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  • 301.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Integrering av digitala medier2016In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Tomas Hansson, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Ipads in the Secondary Classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Reflective discussions in teacher training: A comparison between online and offline discussions of course literature in a class of pre-service teachers2018In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares outcomes of student teachers’ use of oral classroom and written online forum discussions of course literature, with the aim of examining how each mode facilitates reflective practice. Data were collected from a class of 11 participating student teachers. Oral discussions were video-recorded and written online discussions were saved as Word files. Clinchy’s levels of knowing were used to determine the depth of the reflections and qualitative analyses inspired by Harasim were carried out as a complement. Findings indicate that on a group level the performance according to the levels of reflective thinking was the same. Both modes have advantages and drawbacks, but it is clear that there should be a variety of modes to provide individual student teachers with better possibilities of developing their reflections. Further explorations of the interaction between modal preference and modal performance, as well as the implications for online peer collaboration, are discussed.

  • 304.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Secondary School Pupils' Context Based Information Seeking on the Internet2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Teenage pupils searching for information on the internet2019In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Quantitative studies measuring skills related to the Internet are mainly based on self- reports. The aim of this paper is to study how Swedish teenagers, in their last year of compulsory school, carry out different information searching tasks on the Internet, by using a performance test. The test measures teenagers’ searches for information on the Internet from different points of view, such as medium-related and content-related aspects as well as operational and strategic aspects.Methods. The test was performed on the Internet in an open environment, without predefined solutions. During the test, some screens were recorded to obtain information about aspects not covered by the given test answers.Analysis. The test outcome was analysed in relation to curriculum goals, which correspond to the European framework DigComp2.1.Results. Reading long texts to find information was the easiest part but many failed to solve assignments because they did not master the digital environment.Conclusion. The result differed in the participating classes, which points to the importance of covering all aspects of the area when teaching, not forgetting the holistic approach.

  • 306.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Undervisningens digitalisering  - en del av förskolans demokratiuppdrag?: 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Ådefors, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Teachers’ work with digital technology as boundary objects in vocational education2019In: NERA 2019 Abstract Book, 2019, p. 440-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Söderlind, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Bridging the Gap Between School and Workplaces: Vocational Teachers’ Experiences of Digital Technology as Boundary Objects2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Utbildningsvetenskapliga studier av barn och barndom, UBB. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Löfdahl, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Ethical issues in child research: Caution of ethical drift2019In: Challenging Democracy in Early Childhood Education: Engagement in changing global contexts / [ed] Margrain, Valerie & Löfdahl Hultman, Annica, Singapore: Springer , 2019, p. 27-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The background for this study is the last decades emphasised ethical considerations in child research. We have found ethics to be more and more acknowledged and regulations to be strengthened. Based on this, the aim of the study is to review the ethical issues in child research to find out how ethical considerations are dealt with in this respect. Four important journals, representing three important editors were selected. Through reading 707 abstracts from volumes 2016 and 2017, empirical studies focusing on children under the age of 8 were found in 95 articles and were further analysed regarding ethical issues. The result shows that regardless of requirements in journal guidelines, about one third of the articles lack any ethical reflection. Further, it is also shown that just over half of the articles merely stated compliance with regulations and standards, and just a few of articles presented a deeper reflection on the ethical considerations including occurring dilemmas. The shift towards stronger ethical regulations is discussed as if it might encourage the tendency of just doing what is necessary according to laws and when doing so, the risk of ethical drift is elaborated.

  • 310.
    Ericson, Martina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. 1971.
    Förhållandet mellan upplevda lässvårigheter och ordförrådet hos högpresterande elever: en studie om elever i årskurs 3 på gymnasiet som aldrig tidigare uppmärksammats som lässvaga.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to broaden the knowledge about the relationship between experienced reading difficulties and the vocabulary of young people at the age of eighteen who have not previously been noticed by school. The survey is based on interviews with pupils in grade 3 of upper secondary school, whose self-assessments indicate that they experience reading difficulties. Additionally, a standardized vocabulary test is also used. In the study, there is quantitative and qualitative data that, on certain occasions, are measured against a control group. The analysis is based on a socio-cultural perspective and the analysis method used is bricolage. Based on the subject special education, a critical perspective is used, thereby teaching, planning and organization are examined more than the student's abilities.

     

    The combined results show that the students who experience reading difficulties have a less developed vocabulary compared to their peers. They mainly lack low frequency and specialized words such as professional expressions and scientific concepts. The students' overall experience show that they have had very little word knowledge teaching in interaction with their teachers, and they do not have work methods that compensate for their difficulties. Similar results are described in both national and international research. What differs from this study is that the students who have participated have never told anyone about their reading difficulties and that they are high-performing.

  • 311.
    Eriksen, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förskolebarns uppfattningar kring natur: En studie om barns uppfattningar kring naturen, dess resurser och hur vi ska förhålla oss till den2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to investigate children’s thoughts about nature, its resources and how we are allowed to act in nature. In my study I’ve used qualitative interviews with 10 children from two different preschools to answer my questions. The results shows that the children’s thoughts are different depending on which preschool they go to. All of the children appear to have big knowledge about how to act in nature but only half of them think that we should take care of it. After this study I now know that the children have an urge to learn but only if they find the subject interesting and if the teachers can manage to make it relevant for every individual. I found out that I would’ve needed more time and to use observations as well to find out why it was such a big difference in knowledge between the preschools

  • 312.
    Eriksson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Boksamtal med yngre barn: En metod för att pedagoger tidigt ska kunna stärka barns läsförståelse2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Eriksson Gustavsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Linköping.
    Göransson, KerstinMälardalens högskola.Nilholm, ClaesHögskolan i Jönköping.Bladini, KerstinKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Samuelsson, JohanKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Specialpedagogisk verksamhet i grundskolan2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pedagogers inställning till fysik i förskolan: Möjligheter och begränsningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Barns delaktighet och inflytande: Pedagogers uppfattningar om barns delaktighet och inflytande i förskolan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The right for children to share their opinion and be respected for it is something that is supported through several documents, for example the curriculum for pre-school (Lpfö98/10) and Convention on the Rights of the Child. The purpose of this study is to describe pedagogues view on participation and influence in pre-school and how the children’s thoughts and opinions influence the pedagogical activity in pre-school. This study is a qualitative interview study and my focus is on how the children share their opinions, how pedagogues meet them and how they influence the planning of the activities in pre-school.

       This study, as previous researches, shows that the concept of participation and influence is hard to define. The pedagogues in this study imply that it is hard to define and separate them. They also imply that the democratic society starts in pre-school and the children will learn to understand the democratic system. All of the pedagogues in this study think that the children express their thoughts and opinions all the time and the pedagogues would rather say yes than no to the children’s ideas. Two out of four pedagogues said that they carried the children’s thoughts and opinions in the planning of the activities in pre-school.

  • 316.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Förskolepersonals tankar kring projekt ”Giftfri förskola”: En intervjustudie om positiva och negativa konsekvenser2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om hur förskolepersonal anser att projekt ”Giftfri förskola” har påverkat verksamheten. Sju verksamma inom förskolan i två mindre kommuner intervjuades. Med ett sociokulturellt perspektiv utformades intervjuerna och analyserade att det fanns både positiva och negativa konsekvenser av projektet.

    De positiva konsekvenserna var ökad medvetenhet, kunskap och kreativitet samt att det bidragit till en tryggare miljö. Den ökade medvetenheten visas vid inköp av nya material då innehållet granskas noga. Den ökade kuskapen har bidragit till ett ökat intresse kring ämnet kemikalier och det anses viktigt att handla giftfritt. Kreativiteten anses fått en större plats i verksamheten då alternativa material fick plockas in för att ersätta det material som slängdes bort. Den största positiva effekten som tolkas utifrån förskolepersonalen är att barnen vistas i en säkrare förskolemiljö då de inte blir utsatta för lika mycket kemikalier som innan projektets start. 

    De negativa konsekvenserna som visas i studiens resultat är dyrare inköp, färre material, felaktig prioritering och osäkerhet. Giftfria material är ofta dyrare i inköp, vilket i sin tur lett till att det finns färre material på förskolorna. Projektets prioritering ifrågasätts av förskolepersonalen då enbart material stått i fokus, men lokalerna inte setts över. Det finns även en viss osäkerhet hos förskolepersonalen kring vilken forskning de ska lyssna på, då det i efterhand kommit ny som visar att kemikalier inte är farliga.

  • 317.
    Eriksson, Katja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Elevledda utveckligssamtal: - för ökad motivation för skolarbetet och delaktighet i sitt eget lärande?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how pupils think different kinds of parent teacher conferences has any significance on the feeling of participation and motivation in their learning. The purpose is also to find out how pupils think of using different kinds of assessment.This study is based on a hypothesis that studentled parent teacher conferences increases the students participation in it ́s own knowledge development. It is also based on the hypothesis that this increases the students metacognition and its internal motivation. This study is founded on a quantitative survey answered by students in eighth grade in two different schools with different kinds of parent teacher conferences. I have analyzed the results of the survey by comparing the results of two groups; they who have studentled parent teacher conferences and they who have more traditional parent teacher conferences.The result shows that students use and believe teachers use several different kinds of assessment in preparing their parent teacher conferences. Peer assessment is though underrepresented and considering the power it has, according to research it needs to be developed. Using studentled conferences increases the feeling of participation and motivation in general, not only internal motivation. My conclusion is that studentled conferences promote motivation and participation. Therefor methods for implementation of parent teacher conferences needs to be developed in many schools.

  • 318.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Upplevelser av ämnet matematik: Elevers livsberättelser i ett åk 1-9 perspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 319.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Högläsning i förskolan: Några förskollärares uppfattingar om högläsningens organisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with the study is to examine pre-school educator’s perceptions about how the reading environment should be organized. In the study therefore, the perceptions of the pre-school educators are examined. To seek answers to the above I have done eight qualitative interviews with a total of ten pre-school teachers with groups of mixed ages. My theoretical point of this study is the sociocultural perspective, where learning is seen as a collective act and the pre-school teacher plays a central role. The result shows that the sofa plays a central role in the reading and that at the kindergarten there is a lot of work around its reading aloud environment. It also turned out to be the educational atmosphere were similarly the pre-school teachers in the labor law did the same way in the work of reading aloud.

    Keywords: Read Aloud, Literacy, Educational atmosphere

  • 320.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Små kryp och barn med spring i benen: Hur de yngsta barnen upptäcker djur samt hur pedagoger i förskolan bemöter barns tidiga utforskande av djur2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how young children use their senses to explore bugs, which attitude teachers in preschool have to bugs and how preschool take advantage of children’s interest in bugs.

    The study was performed through observations at a preschool with children aged 1-2 years (toddlers), and interviews with 10 teachers who have all been working with the youngest children at the preschool. The study shows that toddlers are very interested in bugs and they explore the animals verbally and by using their senses. The attitudes of the teachers towards bugs vary, but they avoid displaying reluctance in front of the children, since they all believe that attitudes of adults affect the children's interest in and willingness to explore. It also shows that it is common to use the toddlers' interest in bugs for the moment, but less common to continue working within the subject, for example with a theme oriented curriculum.

  • 321.
    Eriksson, Maja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pedagogers arbete med natur och miljö tillsammans med digital teknik i utevistelsen: En studie gjord på pedagogers arbetssätt och deras syn kring natur och miljö i förskolan, tillsammans med digital teknik som ett komplement i utevistelsen.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will determine if and how teachers in preschool works with nature and the environment, together with digital technology used outdoors. Teachers' view on using digital technology outdoors have also been investigated. Research and literary texts have been selected in order to link the results obtained on the basis of the methods. The methods that has been used, are survey and interviews. Teachers of various preschool in different municipalities responded to the survey, while teachers in the same municipality participated in the interviews. The results were processed with the help of charts and tables. With the help of the theoretical starting point, which is the cognitive perspective, and the final results have patterns been seen in the analysis. The patterns seen in the analysis, is that teachers work differently based on the department they work in. In the discussion have the analysis and the results been deepenend based on the cognitive perspective, to get answers to the study's purpose and issues.

  • 322.
    Eriksson, Maja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Hammarström, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Fysikundervisning inom förskolan i en utomhusmiljö: En kvalitativ studie med en planerad aktivitet som observationsgrund2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to see how the outdoor environment in preschools can be used as an educational tool to teach children about physical phenomena. We have chosen to do this by using two methodical approaches, observations and interviews. During the observations a predetermined activity was carried out which explored friction on a slide. The result shows what the interviewed teachers think about the physics and natural science education and conceptualization in a preschool practice. During the study one can see how teachers are uncertain about the work with natural science concepts and we further discuss what future research could possible look like. Discussions regarding how children learn from each other are also held, and furthermore how important it is to verbally use adequate concepts such as friction in order for children to get acquainted with the phenomenon. In the interviews, we also got to see the teachers' positive attitude towards the outdoor environment as an arena for learning.

  • 323.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Samma lekvärld - olika språk: En liten studie om icke-verbal kommunikation i lek bland nyanlända barn i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the newly arrived children's use of non -verbal communication when they are playing freely, and if there is any difference when a preschool teacher is present. It is also being studied in which characteristic games the newly arrived children use their non - verbal communication the most. The study is qualitative and the study is performed through observations. The observations have been conducted in a multicultural preschool where the focus has been at free play, the proximal development zone, educational atmospheres and non-verbal communication . The results show that the newly arrived children use non-verbal forms of communication when playing with each other , this is made clear in the four characteristic games described in the results section of this study. Furthermore , it appears from the study that there are differences in the children's communication strategies when there are educational support in children’s play compared to when they play and do not have educator’s support. 

  • 324.
    Eriksson, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Fenomenet fysik som innehåll i förskolans verksamhet: Förskollärarnas uppfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how preschool teachers think the subject of physics is shown in the preschool environment. A comparison was also conducted to see if there was any difference between the preschool teachers view of working with physics depending on when they were educated.

     

    The study was conducted in the form of qualitative semi-structured interviews with active preschool teachers. The interviews were conducted in a calm environment and there was no disturbances. The interviews were used as a foundation to see if the preschool teachers thought they had sufficient knowledge in physics to be able to complete their work. A comparison was made between two newly graduated preschool teachers and two preschool teachers educated in the 1990s.

     

    The results show that the preschool teachers think physics is an interesting subject, but they don’t work with it sufficiently. They believe the reason for that this is insufficient material, lack of time, conflicting colleagues and ignorance.

  • 325.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förskollärares tankar om förhållandet mellan verbal och icke-verbal kommunikation i förskolan: En studie om förskollärares uppfattningar om den icke-verbala kommunikationens betydelse för den pragmatiska delen av barns språkutveckling i samlingssituationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about preschool teachers' thoughts on verbal and nonverbal communication in assembly situations. The purpose of the study is to show how preschool teachers’ look at the relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication and how the relationship is expressed for children in assembly situations on the basis of pragmatic language development. The questions, which this paper is based on, are: What are preschool teachers’ interpretations regarding the use of non-verbal communication in assembly situations in preschool? What are preschool teachers’ interpretations regarding the use of verbal communication in assembly situations in preschool? The empirical material has been gathered through interviews with active preschool teachers’ and make, in combination with previous research and relevant literature on the subject, the basis for result and analysis in this study. The analysis has its starting point in the perspectives of Merleau-Ponty and the phenomenology. The result, that the empirical material shows, is that the non-verbal communication is used to enhance the verbal communication and that this accrue both consciously and unconsciously in assembly situations.

  • 326.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Är en sten levande?: En studie om barns föreställningar om vad som är levande2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the children’s thoughts and opinions about what is living and non - living. Whether they believe that animals and plants are living, and about the beliefs that children have about things that are non-living and living. There were four six year old children who were included in the study and the methodology used in this study was a semi -structured interview. I used twelve pictures of different living things and non - living things. I showed the pictures to the children and posed various questions that resulted in different responses and reactions from the children. The results from this method was the children's general views on what was living and non - living. With the grounds that if something can move, it's alive.

  • 327.
    Eriksson, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Möjligheter och hinder med ett lekpedagogiskt arbetssätt: En intervjustudie om pedagogers erfarenheter av att arbeta lekpedagogiskt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of my thesis is to examine preschool teacher’s thoughts and experiences of working with pedagogical play. What are their views of the possibilities of this way of work and are there any difficulties whit this approach? In my research I´ve been using semi-structured interviews which means that the interview questions are shaped so the participants have space to answer and to interpret based on their own perception of the outside world. Using a designed interview guide I´ve created questions that cover different areas that are of relevance to my research. My result shows that the preschool teachers think pedagogical play is an excellent approach. They have the will and commitment but there are some practical difficulties such as time constraints and personnel changes that make them unable to work with pedagogical play in the extent they would like.

  • 328.
    Esberg Högsten, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    ”Livet blir liksom lite roligare, busigare och fantasifullare om dockor är med i förskolans verksamhet”: Hur dockan används för kommunikation med grund i forskning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if dolls are used as an artifact in preschools for communication, language and identity development - based on previous research. It also examines the teachers' opinions about what a doll or puppet is.

    To be able to look in to this I sent out a survey with questions and got responses from 176 informants within the preschool.

    The result shows that dolls are frequently used by many preschool teachers, but around 40-50% had not taken part in any research or education on the subject. The result also shows that the teachers usually associates the word ‘doll’ with baby dolls”. Some conclusions I can see after this study is that the dolls place in the preschool is determined based on adults' opinions about it. The doll is often used as a communicative tool but not always consciously or with a basis in research.

  • 329.
    Fager, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Gestaltande lekpedagogik som utvecklingsprocess: En intervjustudie med förskollärare2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to examine and illustrate how drama pedagogy as a working process can get started and be continued. To get the teachers own stories and perspectives, I chose to interview them. My study is based on Lindqvist theory (1996) of drama pedagogy. According to Lindqvist, you let the theoretical and the aesthetics subjects cooperate in drama pedagogy. Playworlds are built, drama is used, the children create a purpose and the learning becomes joyful. Lindqvists theory contains different concepts that are central, such as; theme, drama, playworld and fantasy. I use these concepts to guide the conversations in my interviews and to explain my analysis and to submit the result. I have identified different phases in the pre-school teachers' working process. I submit these phases as my result, for example “the start”, “the purpose”, “choosing of theme” and “building a playworld”. Every phase contains challenges that the pre-school teachers have to solve. I have made one conclusion from my study, namely that drama pedagogy is not only a method, an approach or drama. Drama pedagogy is something collective that is built together through cooperative testing during a longer time, it´s a developing process without end.

  • 330.
    Fagerlind, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Barn med funktionsvariation i förskolan: Vad påverkar hur barn med funktionsvariation inkluderas i leken och i planerade aktiviteter2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 331.
    Fahlström, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lärandemiljöer för utforskande inom naturvetenskap: Relationen mellan planering och nyttjande av inomhuslokaler på en förskola2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between how preschool’ premises are planned and how they are used. The study focusing on learning enviroments adapted for exploration in science. The investigation takes place at a newly opened preschool. It is based on a qualitative approach in form of semistructured interviews. Interviews were made with two informants involved in the planning and the design of the preschool’ premises. Interveiws were also made with four preschool teachers who uses these environments. These interveiws were related to each other to investigate the relationship between how these premises are planned and used. The results are reported in three categories. The first category reveals thoughts about premises’ potential. Second one shows different material availability. The third category is about social venues. As impact this study can contribute knowledge that can be useful in creating new learning environments. The results could also be used if existing preschools wants to reorganization their environments.

  • 332.
    Faizi, Ahmadwali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Students learning achievements in biology. The case of Learning achievements among boys and girls in grade 7 in Urozgan province of Afghanistan: The case of Learning achievements among boys and girls in grade 7 in Urozgan province of Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal with studies of learning achievements is to obtain research based knowledge about the issue and to make appropriate actions. The aim of this study is to explore some factors which may influence grade 7 students’ learning achievements in science and to compare boys and girls learning achievements in relation to different variables in Urozgan province of Afghanistan.

    Learning achievements in science and especially in biology is an over studied issue in worldwide research but in the Afghan context much more research is needed to find out what are the factor which may help and promote students learning achievement.

    This study is carryout in the southern province of Urozgan and the data is collected from schools administration (students final exam scores of 788 students) and student’s views about biology through a questionnaire (84 students field questionnaire). The main finding of this study was that girls have higher average scores compared to boys in biology subject in this sample. Moreover it was found that girls received less support at home than boys enjoyed. This fining also confirms similar studies in the country as well as in the region. In this study some factors which may influence their achievement were looked up on.

    Those students who enjoy the subject of biology have higher scores than students who don’t find it an enjoyable topic. That those girls who see biology as a "difficult" subject scored higher indicate that they have low self-confidence. Those students whose mothers were educated had higher scores than students with not educated mother. Moreover it was observed that children of educated mothers scored higher than children of educated fathers. This finding, although, self-evidence but still indicate the high value of girls education, especially in educationally poorer rural areas such as Urozgan. This study also confirms that the more experience the teachers have the higher the scores of their students. Another worth mentioning point in this study is that teachers view both boys and girls as equally talented in biology.

  • 333.
    Falk, Diana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Det gäller att styra upp!: Pedagogers tankar om sin inblandning i den fria leken, baserad på en fo- kusgruppsintervju.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study i investigate which discources that are revealed when educators reason about their involvement in free play. I am doing an interview using a focus group that consists of two preschool teachers and one child caregiver to answer my questions. The result of the analysis shows that educators first and foremost engages in the free play if children can come to harm, if there is a situation of conflict or if a child is in need of help with entering a play situa- tion or does not know how to behave while playing with others. It is also clear that educators have a tendency to embed values and prepare children for the future.

  • 334.
    Falkenstedt, Annicka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Från Bilder Till Språk: En studie om hur förskollärare använder bilder för de yngsta barnens språkinlärning2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur förskollärare använder bilder för de yngsta barnens språkinlärning. Genom intervjuer med fyra förskollärare i olika åldrar undersökte jag hur de använder bilder som ett hjälpmedel för de yngsta barnens språkinlärning. Vidare genomförde jag videoobservationer i en barngrupp med åldrarna ett till två år, för att undersöka hur barnen interagerar med bilder.

    I studiens resultat framkommer förskollärarnas barnsyn, förhållningssätt och arbetssätt för ett arbete med bilder. Således visar det sig att samtliga förskollärare föredrar och ser positivt till att använda bilder som ett hjälpmedel för språkinlärning. Förskollärarna ser bilder som ett kommunikationshjälpmedel för barnen att uttrycka sig både med språklig och icke språklig kommunikation. Det framkommer även att det går att variera användingen stort med bilder i verksamhetens miljö.

  • 335.
    Fatheddine, Djamila
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    "Man blir så lugn när man läser". Om kroppen och rummet i läsglada elevers läspraktikerManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336.
    Ferm Skoglund, Ann-Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Samband mellan rektors ledarskap och andra faktorer som främjar skolutveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the relationships between the principal´s leadership and other factors that promote school development. This has been considered from a system theoretical perspective through a quantitative method in the form of a survey. In the survey, teachers have estimated different statements to answer the questions:

    - How do teachers estimate factors that promote school development?

    - How do teachers estimate principal's leadership in school development work?

    - What is the relationship between how teachers estimate factors in principal´s leadership and other factors that promote school development?

    The result shows that there is a correlation between the principal's leadership and a collaborative culture as well as the systematic quality work. There is a strong correlation between the principal's leadership (to focus on the school's mission, to provide conditions and to lead systematically quality work) and a collaborative culture. The result shows mediumstrong correlation between all the investigated factors in the principal's leadership and the systematic quality work.

  • 337.
    Filipsson, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    En religiös historia: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om indiska lärares beskrivningar av dess undervisning kring religion i historieämnet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 338.
    Filipsson Lopez, Nicolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Vi ska koka soppa, is-soppa!: En observationsstudie om förskolebarns meningsskapande kring aggregationsformer som lärande objekt.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to see the perceptions that preschool children have about the aggregate states as a phenomena through some simple activities with ice (solid), water (liquid form) and water vapor (gas form) and how the children create meaning through the aggregate states. The theoretical perspective in this study is development pedagogic, a part of phenomenography. The used method is qualitative observation in a preschool group and the data is collected with notes. The children have been observed during two different activities; an experiment, From Ice to Vapor and a game, the Molecular game. The experiment took place twice, one time before the game and one time after. 19 children in the ages 4-6 years have been part of this study. The results show a movement of the conversation from the first experiment when they talked a lot about earlier experiences of water to the last experiment when the conversation was more about molecules. The children changed their perceptions in the meeting with the activities and they created meaning in relation to the aggregate states. The study also shows that the new experiences that the children receive through the activities are helping them with their perception of the object of learning, the aggregate states.

    This study gives preschool teachers an understanding of how children are creating meaning about aggregate states and how understanding of chemistry can take place in preschool. 

  • 339.
    Fjällström, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Det blir något magiskt...": - hur förskollärare resonerar kring lekpedagogik och barns kamratkulturer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how preschool teachers reason about the educational approach of pedagogical play, and how it can affect children's relationships. I decided to use interviews as a method. I chose to interview three preschool teachers, who all work with this educational approach. The results show that collective experiences are important for relationships in preschool. These experiences creates a foundation for conversations and play between children, but also between children and adults. The theme and playworld creates a mutual context for what, when and even how you play with each other. My hopes are that this study will contribute knowledge about how pedagogical play can affect children’s peer cultures and the atmosphere in preschool.
 

  • 340.
    Flodkvist, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Förskolepedagogers uppfattningar om verksamhet kring människokroppen i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out the preschool educators’ perceptions to work with the human body. The method used was semi-structured interviews with a prepared interview-guide as a tool. Six educators were interviewed. The result showed that the educators had experience in working with the human body and that they considered it relevant to include the subject in pre-school activities. It also appears that the educators do not think that they work with the subject, even though the result is that it is something they do almost every day. All the educators have a positive attitude towards learning about the human body in the preschool.

  • 341.
    Fodstad, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Elever i behov av särskillt stöd: En kvalitativ studie i definitionen av begreppets användning i styr- och policydokument2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how the term "pupils in need of special support" is defined in Swedish central policy documents. The essay is based on a social constructive contribute knowledge about the term’s definition and interpretation with support in a range of scientific texts. The method for achieving the purpose based on qualitative textual analysis of Skollagen 2010:800, Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet- Lgr 11, Salamancadeklarationen and analysis of the result of three scientific studies.Neither Skollagen 2010:800 nor Lgr 11 gives a clear definition of the term “pupils in need of special support”. The Salamanca declaration defines the term as necessary due to either a disability or some form of learning difficulty. None of the analyzed policy documents provide a specific definition of who is considered to be in need of special educational needs. In the scientific studies, it is clear that the definition of “pupils in need of special support” in central policy documents is unclear. There are no clear guidelines as to which persons are considered to be in need of special support. The interpretation of the term is placed on the individual school or teacher.

  • 342.
    Fogel, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Bildskapande i förskolan: En studie om pedagogers upplevelser av deras påverkan på barns bildskapande2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My study is about image forming in preschool. The aim of my study is to find out how pedagogues perceive that they relate to image forming activities in preschool. As a method I have used a qualitative interview method where I have written interviews with five pedagogues. My study is based on Vygotskij and his socio-cultural perspective on learning.

    The results showed that the pedagogues who participated in my study resembled a picture of how they work with image forming in preschool and emphasize the importance of a variety of material and techniques. The results also showed that the pedagogues believe that their own attitude is important for the influence of the children in their creation. Furthermore the pedagogues explain that they believe that the image forming process is an important part of the children´s learning through the children trying to explore at their own pace, as well as the joy of being together in the process.

  • 343.
    Folebo Carlsson, Moa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kvinnan och hennes roll så som den framställs i valda läroböcker för grundskolans högstadium: En analys av fem svenska läroböcker med fokus på islam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet undersöker framställningen av kvinnan inom islam och så som kvinnor presenteras i fem utvalda läroböcker. Läroböckerna är inriktade mot högstadieklasser. Med hjälp av läroplan, tidigare forskning gällande både islam och läroböcker och olika typer av analyser diskuteras följande syfte och frågeställningar:

    Uppsatsen syftar till att belysa hur kvinnor framställs inom islam i fem svenska läroböcker på högstadiet.

    • Vad presenteras som kvinnans roll och status i de muslimska delarna av några utvalda läroböcker?
    • Presenteras några kvinnliga förebilder i läroböckerna?

    Analysen visar att läroböckerna hade väldigt olika definitioner över vad som klassas som kvinnans roll och status. Vissa läroböcker var noggrannare än andra med att förklara att det var stora skillnader beroende på var i världen muslimerna befinner sig.

    Gällande om det fanns några kvinnliga förebilder är analysen tvetydlig. Det finns kvinnor presenterade men huruvida de ska ses som förebilder eller ej ligger hos läsaren att bedöma. 

  • 344.
    Folke-Fichtelius, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Löfdahl, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    En smygande översättningsprocess: Innebörder av begreppet omsorg i texter om förskolans uppdrag och kvalitetsarbete2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar: En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román, Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016, p. 285-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Forsberg, AnnaCarin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Jag tror det beror på att vi inte riktigt definierat vad det är…: Förskollärares förhållningssätt till, och uppfattningar om, barns inflytande i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a few preschool teachers' thoughts and ideas concerning children's influence in preschool. The purpose of the study is to examine preschool teachers' attitudes to, and perceptions of, children's influence in preschool. The questions of the study are: How do preschool teachers interpret the concept of influence in preschool? What opportunities do children have to influence everyday life in preschool according to preschool teachers? To collect all data a qualitative take on the interview method has been used. The results then were transcribed and analyzed according to Shier's (2001) five-step method for examining different degrees of influence. The model is based on Article 12.1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). The conclusions of the study show that the concept of influence is difficult to interpret and that there is no common definition on how to actually incorporate real influence for children in preschool.

  • 346.
    Forsgren, Kalle Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    ”Alla tolkar detta olika liksom”: Hur lärare i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa arbetar med bedömning, betyg och likvärdighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how teachers in Physical education sees and approaches the work of assessment and grading and how that affects the equivalence in the subject. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Aaron Antonovskys SOC and its three key concepts; Comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. The empirical material has been collected through qualitative in-depth interviews with six teachers in Physical education. The result shows that there are differences among the teachers in, for example, their perspective of equivalence, their interpretations of the curriculum and which working methods they are using when assessing and grading. The study’s conclusion is that the curriculum’s interpretability creates a requirement for the teacher’s subjective opinion. The differences between the interpretations leads to non-equivalent conditions for the students in the assessment- and grading process in Physical education.

  • 347.
    Forslund, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Bilderboken i förskolan: Högläsningens betydelse för barns språkutveckling och delaktighet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study has been to get a previous knowledge about how pre-school teachers look at the impact of the picture book for children and their language development and participation at the age of three to five years. The study was carried through inquiries at a pre-school in a west Swedish urban district. The study proceed from the sociocultural theory which means that children learn by teamwork with other more experienced individuals. The result shows that the pre-school teachers consciously let the interest of the children guide the choice of books. At the same time they push for the meaning of conversation with the children. The pre-school teachers prefers to work with a smaller group in picture book readings to stimulate language weak children and make them participant more. The children can look for and count things in the pictures, and the adults got a bigger focus on the talking child. Picture books are also meaningful in a theme at the pre-school. In the literature language is power and the children dare to take place, and that makes them participate in the pedagogical activity which takes place at the pre-school.

  • 348.
    Forsman, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Visioner i skolan: En kvantitativ studie bland rektorer om visionens funktion i skolan och dess betydelse för ledarskap och skolutveckling.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of vision is multifaceted and is found in a variety of contexts, linked to both leadership and school improvement and assigned great importance in research in these areas. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of vision-building in school and its impact on leadership and school development. A survey was conducted among principals in the compulsory school. The study is quantitative, in that the survey was carried out by means of structured questionnaires with fixed response options, which were then processed and analysed with regard to quantities, i.e. frequency, proliferation and co-variation. The study's scientific theoretical framework means that the intention is not to expose any absolute truths or to speak about causal relationships. I see these statistics as a way to detect patterns in a variation, which must then be interpreted and understood in the same way as other types of data. The survey is made on a convenience sample consisting of all principals within a geographically and administratively contiguous area that is composed of 14 municipalities.The non-random determination of population has been made by comfort choice. The result shows that principals largely perceive that the vision has great or very great significance for their potential to lead the school and for the school's development. Principals' perceptions of what features visions fill in school are unanimous. According to the respondents the vision has several features which have a different focus and purpose.

  • 349.
    Forssten Seiser, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    En nyfiken betraktelse av de ökade kraven på skolans vetenskaplighet2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 103-115Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kommer det sig att tilltron till systematik och vetenskap är så stor i dagens utbildningssystem? Är det så att vetenskap likställds med säker och sann kunskap som kan användas för att komma till rätta med skolans aktuella problem och dilemman? Flera av de reformer som genomförts syftar till att få skolans professionella att inta ett mer vetenskapligt förhållningssätt vilket har bidragit till att intresset för praktikorienterade studier har ökat och att idag är allt fler lärare och rektorer aktiva aktörer i uppbyggnaden av den vetenskapliga forskningen. I arbetet med denna text konstaterar jag att det finns kopplingar att finna mellan den rådande diskursen om skolans vetenskaplighet och kraven på hög måluppfyllelse och goda elevresultat. I en tid då utbildningsnivå betraktas som ett viktigt konkurrensmedel hamnar stort fokus på skolans måluppfyllelse och elevernas resultat och på vilket sätt dessa kan förbättras snabbt och effektivt. Vad sker med undervisningen och skolans ledarskap i kölvattnet efter omvärldens ökade krav på vetenskap och systematik? I dag ligger makten och ansvaret för skolans utveckling till stor del på andra än på skolans professionella. Hur kan den maktbalansen förändras till fördel för lärare och rektorer? Slutligen har jag även reflekterat över hur denna utveckling legat till grund för mitt val av aktionsforskning som vetenskaplig ansats i det egna avhandlingsarbetet.

  • 350.
    Forssten Seiser, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Stärkt pedagogiskt ledarskap: Rektorer granskar sin egen praktik2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to generate knowledge about principals´ pedagogical leadership practice. Furthermore, the study aims at generate knowledge of what is happening in a joint action research practice when principals explore a pedagogical leadership. In the study the theory of practice architectures interacts with the choice of methodological orientation and is used to analyse the results. The study is embedded in the Nordic action research tradition. Partnership between universities and practitioners is seen as an important arena for professional development. The results are of importance to the principals who daily work to improve their schools. The students' learning and development appear to be an important and almost obvious component of the principal´s pedagogical leadership practice.

     

    The principal's pedagogical leadership is defined as an indirect leadership in which the principal focuses on arranging the conditions for the teachers so that they are given the opportunity to improve their teaching. A pedagogical leader is not just talking about changes, he/she also calls for concrete actions in the school's internal work. The principals´ pedagogical leadership can be described as orchestrating the surrounding arrangement in such a way that they enable a learning and collaborative practice at the school. Part of this orchestration is about supporting forms of cooperation so that good norms and a development-promoting culture are established. The study shows how trustworthy relationships in the groups were absolutely necessary for the participants to be able to change their understanding of the pedagogical leadership. The changes in the joint action research practice have been described as three stages: the establishment stage, the testing stage and the critical stage, where the names of the stages characterize what happened in the groups during different periods of time in the change process. A critical and emancipatory approach was developed in the process. 

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