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  • 301.
    Fougstedt, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Humorstil och sinne för humor i relation till självkänsla och livstillfredsställelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine whether there was any difference in the styles of humor affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive and self-defeating in terms of self-esteem or life satisfaction, and in attitudes to humor depending on self-esteem or life satisfaction. The method was quantitative, and a survey was conducted containing scales with good validity for measuring sense of humor, self-esteem and life satisfaction. 198 respondents participated in the study, a majority of which was found to be women (80%). Data analysis was conducted by an independent two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA 2 * 3), and a correlation analysis. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the affiliative humor style in terms of self-esteem but no difference in terms of self-esteem was found in the other humor styles. No differences were found in any of the humor styles in terms of life satisfaction. The result showed that there was also a difference in sense of humor in terms of self-esteem and that there was a difference in the degree to which one considered himself  as a humorous person in respect of self-esteem. However, there was not any difference on sense of humor in terms of life satisfaction. The correlation analysis showed several significant results, where the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were strongly correlated with self-esteem and the self-defeating humor style correlated negatively with self-esteem. However, no correlation with the aggressive humor style was to be found. The study contributed to a better understanding regarding the relationship between humor and self-esteem.

  • 302.
    Fougstedt, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Studenters självskattade kreativa förmåga i relation till Self-efficacy och Evaluation apprehension2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the field of creativity has long focused at the differences in personality regarding creative achievement. In recent years, research regarding social psychological factors on creativity has increased. It has previously been studied if the belief in one’s own creative abilities and fear of negative evaluation affects creativity, where confidence in own ability seems to be an important factor for creativity, while fear of negative evaluation has given mixed results. The purpose of this study was to examine what relationship self-rated creative potential and fear of others' judgment have to the variables self-rated creative fluency, self-rated creative originality, worry and withholding of ideas through a survey. 115 university students participated in the study. The method was quantitative with a deductive approach. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and correlations. The results showed a significant difference between participants with high self-rated creative potential and participants with low self-rated creative potential for self-rated creative fluency and originality. No difference in worry and withholding of ideas in relation to self-rated creative potential was demonstrated. The main finding was that those who had higher self-reported fear of evaluation also had higher self-reported tendency to withhold ideas. This may mean that some people might be considered more creative than others simply because they actually dare to share their ideas.

  • 303.
    Franzen, Zandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Personlighetsdrag och statusuppdateringar på Facebook.: En enkätstudie om personlighet och innehåll i statusuppdateringar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine if there is a correlation between personality traits and content of status updates on Facebook and if there are differences in the status update content depending on the degree of personality traits. The study was a quantitative survey that participants answered using Facebook. The study involved 236 people, 189 women and 47 men. A new test was designed, inspired by previous studies to estimate the content of status updates (SU). Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) was used to estimate personality traits. The result shows a correlation between the personality traits extraversion and content, emotional stability and content, openness and content of status updates. Significant correlation between other personality traits and content of status updates was not found. The result also shows difference between high and low levels of extraversion, emotional stability, and openness regarding the content of status updates. The conclusion drawn is that personality traits are relevant to the content of status updates.

     

    Keywords: Extraversion, Facebook, personality, status updates, social networking,

  • 304.
    Fridlund, Lena
    University of Karlstad.
    Invandrarbarns kamratstatus: I Sunne kommuns låg- och mellanstadieskolor1995Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 305.
    Friedl, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fyra väggar gör inget hem: En explorativ studie om expaters upplevelse av att leva i Sverige när de bor på ett långtidsboendehotell2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie var explorativ och undersökte expaters upplevelse av att leva i Sverige när de bor på ett långtidsboendehotell. Fyrtioen expater delade med sig av sina upplevelser genom fokusgruppsamtal. En tematisk analys ledde till två teman. Temat Lilla världen beskriver expaters upplevelse att leva på hotellet där undertemana (a) Inte riktigt hemma och (b) I väntan på livet reflekterar skillnaderna i deltagarnas upplevelse att leva på hotellet. Temat Stora världen speglar expaters gemensamma upplevelse av livet i ett annat land. Undertemana är (a) Landet med de lyckliga människor och (b) Ambivalent inställning att bli en del av den stora världen. Slutsatserna är att expaters personliga resurser och sociala faktorer hjälper dem att göra det bästa av den Lilla världen trots att den inte är deras hem samt att det är en psykologisk utmaning att bli en del av den Stora världen. Företag som skickar sina anställda utomlands bör, utöver interkulturell träning, också tillhandahålla utbildning i identitetsträning och stresshantering. Detta skulle underlätta för anställda att utveckla effektiva strategier för att kunna hantera utmaningen att leva i ett annat land. Hotell som erbjuder långtidsboende bör anpassa sin fysiska och sociala miljö till de behov människor har när de bor utomlands så att hotellets "fyra väggar" kan bli ett tillfälligt hem.

  • 306.
    Friedl, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Huvud eller Hjärta?: Mönster i affektiva och kognitiva reaktioner i förhållande tillindividens prioriterade sätt att hantera information och situationeri en oförutsedd situation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Studien undersökte hur deltagarna affektivt och kognitivt upplever en fallbeskrivning som simulerar en oförutsedd situation i en kontorsmiljö. Det beskrivna fallet handlar om en personalfråga och kräver ett omedelbart beslut eftersom en försening kanske inte bara påverkar arbetsprestationen och klimatet i organisationen, men också kan leda till att organisationen förlorar ett kontrakt med en långsiktig inkomst.Method/DesignStudien är en explorativ och oberoende design som genomfördes vid Karlstads universitet. Deltagarna var 72 studenter i två olika kurser, personal- och arbetsliv och psykologi. Data för denna undersökning samlades in genom en enkät som mätte deltagarnas kognitiva (Situationsuppfattning efter Kleins RPD-modellen, 1993) och affektiva reaktioner (PANAS, Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1985) på fallbeskrivningen. Den affektiva och kognitiva reaktionen backades upp av två tester som mäter en persons priorierade sätt att bearbeta information (PMPI, Burns och D'Zurilla, 1999) och att hantera situationer (Personal Temperament efter MBTI-skala). Ytterligare ingick deltagarnas demografiska data såsom ålder, kön och utbildningsnivå samt frågor om deltagarnas erfarenheter med oförutsedda situationer.ResultatResultatet visar en signifikant skillnad mellan deltagarna i personal- och arbetsvetenskap och psykologi i sin kognitiva reaktion för den oförutsedda situationen. Deltagare med en högre positiv och negativ affekiv respons visade ett signifikant högre värde i sin rationell-analytisk informationsbearbetning. Det personliga temperament-testet visade sig att vara inte valide.SlutsatsMänniskor bearbetar och bedömar situationer genom två olika sätt: med sitt hjärta och sitt huvud. Inget sätt är överläget de andra, eftersom varje sätt har viktiga fördelar och nackdelar. Endast genom att kombinera båda sätten framgångsrikt kan vi fatta beslut som kommer att leda till positiva utfall.

  • 307.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Affective dimensions of the waiting experience2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Arbetssätt för att hantera kundsynpunkter2002In: I P. Echeverri & B. Edvardsson, Marknadsföring i tjänsteekonomin. (s. 180-194), Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Attityder - en introduktion1999In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Red.), Marknads- och serviceorienterad kollektivtrafik. (s. 9-18), Karlstads universitet, Centrum för tjänsteforskning , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Attityder och kundtillfredsställelse i kollektivtrafiken2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 311.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer psychology: attitudes and customer satisfaction2001In: I L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Ed.), Market and Service Orientation in Public transportation. (p. 11-21), 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer psychology: attitudes and customer satisfaction2001In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Ed.), Market and Service Orientation in Public transportation. (p. 11-21), Karlstads universitet, Centrum för tjänsteforskning , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Effects of critical incidents on consumer satisfaction2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction is assumed to be an important cause of attitude change by mediating between preexposure and postexposure attitudes. A number of factors account for whether one is satisfied or not with a specific product or service. One factor is expectations, another performance of the product or service, and a third disconfirmation of expectation. Another possible factor that influences satisfaction is the affective reaction to product/service performance. The present thesis aimed at investigating satisfaction with public transport services. More specifically, the role of critical incidents in satisfaction was examined. In Studies I and IV the characteristics of critical incidents in public transport services were analyzed. Three different methods were in Study I applied to explore perceptual/cognitive experiences of negative critical incidents. The results suggested that employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design constitute perceived quality attributes in public transport services. Study IV investigated how individuals respond affectively to and evaluate satisfaction after such encounters. The results showed as expected that the critical incidents varied in both valence (positive-negative feelings) and activation (arousal). Study II confirmed the quality attributes found in Study I by means of further analyses of the covariances of rated frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents as well as of ratings of attributes-specific satisfaction. Some explanations of how frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents are coded in memory were tested in Studies II and III. The results showed that frequency of negative critical incidents, defined as disconfirmation of expectations, negatively affected overall satisfaction with public transport. The relationship was however not direct but mediated by attribute-specific satisfaction. Furthermore, the results obtained in Study IV showed that difference in satisfaction caused by different types of critical incidents were related to the affective reactions to the incidents

  • 314.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Implementing quality improvements in public transport2004In: Journal of Public Transportation 7 (4), 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The present study addresses two questions: (1) what effect do quality improvements have on satisfaction with public transport services? (2) What effect do quality improvements have on passengers perceived frequency of negative critical incidents? A representative sample of persons aged 16-75 years old in the thirteen regions in Sweden conducting quality improvements in public transport were used. Data were collected before it started and also after the improvements had been completed (n=2797). The pre-and post samples consisted of independent groups of respondents. The response rate was 54%. The main conclusion of the study is that the satisfaction people experience when using public transport services is influenced by quality improvements only to a limited extent. Furthermore, the effect was directionally opposite in that the respondents reported less satisfaction and higher frequencies of negative critical incidents after the quality improvements had been implemented

  • 315.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfaction with public transport services1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction is assumed to be an important cause of attitude change by acting as a mediator between preexposure and postexposure attitudes. A number of factors account for whether one is satisfied or not with a specific performance. One factor is expectations, another one performance, and a third factor disconfirmation of expectations. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate factors that have an impact on the satisfaction with public transport services. More specifically, the relationships were investigated between negative critical incidents, satisfaction with perceived service quality, and overall satisfaction. Also important was to find out what constitute quality and satisfaction in public transport services. Two studies were conducted. In Study I data were analyzed from customer complaints, onboard interviews, and a mail survey. The results suggested that employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design constitute perceived quality attributes in public transport services. Study II confirmed these results by means of further analyses of the covariances of rated frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents as well as of ratings of perceived service quality attributes. Furthermore, the frequency of negative critical incidents, defined as disconfirmation of expectations, was found to negatively affect overall satisfaction. However, the relationship was not direct but mediated by satisfaction with perceived service quality attributes. Thus, it is suggested that when the number of negative critical incidents increase, the effect is coded as perceived service quality attributes. In addition, the frequency of negative critical incidents increases with the frequency of use that is directly related to overall satisfaction and the degree of choice with different means of transportation

  • 316.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The structure of affective reactions to critical incidents2004In: Journal of Economic Psychology, 25, 331-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 318.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2003In: Managing Service Quality, 13, 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research question focused on in this study is whether complaint and compliment contain different service quality attributes. A sample of 236 complaints and 69 compliments collected by a public transport company were analyzed by means of the critical incident technique. The results of previous research were confirmed and showed that perceived service quality attributes in public transport involve employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design. It was further concluded that reliability of service causes frequently more complaints than compliments. How customers are treated by the employees was found to be more frequent in compliments.

  • 319.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Att identifiera kvalitetsbrister och missnöje1999In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Red.), Marknads- och serviceorienterad kollektivtrafik. (s. 19-36), Karlstads universitet , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Regeringen hotar att rasera kollektivtrafiken2009In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 321.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    How overall satisfaction relate to quality attributes and frequency of negative critical incidents in public transport services1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived quality of public transport service: A study of negative critical incidents1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived service quality attributes in public transport: Inferences from complaints and negative critical incidents1998In: Journal of Public Transport, 2 (1), 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 200 complaints filed to a public transport company and 210 negative critical incidents (NCIs) obtained from on-board interviews were analyzed with the purpose of inferring perceived service quality (PSQ) attributes of public transport. Most frequent complaints and NCIs concerned employee behavior and punctuality, followed by missing or inaccurate information and inadequate planning. In a follow-up mail survey, a representative sample of 997 respondents reported if they remembered having experienced prototypical NCIs constructed on the basis of the complaints. Confirming the validity of the inferred PSQ attributes, all NCIs were reported to have been experienced by at least some respondents. NCIs related to employee behavior were however less frequently remembered, whereas those related to vehicle design and space, punctuality, and traffic planning were more frequently remembered. Taken together the results suggest that PSQ attributes in public transport refer to employee behavior, reliability, and simplicity. Finally, inferences made from customer complaints and negative critical incidents are shown to extend our knowledge of perceived service quality attributes in public transport.

  • 324.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. I2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mail survey was conducted to investigate factors affecting public transport users´ satisfaction with the service. The respondents were residents of a metropolitan area of Sweden. A model was proposed and estimated using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII. In the model, overall cumulative satisfaction is positively related to attribute-specific cumulative satisfaction which in turn is negatively related to the remembered frequency of negative critical incidents. In addition, measurement models indicated that both attribute-specific satisfaction and the frequency of negative critical incidents are related to treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design.

  • 325.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Quality of Life and Daily Travel2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume analyses the relevance of daily travel in the quality of life of individuals. It provides a broad understanding of the links between life satisfaction, well-being and travel, the importance of commuting, and different evaluations and measures to assess the experience of commuting and quality of life. Chapters in this book relate travel and quality of life to the built environment, accessibility and exclusion, travel mode choice, travel satisfaction and emotions. It brings together distinguished researchers from a variety of academic backgrounds providing conceptualizations and applications, presented as case studies, for daily travel and well-being. Findings presented in this book are highly relevant for transport planners, transport marketers, public transport authorities, and environmental professionals in the pursuit of improving people’s life. 

  • 326.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Supply and Customer Satisfaction in Public Transportation: The Quality Paradox2009In: Journal of Public Transportation, ISSN 1077-291X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction measures obtained from citizens are frequently used in performancebased contracts due to their presumed link with company performance. However, few studies have actually examined the link between traveler satisfaction measures and objective performance measures in public transport. This research analyzes the relationship between the objective performance measures of public transport services and the satisfaction perceived by travelers. Data were collected in six different European cities. Three objective service performance measures were obtained for each city from the UITP Millennium Database. Three subjective satisfaction attribute measures were obtained from Benchmarking in European Service of Public Transport (BEST 2001), answered by 6,021 respondents in total. In addition to subjective attribute measures, overall satisfaction was also used as a subjective measure. Several correlational analyses show that the relationship between satisfaction and service performance in public transport is far from perfect.

  • 327.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The quality paradox: discrepancy between service supply and customer satisfaction2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Evaluating service scape in public transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, S
    Ettema, D
    Gärling, T
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A psychometric analysis of the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011In: Satisfaction with Different Travel Modes / [ed] K Dziekan , T Gehlert, T Gärling, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A happy work commute2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 132-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 332.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfredsställelse med vardagliga resor oavsett färdmedel - psykometrisk analys av STS Skalan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustavsson, B-O.
    Lahtinen, T.
    Larsson, P.
    Thomasson, B.
    Services and issues relating to the work environment1996In: B. Edvardsson & S. Modell (Eds.), Service managment. Interdiciplinary percepectives. (pp. 151-180), Stockholm: Nerenius & Santérus , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Frequency of negative critical incidents and satisfaction with public transport services1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. II2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stated-preference study was conducted to investigate user satisfaction with public transport services. A convenience sample of 95 public transport users participated. The results of a previous large-scale survey were replicated in showing that overall satisfaction is related to satisfaction with treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design. It was further shown that the total frequency of negative critical incidents affected overall satisfaction whereas the frequencies of different types of negative critical incidents selectively affected attribute-specific satisfaction. In both cases relative rather than absolute frequency was important.

  • 336.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Negativa händelser, upplevd kvalitet och global tillfredsställelse i kollektivtrafikresor1998Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 337.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Review of soft policy measures for changed travel behavior in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Related to Service Performance Attributes2001In: Hensher, D. (Ed). Travel behaviour research. The leading Edge. (pp.815-825), Elsevier Science, Ltd , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The present study examines the relationship between service performance and public transport users satisfaction. Residents (n=228) of a metropolitan area of Sweden answered a survey questionnaire assessing their satisfaction with the local public transport (busses and streetcars). Information was also collected about the public transport services used by the survey respondents for trips to work and to downtown, respectively. By estimating structural models using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII, the hypothesized relation between satisfaction and service performance (travel time, wait time, changes, and frequency of service) was confirmed. Service performance was directly related to overall cumulative satisfaction whereas recalled negative critical incidents did not seem to play any role.

  • 339.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Related to Service Performance Attributes2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Bamberg, S
    Fujii, S
    Richter, J
    Implementation of soft policy measures to change private car use in urban areas2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Millett, B.
    Mattsson, J.
    Johnston, R.
    An analysis of international business-to-business relationships based on the commitment-trust theory2002In: Industrial Marketing Management, 31, 403-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-to-business relationships are characterized by an exchange between two or more parties. Research has identified several factors that enhance marketing and management in business relationships, mainly with a focus on large manufacturing firms. However, less is known about how service firms develop and maintain international relations during the establishment of a business. To analyze the relevance of the key mediating variable model (Morgan and Hunt 1994) which maintains that business-to-business relationship requires commitment and trust, interviews were conducted with five different service entrepreneurs in Sweden, Australia, and the UK. The findings demonstrate the importance of commitment, trust, relation termination costs and benefits, shared values, and communication between the exchange partners.

  • 342.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 343.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Huck, Jana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM. Findings showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual’s stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality.

  • 344.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Larhult, Lina
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg.
    An Analysis of Soft Transport Policy Measures Implemented in Sweden to Reduce Private Car Use2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations carried out in many countries show that soft policy measures in the form of personalized travel planning reduce private car use and increase travel by public transport. Sweden is a sparsely populated country that poorly supports public transport, a country with long distances, a cold climate, and a high concentration of private cars, which is why soft policy measures implemented in Sweden may be less cost-effective than has been found in other countries. Thirty-two programs using personalized travel planning were analysed with regard to stewardship, geographic area of application, choice of techniques of exerting an influence, and effects on car use and choice of alternative travel modes. None of the evaluations of the documented programs met the method requirements for such evaluations as regards design and effect measurement. Additionally, reporting was substandard as well as non-standard in the way that is desirable in order to enable comparative analyses. With reservations for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive effects on a par with the results in other countries have been obtained in some of the implemented programs. It is however necessary to conduct evaluations which are of higher quality. The requirements which will then have to be applied are defined.

  • 345.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Larhult, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    En analys av åtgärdsprogram genomförda i Sverige för att minska privatbilismen2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärderingar som genomförts i många länder visar att mjuka policyåtgärder i form av personlig reseplanering minskar privatbilismen och ökar kollektivåkandet. Sverige har en gles befolkning och därmed dåligt underlag för kollektivtrafik, långa resavstånd, kallt klimat och en hög täthet av personbilar, varför mjuka policyåtgärder genomförda i Sverige troligen är mindre kostnadseffektiva än man funnit i andra länder. Trettiotvå svenska åtgärdsprogram som använt personlig reseplanering analyserades med avseende på huvudmannaskap, geografiskt tillämpningsområde, målgrupp, val av tekniker för påverkan samt effekter på bilresande och val av alternativa färdmedel. Inga utvärderingar av åtgärdsprogrammen uppfyllde de metodiska krav som måste ställas på sådana utvärderingar avseende uppläggning och effektmätning. Rapporteringen var dessutom dels bristfällig, dels inte heller standardiserad på det sätt som är önskvärt för att jämförande analyser skall kunna göras. Med reservation för de nämnda bristerna konstateras ändå att positiva effekter i nivå med utländska utvärderingar har erhållits i flera av åtgärdsprogrammen. Ytterligare utvärderingar av bättre kvalitet är dock nödvändiga. Vilka krav på dessa som därvid måste ställas definieras.

  • 346.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Maier, Raphaela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Applying a motivational stage-based approach in order to study a temporary free public transport intervention2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 81, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines temporary free public transport as an intervention for increasing public transport use, hence promoting sustainable mobility. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to understand how psychological mechanisms relate to motivational stage-based models of behavioral change, and the role of such a model when implementing temporary free public transport, and (2) to determine the effectiveness of temporary free public transport on car-use behavior, public transport satisfaction and attitudes. A literature review of studies reporting temporary free public transport interventions was first carried out, resulting in 13 studies that yielded non-conclusive results. We then conducted an intervention and follow-up surveys of 190 participants who tested public transport for free for one month in the County of Värmland (Sweden). The results show that psychological mechanisms are crucial determinants of motivational stage-based models, whereby personal norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control form the stage of change, and that social norms have an indirect effect through personal norms. Although an increased use of public transport was observed, only minor reduction in car use occurred. It was also found that participants moved up their motivational ladders, indicating a stronger motivation to reduce their car use post-intervention, something that may lead to a change in behavior over time. It is concluded that, although weak effects were observed on behavior in the short-term perspective, a temporary free public transport intervention may not be a waste of money, nevertheless, in a long-term perspective.

  • 347.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Nyberg, C.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Threats and aggression directed to soccer referees: An empirical phenomenological psychological study2004In: The Qualitative Report, 9, 652-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which were summarized in six themes. The main themes described the perceived causes of threat, reactions to threat, how the referees´ manage stressful situations, and their motives to referee.

  • 348.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012In: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 349.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gamble, A
    Bergstad Jakobsson, C
    Ettema, D
    Impact of Performance of Out-of-Home Activities on Affective and Cognitive Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Ettema, D
    Travel and Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
45678910 301 - 350 of 1202
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