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  • 301.
    Johansson, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bomfjädring till hjulgrävmaskin:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task was to design a damping system to Volvo´s wheeled excavator EW160C with assignments from Swecon. The type of solution that would be relevant turned out to be a kind of accumulator system. By connecting an accumulator to the piston side of the cylinder, the accumulator operates as a shock absorber as the oil-flow from the cylinder of the crane, which moves up and down on uneven surfaces, flows into the accumulator and gets suppressed by means of a diaphragm or a piston in the accumulator that is pressurized by a gas. The oil flow attenuates when the gas is compressed.

    At the beginning of the thesis work, a project plan was made with a time schedule and a risk analysis. Then the research began for different types of aftermarket kits and companies that are working with this type of solutions. A meeting was arranged with Anders Tågmark who´s working for Hydac, a company that is selling hydraulic components. After the meeting we decided to cooperate. A decision was made that I should bring Anders concepts of the solution and Anders should give me examples of components that were needed. The research work also contained a study visit at Swecon in Eskilstuna, where the people that made the request about this work in the beginning was interviewed. At this meeting they made a priority list of what they thought was most important to have in mind in the concept development. The result of the research was that the solution should be simple and as cheap as possible, so it wouldn´t compete with a solution that Volvo might develop in the future. The goal in this project was therefor to make an aftermarket kit. Some of the requirements was that the damping system was allowed to cost between 15-25 000 Swedish crowns for the customers to buy, and that the system should be easy and quick to mount on the machine.

     

    The main questions of the concept development, was which type of accumulator that should be used and where to place the system. One of the concepts was to place it on the boom-cylinders, and the other concept was to place it on the tilt-cylinder. It turned out that both concepts met the cost requirements from Swecon in terms of components. However, costs will be added for the completion of the solution for manufacturing, mounting, purchasing and spare parts support.

    The result was to use a piston-accumulator and place it on the tilt-cylinder, because the concept for the tilt-cylinder was simpler and less expensive

  • 302.
    Johansson, Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Chassiintegrerade lastceller: Installation i fjädersäte på Scania tandemboggibakaxlar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis presented in this report has been made on behalf of Scania and their basic frame design department with the subject to solve an implementation of a weight sensing system in the chassis. The system is supposed to be implemented in the seat springs, and the reason for this is that all the force will have to go through the weight sensing transducers. With all the force going through the transducers the weight sensing system will not be sensitive for the differences in tolerances from manufacturing. The transducers could be pre-calibrated to avoid a calibration of the whole vehicle after it’s completed from the manufacturing line.

    Weight sensing systems is today a reality in trucks with air springs. Complete systems is also sold in the big aftermarket for trucks. None of Scanias competitors have a solution for this as of today.

    The thesis was from start limited to only process the BT-301S bogie. A system will likely be easy to adapt to the other bogies with small modifications.

    Through the thesis possible problems are illuminated to understand the function and make a properly working weight sensing system. In the present bogie system the main problem for a proper function is the frictional forces that appears in the surface between the spring and the spring seat. 

    In the report a proposition with a rubber part between the spring and the spring seat is introduced, with the idea to get around the known problems with the frictional forces. The rubber itself does produce a reaction force when deformed, but the forces could through simulation be known, and hence compensated for. A rubber part under the spring would result in a contact surface much higher than today. A new spring, or a new version of the spring, will be needed for this solution to work.

    For the work to come, Scania need to decide what precision the weight sensing system need. But smaller decisions like the size and stiffness for the rubber part will also be needed. This thesis has only dealt with the bogie, but in a close future, the front axles need to be done. Much can likely be carried over from this thesis for that.

    A weight sensing might be possible to implement, but with what precision at uneven ground? Most likely will the variation in load on the transducers be too much. An approximation for the precision with a total span of 7% is realistic.

  • 303.
    Johansson, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nocturnal cooling: Study of heat transfer from a flat-plate solar collector2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibility of using an unglazed flat-plate solar collector as a cooling radiator. The solar collector will be connected to the condenser of a heat pump and used as cooler during nighttime. Daytime the solar collector will be connected to the evaporator of the heat pump and used as heat source. The two widely differing fields of application make special demands on the solar collector. The task is given by the heat pump manufacturer Thermia and the main objective is to find out whether a solar collector should be used as a cooler or not. The performance of the solar collector under varying environmental conditions is investigated using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3. Only the cooling properties are investigated here. The performance of the solar collector as a heat exchanger is estimated using the effectiveness-NTU method, and the solar collector is found to be a good heat exchanger at low wind speeds. The heat transfer coefficients of the convection and radiation are determined for varying temperature and wind speeds. The convective heat transfer coefficient is lowered by tubes above the absorber plate and for a high convective heat transfer rate the solar collector surface should be smooth. For a high radiative heat transfer rate the surface needs to have a high emissivity. The cooling rate is higher from a warm surface than from a cold and since no temperature change of the heat carrier is necessary the solar collector should be kept at a high temperature. To increase the cooling rate alterations need to be made to the solar collector that makes its heating performance deteriorate. A solar collector that can be used for cooling is not an efficient solar collector.

  • 304.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Karlstad University. Fakulteten för hälsa- natur- och teknikvetenskap.
    Utformning av en Bollutslungare: Produktutvecklingsprojekt av en bollutslungare för hundsporten Flyball2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a product development project of a ball launcher as requested by Sörmons HundklubbLKk. The project har been carried out as a thesis for the Bachelor of Science for the Innovation anddesign engineer program at Karlstad University.The client wished to begin training in a dog sport called Flyball. This sport can be likened to a relayrace where two teams of dogs race against each other. One dog per team runs along a path, leapingover obstacles, up to a ball launcher. When the dog jumps at the ball launcher to stop its momentumand turn back, a ball, launched about two feet, is to be caught by the dog. The dog then returns thesame way along the track as it came to switch with the next dog on the team. The last dog who finishfirst wins for their team.Due to large costs when importing a ball launcher, and the product not being available in Sweden,the client wanted a Swedish version developed. The goal was to minimize the price with the criterionto maximize longevity.The work of the project has followed the product development process as studied at KarlstadUniversity, with great influence by idea generation techniques, analog and digital sketching, 3Dmodeling and mechanical drawing techniques. Construction of the prototype has been carried out inthe workshop at Karlstad University with an evolutionistic design approach. A combination of lateralthinking for creativity and vertical thinking for logic and confirmation was used throughout theproject.The result of the project was a prototype that could be tested in a real environment at the dog cluband was confirmed to function as desired. Due to the availability of material at the workshop,construction of the ball launcher was possible at no cost to the client. This was a request, althoughnot a requirement for the project.The client also wanted to keep the prototype which was constructed to use within the club fortraining purposes. Therefore the ball launcher was completed to a finished prototype after projectclosure.

  • 305.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Johansson, Magdalena
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Den offentliga sektorns estetiska krav på arbetskraften2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Har utseendet någon betydelse i arbetslivet? Existerar det estetiska krav inom den offentliga sektorn? Utifrån en kvalitativ metod har sju intervjuer genomförts med personalansvariga inom den offentliga sektorn för att undersöka förekomsten av estetiska krav. Ett antal faktorer som visar på vilka de estetiska kraven är inom den offentliga sektorn har lokaliserats. Även förklaringar till varför de estetiska kraven ställs har kartlagts. Denna artikel ämnar därmed att presentera vilka de estetiska sambanden är som råder inom offentliga organisationer i Sverige.

  • 306.
    Johansson Lopez, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Utveckling av stödverktyg och kravspecifikationsmall: Mot en mer effektiv och kundcentrerad maskinkonstruktion2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been implemented as a degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design at the Faculty of Health, Science and Technology at the University of Karlstad in the spring of 2015. Most of the work has been performed on Valmet's engineering department for the wet end at Lamberget where interviews and observations have been made in order to develop a digital support tool and a requirement specification template in Excel.

     

    A requirement specification for one of Valmet’s components in the paper machine has been made in order to develop a tool and a template adapted for Valmet. An extensive feasibility study has been done with customer focus to develop a functional requirement specification according to the theory of the project's theoretical framework. The feasibility study includes interviews and observations made at Valmet and at three paper mills in Sweden. The interviews at the paper mills have been made to get first hand information from the real users, which are the operators.

     

    The feasibility study consists of information retrieval, mapping of stakeholders, interviews and observations. All the information from the feasibility study was compiled in a function analysis and a QFD-analysis which finally resulted in a requirement specification. A techniqual product specification for the component’s actual qualities was also produced.

     

    Based on this material a digital support tool in Excel was developed that will facilitate the use of the methods chosen. The support tool translates the identified customer needs from the feasibility study into measurable customer requirements. The measurable customer requirements can be compiled in the requirement specification template in Excel which has also been developed.

     

    The tool and template is adapted to Valmet through testing and improvement together with staff at the company. The use of this material will facilitate the process of making specifications for a more efficient and user-centered product development.

  • 307.
    Johansson, Monica
    Karlstad University.
    Simulation of Two Phase Flow in a Yankee cylinder2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 308.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Koldioxidhaltig biogas som fordonsbränsle: Lagring och förbränning vid gårdsproduktion2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas har använts som fordonsbränsle i Sverige sedan början av 90-talet som ett förnyelsebart alternativ till naturgas. Först till bussflottor och sedan slutet av 90-talet även till personbilar. Biogasproduktionen i Sverige har sedan slutet av 90-talet varit omkring 1,5 TWh per år. Potentialen för biogasproduktion genom rötning är 15 TWh per år, varav den största delen beräknas komma från jordbruket.

    Biogas produceras främst genom rötning av substrat. Detta består av organiskt material och olika typer av material kan med fördel blandas. Produkten ur rötkammaren är en rågas som består av 55-70 mol-% metan, 30-45 mol-% koldioxid samt små mängder svavelväte, siloxaner och vatten.

    För att kunna motsvara naturgas behöver den råa biogasen renas, vilket kallas uppgradering. I denna process höjs metanhalten till 97±1%. Resterande andel gas består främst av koldioxid. Siloxaner och svavelväte måste i det närmaste helt renas bort eftersom dessa är skadliga för ledningar, tankar och motorer. Problemet med de uppgraderingstekniker som finns är att de är svåra att anpassa för små gasflöden, de blir inte lönsamma för enskilda gårdar att investera i.

    För att underlätta för gårdar att producera biogas för drift av egna fordon har det undersökts om det skulle vara möjligt att använda biogas med högre koldioxidhalt än standarden föreskriver. Detta skulle öppna för en enklare och billigare uppgradering, eller eventuellt ta bort behovet av uppgradering.

    Fokus har legat på två problem. Det var oklart huruvida koldioxiden i en biogasblandning kondenserar vid högt tryck, vilket skulle leda till varierande gassammansättning när trycket sänks. Detta har studerats genom litteraturstudier och beräkningar. Risken fanns också att en hög koldioxidhalt skulle försämra förbränningen i en motor, för att finna en nedre gräns för metanhalten har gjord forskning på förbränning av koldioxidhaltig gas sammanställts.

    Resultatet visar att rå biogas med en metanhalt på 60 mol-% aldrig kondenserar i temperaturer över -20°C oavsett tryck, höjs metanhalten till 70 mol-% är den säkra temperaturen -30°C. 70 mol-% var enligt vetenskapen också en säker lägre gräns för att förbränningen inte ska bli negativt påverkad med ojämn motorgång som följd. Denna låga metanhalt ger dock sänkt verkningsgrad och kortare räckvidd varför en så hög metanhalt som möjligt bör eftersträvas. 

  • 309. Johansson, Pauline
    Alternativ till kuggdrift i förtork PM42019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a bachelor thesis and it is a part of the very last semester at Karlstad’s University. Focus in this project is investigating and finding the very best solution for a new drive in the pre-dryer system on a paper machine. The paper machine can be found at Nordic Paper Bäckhammar. The current drive that is used is very old and outdated. It is not very reliable due to its age, and besides that there is also a big problem with the design. There is not much room for maintenance. Spare parts and drawings are absent, and causing a tremendous problem in case of a breakdown. The purpose with this project is avoiding loss of production due to a breakdown in the current drive. Since parts of the drive system are enclosed it’s impossible to see the condition on all the affected parts. Unless removing some of the construction. Because of this fact it’s difficult to anticipate a potential breakdown. The goal is to identify a well-suited concept on a new drive system. A drive system that’s more up to date but also more reliable than the one used today. There are huge problems with a major oil leakage on the current drive system. A great advantage would be if the new drive system would contribute to reduce the leak. The new drive system is a concept already established on the market. The results present two different types of concepts, both very suitable. One of them is a rather new concept, and the other have been used for a longer period of time. Even though there are some differences, they both are considered very good alternatives. One thing that they have in common is the possibility to easily keep a complete set of spare parts in the mill. That means a safer production and a breakdown can be fixed rapidly. 

  • 310.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Probability of failure in Turbine Exhaust Cases subjected to crack propagation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aviation industry the most important factor is safety. GKN are producing the Turbine Exhaust Case (TEC) which is a component in an airplane engine. The welds in an airplane engine are a risk for a breakdown because of fatigue failure due to crack propagation. Since the number of cracks and the size of them are unknown the life expectancy of a TEC is unknown. Instead using deterministic models when calculating the life expectancy one another way is to do the calculations with a probabilistic model. The random variables in the probabilistic model are the number of cracks, size and position of each crack, the variation in materials and the offset between the plates that are welded. By running a Monte-Carlo simulation the probability of failure can be estimated for a specific number of flights. The simulation is validated against a known theoretical case to prove that the method is valid. The aim with the thesis is to have a fast process for as many simulations as possible but the work process is shown to be too slow due to the program that does the crack propagation calculations.

  • 311.
    Johansson, Tore
    Karlstad University.
    Nutidsbeskrivning av PFAS i dagvatten för området Frösö Park: Med fokus mot reningsmetoder och hur PFAS-situationen ser ut för framtiden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS is a relatively new group of contaminants with unique characteristics, which in the early 21st century was understood being dangerous for both humans and the environment. In 2008, EFSA published a report on guidelines for human intake of PFAS. Target and limit values for ground and surface water around the world has been based on the information in the EFSA report. In the end of 2018, EFSA published a new preliminary report with new target values for PFAS, well below the target values published in 2008.

    Frösö Park in Östersund, Sweden, is polluted by PFAS from the time that the Swedish Armed Forces were active in the area. While the Swedish Armed Forces exercised their activities at Frösö Park, large amounts of aqueous fire-fighting foams were used, mainly for training purposes. AFFF at that time contained a mixture of many highly fluorinated chemicals known as PFAS, a collective name of more than 4,700 chemicals consisting of carbon-fluorine bonds. PFAS are, more or less, persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. This study focuses on PFAS11, which Sweden has target and limit values for in respect of ground water and surface water (lake and sea). PFOS is the most common PFAS chemical and the most commonly occurring PFAS chemical at the Frösö Park area.

    Today, there is a combined urban runoff and waste water network at the Frösö Park area. The internal water conduit system is currently being examined in order to, eventually, disconnect the urban runoff from the waste water network in order to instead release the urban runoff to Storsjön in the immediate area. As the urban runoff has high levels of PFAS, it must be purified before it is discharged to the recipient. High levels of PFAS has been found in the sewage treatment plant. The sewage treatment plant is not able to purify the water from PFAS, which means that the pollution is discharged into Östersund’s drinking water source, Storsjön.

    The Municipality of Östersund wanted this thesis as the study will include newsworthy information and provide the municipality more knowledge about the PFAS issues in the Frösö Park area. The aim of this thesis is to examine how the urban runoff from the Frösö Park area can be handled to prevent PFAS leaking out in Östersund’s drinking water source, Storsjön. The thesis describes in a comprehensive way how different purification methods work and the function of the different methods based on the conditions that exist in the Frösö Park area. The purification methods for urban runoff are sedimentation methods, biofilters, and how additives with chemicals can affect the purification of urban runoff. After the urban runoff purification, the purification steps focused on PFAS are sorption methods, chemical redox methods, membrane methods and excavation methods.

    Based on previous reports for the Frösö Park area, existing data has been compiled into maps, figures and diagrams in order to clearly describe the current PFAS situation. The scientific literature presented herein has been selected by specific keywords in databases. The literature has been supplemented with materials provided by the municipality, tips from researchers and personal contact with other industry-related actors.

    In the purification steps focused on purifying particles, organic materials and metals in urban runoff, a barrier that restricts the flow of water is proposed, tentatively a dam, wetland or lamellar sedimentation, followed by sand filtration. A large advantage with a

    barrier restricting the flow of water is the possibility to control the water flow to the next purification step. In the purification steps focused on purifying the water from PFAS, purification with activated carbon, nanofiltration, ion exchange method or sonochemical oxidation are proposed. The purification methods are proposed because of the existing knowledge of the methods and the pollution situation for the Frösö Park area.

    The research for PFAS with new purification methods, target and limit values for humans and the nature as well as future costs for decontamination and health-related costs means that PFAS currently is a priority contaminant taken seriously. Advantages and disadvantages of the purification methods are presented herein, however, the issues with PFAS are very complex and the purification methods work differently depending on the conditions they are exposed to.

    In this thesis, the most interesting new information regarding PFAS has been compiled to show the current knowledge situation in order to facilitate for relevant actors to continue their work with the PFAS issues in the future.

  • 312.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Larsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Lojalitet på arbetet: Ett perspektiv från arbetare till chef2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This qualitative study has been made to examine which factors that are required to create a work place that can be associated with loyal co-workers. The study covers half structured interviews with nine people on different levels and with different positions, within a manufacturing company in Värmland. Our ambition with this study is to find out if, and if so, in what way the view on loyalty and which factors that are required to encourage loyalty, differ depending on witch level one belongs to in the organization. Our thesis is that our respondents will have various ways of expressing the term loyalty, and that these various ways are linked to the different levels that each employee is currently stationed at.

    The result of this study shows that the way people look at loyalty, and what loyalty is really about, does not differ that much among our respondents, regardless of their level. The factors that, according to the respondents, are important if one wants to create a work place that can be associated with loyal co-workers are: to be able to feel trust towards and have faith in those one works with, as well as the company and the way things are being run, to be able to experience the feeling of community, and that one is happy with ones work place, as well as ones co-workers. Our respondents are of the opinion that a clear and well-functioned communication that spires through the whole organization is necessary if one wants to encourage and keep the loyalty amongst the employees. It is also important to be able to feel included in decisions that affect ones own work, and to feel that one has interesting and stimulating tasks that actually contribute to the whole picture or the final product. This creates a feeling that one is making progress within ones work, and that the company really savors and makes use of their staff’s competence, as well as that one as an employee is contributing to the company’s development and possibility to survive in a market full of hard concurrence.

    Key words: Loyalty, Trust, Confidence, Solidarity, Communication, Competence, Organization culture.

  • 313.
    Johansson, Vilhelm
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Kartläggning av energitillskottFör Stora Enso Timbers pelletsfabrik i Grums2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konstruktion och undersökning av vinklingsbar upphängning för solcellspaneler.: Ett projekt i sammarbete med Sunchain Development AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is made in collaboration with Sunchain Development AB and Karlstad University, supervised by Lasse Jacobsson and Fredrik Lindvall. The goal of this project is to construct a manually adjustable solar panel mounting for a 20 foot ISO standard sea container to create a so-called energy container. When creating this module consideration was made that the construction should be simply designed and inexpensive to manufacture. This is because in a later part of the project be able to compare the constructed energy container with an existing energy container and examine when the two containers reach breakeven. For this, a study was made that laid the basis for the specification and the concepts that was developed for the project. The choice was between a concept which uses mirrors to concentrate solar insolation, a concept that’s inspired by an existing energy containers and another one in which the panels are moved and adjusted by several wheels arranged on the suspension back that eventually was the chosen one. Furthermore, strength calculations and mechanics calculations were made by hand to provide a basis for the future dimensioning. Calculations concluded that the adjustment by hand is possible but somewhat limited when the suspension under certain circumstances can’t be adjusted at wind speeds of 6 m/s or higher. The components that were selected to construct the suspension was IPE80 beams and various different sizes of flat iron that was modeled in Creo Parametrics 2.0. The construction was estimated to cost 161 000 SEK for material and manufacturing costs. At this stage it was discovered that parts that weren’t included were necessary to estimate a selling price for the energy container to be able to compare it to an existing competitor. Therefore it was chosen to instead go ahead and just calculate how much energy the designed energy container can collect during a cloudless day in the two cases that the panels are manually adjusted after the sun 5 times a day and that the panels are placed flat on the roof. Calculations show that the container in one day collects 75 kWh if the panels were adjusted and 49 kWh if it laid flat on the roof. Worth noting is that the maximum solar energy that theoretically could be collected in one day is 76.5 kWh, which means that the loss to adjust the panels 5 times a day gives a loss of almost 2 percent in comparison with the maximum solar energy that could have been collected. The project wasn’t able to answer the questions that were asked in the project but gave an indication that the manually adjustable solar panels is worth going forward with.

  • 315.
    Jonas, Arnesson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Standardiserat arbete i produktionssystemet hos Inission Munkfors AB2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This report treats the introduction of standardized work in Inission Munkfors AB's production system. The work has been performed in the course Degree Project for Degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering - Mechanical Engineering (MSGC17), given at the Faculty of Health, Nature & Technology at Karlstad University.The company Inission Munkfors AB aims from year 2012 to 2017 to double the turnover, halve the lead time, with the same number of employees as in year 2012 (75 people). This goal is called "Inspirit 2x2 2017" by the company, and the strategies for reaching the goal are: acquire more and correct customers, have a unique delivery precision and to get all the coworkers on board in the change process. One of the corner stones to achieve this will be practising standardized work, which is one of Toyota's 14 principles. This study focuses on the assembly process of a specific electronics cabinet. The company has a former history of freedom regarding how working tasks are performed by the workers. This has led to a development of individual ways of assembly among the workers, which have caused a scatter in assembly time.From a current state analysis of processes in the flow of products, proposals for improvement in effectiveness and quality were documented with support from Lean theory about waste and standard, and for the assembly process a standardized work method was created and introduced. During the development of the standardized work method, a discussion was held with co-workers about the meaning of the company's strategies, theory regarding standardization and the importance of standardized work. From the meeting it was realised that the co-workers have a negative attitude towards the company's goal, and lack of knowledge regarding the meaning of the strategies and the need for standardized work. Some of the co-workers thought that standardized work wouldn't help their daily work, which indicates fear of change. The negative attitude and fear of change can most likely be overcome if the management teaches understanding for the goal and the need for standardized work.The result of the assembly time for two assemblers shows that the scatter has decreased from 11 h and 15 min to 15 min when the standardized work method was introduced. The resultsindicates what is described in the theory that the scatter will decrease if everybody practises the same way. The former average time for mounting was 8,15 h, and the new results shows an average time of 5,5 h, which generates possibilities in cutting lead time for the product. The company need to continue these time studies to be able to see how the scatter is affected by the rest of the co-workers. When the standardized work method has been practised by the co-workers and the scatter in assembly time is rather balanced, the time for executing the activities in the standardized work method should be introduced and documented. This enables visualisation of deviations and makes it possible to improve the process.

  • 316.
    Jonsson, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Design of a trim- and tilt suspension system for a diesel driven outboard engine2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been done at the company MarineDiesel Sweden, which is currently developing a diesel-powered outboard engine. The focus of the thesis is to design and size a trim/tilt-suspension unit, which secures the outboard to the boat. This system allows adjustments to be done to the outboard while driving in order to achieve better performance and a smoother ride.The methods used in this thesis are brainstorming/concept generation, concept selection, load analyses, CAD-modeling and FEM-analyses. One concept was chosen to proceed with, and further development was carried out. This involved design loops due to feedback from the company as well as the results from the FEM-analyses.The final result is a complete suspension unit, modeled and calculated strength wise, in order for it to fulfill the demands set on it. Four major parts were investigated using FEM, and analyzed in order to keep the stresses low as well as eliminating unnecessary material and thereby reducing weight. The material selected is aluminum, which is lightweight and possible to cast in order to produce complex geometries.

  • 317.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Lindberg, Annelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Jag vill ju bara bli rättvist behandlad: en studie om avidentifierade ansökningshandlingar som rekryteringsmetod för att motverka osaklig behandling av arbetssökande2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning påvisar att diskriminering i rekryteringsprocesser med avseende på etnicitet, kön och ålder förekommer på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. I synnerhet tenderar kvinnor och personer med utländsk bakgrund att diskrimineras när arbetsgivare väljer vilka sökande som skall kallas till anställningsintervjuer. Detta har lett till förslag på avidentifierade, även kallat anonyma, ansökningsprocesser där variablerna etnicitet, kön och ålder döljs i rekryteringens första skede. Det finns dock ytterst lite information om hur metoden fungerar i praktiken samt vilka effekter som en sådan metod medför. Uppsatsen syftar därför till att redogöra för rekryteringsmetoden och huruvida användandet av sådana metoder kan medföra en ökad mångfald samt motverka olika typer av diskriminering i organisationer. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts, där två kommuner involverats som använt sig av avidentifiering i sin rekrytering. Studien är baserad på en kombination mellan semi- och ostrukturerade intervjuer av relevant personal från båda kommuner. Kommunerna har tillämpat metoden genom att använda sig av speciellt utformade blanketter, som de sökande uppmanats fylla i till fördel för avidentifieringen. Även om viss skillnad i utförande finns mellan de två kommunerna har vi valt att jämföra de båda, i syfte att utreda hur erfarenheterna av metoden skiljt sig från varandra samt vilka för- och nackdelar som uppmärksammats i samband med avidentifieringen. Därigenom ville vi klargöra vilka möjliga effekter som metoden kan medföra.

    Resultaten visar att kommunernas ståndpunkt vad gällande användandet av anonyma ansökningshandlingar skiljer sig avsevärt. Karlstads kommun anser inte att metoden på något sätt bidrar till en ökad mångfald, vilket Melleruds kommun inte håller med om. Karlstads kommun hävdar även att metoden snarare kan motarbeta sitt syfte och istället för att motverka diskriminering, kan metoden bidra till en ökad diskriminering. Melleruds kommun menar att metoden belyser diskrimineringsfrågor och på så sätt bidrar till ett motverkande av diskriminering på längre sikt. I uppsatsen redovisas även en annan kommuns utvärdering och resultat av sitt försök med avidentifierade ansökningshandlingar, vilket vi ställer i motsats till vår undersökning.

  • 318.
    Jonsson, Christopher
    Karlstad University.
    Utveckling av en basenhet för en eldstad: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt av en basenhet för en eldstad på uppdrag av Tentipi AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktutvecklingsprojekt 

  • 319.
    Jonsson, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konstruktion av lyftverktyg: Lyftverktyg till L-stöd för enklare hantering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Falcken Forshaga are manufacturing lifting tools for the steel, paper and concrete industry. The company wants a lifting tool for L-supports which they want to be able to sell to the concrete industry. The reason for this is that todays ways of lifting and rotation of the supports are done by slings which are time consuming to use because the process is done in multiple steps. The reason why the supports are rotated is because they are casted lying down and are transported standing up which means that the supports needs to be lifted and then rotated. The purpose of this project is to simplify the process between casting and transport as well as learn to work on a project at a company. The goal of the work is to design a lifting tool which follows the requirements set by Falcken for the lifting tool and so it can gain CE-mark in the future. To design a lifting tool the product development process was used as it best fits this project. The work started with status analysis to be able to study the steps which occur in the process today from casting to transport. This is today made possible in three steps lift, rotation and movement to make it ready for transportation. A project plan was developed where the project was divided into different parts with goals to always have something to work against which brings the work forward. A risk analysis over the project was constructed at the beginning to analyze potential risks with the aim to minimize them. The biggest risk that was analyzed was that the project will become delayed, to counter this the project plan needs to be up to date as well as to get help if in need. The next step in the process is to list all the specifications and requests from Falcken and summarize them to be able to generate concepts. A second risk analysis was made to analyze the potential risks with or around the lifting tool during lift where the biggest risks is those who involve people getting injured and are the most important to minimize. To generate the concepts the 6-3-5-method was used and resulted in five different concepts which was analyzed further and filtered through an elimination matrix where the best concept was selected. The concept that was chosen and was designed in Autodesk Inventor was a support arm lift which locks in the sides of the L-support and has beams which run along the sides of the support and in underneath the lower edge of the support with plates. The tool is designed to lift in front of the center of gravity of the support which means that when the support is lifted the whole thing will rotate by itself which means that the steps from casting to transport will be done in one step instead of three. To ensure the strength of the construction it is calculated against safety factor of three as well as it is controlled with a FEM-analyze in Creo parametric 5 and inventor 2019 on details with are too complicated to calculate by hand. The tool which was designed meets all the requirement that was set but to achieve a tool which is sellable and is CE-marked more risks must be analyzed according to SS-EN ISO 12100:2010 and its life span has to be calculated via fatigue calculations as well as it must be manufactured and tested.

  • 320.
    Jonsson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Uppstagning av grenrör för Volkswagen rallycrossmotor2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an examination conducted by Per Jonsson, a student at the University of Karlstad. The examination includes 22.5 credits and it’s a compulsory part in the Bachelor of Science in mechanical Engineering topic.

    The company Trollspeed, manufactures high-performance racing engines used by racing teams at the elite level. Big turbochargers and related equipment are assembled together with custom built exhaust manifolds to achieve maximum power output. Together, these parts contribute to a high mass and have to be braced up.     Today’s bracing solotion lead to inevitable tension effects within the manifold that makes cracking occur. This work is about developing a new bracing solution that can handle higher tensions.   The project is divided into two parts. The first part covers the development of a measurement tool for analyzing motion and force effects within the manifold. The development of the gauge resulted in a measurement scale with pointers for the visualization of movements and mounted load cells for analyzing the impact force. This gauge is the basis for the project's second part that covers finding a solution for a new bracing of the manifold.      The selection of strut is based on the measurement results that shows analyzes of motion and force effects. The brace resulted in a M6 turnbuckle.     The installation of this strut is an important element to improve the quality of the manifold. The engine has to be warmed up at least five times before mounting the strut and the manifold weight must be pretensioned using a turnbuckle with ¾ turns turning at that.

  • 321.
    Järnström, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Johnson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ultraviolet-induced aging of flexographic printing plates studied by thermal and structural analysis methods2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 1636-1646Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Jönsson, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Pressure distributions on a valve disk at different opening angles and their impacts on the shaft2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Valves are used in the most pipe systems today. There are a lot of different valves used depending on the system. They all do have in common to withstand all possible kind of failure that might occur. Common issues are cavitation, water hammer and friction torque. Friction torque is dependent on the deflection of the valve due to the high load on the valve body, for a butterfly valve this will be the disk. The pressure distributed on the disk differ depending on the opening angle of the butterfly valve. Opening angles of 3, 15 and 30 degrees are investigated. The further the valve is opened the lower the pressure will be on the downstream side and also the total pressure on the disk is decreased. This investigation shows that the impact in terms of deflection angle is constant for the lower opening degrees but for 30 degrees of opening there is a drop in deflection angle on the shaft. This means that the shaft will absorb less force due to loading on the disk and lead to reduced friction torque. With use of the same inlet pressure the angle causing the deflection increased linearly.

  • 323.
    Kadhim, Ammar
    Karlstad University.
    Natural frequency and transient dynamic analysis of vehicle integrated RBS 70 NG system2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study is a master thesis in mechanical engineering at Karlstad’s University that treats operation disturbances that occur during the use of a vehicle integrated air-defense system called Robot-system 70 New Generation (RBS 70 NG) in cooperation with SAAB Dynamics AB.

    RBS 70 NG is a man-portable air-defense system (MANPADS) which is designed for anti-aircraft warfare and can be used in all climate zones.  The system usually operates on a hard surface such as gravel or hard soil, but for this project the aim is to integrate the system to operate on a vehicle platform. There are two disturbing factors that could affect the system during operation; the first is that the system is displaced due to the external forces that act on the system during use. The second disturbance specification is that the natural frequency of the entire system should be within a range of 3.5-6 Hz for vehicles installed RBS 70 NG [1]. The system is studied by using a simple mathematical model and by the use of computer aided software programs including CATIA V5 R22 and ANSYS R18.1. The modified design of the complete system showed that by adding four external legs to the platform, a natural frequency in-between the given interval is reached. A Transient Response Analysis was done to analyze the MANPADS ground version in order to make have some sort of a reference when studying the vehicle version of the RBS 70 NG and to make both system as similar as possible. The displacement of the system sight was similar for both versions of the system, when operating on the ground and on a vehicle.

     

  • 324.
    Kahn, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Saar, Nimrod
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Analys och utredning av hjulmotorer/kontrollsystem samt SotA inom det valda området ur ett elektromekaniskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Precer Group is a Swedish company that develops and provides technological solutions to produce electricity by burning solid fuels. Precer has developed a unique system based on an adaptive technique for charging different kinds of hybrid vehicles such as cars, trucks, utility vehicles and boats but, also for housing in the form of electricity generation. They have a patent on a heat engine that drives a generator that charges the battery.Precer Group also has collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) in which they are working together to develop new types of powertrains and fuels to create very environmentally friendly hybrid vehicles that do not run on fossil fuels.We have been working together with Precer Group to try to determine how todays technology with wheel motors and the motor controls can be implemented in this specific concept vehicle and also see how the problem that exsist with this tecnology e.g. unsprung weight, power and controlfunctions and systems can be solved. We have concentrated on finding out the best performance for in-wheel motors and the best functionality, safety and usage of motor controllers available on the present market.We received a list of specifications from Precer that we adhered to when we checked and analyzed different manufacturer’s motors. The reason behind attempting to use wheel motors, in oppose to more conventional motors, is weight reduction. By using wheel motors we are able to omit axels and gearboxes, thereby reducing the total weight of the vehicle which must be kept within a maximum limit. Another reason is that the use of in-wheel motors gives possibilities to implement smart electrical systems to control the motors and the vehicle through CAN buses. This leads to faster and more complex steering of the vehicle to improve the efficiency, stability and safety. Precer also specified the use of four separate wheel motors in order to utilize a four-wheel drive concept. We have compared the performance of the various motors and controllers available, and we have concluded which motor best suits this vehicle. Through physical calculations and functional comparisons of data that we have received from some of the leading companies we have come to results that show that systems which integrate the in-wheel motors and the controllers demonstrate a better performance when it comes to acceleration and climb ability. Also their functionality is considerably higher than the systems that integrate in-wheel motors with a universal controller. Although it’s able to configure the universal controllers considerably more and so make it possible for the user to personalize the system by desire.

  • 325.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Modelling, simulation and cost estimation of a conceptual bogie axle replacement2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The forest industry in Sweden covers 28 million hectare as productive woodland. The soil is important for the forests ecosystem and the soils performance is decreased with increased soil compaction. In order to reduce the impact on the soil done by forest machinery a conceptual suspension axle is presented with the purpose to replace traditional bogie axle system on the trolley part on forwarders. This thesis goal is to determine if the proposed suspension concept isaviableoptionintheforestryindustryintermsofstrengthanddurabilityoftheconstruction and manufacturing cost. The project focus primary on suspension and will not focus on the overall design of the trolley.Amodelisdevelopedwhichisbasedonaideaandmodelprototype. Thegoalofthemodelling is to achieve a construction that allows the suspension to be extended or intended while still beingabletoturnthewheels. Threedifferentloadscasesistested,astaticloadcasewherethree loads are applied to the simulation model, the second case is a fatigue analysis and the third case is a collision case analysis. Each load case is simulated at two different model cases, one with the suspension located at the center, the middle case, and one case with the suspension located at the end point, the extended case. Resulting in a total of six simulations for each design.The final suspension design have a total weight of 1140 kg of one suspension and fulfills the product specification on all but one points, the desirable turning radius. The static analysis showednocriticalpointforneithertheinitialdesignorthefinaldesigninneithertheintended or extended case, but showed higher stress levels when the model was simulated at the extended case. The fatigue results showed similar results between the initial and final design because of the critical points parts where not redesigned between the designs. The collision caseshowedsimilarcriticallyforcebetweenthedesigns,aforceofapproximately70kNand40 kN for the middle and extended case respectively is required to reach the yield strength when colliding with an object.The cost of producing one suspension is estimated to 45800 SEK and is calculated through the tool costing for designer (CFD), which estimates the manufacture cost at an early design phase. The material cost for the suspension is the largest expanse covering roughly 73% of the total cost. In order to conclude if the suspension generates lower soil compaction compared to traditional bogie axles, a experimentally test is the optimal procedure. To be able to conduct this kind of field test the model have to be further refined to be able to produce.Theworkconcludestheproposedsuspensionsystemwiththefinaldesign,intermsofstrength and durability of the construction and the estimated cost, is possible to function in the forestry industry with the restrictions used in this work.

  • 326.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Drömmen om den röda stugan: Huruvida varumärket Falu Rödfärg kan utvidgas till en ny produktkategori2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The dream of the Swedish red cottage" is a final thesis for the Innovation and Design Engineering program at Karlstad University. Anna Karlsson and Sebastian Karlsson have executed the project during spring term of 2011. The thesis includes 22,5 ECTS credits.

     

    Johan Molin, at Falu Rödfärg, has been the assigner for this project, as well as the project supervisor. Lennarth Wihk, industrial designer and lecturer at Karlstad University has been the academic supervisor for this project. Fredrik Thuvander, lecturer and professor has been the examiner.

     

    Falu Rödfärg is an outdoor paint for untreated and rough timber. The production and manufacturing of Falu Rödfärg have occurred since 1764, in the area around Falu copper mine. The color fabrication is a simple process and contains among other things boiling water, wheat flour and the characteristic red pigment. The pigment comes from the mineralization of the Falu copper mine, where red mull is created from ore with low copper content that has decomposed for a long time. The mine has been closed since 1992, after more than a thousand years of mining.

     

    The brand Falu Rödfärg is registered and legally protected and guarantees that the product is genuine Falu Rödfärg. Until 2006, there were a number of licensed manufacturers of Falu Rödfärg, who made and sold the color under their own names. The only requirement was that the brand had to be on the jar. As a first step in protecting and enhancing the brand, Falu Rödfärg made the decision that the color was only to be sold in one type of design, and the number of licensees was cut down. The reaction to this action was that several copies emerged on the market and Falu Rödfärg lost some of its ground. In 2008, Falu Rödfärg took over total responsibility of manufacturing and sales.

     

    The purpose of this project is to provide a basis and suggestions for products in a new product category to which Falu Rödfärg can extend their brand. The goal is to identify a proposal for an appropriate product category to which the brand can be extended, and produce recommendations for products which fit to the new category.

     

    The product category is subsequently proposed to the category “Outdoor environment / Garden” and the prototypes developed during the project are based on an extensive market research with respect to the category. Both needs and desires of the consumers, as well as the products that are available in today’s market have been identified.

     

    Through concept generation, concept evaluation and processing the project team thereby developed three prototypes that fit to the new product category, and can form the basis for Falu Rödfärg’s brand extension.

     

    Products designed for and developed to the garden market may be an appropriate product category to which Falu Rödfärg can extend their brand. An additional consumer research is needed to locate the inherent associations of the brand, and an evaluation of the adequacy considering the product category from a consumer point of view, from which the company’s continued brand management can proceed.

  • 327.
    Karlsson Ejwertz, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Design of user interface for heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was carried out at Karlstad University during the spring of 2014 as a degree project

    for a Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering and consists of 22.5

    ECTS. The supervisor was lecturer Lennart Wihk from Karlstad University. The examiner was

    professor Leo de Vin.

    The project was conducted for Swegon AB and dealt with developing a user interface for

    systems regulating climate parameters in indoor environments, such as hotel rooms or office

    environments. The area of focus has been on developing the user interface with regard to end

    users, giving it the right functions and making it easy to understand.

    Suggestions about how user interfaces of this type could look was to be delivered to Swegon.

    The project started with creating a foundation. This was done through literature studies,

    benchmarking and interviews. The information gained here was used to put together a list of

    requirements which was later used as a guide when developing and evaluating concepts.

    Idea generation-methods were used to generate concepts and the concepts were developed

    further to later be voted on by employees at Swegon. The votes were evaluated and two

    concepts were developed, based on the the voting outcome. The concepts are inspired by

    wishes from the end users (expressed in the interviews) and are developed with regard to

    principles of design. The concepts were made into prototypes, in the form of 3D-printed

    models.

    The results of the project, in short:

    • Two image boards. One with thoughts about functions of existing climate related user

    interfaces written on it, and one with thoughts of different ways of illustrating air-temperature

    written on it.

    • Explanations of and reflections about functions of four different types of user interfaces for

    heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    • Four product semantic analyses (PSA). Three of existing user interfaces for Swegon HVAC

    systems and one of a concept for a user interface for HVAC systems.

    • Interviews with six potential end users, written down to a large extent.

    • A compilation of the six interviews, written down in English.

    • An interview with an employee at Swegon service, regarding installation of user interfaces for

    HVAC systems, written down to a large extent.

    • A functional analysis, which in this project works as a requirements specification.

    • 10 ideas of concepts.

    • Two voting-systems which are developed for use when voting for several elements which can

    be combined to make up a holistic concept. The voting-systems are inspired by the

    "morphological analysis" described by Johannesson et al. (2009).

    • Two final concepts of user interfaces for HVAC systems with thorough descriptions in a table

    in this report. The concepts are developed with respect to end users and design principles.

    • Simplified versions of each of the two final concepts as CAD-models and as 3D-prints.

  • 328.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Den religiösa sekten lean2012In: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Susanne, Strömberg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Deltidsarbete: Rapport från en undersökning i Konsum Värmland2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 330.
    Karlsson, Jan Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research2013In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konceptstudie: Fordonsinstallation av Carl-Gustaf2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is a project at Karlstad University assigned by Saab Dynamics AB. The objective was to examine all components for a system integration of Carl-Gustaf M4, Trackfire and Patria XA-360 AMV and perform a concept study for one of the components.

    The focus of the project was to design an attachment for Carl-Gustaf M4 on Trackfire with the ambition that the attachment shall contain three weapons. The final construction was modeled in 3D Experience and consists of a beam with six weapon brackets which contains three Carl-Gustaf M4.

    A FEM simulation that was made in ANSYS Workbench 18.1 showed that the stresses that occurred by shot exceeded allowed stresses for the material that was chosen. A proposal for design improvements that have been specified includes change of material or extension of the fastener on the beam.

  • 332.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics, Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Implementering av LEAN i småskalig mejeriverksamhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wermlands Mejeri AB startade under hösten 2015 som en ny leverantör av mjölk och grädde för de värmländska konsumenterna. Under det dryga året som mejeriet haft sin verksamhet igång har det skett flera investeringar och produktionskapaciteten har ökat. För att uppnå den nya kapaciteten ställs det krav på produktionsutrustningen. Den måste fungera utan avbrott för att få en jämn och kontinuerlig produktion samtidigt som kvaliteten i livsmedelsbranschen är högsta prioritet av hygieniska skäl.

    När mjölk tillverkas genomgår den ett antal processteg för att kunna säljas. Detta projekt är avgränsat till förpackningssteget och förpackningsavdelningen.

    Syftet med projektet är att kartlägga de åtta slöserierna som beskrivs i produktionssystemet Lean. Målet är att efter kartläggningen kunna ge konkreta förslag till förbättringar för att minska en eller två slöserier.

    Genom observationer, intervjuer och insamling av data har slöserierna analyserats och förbättringsåtgärder har föreslagits med hjälp av verktyget 5S. 5S är ett verktyg inom Lean som beskriver hur saker kan förbättras och hur det kan ske.

    Två av de åtta slöserierna valdes ut för att analyseras mer och ge förbättringsförslag. De två blev rörelser och defekter. Genom att använda sig av de två första S:en, sortera och strukturera så kan rörelser minskas för personalen i förpackningsavdelningen. Defekterna uppstår i de olika maskinerna och kan minskas genom att arbeta mer förebyggande. Genom att införa ett underhållssystem och kartlägga vart och varför defekterna uppstår så skapas en bild av hur defekterna uppstår. Att arbeta systematiskt med de delar som orsakar problem i maskinerna och föra statistik över dem kan antalet defekter minska. Ett avvikelserapporteringssystem bör införas för att se hur ofta och var defekterna uppstår.

    Projektet kan ses som ett första steg för att införa Lean i Wermlands mejeris verksamhet och kan användas för vidare studier inom området.

  • 333.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Kund- och användarinvolvering i utvärderingsprocessen: En utvärderingsmetod för gavelisolering till Yankee-cylindrar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is

    to develop a holistic collection method for selection critera by using service logic and sustainability and an evaluation method and also investigate the difference between customer criteras and producer criteras.

    Theories in the essay are derived from classical product development combined with service research and especially service innovation. To answer the four research questions, below, a case study has been conducted.

    1. How should the criterias be generated to ensure a holistic perspective?

    2. When evaluating products which criterias should be used?

    3. How should the criteria be used to ensure that the product meets the imposed requirements?

    4. Due to customer and user involvation, how does the criterias change in the development process?

    The result of this essay is an evaluation method for Yankee head insulation using a

    product specification, Phal and Beitz's elimination matrix, Pugh's decision matrix, and Kesselring's matrix. When the evaluation method was developed an analysis was cunducted of the process and how customer and user involvement affected the criteria used in the method.

    The essay contributes to further knowledge of customer and user involvation in the development process as well as a method for how customers and users' knowledge can be used in the evaluation process.

  • 334.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    The influence of tool steel microstructure on galling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming (SMF) of materials such as stainless steels there is a major problem with transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the metal forming tool surface. The problem is known as galling; a sort of severe adhesive wear, which results in severe scratching of produced parts. In this thesis, the overall aim was to gain knowledge of the influence of tool steel microstructure on galling initiation under sliding conditions. It was discovered that material transfer and tool steel damage caused by sheet material flow creating wear-induced galling initiation sites occurred in the early stage of galling. The galling resistance was higher for tool steels with higher matrix hardness due to better resistance to tool steel damage. Initial friction and critical contact pressure to galling was influenced by the strength of the sheet material. Material transfer happened at low pressures and the friction value was high in a case of sheet materials with lower proof strength, possibly due to the sheet contact against the tool steel matrix resulting in high adhesion and quicker tool damage. It was demonstrated that, in addition to hardness of the tool steel matrix and sheet material proof strength, tool steel microstructural features like size, shape, distribution and height of hard phases are important parameters influencing galling. Tool steels comprising homogeneously distributed, small and high hard phases better prevented the contact between sheet material and the tool steel matrix. Thus, a metal to metal contact with high friction was more efficiently avoided, which resulted in better tool performance.

     

  • 335.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Dalarna University.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Galling resistance evaluation of tool steels by two different laboratory test methods for sheet metal forming2012In: Lubrication Science, ISSN 0954-0075, E-ISSN 1557-6833, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive accumulation of work material on the tool surface is today a major problem in many sheet metal-forming applications. Different laboratory test methods are used to investigate galling with respect to different tool materials, lubricants and process conditions. In the present study, the galling resistance of a modern nitrogen-alloyed powder metallurgy tool steel and an conventional ingot cast D2 type tool steel was evaluated under lubricated sliding against ferritic stainless steel sheets using a commercial pin-on-disc (POD) and an in-house made slider-on-flat-surface (SOFS) tribotester. The investigated tool steels ranked similarly in terms of galling resistanc in both test methods. However, sliding distances to galling were longer for the SOFS equipment due to continuous sliding on new lubricated sheet surface. Best performance was demonstrated by the powder metallurgy tool steel treated to 65 HRC. Differences in friction behaviour and galling initiation were analysed on the basis of the two different working conditions, i.e. open (SOFS) and closed (POD) tribosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 336.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Influence of tool steel microstructure on friction and initial material transfer2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 319, no 1-2, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation was conducted to study the influence of tool steel microstructure on initial material transfer and friction. Two different powder metallurgy tool steels and an ingot cast tool material were tested in dry sliding against 1.4301, 1.4162, Domex 355 MC and Domex 700 MC sheet materials. It was found that tool steel hard phase heights influence initial material transfer and friction. The coefficient of friction increased with decreasing tool steel hard phase heights at 50 N normal load and initial material transfer occurred around protruding hard phases. At higher load of 500 N the sheet material adhered to both the tool steel matrix and hard phases. Coefficient of friction decreased with increasing proof strength of the sheet material at 500 N normal load.

  • 337.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Galling resistance and wear mechanisms for cold-work tool steels in lubricated sliding against high strength stainless steel sheets2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 286-287, p. 92-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool damage in sheet metal forming of stainless steel is of high concern for the forming industry. In the present work, ingot cast AISI D2 and advanced powder metallurgy tool steel (PM) cold-work tool steels were evaluated and ranked regarding wear mechanisms and galling resistance. Wear tests were performed using a slider-on-flat-surface (SOFS) tribometer in sliding against austenitic–ferritic (duplex) stainless steel sheets at different contact pressures in lubricated conditions. The best galling resistance was observed for the nitrogen alloyed PM tool steels. Abrasive scratching of the tool surfaces and transfer of sheet material due to adhesive wear were the main metal forming tool surface damage mechanisms. By increasing the hardness of one PM sheet metal forming tool grade, the galling resistance was enhanced.

  • 338.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Influence of size and distribution of hard phases in tool steels on the early stage of galling2012In: / [ed] Harald Leitner, Regina Kranz, Angelica Tremmel, 2012, p. 469-476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming processes, contact pressures are relatively high and total sliding distances are long, which demands tool steels to prevent tool damage and to resist galling. Galling is related to microscopic and macroscopic material transfer, but, the mechanisms of initiation are not thoroughly understood.

     

    To investigate galling initiation, lubricated sliding testing in the Slider-On-Flat-Surface (SOFS) tribometer was performed for ingot cast (IC) AISI D2 type and nitrogen alloyed powder metallurgy (PM) tool steel. The sheet grade was EN 1.4509 ferritic stainless steel. To reveal mechanisms in the early stages of galling initiation, transfer and accumulation of sheet material to the tool surfaces were characterized using AFM and SEM.

     

    It was found that already after a short sliding distance, transfer of sheet material occurred covering both the matrix and the hard phases. Macroscopic analysis of the contact area showed that initial material transfer and further lump growth occurred at positions corresponding to high plastic strains in the sheet material. Even though initial material transfer was observed for both tested tool steels, the sliding distance to the point where transfer and further lump formation occurred was longer for the PM tool steel. This was discussed in correlation to differences in size and distribution of the hard phases in the tool steels, which was confirmed by AFM and SEM.

  • 339.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Berhe-Larsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Influence of tool steel hard phase orientation and shape on galling2014In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 966-96, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventionally manufactured cold work tool steel is often used in sheet metal forming as die material. Due to the forging process, the as-cast network structure of carbides is broken into elongated particles. Depending on the tool cross-section, the orientation and shape of carbides in the active tool surface is different. In the present research, the influence of tool steel hard phase orientation and shape on galling was investigated. D2 type tool steel was cut in three different orientations and tested in lubricated sliding conditions against AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Tests were performed using a Slider-On-Flat-Surface and galling was detected by changes in friction and post-test microscopy. The lubricant was Castrol FST8 using 5 g/m2 sheet material. Results showed a strong correlation between sliding distance to galling and tool steel hard phase orientation and shape at low loads, whereas high load contact resulted in early galling in all cases. Material transfer was observed mainly to the tool steel matrix. The worst performance was observed for specimens cut so that the tool steel hard phase, M7C3 carbides in the D2 steel, were oriented along the sliding direction, which resulted in longer open tool matrix areas contacting the sheet material.

  • 340.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Influence of work material proof stress and tool steel microstructure on galling initiation and critical contact pressure2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EN 1.4301 (austenitic), EN 1.4509 (ferritic), EN 1.4162 (duplex) and EN 1.4310 C1000 (metastable austenitic) stainless steels were tested in lubricated sliding against an ingot cast EN X153WCrMoV12 and powder metallurgy nitrogen alloyed Uddeholm Vancron 40 tool steels to reveal critical to galling contact pressure, Pcr. The calculated Pcr were higher for steels with higher strength. At P>Pcr, due to plastic flow of sheet material, the tool is damaged substantially and wear-induced matrix damage causes rapid galling initiation. At P<Pcr, galling was not observed. The powder metallurgy tool steel was more resistant to galling against all tested stainless steels. Better performance was associated with fine and homogeneously distributed hard phases preventing intensive wear of the tool steel matrix.

  • 341.
    Kashif, Muhammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Design  and Manufacturing of Test Rig for Linear Electric Machine2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Technology has earlier developed a full scale prototype of linear electric machine but combustion was not controlled and there was a requirement to build the test rig. the objective was to run the prototype without using combustion.

  • 342.
    Katea, Billy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    CFD Analysis of Air Flow Through a New Design For an Outlet Louver of a Cooling System: CFD Analys av luftflödet genom en ny design för utloppet i ett kylsystem2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the performance of the outlet louver for the cooling system used in the Combat Vehicle CV90, the manufacturing company BAE System Hägglunds AB recently came out with a new design.

    This project deals with the possible modifications of the new design to achieve a higher performance in terms of air flow resistance without losing any protection capabilities.

    18 versions of BAE Systems Hägglunds AB new design were modeled using Creo Parametric 3.0 3D CAD-software. These versions were modeled with respect to the requirement of protection, when several possible threat scenarios  were carefully reviewed and studied.   

    The air flow through each one of these designs was CFD-simulated using ABAQUS/CAE 6.14 CFD-code, the pressure drop received in each CFD-model was compared to the pressure drop over the currently used design of the outlet louver. The concept called concept Arrows RD shows the lowest pressure drop, which is nearly 50 % lower than the pressure drop over the original design, showing that the new design could be a reasonable replacement to the currently used design.

  • 343.
    Kihlström, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nordström, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it seems like it is important with individual personal qualities in the labour market. The factor that determines what kind of qualities that ought to be included in a work ad are which personal demands the position requires, in due to the individuals’ possible adjustment to the work group. When forming the work ad the personal qualities ought to be considered because the interpretations regarding them can appear in different ways depending on which context the individual exist in. On this basis we chose to go through with this study. The purpose of the study was to find out if the linguistic message regarding the personal qualities reaches the recipient in a, for the employer desirable way; and if there are any differences between interpretations regarding the personal qualities through the two perspectives, employer and the persons looking for jobs. On the basis of the purpose of the study, some questions have been formed. These questions have been answered in this essay. The first questions discuss what consequences the channel of communication and the one-way-communication cause regarding the messages ability to reach and be interpreted by the recipient. The next question examined was how the employer and the jobseeker interpret the personal qualities in the work ads. The last thing examined is whether or not there are any differences or connections between the interpretations of the personal qualities. The theoretical reference supports our study. The theoretical references consist, among other things, of communication and the knowledge of interpretation, recruitment and job advertisement and descriptions of personal qualities.

    In order to answer and approach the purpose and the questions of the study, we used a qualitative method with interviews. The study is based on two work advertisements. The creators of these ads were interviewed. Because of the purpose we wanted to have two different perspectives on the phenomenon, thus we interviewed jobseekers as well. During the interviews we focused on the respondents interpretations about the personal qualities in the work ads.

    After completing the analysis and the study, we came to an overall conclusion; which was that there are differences between the employer and the jobseekers interpretation about the personal qualities. The employers interpretations is included in the jobseekers, despite this a problem regarding the interpretations occurred. These problems were shown in the form of the jobseekers wider view of the qualities, than the employers. The jobseekers wider interpretation of the qualities resulted in a larger selection of interpretations. The jobseeker can choose an interpretation that might not be equal with the employers. We also discovered that there are significant connections between some of the qualities. These connections result in a difficulty for the respondents to define the qualities in a homogeneous way. Because of the existence of these connections they are interpreted in a wider way; thus differences was also discovered, which reconnects to our overall conclusion.

  • 344.
    Kinali, Hediye
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Släden: Ett redskap som förenklar förflyttningar av tyngre heminredning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 345.
    Kindberg, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Monteringslösning för sänglyftsystem: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt för framtagning av en anpassningsbar infästning av sänglyft samt tillbehörshjälpmedel på befintlig säng2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring semester 2013, the project “Mounting solution for bed lift system“ has  been performed in the course Bachelor’s thesis for degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering (MSGC12) at Karlstad’s University. The project was performed in cooperation with ComfortSystem Scandinavia AB, a company that develops and markets products in the area of beds for health care. The aim of the project was to find a new mounting solution for a bed lift system. The product is an adjustable lift that can be applied to an ordinary bed by installing mounting brackets.  The purpose of the project was to develop a mounting solution that would be applicable to a wider range of bed types.  In addition, the solution would also allow an improved applicability of the accessories comprising Comfort System’s assortment, that previously only been applied on health care beds. The company ambition of mounting bed lift and accessories to regular beds is to reach a broader segment of customers, thus increasing the sales.

     

    This project follows the methodology recommended for the product development process. The process is iterative and characterizes problem solving and user customization, and includes life cycle perspective of developing a new product.  The starting-point of the project was to identify customers’ requirements. Interviews were made with four different target groups comprising, technicians, ordinators, caregivers and patients (users). The study about the user was supplemented with analysis in ergonomics, semantics and the environmental impact of products.  Creative methods were used to find solutions. Accordingly, the solutions were evaluated through the assessment of systematic matrixes for decisions, and reconciliations with the employer.

     

    The final selection of the concept consist a gadget for attachment, and a frame for accessories.  The concept is a flexible modular solution that can be used with or without the possibility of mounting accessories. Due to the possible variations of height and width, the module is adapted to fit a broader range of beds. The frame for accessories can be added to the product afterward. The solution is customized, thus it allows for the opportunity to secure different facilities to the bed. With the new solution, the assembly has become both easier and more understandable to implement, because the fact that accessories nowadays can be fixed by a new secure mounting method with measured spaced for accessories. In addition, the solution provides the user with more freedom in designing the bed in the way that fits their personal environment. The new solution for mounting have fewer steps for assembly than previous solution, the ergonomic for technicians who install the product has also been improved. 

     

    To reach a final product, an evaluation and testing of the proposed concept required, thus a prototype must be made. When the project has been completed, the progress and results of the project are to be handed over to the employer at Comfort System.

  • 346.
    Kjellberg, Daniel
    Karlstad University.
    Kartläggning och förbättringsförslag för ett effektivare material- och informationsflöde: Ett förbättringsarbete förankrat i leanprinciper och metoder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the subject of mapping the material and informational flow when manufacturing a steel construction. On behalf of Skyllberg Industri where the work has been carried out the names of the products, processes and final customer won’t be mentioned in the report. The project is a part of MSGC17, Degree Project of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. At the Faculty of Health, Natural and Engineering Sciences.

    The purpose of the project has been to map the current material and informational flow during manufacturing of a steel construction. And to come up with solutions and actions that can improve the production process. The proposed solutions are supposed to reduce unnecessary waste in the production line.

    By applying methods and principles based on Lean production it was investigated what kind of sources of waste that exist in the material and informational flow. After mapping the production flow several different sources of waste were identified. By applying lean methodology, it was then investigated how the waste could be driven out of the workflow.

    The improvement measures that have been developed include a new layout and a theoretical future material and information flow. The new state is controlled by Kanban and Conwip systems. The introduction of these systems creates a pull flow in the production line. Implementation of a pull system will even out the production and give it more predictability.

    By introducing a new view of how the production is planned, capital can be released. The released capital can then be reinvested into the business and contribute to further improvements

  • 347.
    Kjellin, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Dimensionering av ventilhus med avseende på skärkrafter2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Somas, Säffle, has assigned Fredrik Kjellin the project of finding out how “KVTF DN250”, one of their own valves, reacts on cutting forces under production. They wish to know if and then how much it’s possible to minimize the wall thickness of the valve with neither plastic nor to big elastic deformations caused by processing.

    The most critical processes have been identified as rough lathing. The study has shown that the marginal for a wall thickness of two millimeters, to fall short of the yield stress in the most critical process, is good. Fault of processing, caused by elastic deformation, is about ten percent and therefore corresponds to the specifications. Thus can the wall thickness, according to this study, be minimized to 15 percent compared to the original model without result in to high stresses or to big processing faults.

    The project has been made as a companionship, between Karlstad University and Somas, to eventually lead to examination in of the engineer program. Supervisors at Somas have been Magnus Jansson and Anders Josefson. At Karlstad University Hans Johansson has been mentor and Nils Hallbäck examiner. The project have partly been made as a cooperation with Mia Myrén Zreloff, from the Innovation- and design program, though both of our projects have nearly the same issue but with different concentrations of the valves and examination parts.

  • 348.
    Korin, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Junghans, R
    Failure Modes of Adhesively Joined Carton Board2008In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Korin, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Tryding, J
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Y-peel Characterization of Adhessively-bonded Carton Board an objective Method2007In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 21 2007 (2) 197-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Korsunsky, Alexander M.
    et al.
    University of Oxford, UK .
    Guénolé, Julien
    FAU, Germany.
    Salvati, Enrico
    University of Oxford, UK .
    Sui, Tan
    University of Oxford, UK .
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    University of Oxford, UK & Aalto University, Finland.
    Prakash, Arun
    FAU, Germany.
    Bitzek, Erik
    FAU, Germany.
    Quantifying eigenstrain distributions induced by focused ion beam damage in silicon2016In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, p. 47-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Eigenstrain offers a versatile generic framework for the description of inelastic deformation that acts as the source of residual stresses. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling used for nanoscale machining is accompanied by target material modification by ion beam damage having residual stress consequences that can be described in terms of eigenstrain. Due to the lack of direct means of experimental determination of residual stress or eigenstrain at the nanoscale we adopt a hybrid approach that consists of eigenstrain abstraction from molecular dynamics simulation, its application within a finite element simulation of a flexible silicon cantilever, and satisfactory comparison of the prediction with experimental observation. Directions for further enquiry are briefly discussed. ", keywords = Focused ion beam milling; Molecular dynamics; Eigenstrain; Residual stress, isbn = 0167-577X, doi=https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2016.08.111

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