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  • 301.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes2015In: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

  • 302.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization2018In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 217-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

  • 303.
    Sundqvist, Sofia
    Karlstad University.
    The Emancipation of Celie: The Color Purple as a womanist Bildungsroman2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Emancipation of Celie: The Color Purple as a womanist Bildungsroman

    The purpose of this essay is to study The Color Purple as a Bildungsroman, focusing on the development of the protagonist, Celie. The Color Purple is related to both the traditional Bildungsroman and to the female Bildungsroman, but the essay shows that it can also be seen as a womanist Bildungsroman. Initially, Celie believes that being a woman inescapably means that she has to serve and obey men and she is oppressed by patriarchy. She is eventually introduced to another way of living by the strong female characters of Sofia and Shug who embrace her in a kind of sisterhood, which is vital for Celie as she has nothing else to help her liberate herself from the patriarchal values that keep her down. In conclusion, this essay shows how Celie has developed from being a young girl, forced to act in an adult way, into a woman who displays signs of all the criteria for having achieved a womanist development: she is grown up (not just acting as though she is), she is in charge of a business, a house and, in short, her life. She is serious, she has a universalist perspective, and most importantly, she loves. Furthermore, the essay highlights which characteristics of her development can be linked to the traditional and the female Bildungsroman and which characteristics can be seen as typical of a womanist Bildungsroman.

  • 304.
    Sundström, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    El Ecoturismo como instrumento para desarrollo sostenible: Un estudio comparativo de campo entre Suecia y Ecuador2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 305.
    Svanlind, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Förväntningar på läs- och skrivinlärningen: utifrån de yngsta barnens perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Svensson, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Grammatikens Vad, Hur och Varför: En undersökning i hur pedagoger definierar, undervisar och motiverar grammatik.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work I have studied how teachers define grammar, how they teach grammar as well as how they motivate the teaching of grammar. With focus on the didactical questions What? How? and Why? I have conducted interviews with six different teachers that all work actively in classes 1-3. In the interviews the educators have shared the experiences, their thoughts on what grammar is, how teaching grammar is conducted in the best way as well as their opinions and arguments for grammar education. The result of the study shows that the educators view on grammar as rules and patterns on how the language is built up and also how words are used. The study shows that the teaching of grammar is primarly motivated by the need of making yourself understood in the communicaton with other people. Almost as important is the foreign language argument, i.e by knowing the grammar of your native language it is easier to learn a foreign language. Other motives for grammar education is to learn the construction of the language, it leads to personal development, which in turn makes it easier to complete future studying. The educators also argues that teaching of grammar is stated as mandatory in the curriculum. All the educators pick material from different teaching material in order for it to be as varied and individual as possible. The educators believe grammar should be tought through teachercentered teaching, both individually as well as in a group. In order to consolidate the knowledge in the best way, repetetive education is used as well as through the four different senses, which is the auditory, the visual, the tactile and the kinesthetic. 

  • 307. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in extracurricular/extramural contexts2017In: CALICO journal, ISSN 0742-7778, E-ISSN 2056-9017, Vol. 34, no 1, p. i-ivArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 308. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Extramural English in relation to CLIL: Focus on young language learners in Sweden2015In: CLIL in action: Voices from the classroom / [ed] David Marsh, María Luisa Pérez Muñoz och Juan Ráez Padilla, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners2012In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 302-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English proficiency correlates with the frequency of gaming and types of games played. We base our observation on a study among young L2 English learners (N = 86, aged 11–12, Sweden). Data were collected through a questionnaire, a language diary, and three proficiency tests. The questionnaire provided demographic background information but was also targeted at measuring extramural English habits, i.e., learners’ out-of-school contact with English (cf. Sundqvist 2009). The diary measured how much time the learners spent on seven predetermined extramural English activities during one week, while the tests measured their achieved L2 proficiency regarding reading and listening comprehension, and vocabulary. Previous research among learners aged 15–16 (Sundqvist 2009) showed positive correlations between playing digital games and L2 proficiency, in particular with regard to vocabulary, and also identified gender-related differences regarding vocabulary (boys outperformed girls) as well as the frequency of gaming and types of games played. These results were corroborated in the present study. A clear pattern emerged from our data: frequent gamers (≥ 5 hours/week) outperformed moderate gamers who, in turn, outperformed non-gamers. Background variables could not explain the between-group differences. Even though the boys might have been more proficient or apt than the girls a priori and, therefore, chose to engage more in L2 gaming, the findings suggest that playing digital games at an early age can be important for L2 acquisition.

  • 310.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Needed: A vocabulary test for young learners of English2014In: Conference Proceedings from Early Language Learning: Theory and Practice 2014 / [ed] Janet Enever, Eva Lindgren, Sergej Ivanov, Umeå: Umeå University , 2014, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Playing World of Warcraft as extramural CLIL2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that playing World of Warcraft (WoW) is a form of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) that we refer to as extramural CLIL. We base our argument on findings from three studies. The first (Sylvén, 2004/2010) is about CLIL and non-CLIL students at upper secondary school level (N=363, 99 CLIL and 264 non-CLIL students) and aims to investigate what effect, if any, CLIL has on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary. The second (Sundqvist, 2009) is about extramural English and aims to examine its potential impact on learners’ (N=80; 9th grade) oral proficiency and vocabulary. Extramural English is broadly defined as any type of contact that learners have with English outside (Lat. extra) the walls (Lat. mural) of the classroom. The third study (Sundqvist & Sylvén, forthcoming) focuses on young learners (N=102, 5th grade) and their extramural English habits and aims to see whether there is a relationship between what the learners do in English in their spare time and their learning outcomes in school, as measured by the national test of English and a written vocabulary test. A pattern regarding gaming and learning outcomes emerged from the three studies, making it possible to claim that playing WoW is a form of extramural CLIL. WoW supplies an authentic environment for learning where players can practice, develop, and test their interactive skills. Thus, it is an extramural and informal arena for an immersive L2 experience and as such constitutes an emerging learner context. Players (learners) focus on content and meaning in order to make progress in the game and acquire language while doing so. Moreover, we hypothesize that not only WoW but all similar massively multiplayer online role-playing games help learners automatize L2 use, in particular since language is an important and integral part of such games.

  • 312.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Similarities between playing World of Warcraft and CLIL2012In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 113-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 313. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Validation of a test measuring young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge2016In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present the validation of a test designed to assess young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge, the Young Learner Vocabulary Assessment Test (YLVAT). YLVAT consists of 37 items selected from the K1–2 frequency levels of the Productive and Vocabulary Levels Tests. In the study, Swedish learners (N = 52, age 12) took YLVAT and filled out an evaluation; scores from the national test of English (readingand listening comprehension) were also collected. Four validity measurements were used: the spread of YLVAT scores, correlation with the national test – reading, correlation with the national test – listening, and evaluation responses. YLVAT results point to a sufficient spread of scores (M = 18.9, SD = 6.5). There were significant correlations between YLVAT and (i) reading (r = .597**), (ii) listening (r = .541**), (iii) perceived test difficulty (rs = -.538**), and (iv) how fun it was to take the test (rs = .683**). An ANOVA showed that learners who found YLVAT “easy” or “very easy” scored significantly (p = .000) higher (26.1) than those who found it “difficult” (18.3) or “very difficult” (12.9). Finally, teachers found YLVAT to correlate with their own assessment of learners’vocabulary.

  • 314.
    Södermark, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Opposties Attract: Themes and Dualities in A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of Britain’s most famous authors is Charles Dickens and his books have been read by millions of readers all over the world. Dickens wrote fourteen novels, and the one that he, upon completion, hoped was “the best story ever written” was A Tale of Two Cities. It was first published in 1859 and has sold over 200 million copies worldwide. It is also one of Dickens’ most famous novels. The story is about the two cities of London and Paris during the period when the French revolution took place. The title of the novel is very carefully chosen; it not only indicates that the story will be about two different cities but also about different types of themes. The two cities of London and Paris are described and divided just as the novel’s different themes, which is suggested already from the title. Just like he portrays the differences between London and Paris Dickens also portrays the differences between each theme and its counterpart.

    This essay will investigate in what way the different themes are connected to the different characters and show how the author is using his characters to play out the different themes. This essay will point out how the themes of darkness/light, love/hate and good/evil connect to the characters and to the story and also to the two cities as the title suggests.

  • 315.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Borgström, Eric
    Lötmarker, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Skar, Gustaf B.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Walkert, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Wikberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Likvärdig bedömning av elevers språkförmågor: Preliminära resultat från ett ämnesdidaktiskt forskningsprojekt2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 316.
    Tennö, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Indiana de George Sand, un roman sentimental?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 317.
    Tennö, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Is English in Swedish upper-secondary school different for students in different programs?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim with this paper is to see whether there are any differences, when it comes to learning English, between students in practical and theoretical programs at upper secondary school in Sweden. I have looked at what differences there are when the students begin the programs and how the English A course differs in material, the students’ influence on their own studies and the atmosphere in the classrooms. Earlier studies have shown that adolescents from the lower social classes more often choose a practical program while students from higher social classes tend to choose a theoretical program. The students’ grades from lower-secondary school have an influence on the choice of program as well. Those with low grades from elementary school frequently choose a practical program whereas students with better grades more often choose a theoretical program. Though in my study, the students’ former grades did not differ that much. Further, studies have shown that students who would like to learn languages are divided into two types. The students are either so-called instrumental or integrative learners. My study showed that integrative exercises are used more often than instrumental exercises in upper-secondary school. Unfortunately, there are also some students that do not want to learn a second language at all and such students are in almost every class but they can be found more often in practical courses. To conclude, I found out in my study that there were differences between the courses in theoretical and practical programs. The differences affected the students in a way that made it easier to achieve a better grade in English in a theoretical program.

  • 318.
    Thorell, Richard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Språksociologi i skolan: Sex svensklärares tankar om sin undervisning2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 319.
    Thulin, Anneli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Skriftspråk och självbild: En pilotstudie om kopplingen mellan 12-åriningens skriftspråk och självbild.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the connection between written language and self- image. A study of 6 pupils aged 12 was carried out. The material consists of a written story and survey with both closed and open questions. I participated as an observer and as support during the pupils’ work with their stories and answering of the survey questions.

    Considering the size of the study it is not possible to say that there is a clear connection between writing skills and self-image, although some interesting tendencies could be seen. The pupils who produced a more advanced text were more detailed and arrived at more self- conscious and advanced conclusions in their questionnaire answers, than the pupils who produced a more basic text. This could be due to the fact that it might be easier to show more subtle distinctions of personality if you are better at expressing yourself in writing.

    Key words: written language, self-image, pupils

  • 320.
    Thörnstrand, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    British or American English?: A survey of some upper secondary schools2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to find out what variety of English pupils in upper secondary schools are using, British English or American English, but also to see if there are any difference between boys and girls and if they are aware of their usage. British English used to be the only variety allowed in school, but now other varieties are taught as well and American English is gaining ground in Swedish schools. According to the curriculum, it is a part of the subject of English in upper secondary schools to study the different varieties and be aware of them. This study took place in Swedish upper secondary schools in the Stockholm area where 108 pupils in university preparing programs translated sentences with words that differ in British and American English, filled in a questionnaire which tested spelling and were also recorded when reading sentences. The survey showed that the tendency among these pupils is that they use American English more than British English in both vocabulary and pronunciation. The study also indicated that many pupils tend to mix their usage between the varieties, especially the girls. It was also seen that boys seem to be more aware of what variety they use.

  • 321.
    Tordebring, Suzzi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Var det bättre förr?: En kvantitativ jämförelse av elevtexter från 1985, 2005 och 20062007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay deals with young people’s written language. It is often said that the student’s ability to write is worse today compared to earlier generations. The written language is an important condition for knowledge, therefore it is of great importance that all students, after finished secondary- and upper secondary school, have acquired an adequate language which is suitable in the public room.

    The fact that young people’s language is worse than earlier generations is a constantly recurrent assertion and often debated in school. Young people’s written language has never been so bad as it is today no matter when that time occurs. In order to find relevance in the statement, I have studied essays from 1985 and compared them with essays from 2005 and 2006.

    The parameters I have studied are spelling mistakes, the wrong use of small and capital letter, syntax errors, writing in two words and the presence of spoken language. In order to compare the texts with each other as well as with earlier research a quantitative method was chosen.

    The results show that the study’s ninth grade students ability to write is better today than twenty years ago. On the other hand, the study also shows that the written language among upper secondary students is worse today compared to 1985. Consequently, in order to answer this essay’s principal issue, if there is any relevance in the statement that it was better before, the question can be answered with both yes and no depending on which grade is referred to.

    Keywords: Written language, comparison, spelling mistakes, student’s essays.

  • 322.
    Tordegård, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Undervisning i läsförståelse: - en studie i årskurs fyra2010Student thesis
  • 323.
    Tranefeldt, Sophia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Verbanvändning vid skriftlig produktion hos avancerade inlärare av svenska som andraspråk2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay deals with lexical competence in written language production among advanced learners of Swedish as a second language. The study focuses on the use of verbs with regard to both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The aim of this essay is to examine the L2-learners verb vocabulary, paying attention to frequency, variation, distribution in semantic fields as well as semantic and constructional correctness. The results of the investigations are compared to the results of a control group consisting of L1-speakers.

            The material in the present investigation consists of 40 argumentative essays written by 20 adult students with Swedish as their second language and 20 adult students with Swedish as their first language. All students were enrolled in an adult education program, attending the courses Swedish as a second language B and Swedish B at senior high school level.

            All verbs have been extracted, counted and, where applicable, inserted into the 13 semantic fields which are examined in this study. Errors in connection with the use of verb have been categorized according to two major error types, i.e. constructional errors (errors connected to prefixed verbs, reflexive verbs, particle verbs, and errors in verb + noun combinations) and primarily semantic errors.

            The investigation demonstrates that the verb frequency is lower in the L2-group compared to the L1-group. The higher verb frequency in the L1-group is probably due to the, on average, longer essays in that particular group.   

            The verb frequency tables show that use of particle verbs is twice as high in the L1-essays compared to the L2-essays. The tables of the 20 most common verbs demonstrate that L2-students, compared to the L1-students, tend to underuse certain verbs and overuse others. Three verbs that are particularly overused by the L2-students, are säga, vilja and finnas, while the verbs and ska underused to a great extent by the same group. The tree overused verbs are nuclear verbs in their specific semantic fields (VERBAL COMMUNICATION, WISH and EXISTENCE). Apart from the overuse of these nuclear verbs the investigation material does not give further indications of overuse of nuclear verbs. This shows that overuse of nuclear verbs as an interlanguage feature is not particularly prominent in the advanced L2-learners.     

            There does not seem to be any notable difference in verb variation when looking at the verbs in their entirety. However, certain semantic fields are more extended and more varied in the L1-group.

            In the essays written by the L1-students there are very few occurrences of constructional errors. The most frequent error type, in both student groups, is of a semantic nature. The L2-material shows that the most common semantic error is related to the horizontal structure (and not the vertical structure) of the semantic fields. This means that L2-students find it hard to differ between synonyms in the same semantic field at the same hierarchical level. The current study thus indicates that, as far as the verb vocabulary goes, the L2-students main difficulty is semantic specification, i.e. choosing the right synonym. Among the combinatory errors, the errors connected to verb + noun combinations have the highest frequency.        

  • 324.
    Vallander, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förskolebarns språkstrategier: Språkstrategier för inbjudning, uteslutning och förhandling i sociala interaktioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate how and which language strategies children used in their social interactions with other children and how these language strategies affected their peer relationships. In order to enable achievement of the aim of this thesis was the study on children’s interactions based on three questions that focused on children´s language strategies to invite, exclude or negotiate with peers during play. The study was based on the socio- cultural perspective, because verbal language and interaction with other children is seen as essential for children´s learning and development in this perspective. This study was implemented with participant observation as method because the children´s actions and interactions needed to be studied in their daily environment, which is the preschool. The choice of participant observation as method was made because I wanted to participate in the children´s interactions and be near the children in the preschool, to investigate my aim and create a picture of the children´s reality. These observations were carried out with field notes where I constantly wrote down the children´s actions and statements in running text. The results of the study showed that the children have a tremendous control and awareness about language and which language strategies to use when and how. In this preschool and in this group of children eight language strategies was discovered that the children used to invite, exclude or negotiate with peers during play. These language strategies made visible even how children´s peer relationships were affected in different ways, depending on whether the language strategy excluded, invited or was about negotiation during the interactions.

  • 325.
    Wahlis-Mattsson, Angelika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Kinder sind unschuldig, wir sollten zu verhüten suchen, dass sie so werden wie wir": Wertevermittlung in Erich Kästners Kinderliteratur am Beispiel von Emil und die Detektive und Das fliegende Klassenzimmer2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [de]

    In meinem Ausatz habe ich am Beispiel von "Emil und die Detektive" und "Das fliegende Klassenzimmer" untersucht welche Werte der deutsche Kinderbuchautor Erich Kästner in seinen Kinderbüchern vermittelt. Meinen empirischen Studien beziehen sich auf die Aspekte Freundschaft, Schule, Familie und Gesellschaftskritik.

  • 326.
    Wallin, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Hur man genom kreativt arbetssätt kan gynna barn med läs- och skrivsvårigheter.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    People who have problems with the written language will face serious difficulties in todays society. Our social structur is based on the criterium that every individual has to be able to read and write, and for this reason it is important that pupils with learning difficulties receive help. The purpose of my investigation is to examine how children with reading- and writing difficulties can benefit throught creative methods. Children with reading- and writing difficulties are in need of these creative methods that exist today. Amongst all of our public healht issues, dyslexia is one of the biggest problem we have today and children are therefor in need of these creative methods.

     

    Through  qualitative interviews with two educationalists there has been established thad the creative way of working benefits children in many ways if it is preformed correctly. The methodes and the course of action has to be suited to every individual pupil and his or her way of learning. The two intervjues has showen that a good way of working with children can be established when the educationalist selects the best parts of different methods and through these parts creates his of her own way of working.

  • 327.
    Wernersson, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Sprechen lernt man, wenn man spricht: Wie einige Lehrer mit der mündlichen Sprache im Deutschunterricht arbeiten2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [de]

    Das Sprechen ist ein wichtiger Teil im Sprachunterricht. Sprechen lernt man nur wenn man spricht. Man muss die Wörter und die Phrasen aktiv lernen und die Verwendung der Wörter in den Sätzen üben. In dem heutigen schwedischen Lehrplan stehen die funktionelle Sprachfähigkeit und das Vermögen des Schülers selbst die Sprache zu verstehen und sich verständlich zu machen im Vordergrund.

    In diesem Aufsatz habe ich, mit Hilfe von qualitativen Interviews, untersucht, wie einige Lehrer mit der mündlichen Sprache im Deutschunterricht arbeiten. Ich habe vier Lehrer interviewt, die in den Klassen 6 bis 9 arbeiten. Alle Lehrer arbeiten auf verschiedene Weise und arbeiten mehr oder weniger mit der mündlichen Sprache. Eine Lehrerin arbeitet meistens mit eigenen Übungen, während die anderen drei Lehrer das Lehrbuch verwenden. Wenn sie mit der mündlichen Sprache arbeiten, verwenden sie u.a. Rollenspiele, Spiele, Dialogübungen im Lehrbuch und verschiedene Projekte die mündlich präsentiert werden.

    Das, was ich gesehen habe, ist, dass die Kommunikation der Sprache im Unterricht betont wird, und die Lehrer versuchen der mündlichen Sprache eine wichtige Rolle im Unterricht zu geben. Es scheint doch, als ob die Schüler die mündliche Sprache nicht ernst nehmen. Alle Lehrer sprechen von der Schwierigkeit, die Schüler dazu zu zu bringen Deutsch zu verwenden. Die Schüler müssen verstehen, dass die mündliche Sprache ebenso wichtig ist wie die schriftliche Sprache, und dass sie die Übungen ernst nehmen müssen.

  • 328.
    Westerlund, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Le personnage de Don Juan: Étude de la comédie de Molière et de l'opéra de Mozart2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 329.
    Westin, Anette
    Karlstad University.
    Den svarta lådans pedagogik: En studie om läsinlärning på behavioristisk grund2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The phonics is traditionally firmly established within reading acquisition in Swedish schools. The curriculum, Lpo 94 gives spacious independence regarding the question of method and we have to be aware of our own point of view when we are making the decision regarding the method of reading acquisition. Is it tradition or is it our linguistic point of view that is the determining factor? Through this study of literature, different publications from different times are being studied and the ideas and the linguistic point of view are being discussed. Through comparing between the curriculums that have been replaced of one another, and attending to linguistic discussion and research, we will be able to see a change in the linguistic point of view. Consequently we also will catch a glimpse of the psychological direction that has had an influence in our way to look upon the language in general and reading in particular. It has been seen that the teaching in reading originally comes from the behaviouristic fundamental idea of B.F. Skinner. Nowadays the teaching in reading is more based on the cognitive ideas of Noam Chomsky. Trough taking part of other peoples linguistic point of view, the opportunity gives to reflect upon the own way to look upon the language. This is a fundamental condition and of a vital importance when you are going to choose method of reading acquisition in the teaching profession.

    Keywords: Reading acquisition, phonics, linguistic point of view

  • 330.
    Westlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Engelsk hörförståelse i mellanstadiet1982Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines middle school students’ understanding of a text read aloud to them in English and the connection between the degree of listening comprehension and the expected increase of vocabulary throughout middle school. The same listening comprehension test was carried out in grades 4, 5 and 6 in a middle school in order to survey differences in English listening comprehension in regard to the ability to reproduce the content of an oral text. The result shows that there was a progression from level to level when it comes to comprehension and the number of words reproduced and that this progression was most noticeable between grades 4 and 5.

  • 331.
    Widén, Anders
    Karlstad University.
    Drives of death and sexuality in John Polidori´s "The vampyre" and Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu´s Carmilla2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Wigh, Helen
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Läs- och skrivinlärning: lärarens val av metod2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att belysa hur stor betydelse valet av läs- och skrivinlärningsmetoder har på barnens framgång i läs- och skrivutvecklingen. I bakgrunden tas syntetisk-, analytisk-, LTG och Wittingmetoden upp, med fokus på arbetssätt och varje metods positiva och negativa sida. Vad styrdokumenten säger, om uppfyllande mål och lärares plikter, är en viktig del i det hela och även det behandlas i bakgrunden. Lärarintervjuerna som presenteras i resultatet, genomfördes av kvalitativa intervjuer med förutbestämda frågeområden och utrymme för följdfrågor. Intervjupersonerna är tre lågstadielärare på samma avdelning i en skola i Mellansverige. Resultatet visade att en lärares erfarenhet betyder mycket angående kunskap och framgång vid läs- och skrivinlärning. Genom kunskap och erfarenhet hittar lärare lösningar lättare vid eventuella läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Det är även viktigt att individualisera undervisningen för att försöka få barnen motiverande och få dem att känna lust till att läsa och skriva.

  • 333.
    Wiklund, Ami
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    "Ja men liksom, jag är så jävla chill!": En kvalitativ och kvantitativ undersökning om personalchefers och ungdomars attityd till ungdomsspråk vid formella situationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are becoming more globalized and borrowing words from other languages, which, among other things, are implemented in youth languages. However, it is not only loan terms that are common in the youth language, but also snake words, swear words and discourse articles occur. Research has shown that older generations have a negative attitude towards the expressions of youth in the youth language. It has also been found that it is beneficial if we adapt our language based on the situation we face, for example, by using a more formal language in situations that are perceived to be formal. The purpose of the present study was therefore to find out what staff managers have for the attitude that a job seeker speaks youth in a work interview or that an employee usually has a youth language at work. In order to get a youth perspective, it was also chosen to study, through a survey, what young people think about using youth languages in different situations, and what they consider to be formal situations. It was also chosen to have a certain gender perspective to see if the attitude to youth languages varied depending on the gender they "classified as". Six staff managers were interviewed; a chief executive officer, finance manager, real estate company president, preschool manager, HR manager and trotting coach. The current surveys were submitted to a total of 115 young people in grades 1 and 3 from the Social Science Program and the Care and Care Program. The results showed that most of the staff managers sometimes used youth-language features, but no-one was positive about using this during a work interview or at work. However, some of them thought that there was something more acceptable if it was a youth who spoke youth in a work interview than an elder. As for the youth's response, it turned out that the majority of young people thought that youth languages were okay to use mostly with friends and at home, while it was not okay at school or work interviews, and in part not in conversation with teachers. There was no significant difference between women and men's attitude. Personnel managers' results could in part be due to different attitudes to the words and expressions of others, depending on our own language usage. The results of the youth could be due to the fact that they have participated in a teaching that shows how we should adapt our language based on the situation.

  • 334.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates linguistic and metalinguistic practices in everyday Twitter discourse in relation to aspects of speech and writing. The overarching aim is to investigate how the spoken–written interface is reconfigured in the digital writing spaces of social media.

    The dissertation comprises four empirical case studies and six chapters. The first study investigates communicative functions of hashtags in a speech act pragmatic framework, focalizing tagging practices that not only mark topics or organize hypertextual interaction, but rather have more specific locally meaningful functions. Two studies investigate reported speech in tweets, focusing on quotatives typically associated with informal conversational interaction (e.g., BE like). The studies identify strategies by which Twitter users animate (Tannen, 2007) speech reports. Further, one of the studies explores how such animating practices are afforded (Hutchby, 2001). Lexically, orthographically, and with images, but primarily through typography, users make voice, gesture, and stance present in their tweets, digitally re-embodying the rich nonverbal expressivity of animation in talk. Finally, a study investigates notions of talk-like tweeting from an emic perspective, showing users' negotiations of how tweets can and should correspond to speech in relation to social identity, linguistic competence, and personal authenticity.

    Six chapters situate and synthesize the case studies in an expanded theoretical framework. Together, the studies show how Twitter's speech–writing hybridity extends beyond a mix of linguistic features, and challenges a traditional idea of writing as a mere representation of speech. Talk-like tweeting remediates (Bolter & Grusin, 2000) presence and embodiment, forgoing the abstraction of phonetic print literacy for nonverbal expressivity and an embodied written surface. Twitter talk is shown not simply to substitute literacy norms for oral norms, but to complicate and reconfigure these norms. Talk-like tweeting makes manifest an ongoing cultural renegotiation of the meanings of speech and writing in the era of digital social media.

  • 335.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Metalanguaging as resistance: The socially-mediated rejection of public apologies in the wake of #MeToo2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how local negotiations of linguistic normativity form part of a structure of civic engagement or political participation in today's socially mediated publics. The public apology is a discursive genre that has received much folk linguistic attention in public debate (e.g., Ancarno, 2015), especially in the wake of the #MeToo movement of 2017–2018. Several prominent examples of such public apologies have been characterized as empty apologies, pseudo apologies, or, simply, "non-apologies" (cf. Kampf, 2009). This paper presents a case study for a larger project focusing on metapragmatic negotiations and contestations in the reception of public apologies as non-apologies in social media spaces. While the larger project will mainly focus on post-#MeToo cases, this paper addresses a prominent ‘portal case,’ namely Donald Trump’s “Pussygate” apology video, which was published in October of 2016 on Trump’s Facebook page. The paper presents analyses of Twitter conversations (i.e. conversational reply-chains) about this apology video from the days immediately following its release, with a microanalytic (Giles et al., 2015) focus on how metalinguistic notions of real versus non-apologies are articulated in informal public discourse. Negotiations of the Trump video’s merits as an apology are rarely only that, but rather tend to be interwoven with affectively charged ideological positionings – in relation to party politics, progressivism, feminism, and more. Through articulating notions such as non-apology, social media interactants are in effect practicing a kind of layperson’s critical discourse analysis.

  • 336.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    No one is "pro-politically correct": Positive construals of political correctness in Twitter conversations2016In: Fact or fiction?: Studies in honour of Solveig Granath / [ed] Elisabeth Wennö, Marie Tåqvist, Peter Wikström, Johan Wijkmark, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016, p. 159-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates use of the contested term politically correct (PC) in written conversational exchanges on Twitter. PC is sometimes assumed to be entirely a fabrication by conservatives or the far right, not a label that anyone would voluntarily attach to themselves. This study focuses on discursive instantiations of PC that challenge this assumption by construing PC favorably. To this end, a small set of conversations featuring more-or-less clearly positive construals of PC, selected from an initial material of 184 Twitter conversations containing the target phrase “politically correct,” are analyzed in detail. The aim is to see how such construals appear and function in everyday discourse.

  • 337.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nonpology unaccepted: Insincere apologies in social media discourse2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot study of how social media interactants construct a notion ofnonpologies. Nonpology is a neologism sometimes found in social media discussions of what research has called, e.g., “non-apologies” or “quasi-apologies” (Kampf, 2009). Such concepts often relate to a socially recognized genre of “public apologies” (An- carno, 2015) by politicians, celebrities, or corporate spokespersons. Public apologies that rate as nonpologies may either lack an explicit moment of apologizing, or come across as insincere or self-serving in some way. This study focuses on how Twitter in- teractants construe public apology-framed events, for instance in wake of the #MeTooawareness raising campaign of late 2017. The material is a collection of Twitter conver- sations in which at least one interlocutor refers to an event specifically as a nonpology. This material is analyzed in a microanalytic framework with a focus on the emic (i.e., discourse participants’) construction of the concept. For example, talking about come- dian James Corden’s apology for a rape joke, two Twitter users orient to the apology as insufficient and insincere:

    1. A:  Ugh his apology is so shit. SNL did Weinstein jokes that ripped Weinstein. It can be done. Corden just acted like rape is hilarious.

    2. B:  Yup. He punched right down.

    B: And it’s a nonpology; I’m sorry IF you were offended.

    Here, A dismisses Corden’s apology as “so shit,” suggesting that the apology was inad- equate to make up for the transgression of the rape joke. B replies to A’s tweet twice. First, B aligns with A’s criticism of the rape joke itself. Second, B expands on A’s dis- missal of the apology by labeling it a nonpology. B elaborates on the nonpology concept by constructing a paraphrase of Corden’s apology. In the paraphrase, B conceptualizes the nonpology as being focused on the taking of offense rather than on the transgression itself, and as being conditional (B emphasizes “IF”).

    Through analysis of such instances, the pilot study aims to contribute to the develop- ment of a larger project on non-apologies in mediated interaction. Since the focus is on everyday interaction, the project will contribute to linguistic/interactional scholarship on the structure and felicity conditions of apologies in general. Further, since the con- cepts of nonpologies are formulated in response to events of critical political signifi- cance in the public’s view, the project will contribute to our understanding of everyday, micro-level, political participation in the context of digitally-mediated publics.

    Ancarno, C. (2015). When are public apologies “successful”? Focus on British and French apology press uptakes. Journal of Pragmatics, 84, 139–153.

    Kampf, Z. (2009). Public (non-) apologies: The discourse of minimizing responsibility. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(11), 2257–2270.

  • 338.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Not even real words: User construals of Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic research on computer-mediated communication has frequently addressed the supposed or actual orality (broadly, ‘spoken-likeness’ or ‘conversationality’) of written language in online contexts, and tends to construe orality in ‘discourse-external’ terms – e.g., in terms of theoretically or computationally motivated formal categories. This study presents an approach toward complementing extant research by focusing on ‘discourse-internal’ construals, or participant orientations (Schegloff 1997). The aim is to examine how Twitter users construe talk, on their own terms, when explicitly describing Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’. The material comprises manually collected retrievals (via Twitter’s web-based search interface) of tweets containing the string “tweet/s like [pronoun] talk/s”, for the pronouns I, you, he, she, and they (N=300). Two research questions are addressed:

    i. When Twitter users refer to their own or their peers’ Twitter discourse as being talk-like, how, if at all, do they substantiate notions of talk-likeness?

    ii. What attitudes or values are attached to the notions talk-likeness expressed?

    The results show that construals are often left implicit, but sometimes elaborated either in the body of a single tweet or over the course of a conversational exchange between multiple users. When elaborated, the construals are very diverse, but sometimes directly pertinent to categories common in both popular debate and scholarly work, such as mode, register, correctness, and appropriateness (see e.g. Baron 2008; Crystal 2006, 2008; Hård af Segerstad 2003; Jonsson 2013; Meredith & Stokoe 2014; Wikström 2014). For instance, some users associate talk-likeness with grammatical or orthographic (in-) correctness (Example 1), and others associate it with orthographic or lexical representation of dialect or accent (2), or less tangible notions of voice or tone (3).

    1. I tweet like I talk so if I spell some wrong it was on purpose. ... shiiid I passed all my English classes.......
    2. Hate it when scots tweet like they talk, you're not even writing real words
    3. @username oh my. He tweets like he talks. I can literally hear his overly preachy tone in those tweets…
    4. The reason I know it's not really [Jennifer] is because she's too grammatically correct. [Jen] tweets like she talks.

    The expressed attitudes and values concern, inter alia, perceived problems of comprehensibility or appropriateness, both amusement and annoyance at the novelty of talk-like written language, and affiliation with identity categories or notions of authentic identity (Example 4; cf. Benwell & Stokoe 2006:245; Deumert 2014). Overall, the results suggest that a focus on users’ construals of their own computer-mediated discourse offers a window on how issues of theoretical interest to linguists, such as mode and register, are not only instantiated but also actively negotiated in online language use.

    References

    Baron, N. S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Benwell, B., & Stokoe, E. (2006). Discourse and identity Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the Internet (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Crystal, D. (2008). Txtng: The gr8 deb8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Deumert, A. (2014). The performance of a ludic self on social network(ing) sites. In P. Seargeant & C. Tagg (Eds.), The language of social media: Identity and community on the internet (pp. 23-45). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2003). Use and adaptation of written language to the conditions of computer-mediated communication (2 ed.). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.

    Jonsson, E. (2013). Conversational writing: A multidimensional study of synchronous and supersynchronous computer-mediated communication. Uppsala University: Engelska institutionen.

    Meredith, J., & Stokoe, E. (2014). Repair: Comparing Facebook ‘chat’ with spoken interaction. Discourse & Communication, 8(2), 181-207. doi: 10.1177/1750481313510815

    Schegloff, E. A. (1997). Whose text? Whose context? Discourse & Society, 8(2), 165-187. doi: 10.1177/0957926597008002002

    Wikström, P. (2014). & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 13(3), 83-111. 

  • 339.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter2014In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 83-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study relates discourse-pragmatic aspects of the use of the quotatives say, be like, be all, and go to the question of the supposed or actual spoken-likeness of written computer-mediated communication (CMC). 1,800 tokens of reported speech, collected from Twitter, were analyzed in a “constructed dialogue” framework (Tannen, 2007). The results show that users of Twitter employ various CMC devices to animate and modally enrich reported speech, especially in speech reports with be like, be all, and go. They perform a style of communication that is reminiscent of conversational speech, even while having qualities that seem to belong uniquely to CMC.

  • 340.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    #srynotfunny: Communicative functions of hashtags on Twitter2014In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 27, p. 127-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates various communicative functions served by hashtags in written communication on Twitter from a linguistic pragmatic perspective. A tweet containing a hashtag links to, and is integrated into, a timeline of other tweets containing the same hashtag. Thus, hashtags are by default categorizing or organizing; a user of Twitter may add the tag #food to their tweet to integrate it into a general conversation about this topic. However, this study demonstrates that hashtags are also used creatively to perform other communicative functions. In the data presented, hashtags are employed as complexly multifunctional linguistic devices for, among other things, structuring information, playing games, and engaging in reflexive meta-commentary. Notably, while pragmatic methodology is typically applied to speech, this study indicates that a traditional speech acts framework may be profitably applied to written communication in new media.

  • 341.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Tweeting like one talks: Approaching 'talker identity' emically2016In: Research methods as practice: Current fieldwork strategies and methodological accountings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights methodological challenges involved in approaching the issue of online ‘orality’ from a novel emic perspective, based on material and analyses from an ongoing study of how users of Twitter construe the notion of ‘talk-like’ tweeting.

  • 342.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Twitter's affordances for animation of reported speech2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    When I need/want to: Normativity, identity, and form in user construals of 'talk-like' tweeting2016In: Discourse, Context & Media, ISSN 2211-6958, E-ISSN 2211-6966, Vol. 14, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on how Twitter users construe talk-like tweeting in metalinguistic utterances. In a material of tweets containing or responding to explicit comparisons of tweeting to talking (N=520), a broad range of construals are identified, showing Twitter users associating talk-likeness with, e.g., notions of the textual representation of voice, of grammatical (in-)correctness, of accurately reflecting one׳s ‘real-life’ identity, and of regional or social variation in language use. These associations frequently serve normative functions, enforcing or contesting linguistic and discursive norms in both serious and playful ways. The findings offer a novel perspective on the oft-debated orality of computer-mediated discourse, providing a window on how a process of enregisterment (Agha, 2007) is instantiated and how language norms are actively negotiated by participants in everyday online language use on Twitter.

  • 344.
    Wikström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Unacceptable non-apologies: The production and receipt of public apologies in mediated interaction in the wake of #MeToo2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late 2017 saw the emergence of #MeToo, a social media-based campaign concerning sexual assault and harassment. #MeToo has resulted in several public statements from high-profile figures accused of transgressions ranging from inappropriate comments to outright assault. Such statements have frequently been treated in journalistic and social media as failed or absent apologies – as non-apologies. The present paper focuses on the mediated delivery of apologies and their receipt as non-apologies across traditional (broadcast and print) media and new social media. As empirical cases, we examine three media events from the global #MeToo movement: the Donald Trump “PussyGate” affair, a controversial joke about the Harvey Weinstein case by TV host James Corden, and public accusations of sexual harrassment leveled against a well-known Swedish TV show host. We specifically focus on the grounds for rejecting apologies by examining how the apology was 1)designed and launched, and 2) interpreted and assessed in media/social media. Using conversation analysis (CA) (Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson, 1974; Clayman & Heritage, 2002) and textual discourse analysis, we demonstrate how responses orient to selected aspects of the apology in assessing it, such as blame-shifting, trivialization, accounts of intentions, or conditionalization. By examining the original apologies in their sequential and discursive contexts (e.g. Robinson, 2004; Drew et al, 2016), and contrasting their composition and delivery with the grounds for rejection brought forth in reactions, the study aims to enhance our understanding of the social delicacy of public apologizing and the selective recontextualization of such apologies in receipts and rejections.

  • 345.
    Wilén, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    How ESL Teachers Use EnglishLiterature in the Classroom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the purpose of literature instruction in English 5, 6 and 7. The questions that are examined are; the purpose of literature instruction in English, which methods are used by the teachers and how teachers choose which literature to include. The study is qualitative and is based on an interview study in which three teachers that currently teach English 5, 6 and 7 participated. These interviews are presented and discussed in relation to the curriculum, GY11, course documents and research in the area. The results show that teachers use literature to achieve a number of goals set by the curriculum and course documents, and that they often choose to include extensive reading in courses even when it is not demanded. The teachers use several methods, where discussions and written assignments complement each other. Literature selection is based on a careful balance between getting students motivated to read the assigned literature and achieving the intended purpose.

  • 346.
    Windestål, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Målbeskrivning eller självbild?: Bilden av eleven bakom kursplanens mål i svenska i grundskolans senare år2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to find out which demands the syllabus for the Swedish language make on the pupils in compulsory school compared to some active teachers’ point of view. The method I have used to find out is a qualitative interview, where I have interviewed four Swedish teachers of various professional experiences.

    After the change of government in 1991, the new curriculum committee had a mission where the goal was to develop the best school in Europe. A national target was introduced and the goals were proposed to be of two kinds; goals to strive for and goals to achieve. A problem in this is that the knowledge that pupils in ninth grade will acquire, is formulated in such a manner so that not even experts in each subject would live up to the demands placed on the students. It is in many cases the teachers' task to break down these goals and present them in a simplified way so that the students can achieve the objectives that are set on them and nowhere in the goalsetting takes no account of the fact that many students go through a major change in their lives, namely puberty.

  • 347.
    Wong, Yiu Tong
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    An Escap-ee from French to English who will never return: A semantic and syntactic study of the -ee suffix in English2017Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the semantic and syntactic properties of the -­ee suffix in English. The -­ee suffix was borrowed from the French ‑­é suffix during the late Middle Ages, when French started to exert its linguistic influence on English. Previous research suggests that the -­ee suffix in English exhibits the semantic properties of sentience, episodicity and passivity. Syntactically, the function of the ­-ee suffix in English may suggest ergativity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that contextual anchoring is involved in the use of the -­ee suffix. I explored these characteristics of the ­-ee suffix by testing non‑­standardised ­-ee suffixed nouns with the mentioned semantic and syntactic properties. The process of differentiating non‑­standardised from standardised -­ee suffixed nouns was done with the help of a well­-established dictionary and the Internet. The results showed that sentience and episodicity applied to most -­ee suffixed nouns. In addition, passivity was an important feature in the -­ee nominalisation of transitive stem verbs. When the meaning of ­-ee suffixed nouns was complex, contextual anchoring served to facilitate the understanding of the meaning of the noun. Syntactically, the relationship between the ‑ee suffix and ergativity was weak. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of the ‑ee suffix is controlled by several semantic properties simultaneously, whereas the syntactic properties are relatively unimportant.

  • 348.
    Zetterlund, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns språkutveckling och olika sätt att stimulera den2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose with my examination paper was to investigate how children’s language are developed and how to stimulate it as a pedagogue in preschool.

    In my investigation I have used qualitative interviews of four preschool teachers. The interviews were taped, and the questions were written in advance and used as support.

    In the literature I have chosen to describe how children’s language development seems, different language theories, what the curriculum (Lpfö98) says about language development and the role pedagogue’s has in stimulating children’s language.

    I found it most interesting to study this literature and to take part of different preschool teachers’ views on children’s language development. The results of my interviews show that all the pedagogues are well aware of children’s language and they have many suggestions of how to stimulate it in their work at preschool. They also claimed that this stimulation is a continuous work.

    Some of the observations I made was that all pedagogues express difficulties depending on stress and lack of time due to big groups of children. All the teachers wish to have more time for each child.

  • 349. Zimmerman, Olle
    A study of hedges and related phenomena in the speech of some public women and men2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of hedges is maybe not a well-known phenomenon to the average speaker, in any language. Nonetheless, we all use hedges every day, probably without being aware of it. What, then, is a hedge? According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (1997) a hedge is, ”any linguistic device by which a speaker avoids being compromised by a statement that turns out to be wrong, a request that is not acceptable, and so on.” For example, instead of saying ‘Freddie Mercury is the best singer in the world’ one could use a hedge and say ‘Freddie Mercury is probably the best singer in the world’. Some claim that the use of hedges is a sign of weakness and that women tend to make use of hedges more frequently than men. These claims made me curious and thus led me to investigate whether the claims were true or not. This essay, A Study of Hedges and related phenomena in the Speech of Some Public Women and Men, compares the use of hedges between women and men. It also tries to determine whether some hedges tend to occur more often with women than with men and vice versa. In addition, it tries to identify the function of hedges in discourse. I have added the term ‘related phenomena’ (George Lakoff 1973:473) to the heading, because as the investigation proceeded I noticed that it is not entirely correct to label all expressions, commonly referred to as hedges, as hedges in the sense that is stated in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (1997). This investigation is based on two episodes from the British talk show Hard Talk and one episode from the American talk show Larry King Live. The study was made on VCR recorded material. If we look at the total number of hedges in both Hard Talk and Larry King Live, this investigation, generally, confirms the assumption that women use more hedges than men. However, the hedges and related phenomena used in this study do not seem to indicate weakness. Rather they indicate communicative competence with the person using them. This investigation also shows that there does not seem to be a bias for some hedges to occur with women or for some to occur with men. The most common hedge in this study is I think. One important function of some hedges seems to be to state that what you are saying is your personal opinion and not ”the truth”. Another function is to hedge out of politeness, that is, you do not want to appear too self-assured, so by hedging you may win confidence and by that you are using your communicative competence. I hope that my findings have contributed some to the study of hedges and thus will inspire other people to further investigate this vast and interesting area of hedges and related phenomena.

  • 350.
    Åkerlund, Sanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Searching for the Ghost of Tom Joad: An ideological Analysis of the Lyrics on Bruce Springsteen's record The Ghost of Tom Joad2008Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is an ideological study of Bruce Springsteen’s lyrics on the album The Ghost of Tom Joad. The main focus is on the ideas about American society with two main themes: the American dream and the working class hero. The aim is to trace the moral vision expressed in the lyrics. This is done by quoting certain parts of the different songs on the album, followed by comments on what the lyrics can be said to represent. The main character on the album is Tom Joad, who Springsteen uses, inspired by a character in John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath. The essay contains a brief description of the historical context of the 1930s, and if and how the symbolic meaning of Tom Joad has changed from the 1930s to the 1990s. The conclusion of the essay shows how Springsteen’s lyrics focus on the problems that the American nation has, and how the lyrics creates awareness among people to take an ethical stand. Through the lyrics Springsteen provides hope and encouragement to people struggling in an unfair society. Tom Joad is still a symbol of a human being with collective awareness; what has changed from the 1930s to the 1990s is that American society has become even tougher to survive in if you are an outsider.

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