för barns sociala kompetens2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to study four preschool teachers' attitude towards free play and social skills and how they define social skills in the free play. The methods I have used are studying relevant research and literature covering this field of studies. I have also conducted an interview with the, above mentioned, preschool teachers.

    The study indicates that the preschool teachers shared the conception that the free play is of importance for children to develop social skills. Children learn many social skills by free play. The study also confirms that the preschool teachers are very important for the development of social skills among children by supporting and stimulating the free play and by their attitudes towards both children and other adults.

  • 329.
    Alexandersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Balldin, Annika
    Karlstad University.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskans upplevelse av hur och varför hot- och våldssituationer kan påverka omvårdnaden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 330.
    Alexandersson (Weimers), Jenny
    Karlstad University.
    Styrningsrationalitet i svenska kommuner - en fråga om ideologi?: En komparativ studie om sambandet mellan ideologi och styrningsrationalitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about if municipal council's ideology affect steering in the municipalities of Vellinge and Fagertsa. Vellinge has for a long time been governed by Sweden's conservative party Moderaterna. Fagersta has for a long time been governed by Sweden's left party Vänsterpartiet. The main question of the paper to be answered is as follows:

    Is there a relation between the steering in municipalities and the ideology of the governing parties?

    The hypothesis is that there is a connection between what ideology the party that governs has and how the municipalities are being governed. The question is being answered by an idea analysis. Two ideal types are being used to compare the two steering alternatives New Puplic Management and Traditional Bureucracy with the two municipalities. The conclusion is that there is a connection though it is rather weak. It is also clear that the steering is being affected not only by the governing parties ideology but also by the state. This explanation is supported by the theory employed in the paper.

    Keywords: Styrningsrationalitet, New Public Management, Traditional Bureucracy, Kommuner

  • 331.
    Alexandra, Guseva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att organisera för lärande: En studie av samband mellan gruppens ålderssammansättning och förutsättningar för barns lärande i förskolan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are some patterns and connections between the teachers’ experiences of the conditions for children’s learning and age settings at preschool groups. The study is quantitative, and a web survey is used to collect the data from the teachers. The study includes all preschools in a municipality in Värmland, Sweden. 144 preschool teachers from 55 municipal preschool groups participated in the study. Following age settings are represented in the study: same-age preschool groups, groups with children between 1-3 years old, groups with children between 3-5 years old and groups with children between 1-5 years old.

    The study is based on interactionistic theories, which means that the preschool is examined from various interacting aspects and dimensions. Conditions for children’s learning are seen in the study in relation to preschool quality, which is a complex phenomenon constituted in the interaction between dimensions of structure, process, and outcome. The study focuses on age setting as a structural aspect of preschool quality and following aspects of process quality: organizing of the pedagogical environment, teachers’ approach to organizing of daily activities and teachers’ interplay with children

    The results of the study show that there are important differences between groups with different age settings regarding organizing of the pedagogical environment and interplay between teachers and children. However, these differences are rather ambiguous and can be explained by other aspects and factors such as group’size, children’s age, and pedagogical approach. Therefore, age setting as such is not the key to preschool quality but must be seen in relation to other aspects and dimensions.

  • 332.
    alexson, malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Elevperspektiv på viktiga faktorer hos vårdläraren för ökad studiemotivation.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 333.
    Alfalk, Marjut
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Wäseby, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Skolsköterskans arbete vid övervikt hos barn och ungdomar: Integrerad litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 334.
    Alfredsson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Augustsson, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kraven på revision: är professionellt uppträdande det som räknas?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Auditors in Sweden are supervised by the Swedish Supervisory Board of Public Accountants (SSBPA). This board also handles the consequences following a breach of professional and statutory rules. In a study from 2010 by Thomas Carrington, he came to the conclusion that an accountant’s professional appearance is the most important factor to the SSBPA when evaluating an auditor’s wrongdoings. Following the corporate scandals at the start of the 21st century, the supervision of auditors has tightened through the adoption of new laws and an increase in demand on auditors and audit quality. Because of the new laws and the increased demands it is of interest to study the disciplinary cases published by the SSBPA to see if any changes have eventuated. The question formulation regards the changes in demands on sufficient audit by the SSBPA. Moreover, it includes the question if the professional appearance of the auditor is still what matters the most when evaluating sufficient audit. We have read all the completed disciplinary cases between 2007 and 2012. The cases have been classified as errors and, just like with Carrington’s study, the errors have been divided in to two categories; process- or professional appearance errors. To get a deeper understanding of the subject at hand we have researched what auditing is, how it is conducted and the definition of auditing quality. Furthermore, we have investigated the work process of the SSBPA as well as acquired knowledge about the audit process and the auditor’s professional appearance.

    When comparing this study with the study by Carrington, some differences and similarities have become apparent. One of the differences noticed is that it is enough to err in only one of the two categories to get the harshest consequence; withdrawal of the license, whereas Carrington found that in most cases the auditor has to err in both. In addition, when studying the disciplinary cases published by the SSBPA we discovered that the process errors have increased while the professional appearance errors have decreased. A similarity between the two studies is that most cases will have a milder consequence than withdrawal of license, namely warning or reminder.

    In conclusion, we have found that the SSBPA has tightened the demands on a sufficient audit and this is based on the corporate scandals leading to a stricter legislative and a more tightened supervision of auditors. Finally, it is established that an auditor’s professional appearance is no longer the most important factor when evaluating sufficient audit. 

  • 335.
    Alfredsson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Augustsson, Alexandra
    Karlstad University.
    Kraven på tillräcklig revision: är professionellt uppträdande det som räknas?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 336.
    Alfredsson, Antonia
    Karlstad University.
    Läkemedelsorsakade förgiftningar i Sveringe: Trender, riskgrupp och tillgång2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 337.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Att leva med fatigue vid cancersjukdom- ur ett patientperspektiv: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Introduktion: Cancer är den andra vanligaste dödsorsaken i Sverige. Cancer drabbar alla åldersgrupper men är vanligare bland äldre. De tre vanligaste behandlingsmetoderna för cancer är strålning, cytostatika och kirurgi. Den vanligaste biverkningen är cancerrelaterad fatigue. Livskvalitet som påverkas definieras som en individs inställning till livet i relation till deras mål, förväntningar, normer och bekymmer. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa patienters upplevelser av cancerrelaterad fatigue och hur den påverkar deras livssituation samt livskvalitet. Metod: Litteraturstudien genomfördes enligt Polit och Becks (2017) nio steg. Tio vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut efter sökningar gjorda i databaserna CINAHL och PubMed, dessa artiklar presenteras i en artikelmatris (bilaga 1). Artiklarna som användes till studiens resultatdel var fem stycken kvantitativa, fyra stycken kvalitativa och en med mixad metod. Resultat: Utifrån det insamlade materialet utarbetades fem teman som svarade på patienternas upplevelser av cancerrelaterad fatigue och hur livssituationen påverkas samt livskvalitet. Dessa fem teman var värdelöshet/hopplöshet, ensamhet/inte känna sig förstådd, orkeslöshet/kroppslig svaghet, irritation/frustration, och förståelse/acceptans. Slutats: Cancerrelaterad fatigue påverkar patienternas hela tillvaro och hur det upplever olika aspekter i livet. De upplever en förändrad livssituation och att livskvaliteten påverkas negativt. Cancerrelaterad fatigue är ett symtom som påverkar alla patienter på något vis men alla drabbas inte lika hårt. Cancerrelaterad fatigue kan ses som ett holistiskt fenomen med mycket stor komplexitet. 

  • 338.
    Alfredsson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University.
    Ett Förändrat Ledarskap?: En studie av EU:s ledarskap sett ur ett institutionellt perspektiv, kopplat till internationella miljöförhandlingar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Political Science, level III thesis

    Spring semester 2010

    Author: Emelie Alfredsson

    Supervisor: Tomas Mitander

    "A Changed Leadership? - A study of the EU leadership from a institutional standpoint, related to multilateral environmental negotiations"

    The EU has for a relatively long time considered itself a leader in the environmental policy area as a whole as well as in multilateral environmental negotiations. This study attempts to classify and identify the European leadership with the purpose of relating it to the institutional framework of the Union. The treaties of the European Union decide its ability to act and its institutions the right to engage in different policy areas, the environmental area being the focus of this study. With the recent ratification of the Lisbon treaty this study aims to make out if the type of leadership the Union showed during the Kyoto negotiations has changed with the new treaty, into a new type during the COP-15 meeting in Copenhagen. The results shows that the Union has kept the same type of leadership despite the change in treaties, though with great potential of changing leadership if or when the new reforms of the new treaty are better implemented. This result points to the fact that institutional changes have a small effect on the EU leadership and that other factors such as ability to unite the member countries may play a bigger role.

    Keywords: EU, leadership, multilateral environmental negotiations, Copenhagen, Kyoto

  • 339.
    Alfredsson, Jannie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Downshifting: Hur påverkas miljön och klimatet av downshifting? På vilka sätt kan småbarnsföräldrars inre välmående påverkas av downshifting?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 340.
    Alfredsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    Försäkringstjänst i samband med leasing: Underordnad eller separat tjänst i mervärdesskattehänseende?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 341.
    Alfredsson, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Larsson, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skatteverkets kommunikation med medborgarna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 342.
    Alfredsson, Lottie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Christenson, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Supplier Selection & Quality Expectations: Development of a Simple Supplier Evaluation Tool in a Norwegian Ventilation Systems Company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive market, survival and response to customer needs and

    expectations are enabled through high-quality products for low costs – quality

    products provided by suppliers fulfilling today’s quality-requirements for a low

    price. Companies have until recent years selected suppliers only according to a

    pricing structure, leaving other criteria’s, such as quality, behind.

    The purpose of this master thesis is therefore to investigate quality aspects that

    must be considered from a supplier evaluation perspective and design a simple

    evaluation tool for first-time supplier selections. Both new and existing

    suppliers will be tested with the tool according to information given during a

    case study made at Flexit AS, a Norwegian ventilation-systems company

    looking to introduce a structured approach for selecting suppliers.

    Through an extensive literature- and empirical study, where a survey, of which

    evaluation criteria’s to be included in the evaluation tool, was conducted

    together with several both semi-structured and unstructured interviews, a

    foundation for the design of the tool was presented.

    Quality management systems and quality performance measurements, such as

    rejection rate and delivery precision, are considered as fundamental aspects to

    consider when assessing a supplier. Acceptance levels of approval are set

    according to in-house objectives. If any evaluation tool including quality

    should be usable, an in-house quality system must therefore first be

    implemented by the in-house company – a notable improvement

    recommended to the case company.

    The design of the tool given from the thesis provides the evaluator with an

    opportunity to visualize and compare existing suppliers according to five

    criteria’s including cost, together with an additional spreadsheet for evaluation

    of new suppliers put forward as a foundation and an indicator if new suppliers

    are considering quality on a basic level.

  • 343.
    Alfredsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Haeffner, Fredric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag för erosionsskador i Kölaälv2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
  • 344.
    Alfredsson, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Elvén, Lotta
    Karlstad University.
    Investeringskalkylering: En benchmarking av Volvo Construction Equipment2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen innefattar en intern benchmarking för Volvo Construction Equipment, Arvika, Hallsberg, Eskilstuna och Braås. En kartläggning utifrån intervjuer ska göras över de investeringskalkyleringsmetoder som används i dagsläget. Syftet är att arbeta fram en mall för investeringar inom Operations Sweden, där samtliga involverade använder samma beräkningsmetoder och parametrar i sina bedömningar.

    Volvo Construction Equipment tillverkar anläggningsmaskiner. De fyra fabrikerna bildar tillsammans gemenskapen Operations Sweden. Inom Operations Sweden tas beslut om ett investeringsprojekt ska genomföras eller ej. Beslutet tas av en ledningsgrupp. Innan uppstarten av Operations Sweden togs fler beslut på lokal nivå. Vid investeringskalkyleringen, som är en del i ett investeringsprojekt, uppstår skillnader både i hur man ska gå tillväga och vilka inputs som bör användas. Operations Sweden efterfrågar ett mer lättförståeligt utbildningsmaterial för hur investeringskalkyleringen skall gå till och en lathund som beskriver beräkningssätt, för- och nackdelar och de fallgropar som finns för respektive investeringskalkyleringsmetod.

    Som ett resultat av intervjuerna upptäcktes att de som arbetar som projektledare oftast har en civilingenjörsexamen. Förkunskaper inom ekonomi är knappa vilket kan försvåra tillämpningen och förståelsen för investeringskalkyleringsarbetet. Ett utbildningsmaterial utarbetades utifrån intervjuerna där det framkom hur arbetssätten skiljde sig och var svårigheter fanns. Utbildningsmaterialet ska bidra till att alla projektledare inom Operations Sweden arbetar på ett enhetligt sätt vid investeringskalkyleringen och att alla ska ha tillräcklig kunskap om de olika investeringskalkyleringsmetoderna.

  • 345.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    A Case Study of Recent Mifare Classic Field Deployments From an (In-)Security Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM 2013), Split, Croatia: FESB, University of Split , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mifare Classic is a very popular near-field communication technology that provides a shared-key, access-controlled, storage. Although the authentication protocol of Mifare Classic is compromised since half a decade, systems are still being deployed based on this technology, e.g. for access control systems and for public transport ticketing. By using commodity hardware, such as NFC enabled smartphones, by passing the security measures in some cases only require the installation and operation of a smartphone app. To this end, we present case studies of a number of recent Mifare Classic systems deployed during the last year, to serve as an illustration of practical security problems and to raise awareness thereof among NFC technology buyers and system implementors.

  • 346.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    A Cross-Layer Perspective on Transport Protocol Performance in Wireless Networks2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication by wireless technologies has seen a tremendous growth in the last decades. Mobile phone technology and wireless broadband solutions are rapidly replacing the last-hop wireline connectivity for telephones and Internet access.  Research has, however, shown that Internet traffic can experience a performance degradation over wireless compared to wired networks.  The inherent properties of radio communication lead to a higher degree of unreliability, compared to communication by wire or fiber.  This can result in an increased amount of transmission errors, packet loss, delay and delay variations, which in turn affect the performance of the main Internet transport protocols TCP and UDP.  This dissertation examines the cross-layer relationship between wireless transmission and the resulting performance on the transport layer. To this end, experimental evaluations of TCP and UDP over a wireless 4G downlink system proposal are performed.  The experiment results show, in a holistic scenario, that link-level adaptive modulation, channel prediction, fast persistent link retransmissions, and channel scheduling, enables the transport protocols TCP and UDP to perform well and utilize the wireless link efficiently.  Further, a novel approach is proposed where a modified TCP receiver can choose to accept packets that are corrupted by bit errors. Results from network emulation experiments indicate that by accepting and acknowledging even small amounts of corrupted data, a much higher throughput can be maintained compared to standard TCP.

  • 347.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    TCP in Wireless Networks: Challenges, Optimizations and Evaluations2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents research on transport layer behavior in wireless networks. As the Internet is expanding its reach to include mobile devices, it has become apparent that some of the original design assumptions for the dominant transport protocol, TCP, are approaching their limits. A key feature of TCP is the congestion control algorithm, constructed with the assumption that packet loss is normally very low, and that packet loss therefore is a sign of network congestion. This holds true for wired networks, but for mobile wireless networks non-congestion related packet loss may appear. The varying signal power inherent with mobility and handover between base-stations are two example causes of such packet loss. This thesis provides an overview of the challenges for TCP in wireless networks together with a compilation of a number of suggested TCP optimizations for these environments. A TCP modification called TCP-L is proposed. It allows an application to increase its performance, in environments where residual bit errors normally give a degraded throughput, by making a reliability tradeoff. The performance of TCP-L is experimentally evaluated with an implementation in the Linux kernel. The transport layer performance in a 4G scenario is also experimentally investigated, focusing on the impact of the link layer design and its parameterization. Further, for emulation-based protocol evaluations, controlled packet loss and bit error generation is shown to be an important aspect.

  • 348.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Bit Error Tolerant Multimedia Transport2004In: Perspectives on Multimedia: Communication, Media and Information Technology, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2004, p. 175-191Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    TCP-L: Allowing Bit Errors in Wireless TCP2003In: Proceedings of the 12th IST Summit on Mobile and Wireless Communications: Enabling a Pervasive Wireless World / [ed] Atílio Gameiro, Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 2003, p. 149-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a technique to improve the performance of TCP and the utilization of wireless networks.Wireless links exhibit high rates of bit errors, compared to communication over wireline or fiber. Since TCP cannotseparate packet losses due to bit errors versus congestion,all losses are treated as signs of congestion and congestionavoidance is initiated. This paper explores the possibility of accepting TCP packets with an erroneous checksum, toimprove network performance for those applications that can tolerate bit errors. Since errors may be in the TCP header aswell as the payload, the possibility of recovering the headeris discussed. An algorithm for this recovery is also presented.Experiments with an implementation have been performed,which show that large improvements in throughput can beachieved, depending on link and error characteristics.

  • 350.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Mikael, Sternad
    Signaler och System, Uppsala universitet.
    A 4G Link Level Emulator for Transport Protocol Evaluation2004In: Proceedings of The Second Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), 2004, p. 19-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a wireless link and networkemulator, based upon the "Wireless IP" 4G system proposalfrom Uppsala University and partners. In wireless fading down-links (base to terminals) link-level frames are scheduled andthe transmission is adapted on a fast time scale. With fastlink adaptation and fast link level retransmission, the fading properties of wireless links can to a large extent be counteractedat the physical and link layers. A purpose of the emulatoris to investigate the resulting interaction with transport layer protocols. The emulator is built on Internet technologies, andis installed as a gateway between communicating hosts. The paper gives an overview of the emulator design, and presentspreliminary experiments with three different TCP variants. The results illustrate the functionality of the emulator by showing theeffect of changing link layer parameters on the different TCP variants.

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