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  • 301.
    Emelie, Hareland
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Identifiering av faktorer som påverkar beslut rörande uppgradering av verksamhetens affärssystem: En fallstudie av tre Infor M3-användande kundföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Upphandlingar och införande av affärssystem nådde sin topp runt år 2000. Nu ett och ett halvt decennium senare står många av dessa organisationer och verksamheter inför frågor om underhåll och uppgradering. Det kan bland annat röra sig om avsaknad av funktionalitet som återfinns i senare versioner eller förlorad möjlighet till support från systemleverantören. Affärssystemskunden behöver regelbundet uppgradera sitt affärssystem för att inte gå miste om några konkurrensfördelar.

     

    Uppsatsens huvudsyfte är att identifiera, beskriva och förklara vilka faktorer som ur ett kundperspektiv påverkar beslutet rörande uppgradering av verksamhetens affärssystem. Bisyftet är att identifiera vilka de uppfattade faktiska effekterna av en affärssystemsuppgradering är.

     

    Ett kvalitativt angreppssätt har tillämpats i denna uppsats. Det kvalitativa angreppssättet har valts eftersom syftet är att undersöka samt analysera vilka faktorer som ur ett kundperspektiv påverkar beslutet att uppgradera verksamhetens affärssystem. Insamling av empiri har skett genom intervjuer med ett fåtal aktörer. Fallstudiemetoden har tillämpats som undersökningsupplägg i denna uppsats. Fallstudiemetoden har valts eftersom undersökningen är fokuserad på en liten grupp bestående av en systemleverantör av ett affärssystem samt tre av dennes kunder. För att samla in empiri har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts. För att få reliabilitet i den insamlade empirin har de personliga intervjuerna spelats in efter godkännande från berörda respondenter.

     

    Genom en litteraturstudie identifierades elva hämmande respektive motiverande faktorer som påverkar beslutet rörande uppgradering av verksamhetens affärssystem. Under den empiriska studien framkom att sex av dessa påverkade beslutet att uppgradera ur ett kundperspektiv: Nya eller förbättrade funktioner, förverkligande av fördelar, förbättrade resursanvändning, neddragning av systemleverantörssupport, minskning av underhållskostnader samt opassande tidpunkt för uppgradering. Det framkom även att de uppfattade faktiska effekterna var: Den nya versionen körs utan modifieringar, möjlighet till individuella anpassningar i gränssnittet samt det nya gränssnittet medför att arbetet i systemet går snabbare.

  • 302.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Children’s Well-Being and Communication2013In: Handbook of Child Well-Being: Theories, Methods and Policies in Global Perspective / [ed] Asher Ben-Arieh, Ferran Casas, Ivar Frønes & Jill E. Korbin, Sao Paulo: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, p. 2135-2150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Provided that communication is understood both as a social practice and as a right, it can be promoted as a meaningful capability that prepares children to critically read, and thus have the potential to transform, their everyday worlds. Communication can be an avenue towards strengthening children’sresilience and encouraging their participation in those matters that affect them.This article explores communication from three angles considered relevant to facilitating children’s ability to voice their needs and claim their rights:intergenerational communication, which focuses on the ways in which adultscan best communicate with children; communication for development andsocial change, which focuses on the ways in which communication can beused strategically to address problematic social issues and their solution; andrepresentations of children in the media, which focuses on the ways in whichchildren should be communicated about in society at large as well as on the ways in which children can engage in redressing misrepresentations.

  • 303.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communication, Development, and Social Change: Future Alternatives2013In: Global Communication: New Agendas in Communication / [ed] Karin G. Wilkins, Joseph D Straubhaar & Shanti Kumar, London and New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 119-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter situates the field of communication for development andsocial change in the context of the discourse and practice of bilateral andmultilateral proponents and of what appear to be ongoing transformationsin the political economy and structure of the international aid system.Contextualizing these elements provides the basis for a subsequent explorationof for whom and for what communication for development and socialchange could be mobilized in order to face several aspects of the currentglobal crisis.

  • 304.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Diferentes, desiguales y desconectados: la comunicación para el desarrollo como interrogante2013In: Comunicación y desarrollo en la agenda latinoamericana del siglo XXI.  : enghel / [ed] Castillo Rocha, Carmen; Murillo Licea Daniel y Quiroz Carranza Roxana, Mérida: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Video letters, mediation and (proper) distance: A qualitative study of international development communication in practice2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study scrutinizes the trajectory of an international development communication intervention aimed at mediating, rendering public and mobilizing processes of reconnection among estranged citizens across the former Yugoslavia. The intervention, which took place between 2000 and 2005 in the wider context of post-conflict international development assistance and peacebuilding operations in the region, was known as the Videoletters project. Centered on a documentary TV series aimed at promoting the reestablishment of relationships among ordinary people affected by ethno-political divisions, Videoletters was adopted by European bilateral funders for large-scale implementation and categorized as a “tool for reconciliation”.

    Starting from an understanding of communication as a right to which citizens are entitled, as a responsibility of practitioners and institutions, and as a capability that is socially distributed in unequal ways and has an ambiguous potential, the study looks into the contextualized potential and limitations of international development communication intervention to attend to the citizens that it is supposed to benefit. By providing rich empirical details about a process of intervention, the study argues in concrete terms for the study of development communication not as a presumably positive tool, but as an institutionally driven practice that may or may not strengthen conditions of justice, with consequences that will differ depending on the specificity of sociopolitical situations in time and space. Depending on contextual and institutional conditions and on the forms of mediation privileged/disregarded throughout the process, the deployment of a specific development communication intervention may/may not foster proper distance, and thus strengthen/weaken conditions of justice for the citizens under consideration, who are subject to the governance structure of international development assistance.

    By linking the practice of international development communication to a framework of justice, the study brings the political and ethical dimensions of said practice to the fore and contributes to a critical agenda for theorization and research that takes accountability into consideration and puts citizens at the center.

     

  • 306.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Flachsland, Cecilia
    Rosenberg, Violeta
    Youth, Memory and Justice: The Cromañón Case and Communication in an Age of Precariousness2009In: Youth Engaging with the World : Media, Communication and Social Change / [ed] Thomas Tufte ; Florencia Enghel, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tufte, Thomas
    Youth engaging with media and communication: different, unequal and disconnected?2009In: Youth Engaging with the World : Media, Communication and Social Change / [ed] Thomas Tufte ; Florencia Enghel, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tufte, Thomas
    Youth engaging with the world/Media, communication and social change2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Wilkins, KarinRadio-TV-Film, University of Texas at Austin.
    Communication, Media and Development: Problems and Perspectives2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobilizing communication globally: for what and for whom? This question2 motivated this special issue of Nordicom Review, grounded in a concern over the future of communicationfor development as a field of theorization and research tightly linked to practice the world over. Against this background, for this special issue we invited critical contributions that would address the relationship between communication, development and social change beyond so-called “success stories” -papers attentive to the potential of communication and media interventions to provoke unexpected outcomes, at times harmful or unfair, and alert to the fact that “caution must be exercised in the adoption of social diagnoses based on specific, very narrowly conceived empirical constraints, and subsequent prescriptions” (Cabrera 2010: 156). In the context of increasing inequalities in both developing and developed countries (Wilkinson and Pickett 2010), for whom and for what to mobilize communication remainsan open question. We propose that this question should be at the heart of future efforts to theorise and research in what ways and under which conditions communication might contribute to equitable development and social justice.

  • 310.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Wilkins, Karin
    The privatization of participation in development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Kunskapscentrum för Katastrofpsykiatri (KcKP), Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet.
    Ett dubbelt trauma?: Medierapportering som stöd och belastning för överlevande efter olyckor och katastrofer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet ”Det dubbla traumat” var att undersöka interaktionen mellan journalister och drabbade, främst med utgångspunkt i överlevandes upplevelser av;(a) mötet med journalister på skadeplats och (b) medierapporteringen (publiceringarna), samt i förekommande fall egen medieexponering.

    De huvudsakliga teoretiska utgångspunkterna har hämtats från journalistikoch medieforskning rörande bland annat journalistiska arbetsvillkor specifikt vid katastrofrapportering, pressetik samt nyhetsförmedling, medielogik och nyheters dramaturgi. Från det psykotraumatologiska fältet har teorier om krisoch stressreaktioner stått för viktiga perspektiv, både när det gällt utformning av frågor och vid analys av resultat. Ett flertal metoder har tillämpats, däribland litteraturgenomgångar, innehållsanalyser, webb- och postenkäter samt kvalitativa intervjuer. Denna populärvetenskapliga sammanställning ger en skissartad översikt över resultaten från de olika undersökningarna.Projekttiteln antyder en hypotes, nämligen att medieexponering och interaktion med journalister direkt efter en traumatisk händelse potentiellt skulle kunna innebära ett dubbelt trauma för den överlevande. Är så fallet?Enligt projektets resultat är svaret på den frågan både ja och nej. För vissa drabbade individer, i vissa situationer, kan både journalisters agerande på skadeplats och den medierapportering som följer upplevas som ett sekundärttrauma. För andra kan mediernas agerande och publiceringar kan upplevas som ett stöd och ett bidrag till känslan av sammanhang. En kategori överlevande upplever mediernas aktiviteter i anslutning till den traumatiska händelsen som mer eller mindre försumbara. Hela spektret av upplevelser och erfarenheter finns således representerat, och här framträder en delikat uppgift för reportern eller fotografen på plats: att avgöra vem, när och var det kan vara lämpligt eller olämpligt att intervjua, fotografera och rapportera. De överlevandes syn på medierapporteringen förändras också över tid. Fler negativa reaktioner finns på journalistiken i akutskedet än på längre sikt.Reportage och inslag av uppföljande och förklarande karaktär beskriver deflesta drabbade i mer positiva termer än nyhetsrapporteringen i direkt anslutning till händelsen.

  • 312. Englund, Liselotte
    Medieexponering av överlevande: stöd och belastning2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Recension av Soilikki Vettenranta: Krig og katastrofer i media: de unges møte med brutale nyheter 2017In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 117-120Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Arnberg, Filip K
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Survivors’experiences ofjournalists and media exposure: A retrospective qualitative study 15 years aftera ferry disaster2018In: ISSN 0965-3562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose–The media is an important part of disaster management, yet little is understood about theirinterplay with the disaster survivors. The purpose of this paper is to examine disaster survivors’long-termretrospective views of their experiences with journalists and the media coverage.Design/methodology/approach–In total, 22 Swedish adult survivors (of 49 eligible) from a ferry disasterin the Baltic Sea, in which only 137 of the 989 people onboard survived, were interviewed after 15 years abouttheir experiences of meeting journalists in the immediate aftermath and the media coverage in a long-termperspective. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Findings–Survivors from the Estonia ferry disaster described a wide array of experiences from theircontacts with the disaster journalists and being exposed in the media. From their experiences, four categorieswere extracted. The categories were common for both their media contacts and their media exposure: strain,support, rationality and evasion. The survivors’experiences were both negative and positive.Research limitations/implications–These accounts of disaster survivors’experiences from an event15 years ago provide an interesting comparison for future studies of contemporary disasters.Originality/value–This study provides important perspectives on the role of disaster coverage in themedia and documents how disaster survivors retrospect on the media as both a burden and a resource.

  • 315.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. P.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Researcher and Programme Director at the National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Riddez, Louis
    Reader and Surgeon at Karolinska University Hospital.
    Örtenwall, Per
    Senior Consultant Surgeon and Chief Emergency Medical Officer for the Västra Götaland region.
    The bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011: Kamedo report 972012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kamedo observer reports study the medical, psychological, organizational and social aspects of disasters. This report summaries experiences from the bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011. That may be valuable for the further development of the Swedish disaster preparedness system.

  • 316.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rönning, Helge
    Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon.
    Stenersen, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Kjerstin
    SADEV.
    Magnusson, Annika
    SADEV.
    Westberg, Sofia
    SADEV.
    Strategi för information och kommunikation – genomförande och effekter av verksamhet finansierad via Sida: SADEV REPORT 2012:22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 22 december 2011 fick Institutet för utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (SADEV) i uppdrag att utvärdera genomförande och effekter av den informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras via Sida (UF2011/76109/UD/USTYR).

    Regeringsuppdraget har genomförts i samarbete med Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Projektledare och huvudförfattare är fil dr Liselotte Englund.

    Utvärderingen belyser informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras av Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete, Sida, i enlighet med regeringens "Strategi för informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet, inklusive genom organisationer i det civila samhället 2010-2014" (UD2008/35922/USTYR) – infokomm-strategin. Syftet är att ge underlag för den fortsatta utvecklingen av verksamheten, inklusive regeringens styrning inom Sveriges internationella utvecklingssamarbete, i detta fall med fokus på informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten. Avsikten är också att göra en övergripande beskrivning av den verksamhet som har bedrivits inom ramen för anslagsposten, och av hur Sida genomför strategin med fokus på urval, reglering och uppföljning.

    Målet att den svenska allmänheten ska ha "… god kunskap om situationen i utvecklingsländer samt svenskt bistånd och dess resultat samt frågor som för utvecklingens drivkrafter i utvecklingsländer" betraktas av de flesta som omätbart. Det bidrar i sin tur till att frågan om effekter i informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten blir svårbesvarad. Strategin ger inte mycket vägledning gällande vad som avses med effekter i sammanhanget.

    Metoderna att mäta kostnadseffektivitet är bristfälliga. Ett ofta använt mått är kontaktkostnad. Detta mäter emellertid oftast bara exponeringsgrad eller uppmärksamhet, och mer sällan kunskapsökning. Huruvida den bild av biståndet som getts genom olika kanaler är korrekt och bred är svårt att bedöma mot bakgrund av befintliga undersökningar och mätmetoder.

    Strategin betraktas av de flesta berörda som icke ändamålsenlig, varför det också blir svårt att genomföra den på ett ändamålsenligt sätt. Många av Sidas kriterier och regler är svåra att tolka, mäta och följa upp. Hierarkin mellan olika styrdokument är mycket oklar, och budskapen inte alltid synkroniserade.

    En jämförelse av informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten perioden före och efter strategins införande ger vid handen att verksamhetens mål var tydligare före strategin. Även om det framstod som mer mätbart att redovisa måluppfyllelse avseende det dåvarande målet "ökat engagemang" så genererade rapporterna oftast generella kvantitativa mått som "visat intresse", "fullbokat" eller "nått många". Dagens målskrivning, att den svenska allmänheten ska ha god kunskap, framstår dock som ännu mer svårtmätbar och riskerar att i hög grad generera projekt som inte definierar effekter utan enbart rapporterar i termer av räckvidd och exponering.

    Rapporten utmynnar i rekommendationer inom ett antal områden, vilka preciseras närmare i rapporten:

    • en omarbetad strategi för information
    • ansvarfördelningen mellan SIDA och CSO
    • klargörande i opinionsbildningsfrågan
    • tydliggörande av strategier, policyer och planer
    • organisering av handläggningen på SIDA
    • informationsinsatsernas art
    • mer kostandseffektiva insatser
    • målgrupper
    • innehållsanalyser av medieutbudet
    • ansökningsförfarandet - fyra nya finansieringsformer
    • ökat krav på instruktioner för SIDA:s verksamhet
    • tydligare kravprofil för slutrapportering
    • transparens, CSO-databasen och Openaid.se
    • ökad metodkompetens
    • översyn av satsningen "nya aktörer"
    • en ny utvärdering tidigast hösten 2013

  • 317.
    Engnell, Jennifer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Debatten om köttkonsumtion ur ett djuretiskt perspektiv.: En kritisk diskursanalys.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines the recent media coverage of meat consumption from an animal ethical perspective. The study is based on the theory of carnism and critical discourse analysis. For the article search Mediearkivet Retriever was used and the search was limited to four main newspapers in Sweden, Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen and Svenska Dagbladet. The time span was from the beginning of 2014 until today. The essays material consisted of 25 articles and from them five discourses were identified: The meat norm discourse, the animal rights discourse, the health discourse, the market economy discourse and the environmental discourse. The discourses often related to one another and often included more than one perspective. The study showed that the hegemonic discourse is the meat norm discourse. Although many of the articles were in favor of a drastic cut down of meat consumption, and suggested consumption of only Swedish and organic meat, the norm was still to consume meat. Although statistics show very high meat consumption, there seem to be a surprising consensus in the articles that meat consumption must decrease drastically, for health reasons, the environment and for the wellbeing of animals.

  • 318.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Barns internetsökning i skolan2005In: Utbildningsvetenskap 2005: Resultatdialog och framåtblick, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2005, Vol. 13:2005, p. 56-60Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Children choosing web pages2001In: New Review of Information Behaviour Research, ISSN 1471-6313, E-ISSN 1740-7877, Vol. 2, no November, p. 151-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on part of a research project about children's searches for information on the Internet. The focus of the study is what children consider to be good web pages, combined with their ability to reflect upon the reliability of the Internet. The study is a case study of a group of fourth grade children searching for information, mainly at school. However, in interviews and conversation with the children, information-seeking both at school and at home was discussed. In this class, the teacher had a clear aim to start teaching from the children's questions and to discuss the reasonableness in the answers the students found.Children age 9 - 11 have the potential to reflect upon the reliability in web pages and they do actually do this. The teaching methods in this case study probably contribute to the development of a greater awareness about lies on the Web. It is important not only to have time to search, but also to discuss the results. If we want our children to be effective information handlers, there is no point in postponing the start of this development.

  • 320.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Datorn som redskap för lärande2002In: Nytt om data i skolanArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 321.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Lunar gör det svåra lättare: men är bara ett komplement för dagens ungdomar2003In: Utbilder, tidskrift för pedagogisk debatt från Karlstads universitet, Vol. 3/4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 322.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    The development of children's Web searching skills: a non-linear model2005In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction.The aim of this article is to determine the various skills necessary for seeking information on the Internet in educational settings. Throughout the article there is also an aim to present the students' perspective on possibilities and difficulties when using the Internet.Methods.The approach is ethnographic, which requires various data collection methods. In total 110 students in four different settings have participated.Analyses.The analyses were partly made with the help of the software NUD*IST for qualitative analyses, where sentences both from interviews and field notes were coded. Some analyses were of qualitative nature and based on selected material from the coded texts. Others were strictly quantitative and compared data from coded qualitative material with questionnaires and computer logs in a database sheet. In ethnographic analyses the material is read several times and compared in different ways to see what themes will emerge. In this case the respondents have also commented upon the result.Result.The students regard six different skills as fundamental: language, knowledge about the technology, knowledge about different ways of information seeking, how search engines work, setting goals and being critical

  • 323.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Understanding learning design when the classroom goes online2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The Internet is increasingly being used by educators and educational institutions not only for information seeking, but also for communication and publishing students work. This paper explores how this can affect the learning situation and how we can understand the difference between an assignment carried out by a student and which is handed over directly, and only, to the teacher, compared to something that will be published and public on the net.

    The Learning Design Sequence developed by Selander (2008) has been used as an analytical tool when analyzing 5 examples from schools using web 2.0. Not having the teacher as the only addressee for a school assignment changes the value of the work and opens up for further development of knowledge, and we argue that the Selander model in some cases can be extended, when the classroom goes on line.

  • 324.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Sweden's most appreciated employers: An evaluation of employer brand messages on three organisational career sites2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employer brand is the reputation that the organisation gains as an employer. The

    brand is a notion that is handled strategically, on long-term to attain competitive leverage

    over competition through persuasive methods to evoke awareness, trust and legitimacy

    among the organisations points of contact. The brand is the organisational channel for

    expressing what is unique and characteristic for a particular organisation, the

    organisational identity.

    The attention of, so called highly skilled individuals, is hard to get by - as of this there is

    a rightful reason for human resources as well as marketers to work together to create an

    employer brand that stands out and catches the attention of the talent pool. These

    communicative efforts are thus highly persuasive in their nature, as they are used to sway

    the individual’s perceptions of the organisation as being a good place to work, making

    the organisation an employer of choice.

    The selected cases for this study are Hennes & Mauritz, Netlight and King. Who, by

    2014 was the top three on Universum's Sweden’s most appreciated employers ranking. The

    study evaluates each organisations career site and their particular efforts, strategies and

    the representation of the organisational identity as being a good place to work. By this

    mode of evaluation, this study assesses the methods used by these organisations to

    address and in a sense fulfil prospective employees needs. By combining proposed

    benefits of employment with traditional modes of evaluating rhetoric messages, this

    study contributes to a contemporary reflection of the strategic methods used in employer

    brand messages.

    The results show that apparent strategies in the employer brand context consists of

    offering a wide array of benefits with themes such as development and rewards that are

    supported by ‘truthful’ praises from employees – which act as receipts of the

    employment experience. It is all about persuasion – they want you.

  • 325.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Borg, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Crash Boom Bang: En kvalitativ studie om estetik och användarvänlighet vid produktion av en extremsportares webb2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 326.
    Eriksson, Mathias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Persson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Medier i radioskugga: Medier, polis och kommunikationssystemet Rakel2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 327.
    Eriksson, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ren kommunikation i budskapsdjungeln: En studie för att ta fram kärnbudskap och kommunikationsstrategi2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen kan neka till att det spelar roll vad vi säger och gör här i livet. Vi lämnar alla på ett eller annat sätt något slags spår efter oss. Om man som organisation/företag vill göra det idag och lyckas är en början att planera sin kommunikation. Men innan man gör det är det en fördel att veta vilka som ska nås, hur de ska nås och varför de ska lyssna på just dig. Det pratas ibland om informationsbruset i vårt samhälle och att det är svårt att nå fram på grund av att vi mer och mer skärmar av oss och enbart riktar in oss på vad vi själva vill ha. Kanske är det en av anledningarna till att kommunikationsbranschen växer idag, det behövs helt enkelt en struktur på vad man säger, när man säger det och hur.

    Nätverket Rena Kläder arbetar för humana arbetsvillkor inom textilindustrin i produktionsländerna. Deras fokus ligger på de svenska modeföretagen samt de upphandlare som bland annat beställer de kläder vi har när vi ligger på sjukhus. När jag tog kontakt med dem visade det sig att de inte hade några framtagna kärnvärden, inte heller några kommunikationsstrategier som gällde för nätverket. Mitt uppdrag har varit att ta fram kärnbudskap samt en rekommenderad kommunikationsstrategi. Arbetet har tagit sin form i teori, litteratur jag har läst samt kvalitativa intervjuer med personer som arbetar med nätverket.

    Resultatet av detta visade att Rena Kläders budskap hade gått fram tydligt på vissa områden medan andra hade gett ett splittrat intryck. De gav dock ett bra underlag för mina slutsatser och möjligheten att se två synvinklar av nätverkets arbete, en från fackföreningar och medlemsorganisationer samt en från modeföretagen. Jag hoppas att Rena Kläder kommer att ha nytta av min uppsats och använda den i det vardagliga arbetet med kommunikationen utåt. Uppsatsen kan användas som en ryggrad att gå tillbaka till när nätverket ska delta i kampanjer eller liknande för att lyfta fram de delar som är relevanta just för stunden.

  • 328.
    Eriksson, Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Dömd på förhand?: En studie av namnpubliceringen av misstänkta brottslingar i två svenska tidningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 329.
    Eriksson Sjöö, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Folkesson, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Retoriska uttryck i Unicef Sveriges kampanjfilmer 20132014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The function of this paper is to examine how an aid organization uses rhetorical strategies to convince their recipients through promotional films. This study may be relevant to understand how aid organizations influence their recipients. In this study Unicef Sweden has been the object of study and the organization is one of the largest aid organizations in Sweden and an organization that regularly appear in the media.

    The theories that are relevant in this study are rhetoric and also rhetorical approaches to arrangement such as marketing rhetoric and visual rhetoric. The main issue addressed in this study is to see how Unicef Sweden uses rhetoric in their promotional films to convince people to become donors. The sub questions of the study are to investigate what expressions the rhetorical aim of the promotional films proceeds, what marketing rhetoric concepts and strategies that are presented in their promotional films to convince their target audience and how they use visual rhetoric in their promotional films.

    The study has two qualitative content analysis been performed on three to five films in selected film categories. In total, 16 promotional films have been analyzed. The chosen categories are; information film about a current situation or disaster and focus in victims of disaster, request for different campaigns, Swedish celebrities who visit underprivileged children and also a humoristic film category. In the selected films it has been made a rhetorical content analysis and an image analysis. Out of the results that have been developed in this study it clearly shows that Unicef Sweden uses rhetoric in many different ways. The three ways to convince thru rhetoric are ethos, logos and phatos and they are major building blocks in the promotional films and the most frequent one is phatos. They also use different types of rhetoric and the deliberative and epideictic rhetoric are types that occur. They also use marketing rhetorical models by disposing the promotional films in a suitable manner. Also to include celebrities in the films and make the films a bit longer are according to marketing a good way for receivers to get the message across more easily. Visual rhetoric is also used to a great extent and it clearly shows that the films generally contain somber colours and they also use colours to inform about certain situations. It is in this way that Unicef Sweden are using these three different rhetoric concepts and it shows how they use rhetoric to convince it’s receiver to absorb the message of the films and become donors.

  • 330.
    Erlebach, Chanett
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Webbhotell och deras tjänster: En jämförelse av kostnader, funktioner och service2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att ge en inblick i webbhotellens värld då det idag finns 1 706 webbhotellstjänster (inklusive dataservicebyråer och hostingföretag) i Sverige, varav 245 är namngivna webbhotell. Uppsatsen ska redogöra skillnader mellan kostnader, funktioner och service utav elva webbhotell som ingick i undersökningen.

    Uppsatsen vänder sig till privatpersoner, organisationer och företag som vill införskaffa sig kunskap om webbhotell och deras tjänster. Genom att läsa denna uppsats kan målgruppen få bättre kännedom om de kostnader, funktioner och service som webbhotellen förmedlar innan man t.ex. ingår ett avtal.

    Undersökningen visar bland annat att antalet anställda och priset utgör ett tydligt samband, att webbhotell som har minsta antal anställda samtidigt har de lägsta priserna.

    Det har även tidigare varit priset som har varit ett konkurrentverktyg mellan webbhotellen men undersökningen visar att priset inte längre har någon betydelse och att priset i förhållande till webbutrymme och datatrafik håller på att förändras.

    Konkurrensen i framtiden mellan webbhotellen kommer inte att baseras på prissättningen, datatrafiken eller webbutrymmet utan support, kontrollpanel och prestanda kommer att bli webbhotellens centrala konkurrensverktyg.

    Webbhotell anses ha bättre prestanda om webbhotellets placering är i Sverige men undersökningen visar att ett utländskt webbhotell vann sidladdningstestet.

    Om månadens datatrafik överskrids kommer webbplatsen att stängas ner eller prestandan kommer att bli märkbart försämrad.

    Webbhotell utlovar 100 % upptid, dvs. de garanterar att webbservern alltid kommer att fungera, vilket är viktigt för företag som har sina affärssystem online.

    Fjorton webbadministratörer som använder sig av webbhotell både privat och genom sitt företag har svarat på en kvalitativ frågeformulärsundersökning med 43 frågor och svaren på frågorna visar att skillnader mellan de elva webbhotellen i undersökningen förekommer.

    Rekommendationer lämnas till målgruppen i valet av ett webbhotell samt andra tips om hur man kan kontrollera t.ex. prestandan och antal domäner på webbservern.

  • 331.
    Ersson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Dressed for success: En undersökning rörande enhetlig arbetsklädsel och dess roll för organisationsidentiteten2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Espino Colin, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Höglind, Moa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Samklang, taktkänsla och utstrålning: En studie av Värmlandsoperans profil och image2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens teknologiska och samhälleliga utveckling har förändrat organisationens plattform och sätt att kommunicera. Dessa förändringar har gjort att vissa komponenter som begreppet varumärke har blivit allt viktigare och fått mer uppmärksamhet av organisationer och inom medie- och kommunikationsområdet. För att ett varumärke ska ha ett värde måste begreppen image och profil stämma överens med varandra, det gör dessa begrepp lika viktiga som hela varumärkesbegreppet. Därför är det intressant att klarlägga och få mer kännedom om begreppen samt att få insikt i hur dessa kan se ut för en organisation i dagens samhälle. Detta gjordes genom att undersöka organisationen Värmlandsoperan.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka en organisations profil, den image unga har av organisationen samt överensstämmelsen och samspelet mellan profilen och imagen. Syftet är även att hitta samband och orsaker till varför profilen och den image unga har av organisationen stämmer eller inte stämmer överens med varandra. Frågeställningarna uppsatsen utgår ifrån är:

    • Hur profilerar Värmlandsoperan sig gentemot musikintresserade unga?
    • Vilken image har musikintresserade unga av Värmlandsoperan?
    • Finns det en överensstämmelse mellan Värmlandsoperans profil och den image som musikintresserade unga har av organisationen?

    Detta genomfördes genom att få insikt i samt redovisa olika teorier, begrepp och tidigare forskning som kastar ljus över det ämne som undersöks. Med detta som grund genomfördes en samtalsintervju, fokusgruppsintervjuer samt en dokumentanalys.

    Analyserna pekar på att Värmlandsoperans profil bara speglas i vissa avseenden i den unga målgruppens image. Orsaken till denna skillnad har grunden i organisationens kommunikation till målgruppen. Denna kommunikation har lett till att målgruppen inte konsumerar organisationens produkt eller blir en del av dess publik. Avslutningsvis pekade slutsatserna på att Värmlandsoperan behöver planera sin profil noggrannare för att göra den fungerande och få den att speglas i målgruppens image av organisationen.

  • 333.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Participation in Flood risk Management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving interested parties in Flood Risk Management is a crucial and challenging issue. The implementation of the European Flood Directive requires the active participation of stakeholders. But how can this be achieved successfully? This publication gives a brief overview of participation issues in Flood Risk Management in order to prepare for and to assist participatory processes. It provides a synopsis of key issues, findings of literature research and project results in (public) participation in the field of water and flood risk management. 

    The focus here is on general aspects of (public) participation. This publication describes an understanding of what participation is and gives some definitions of relevant terms. Furthermore the question “why is participation important?” is considered and reasons for and against participation and potential barriers are described. Guidelines for the key questions that should be addressed before a participation process is started are offered and different working steps are explained. Finally, some examples of methods and tools for participation are described.

    However, this short description can only give an overview and orientation of this broad field. In fact, each project and process has to be adapted to the respective situation and conditions. Nevertheless, this brochure might contribute to the participatory process in Flood Risk Management and help to involve interested parties as required by the EU Floods Directive.

  • 334. Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies2006Book (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    A Discursive Approach to Mediatisation: Corporate Technology Discourse and the Trope of Media Indispensability2018In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatisation research has informed us regarding the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatisation is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatisation has been explicated, e.g., by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatisation studies that consider the economic interests of mediatisation stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this article scrutinizes what the alleged 'mobility revolution' entails according to some who would benefit most from such a revolution. More concretely, the article studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei,and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatisation theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the article asks: if mobile media changes 'everything' in life-whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are 'indispensable' to modern ways of living-what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the article speaks to the theme of this thematic issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatisation is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: 'technologies of cosmos', 'technologies of self', and, ultimately, 'technologies of life'. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatisation by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern-notably, urban and privileged-lives. In addition to providing answers to the study's empirical questions, the article includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatisation theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the 'discursive turn' in mediatisation studies.

  • 336.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Affective Mobility: Mediated Connectivity among 'Elastically' Mobile Elites2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Marketing for the Active Consumer in the Era of Media Convergence: Transformers and the Sector Seven Campaign2013In: Making Sense of Consumption: Selections from the 2nd Nordic Conference on Consumer Research 2012 / [ed] Lena Hansson, Ulrika Holmberg & Helene Brembeck, Gothenburg, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    More Than Meets The Eye: The Marketing of Transmedial Brands In the 21st Century2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Convergence has become a buzzword to explain all sorts of processes in contemporary society. Predominantly, the concept has been used to signify ongoing changes in how media content is being produced, distributed and consumed. In this paper, I present some initial

    findings from my ongoing dissertation project. The entertainment franchise Transformers, which is used as a case-study in my research, seem to indicate that present-day marketing practices used to promote transmedial brands (such as the Transformers brand) contribute to a convergence of media content. By the utilization of various activities to extend and promote

    the brand, such as transmedia storytelling, licensing, cross-promoting and a mixture of clever marketing initiatives, the boundaries between entertainment and advertising tend to become indistinct, if not dissolved entirely

  • 339.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    More than Meets the Eye: Transmedial entertainment as a site of pleasure, resistance and exploitation2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s converging entertainment industry creates ‘transmedial’ brand worlds in which consumers are expected to become immersed. Integrated marketing campaigns connected to these worlds encourage various kinds of consumer productivity and invite consumers to partake in brand-building processes. Consumers, thus, are increasingly counted on to act as co-producers of contemporary entertainment. While such an altered consumer identity has been taken as evidence of enhanced consumer agency, it has also been recognized as a source of consumer exploitation. 

    This thesis aims to further our understanding of the increasingly ambivalent power-relationship that exists between agents in the entertainment industry and their most dedicated customers – the fans. The study employs a multiperspectival theoretical framework, in that cultural studies theory is enriched with perspectives from political economy. This integrated approach to the object of study yields a better understanding of the values of consumer activity, and fan productivity in particular, to industry and consumers respectively.

    The study applies existing theory on transmedial textuality, branding, and fandom to one particular franchise, Hasbro’s Transformers. This brand world, home of both industrial and fan-based creativity, is studied through analyses of official and unofficial contents, and through interviews with professionals and fans. The focus is on the brand environment established around the first live action film ever made within the franchise. Special attention is given to the all-encompassing film marketing campaign that contributed to forming this environment and to fan productivity taking place in relation to it. 

    The case study shows that companies and fans contribute to the building and promotion of the Transformers brand world – in collaboration and in conflict. While fan productivity occasionally takes place without direct encouragement from the companies involved, it is also largely anticipated and desired by marketing campaigns. The findings suggest that consumer enjoyment potentially translates into industrial benefits, including free brand promotion. Ultimately, the thesis acknowledges transmedial worlds of entertainment as concurrent sites of pleasure, resistance, and exploitation.

  • 340.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Play Labour and the Search for Mass Fandom: A Transformers Brand Experience2013In: Digital Games and Playful Media (TWG), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s entertainment industries encourage consumer activity as a way to gain brand loyalty. Participatory marketing campaigns are calculated to promote such activity, especially when designed as transmedia entertainment and require various types of play labor. This paper seeks to add to our mounting yet still limited understanding of industry branding practices in an era of media convergence and against the background of recent theoretizations on the ‘new’ active consumer. Ultimately, awareness of such practices will help us understand the increasingly complicated relationship between producers and consumers of mediated entertainment. The paper is based on empirical data that were generated by the author in relation to her PhD thesis. Focusing on a specific marketing campaign that was launched in support of Michael Bay’s and Steven Spielberg’s 2007 Transformers film, the paper argues for the need to make manifest the interplay between the pleasurable and, at the same time, potentially exploitive traits of consumer activity in general and of fan productivity in particular.

  • 341.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Selling (the idea of) mediatization: Contemporary technology discourse and the indispensability of mobile media in work/life2017In: NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatization research has informed us about the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatization is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatization has been explicated e.g. by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatization studies that consider the economic interests of mediatization stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this paper scrutinizes what the alleged ‘mobility revolution’ entails according to some of those who would benefit the most from such a revolution. More concretely, the paper studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei, and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatization theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the paper asks: if mobile media changes ‘everything’ in life – whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are ‘indispensable’ to modern ways of living – what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the paper speaks to the theme of this special issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatization is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: ‘technologies of cosmos’, ‘technologies of self’, and, ultimately, ‘technologies of life’. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatization by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern – notably, urban and privileged – lives. In addition to providing answers to the study’s empirical questions, the paper includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatization theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the ‘discursive turn’ in mediatization studies.

  • 342.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Jansson, AndréKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).Lindell, JohanKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).Ryan Bengtsson, LindaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).Tesfahuney, MekonnenKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book introduces and develops the concept of geomedia studies as the name of a particular subfield of communication geography. Despite the accelerating societal relevance of 'geomedia' technologies for the production of various spaces, mobilities, and power-relations, and the unquestionable emergence of a vibrant research field that deals with questions pertaining to such topics, the term geomedia studies remains surprisingly unestablished. By addressing imperative questions about the implications of geomedia technologies for organizations, social groups and individuals (e.g. businesses profiting from geo-surveillance, refugees or migrants moving across national borders, or artists claiming their rights to public space) the book also aims to contribute to ongoing academic and societal debates in our increasingly mediatized world.

  • 343.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Introducing Geomedia Studies2018In: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Introducing geomedia studies2017In: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Karin Fast, André Jansson, Johan Lindell, Linda Ryan Bengtsson, Mekonnen Tesfahuney, Routledge, 2017, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    On the Reluctant Cosmopolitanism of Kinetic Élites2015In: 12th Conference of the European Sociological Association, August 25-28, 2015, Prague, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The elastic mobility of business elites: Negotiating the 'home' and 'away' continuum2016In: European Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1367-5494, E-ISSN 1460-3551, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 435-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to provide an understanding of internationally mobile elites from a perspective that takes into account the social costs that come with being away from localized, everyday life. We show that mobile elites are often reluctant travellers and employ Bude and Dürrschmidt’s notion of ‘transclusion’ to understand the often-unrecognized ambivalence of mobile lifestyles. One way of coping with

    the existential dilemma of being away is to stay connected with family and friends through technologies of communication, which are deployed by the mobile elite under the regime of what Tomlinson calls ‘technologies of the hearth’. We arrive at the concept of ‘elastic mobility’, which highlights central push-and-pull processes in mobile lifestyles. The concept forwards a perspective on the social consequences of globalization that goes beyond contemporary ‘flow speak’.

  • 347.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production.

  • 348.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production

  • 349.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Geographies of free labor: Conceptualizing and Analyzing the 'Transmediascape'2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

    The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

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