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  • 301.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Data och lärande efter katastrofer2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: Perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Susanne Baez Ullberg & Per Becker, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1:1, p. 343-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Troglio, Elisabetta
    Gumà Altés, Rosa
    Lundh, Christian
    TOWN: Small and medium sized towns in their functional territorial context2013Report (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Johansson, Patricia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Evertebraters kolonisation på fin ved i semi-naturliga bäckar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood can be added to streams to create microhabitats that provide macroinvertebrates with an opportunity for re-colonization by making the stream more heterogeneous. I examined colonization on wood substrate by macroinvertebrates in semi-natural streams in northern Finland during a three month period. Each of the streams was divided in three sections A, B and C, half of which were provided with wood. The focus has been on whether the density of macroinvertebrates changes with time, along an upstream-downstream direction in the streams, or in streams with two wood sections if macroinvertebrates will colonize the first section with wood that they come in contact with (upstream section) or if they continue downstream to the second section with wood. Wood from Salix sp. was placed in nine of the 18 enclosures during mid-June. Samples of wood were removed from the streams on three different occasions from August to October 2014. A total of 32 taxa were identified from the wood and assigned to functional feeding groups: shredders, scrapers, active filter feeders, passive filter feeders, collectors, miners, piercers and predators. The results showed that collectors, miners and piercers increased in density during the month of October and the abundance of scrapers was higher in the upstream location than in the downstream location. Total number of macroinvertebrates, collectors, passive filter feeders and predators had a higher colonization on the first substrate they came into contact with.

  • 304.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Stoppa det svindlande överflödet: En kvalitativ studie om olika aktörers möjligheter att reducera matsvinn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En tredjedel av all mat som produceras i världen blir till svinn. Problemet är uppmärksammat av FN och en konkret målsättning för att reducera matsvinnet finns uttryckt i FNs Globala mål för Hållbar Utveckling, mål 12.3. Matsvinn är ett slöseri med resurser som leder till stora påfrestningar på den naturliga miljön och sker samtidigt som människor i vissa delar av världen fortfarande lider av undernäring. Denna studie undersöker vilka policyer som används av svenska aktörer för att reducera matsvinnet, samt hur de resonerar kring lösningar på matsvinnsproblematiken. Två aktörer som dagligen arbetar med att reducera matsvinn, skolmatsbespisningen och dagligvaruhandeln, undersöks i denna studie genom två kvalitativa intervjuer. Resultatet visar att båda aktörerna använder sig av framgångsrika policyer för att reducera matsvinn, men även att det finns hinder i form av målkonflikter som uppstår från svinndrivande formuleringar i lagstiftning som behandlar livsmedel. 

  • 305.
    Jones, Douglas A.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Univ Otago, Dept Zool, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand..
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Food availability in spring affects smolting in brown trout (Salmo trutta)2015In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 1694-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior to out-migration, salmonid fish typically undergo physiological and morphological changes-a process known as smolting. This study indicates that smolting in brown trout (Salmo trutta) is affected by feeding conditions in spring immediately prior to out-migration. This conclusion was reached after experimentally testing the effect of seasonal variation in food availability on smolt status in the spring. A migratory strain of trout was administered either high or low food rations in the autumn, winter, or spring prior to release in the spring. While fish growth or condition could be affected in any season, it was spring rationing that reduced growth and growth-related variables and that caused increased smolting. Our result supports the idea that smoltification and the decision to migrate is affected by spring food availability regardless of conditions in the previous autumn or winter.

  • 306.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Dödsbränder i Sverige: En analys av datakvalitet, orsaker och riskmönster2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, more than 100 people die in fires every year and there is a societal goal of decreasing the risk of fire-related deaths. A goal-orientated prevention approach needs to be credibly underpinned with an understanding of the extent of the problem, its causes and risk factors, aspects that have largely been missing in Sweden. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to analyze fatal fires and fatalities in Sweden from an epidemiological perspective. The historical trends show that the risk of dying due to fire has decreased by more than 50% over the last 60 years in Sweden, with the largest decline being seen amongst children. In Sweden today, the risk of young children dying in a fire is very low. However, the risk of dying in fires has not declined to the same extent among elderly. In light of the aging Swedish population, older people must therefore be a priority in future fire protection. To investigate fire fatalities, data from three different national registers were combined. By combining the three sources, it was clear that the present routine statistics systematically underestimate the true situation. In-depth analysis regarding residential fires show that men and elderly are particularly at risk, as well as people living alone, as well as those on low income, social security benefits and health-related early-retirement benefits. The most common cause of fire was smoking and the presence of alcohol among the victims was very common. When combined, the extensive material can be simplified and described by well-defined clusters that each can be meet with relevant preventive efforts. Crucially, however, it is clear that mortality in residential fires is essentially a social problem and improving the protection of the most vulnerable people in society needs to be ascertained through sustained and holistic strategies, consisting of both social and technical measures. To establish and facilitate this, a cross-sectoral approach within municipalities and central government is needed.

  • 307.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Huss, Fredrik
    Burn Center, Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies2017In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 62, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events.

    Method

    Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering.

    Results

    Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45–64 years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%).

    Conclusions

    Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required.

    Practical applications

    Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire mortality in Sweden.

  • 308.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Lundqvist, Marie
    Gell, Thomas
    MSB.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Identifying schools at risk of fire-setting2017In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Jonsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Identifiering av lek- och övervintringsområden för lax (Salmo salar) och öring (Salmo trutta) i Klarälven2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 310.
    Jordan, Rebecca
    et al.
    Department of Human Ecology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
    Gray, Steven
    Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Zellner, Moira
    Department of Urban Planning and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Glynn, Pierre D.
    Water Mission Area, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA.
    Voinov, Alexey
    Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, Australia.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sterling, Eleanor J.
    Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA.
    Leong, Kirsten
    NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.
    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt
    Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA , Department of Environmental Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic & International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Bommel, Pierre
    Green Research Unit, CIRAD, Montpellier, France & CIEDA, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    BenDor, Todd K.
    Department of City and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Jetter, Antonie J.
    Department of Engineering and Technology Management, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Laursen, Bethany
    Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA & Department of Philosophy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Singer, Alison
    Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.
    Computer Science Department, Furman University, Greenville, SC, USA.
    Kolagani, Nagesh
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIIT Chittoor, Sri City, India.
    Carrera, Laura Basco
    Unit Water Resource and Delta Management, Deltares, MH Delft, The Netherlands.
    Jenni, Karen
    Science and Decisions Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, USA.
    Prell, Christina
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Twelve Questions for the Participatory Modeling Community2018In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1046-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory modeling engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representations of reality and has evolved into a field of study as well as a practice. Participatory modeling researchers and practitioners who focus specifically on environmental resources met at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) in Annapolis, Maryland, over the course of 2 years to discuss the state of the field and future directions for participatory modeling. What follows is a description of 12 overarching groups of questions that could guide future inquiry.

  • 311.
    Julia Piovan, Maria
    et al.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina.; Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Germany..
    Pratolongo, Paula
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina.; Univ Nacl Sur, Argentina.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Univ Kiel, Germany.
    Loydi, Alejandro
    Univ Nacl Sur, Argentina.; Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Germination Response to Osmotic Potential, Osmotic Agents, and Temperature of Five Halophytes Occurring along a Salinity Gradient2019In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 180, no 4, p. 345-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of research. Halophyte species grow where salt concentrations are high. Still, their germination may be affected by salts, either by creating an osmotic potential that prevents water uptake or by dissociating in ions that can cause different grades of toxicity. With the increase of salinized areas, it becomes important to understand the behavior of these species. Methodology. We studied how the germination of five halophyte species that occur along a salinity gradient in the Bahia Blanca coastal zone, Atriplex undulata, Cyclolepis genistoides, Allenrolfea patagonica, Sarcocornia perennis, and Heterostachys ritteriana, responds to variations in osmotic agents, osmotic potential, and temperature. Seeds were exposed to different osmotic potentials using NaCl (neutral salt), Na2CO3 (alkaline salt), and mannitol solutions in a germination chamber experiment. Germination was recorded during 42 d. Germination percentage, mean germination time, and synchrony were calculated. Pivotal results. Our experimental results showed that for the five halophyte species under study, germination was mostly driven by osmotic potentials and osmotic agents. At high osmotic potential, the germination response did not differ significantly from controls, except for Allenrolfea and Cyclolepis, which showed lower germination when treated with Na2CO3. Low osmotic potentials and Na2CO3 were detrimental to germination, reflected by lower germination percentages, higher mean germination times, and lower synchrony. Conclusions. In general, the response to the alkaline salt was more negative than that to the neutral salt or mannitol, regardless of the species. Each species showed a different response to the salts under study, and this response matched well with the distribution of species along the salinity gradient observed in the field.

  • 312.
    Kaiskog, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rörelsemönster hos öring (Salmo trutta): En jämförelse mellan vilda och odlade individer i sjön Siljan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many populations of salmonids are threatened by fragmentation and degradation of spawning habitats. Common remedial measures are habitat restoration and stocking of hatchery fish to support degraded wild populations. Many populations of brown trout in Sweden have been extirpated. The restoration plan for the endangered brown trout in Lake Siljan started decades ago and involves releases of hatchery produced trout. A decline of the spawning run of hatchery fish has been observed. In this study, wild and hatchery fish were tagged and monitored using hydroacustic telemetry during May-October, 2018. Movement patterns were studied to detect potential differences between wild and hatchery fish during lake and spawning migration. The results showed a difference of preferred territories between the groups. The wild trout stayed in the northern part of the lake and the hatchery trout were more evenly distributed over the lake, but with a preference for the southern part of the lake. During spawning migration a larger proportion of the wild trout (44 %) moved to potential spawning habitats as compared to hatchery trout (16 %). The wild fish migrated more or less direct to the potential spawning grounds in River Österdal as compared to the hatchery fish, which showed an erratic behavior and preferred to migrate to the tributaries in Lake Siljan. Differences in movement patterns and preferred habitats in the lake can be caused by differences in behavior between the groups. This should motivate more studies of behavior of wild and hatchery trout. The time for spawning and potential spawning habitats are also important to study for future management and restoration of the wild population of brown trout in Lake Siljan.

  • 313.
    Karlsson, Simon
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Christiansson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Granö fiskavledare2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvinning av vattenkraft från Granö kraftstation påbörjades på slutet av 1950-talet. Ålen har sedan dess varit hindrad att passera genom kraftverket av ett finmaskigt och höglutande nät under ålens vandringssäsonger. Den alternativa vägen runt stationen har varit med spillvatten eller ner i den gamla ålkistan placerad i intagskanalen. Det är okänt hur många ålar som faktiskt vandrat ut med spillvattnet, men fångsterna i den gamla ålkistan har varit begränsade och mängder med ålar har dött på nätet. Ålen är nu akut hotad och åtgärder att mildra kraftverkens negativa inverkan på utvandrande blankål har högsta prioritet.

    Till följd av problem med igensättning av den så kallade ålspärren uppstod ett dammbrott 2010. För att öka dammsäkerheten och effektiviteten för åluppsamling designades och uppfördes en ny fiskavledare med åluppsamlingsanläggning 2011. Granö fiskavledare är unik i sitt slag då den har intagsgaller av kompositmaterial, ställbara lutningar (30-40˚), samt flyktöppningar som leder till en uppsamlingsbur. Vattnet från uppsamlingen pumpas tillbaka till intagskanalen, för att undvika onödigt spill.

    En stor del av utvärderingen bestod i märkning och spårning av blankål i anslutning till avledaren. Märkningsförsöken under 2012 och 2013 visade att endast en liten proportion av fisken hittar flyktöppningarna och kommer till uppsamlingsburen, dessutom har skador på fisken kunna relateras till avledaren och uppsamlingsburen. Totalt har 284 ålar märkts och 475 har visuellt bedömts för skador efter passage genom avledaren eller referensfisket Havbältan. Trots två dåliga ålvandringsår har majoriteten av den radiomärkta fisken ankommit till avledaren och totalt har 15 fisk återfångades. Hydrauliska mätningar i flyktöppningarna visar att vattenflödena igenom avledarsystemet är låga och andelen (vatten genom avledaren/totalflöde) är långt under rekommenderat vilket kan vara en anledning till de få återfångsterna av fisk.

  • 314.
    Kilstadius, Margaretha
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Defining contagion literacy: a Delphi study2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 2261-2282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of climate change, which enables infectious diseases to move their frontiers and the increasing global mobility, which make people more exposed to contagion, we as citizens need to relate to this new scenario. A greater number of infectious diseases may also potentially lead to an increased need to use antibiotics and anti-parasitic substances. In view of this, the aim of this study was to identify the health literacy needed in the contemporary world and specify what should be taught in compulsory school. We present the findings of a Delphi study, performed in Sweden, regarding the opinions on contagion among experts in the field. We used Nutbeam's framework of health literacy and related it to Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in order to analyse and categorise the experts' responses, which were categorised into six main content themes: contagions, transmission routes, sexually transmitted diseases, hygiene, vaccinations and use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. These themes were then divided into the three levels of Nutbeam's framework: functional health literacy, which is about knowledge and understanding, interactive health literacy, which is about developing personal qualities and skills that promote health, and critical health literacy, which is about social and cognitive skills related to analysis and critical reflection. The implications for communication and education are then discussed and what should be taught in compulsory school is identified.

  • 315.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå University.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå university.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå University.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University.
    Drug-Induced Behavioral Changes: Using Laboratory Observations to Predict Field Observations2016In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 4, no 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral assays constitute important research tools when assessing how fish respond to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral modifications recorded in laboratory assays are expressed in natural ecosystems, a limitation that makes it difficult to evaluate the predictive power of laboratory-based measurements. In this study, we hypothesized that exposure to a benzodiazepine (i.e., oxazepam) increases boldness and activity in laboratory assays as well as in field assays—that is, laboratory results can be used to predict field results. Moreover, we expected the modified behavior to affect other important ecological measures such as habitat selection and home range. To test our hypothesis, we exposed European perch (Perca fluviatilis) to oxazepam and measured subsequent changes in behavioral trials both in laboratory assays and in a lake ecosystem populated with a predatory fish species, pike (Esox lucius). In the lake, the positions of both perch and pike were tracked every 3 min for a month using acoustic telemetry. In the laboratory assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were bolder and more active than the non-exposed perch. In the lake assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were also more bold and active, had a larger home range, and used pelagic habitats more than the non-exposed perch. We conclude that ecotoxicological behavioral assays are useful for predicting the effects of exposure in natural systems. However, although individual responses to exposure were similar in both the laboratory and field trials, effects were more obvious in the field study, mainly due to reduced variability in the behavioral measures from the lake. Hence, short-term behavioral assays may fail to detect all the effects expressed in natural environments. Nevertheless, our study clearly demonstrates that behavioral modifications observed in laboratory settings can be used to predict how fish perform in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 316.
    Klinger, Yves P.
    et al.
    Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Harvolk-Schöning, Sarah
    Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hansen, Wiebke
    Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Ludewig, Kristin
    Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Applying landscape structure analysis to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of an invasive legume in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve2019In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 2735-2749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape composition and structure may strongly affect the spread of invasive species in landscapes. Landscape analysis provides a powerful toolset for assessing invasive species invasions over time and for planning control measures. We applied a combination of aerial mapping and landscape analysis to assess the invasion of the legume, Lupinus polyphyllus, in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The Biosphere Reserve contains different types of large and well-connected grasslands threatened by lupine invasion. We assessed the changes in lupine distribution between 1998 and 2016 in a strictly protected part of the Biosphere Reserve by means of landscape structure analysis. The area invaded by L. polyphyllus doubled from 1998 to 2016. While the number of lupine stands decreased by 25%, stand size on average increased by 300%; stands also became less compact during that period. Furthermore, the degree of invasion of different grassland types changed. In 1998, all investigated grassland types were invaded to equal extents, whereas in 2016, large and well-connected mesic grasslands located close to roads were more heavily invaded than small and remote wet grasslands. Our results show that landscape composition plays an important role for the spread of lupine. Specifically, invasive stand characteristics, such as stand size, form, and connectivity, are crucial for driving the invasion of lupine. Therefore, in addition to landscape composition, invasive stand characteristics should be included in the planning of conservation measures. Overall, aerial mapping combined with landscape analysis provides a cost-effective and practical tool for landscape managers to prioritize invasive control measures.

  • 317.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science.
    Navigating in the Midst of Uncertainties: Challenges in Disaster Risk Governance in Mozambique2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters cause heavy losses for societies and may quickly erode any development efforts. Consequently, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an integral part of development work that should be addressed at multiple levels. Global DRR frameworks, scholars and practitioners all advocate disaster risk governance (DRG) strategies that are multi-stakeholder, polycentric and multisectoral. While various substantive knowledge gaps and questions arising from multiple risks and the crosscutting nature of DRR have been relatively well addressed, uncertainties relating to multiple DRR actors operating and collaborating at different scales have gained less attention in previous studies.

    This thesis investigates the uncertainties in DRG in Mozambique, a low-income country that regularly faces natural hazards. These hazards often cause heavy loss of life and livelihoods and economic damage. The four articles that together constitute this thesis focus on different sets of uncertainties and factors that have constrained or allowed Mozambique to take major steps in this policy area. By exploring strategic and institutional uncertainties related to stakeholder involvement, coordination and policy disputes, this thesis reveals different challenges and opportunities that affect DRR policymaking in Mozambique.

    This thesis concludes that Mozambique has managed to take important steps in DRR. However, as a consequence of the different challenges to DRR practice in Mozambique, policymaking can be short-sighted and makes slow progress, thus increasing the disconnect between theory, policies and practice. This thesis thus argues that DRG research and practice need to better take into account power-relations; coordination and capacity issues; and responsibilities and transparency across scales, both in Mozambique and elsewhere.

  • 318.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, CNDS.
    Round and Round We Go: the effects of staff turnover on disaster risk governanceManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, CNDS.
    Whose Voice Do We Hear?: Obstacles to multi-stakeholder and multi-level disaster risk governance in MozambiqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Kopnina, Helen
    et al.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Washington, Haydn
    The University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Taylor, Bron
    University of Florida, USA; Ludwig Maximillian University of Munich, Germany.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Anthropocentrism: More than just a misunderstood problem2018In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropocentrism, in its original connotation in environmental ethics, is the belief that value is human-centred and that all other beings are means to human ends. Environmentally -concerned authors have argued that anthropocentrism is ethically wrong and at the root of ecological crises. Some environmental ethicists argue, however, that critics of anthropocentrism are misguided or even misanthropic. They contend: first that criticism of anthropocentrism can be counterproductive and misleading by failing to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate human interests. Second, that humans differ greatly in their environmental impacts, and consequently, addressing human inequalities should be a precondition for environmental protection. Third, since ecosystems constitute the "life-support system" for humans, anthropocentrism can and should be a powerful motivation for environmental protection. Fourth, human self-love is not only natural but helpful as a starting point for loving others, including nonhumans. Herein we analyze such arguments, agreeing with parts of them while advancing four counter-arguments. First, redefining the term anthropocentrism seems to be an attempt to ignore behavior in which humans focus on themselves at the risk of the planet. Second, if addressing human inequalities is a precondition for environmental protection, biodiversity protection will remain out of the scope of ethical consideration for an indefinite period of time. Third, anthropocentric motivations can only make a positive contribution to the environment in situations where humans are conscious of a direct benefit to themselves. Fourth, 'self-love' alone is an inadequate basis for environmental concern and action. We also explore the question of agency, shared responsibility, and a fair attribution of blame for our environmental predicaments.

  • 321.
    Krange, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Change in the occurrence of the West European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in western Sweden during 1950-2010.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hedgehog populations have declined all over Europe.  Here I describe population trends in three west Swedish counties, based on questionnaire surveys and interviews conducted in 1993 and 2010. I found that people questioned in 1993 had more recently seen hedgehogs than people asked in 2010, which indicates the hedgehog population has declined.  One of reasons for this decline may be the presence of badgers, as the occurrence of hedgehogs was inversely related to the presence of badgers. There was no difference in where hedgehog sightings occurred; sightings were equally likely to occur in suburban/urban areas as in rural areas, despite previous studies in Sweden and western Europe reporting a higher occurrence in suburban/urban areas.

  • 322.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing; additivesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additives are widely used in the tissue manufacturing process to facilitate the operation of the tissue machine and to improve tissue paper properties like wet strength, softness and water absorbency. Chemical retention and drainage programs are created to enhance the runnability of the tissue machine. A raise in dryness in the wet end of the tissue machine can lead to huge savings during the manufacturing process.

    In this work, the effect of 4 different additives on vacuum dewatering, wet pressing and paper properties was evaluated. Conditions representative for tissue machines regarding vacuum levels and dwell times were chosen. Paper properties relevant for tissue, like wet strength and absorption were measured on non-creped papers. Water retention and thermoporometry were used to determine the pore structure of the fibres.

    The solids content after vacuum dewatering and wet pressing is shown to be unaffected by addition of any of the four additives used in this study. The dryness after wet pressing is however increased by addition of a PAE-resin to the stock which probably is due to crosslinking in the fibre wall. Thermoporometry shows that the PAE-resin reduces the volume of both micro- and macropores which will leave less water deposited in the fibre wall. Tensile index is increased with the PAE-resin and further increased by addition of a flocculant and a micropolymer to the stock. Wet strength is increased while absorption capacity is decreased with the PAE-resin. No further effect on the two properties can be seen with additional chemicals in the furnish.

  • 323.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing; suction box dewatering and paper testing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water removal on a tissue machine becomes progressively more difficult and expensive in each successive zone. A good way to reduce cost can therefore be to improve the dewatering prior to evaporative drying. This can be done by selecting proper raw materials and optimizing the treatment of the fibres in the furnish.

    In this work, four pulps beaten to different levels were studied in vacuum dewatering trials. Mixing of the pulps, common in tissue manufacturing, was also performed. To simulate the suction boxes on a tissue machine, bench-scale laboratory equipment was used. Conditions typically used on a tissue machine regarding dwell times and vacuum levels were chosen. Paper properties relevant for tissue, like wet strength and absorption were measured on non-creped papers. To obtain information about the fibre properties, fibre characterization and microscope studies were also conducted.

    Vacuum dewatering in tissue manufacturing is shown to be affected by the choice of pulp which can be explained by structural differences in the networks caused by variations in fibre properties. Beating has a strong negative impact on the solids contents reached, which is believed to be an effect of both internal and external fibrillation. These results, together with additional data from mixing and paper testing, give a better understanding of how the furnish should be prepared to reduce energy use in the process and still fulfil consumer requirements on properties.

  • 324.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing: wet pressing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 947-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet pressing is the last operation on the tissue machine in which water can be removed prior to the expensive evaporative drying of the web. An increase in dryness at this stage can lead to major savings during the manufacturing process. A higher solids content can be achieved by suitable selection of raw materials and by optimizing the treatment of the fibres in the furnish. In this work, wet pressing was evaluated with four pulps beaten to different levels in a PFI mill. Wet pressing was done in a dynamic press simulator and conditions representative of tissue machines with regard to nip pressures and dwell times were chosen. Water retention and thermoporometry were used to determine the pore structure of the fibres. Thickness measurements were made to determine the permanent deformation of the sheets after the pressure pulse.

    Wet pressing in tissue manufacturing is shown to be affected by the choice of pulp, which can be explained by differences in pore structure of the fibres and consequently differences in ability to retain water. More water available before pressing leads to more water that can be removed. Beating has a negative impact on the solids contents reached after pressing, which is believed to be an effect of both internal and external fibrillation. These effects of beating seem mainly to affect the dryness after vacuum dewatering, which is also reflected after pressing. Beating delaminates macropores in the fibre wall but has a minor effect on micropores. Both water between the fibres and water in macropores are removed during pressing. These results give knowledge of how the furnish should be prepared in order to reduce energy consumption in the process.

  • 325.
    Lafage, Denis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sadler, J. P.
    University of Birmingham.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Local and landscape drivers of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies in riparian ecosystems: A worldwide meta-analysis2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1-12, article id e02697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-boundary fluxes of organisms and matter, termed “subsidies,” are now recognized to be reciprocal and of roughly equal importance for both aquatic and terrestrial systems, even if terrestrial input to aquatic ecosystems has received most attention. The magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies is well documented, but the drivers behind these subsidies and their utilization by terrestrial consumers are characteristically local-scale studies, limiting the inferences that can be drawn for broader geographic scales. We therefore built and analyzed a database of stable isotope data extracted from 21 studies worldwide, to identify both landscape-scale (catchment) and local-scale (100-m riparian zone) variables that may affect the diet of terrestrial predators in riparian ecosystems. Our meta-analysis revealed a greater magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies (>50%) than previously reported, albeit with large geographic and inter-annual variations. Moreover, we demonstrated a large effect of landscape-scale factors on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies, particularly anthropogenic land use and tree cover. Local human population was the only relevant factor at the local scale. We also found that studies on landscape-scale and anthropogenic land use effects on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies are strongly under-represented in the ecological literature, which limits the general inferences that can currently be drawn about landscape effects. We suggest that landscape-scale studies could improve our understanding of how land use and environmental change might influence future patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem function.

  • 326.
    Lafage, Denis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Djoudi, El Aziz
    Université de Rennes, France.
    Perrin, Gwenhaël
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Gallet, Sèbastien
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Pétillon, Julien
    Université de Rennes, France.
    Responses of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to changes in vegetation from wet oligotrophic habitats of Western France2019In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many arthropod species are known to depend, directly or indirectly, on certain plant species or communities, it remains unclear to what extent vegetation shapes spider assemblages. In this study, we tested whether the activity-density, composition, and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders were driven by changes in vegetation structure. Field sampling was conducted using pitfall traps in bogs, heathlands, and grasslands of Brittany (Western France) in 2013. A total of 8576 spider individuals were identified up to the species level (for a total of 141 species), as well as all plant species in more than 300 phytosociological relevés. A generalised linear model showed that spider activity-density was negatively influenced by mean vegetation height and mean Ellenberg value for moisture. Indices of diversity (ɑ, β, and functional diversities) increased with increasing vegetation height and shrub cover. Variables driving spider composition were mean vegetation height, dwarf shrub cover, and low shrub cover (results from a redundancy analysis). Spiders, some of the most abundant arthropod predators, are thus strongly influenced by vegetation structure, including ground-dwelling species. Although later successional states are usually seen as detrimental to local biodiversity in Europe, our results suggest that allowing controlled development of the shrub layer could have a positive impact on the diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. 

  • 327.
    Laring, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    34 hektar runt Acksjön: En studie om kontraurbana migranters föredragna platser för boende i Karlstads kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A main trend of demographic change – urbanisation – has a quiet companion called counter-urbanisation which is designated to the migration of groups and individuals from urban to rural areas. Counter-urbanisation is valuable for the rural culture in decline as well as for contributing to solving the arising challenges of urban areas. However, the rural area of Sweden is large and finding a place to settle might be hard. Both migrants and authorities promoting this migration may have an interest in the mapping of preferable habitats in rural areas from a counter-urbanisation perspective. Therefore, this report investigates the possibilities of procuring a method for said rural mapping. Contemporary Swedish research is consulted for specific counter-urban migrants’ choices of where to migrate. The preferred places found in the study are analysed with the geographic information system software ArcGIS. Results show a method for mapping rural areas preferred by a hypothetical statistically compiled individual can be procured.

  • 328.
    Larsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    En jämförelse mellan Esri CityEngine och SketchUp: En studie om geografisk flygdata och texturering av byggnader för en 3D-stadsmodell2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A map object can be visualized in the three dimensions width, height and depth. Visualization ofthree dimensions is called 3D-visualization and is often used for example to illustrate buildingsand cities. 3D-models are often used by companies and authorities in planning processes andscenarios. The aim of this study is to test the 3D-programs SketchUp and Esri CityEngine andevaluate the functions for format, texture and georeferencing in a chosen area in Köping.The international standard CityGML, decided by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), caresfor the exchange and representation of 3D-city models. CityGML is an accepted standard whichdescribes the geometry of construction objects. The features in CityGML are described indifferent levels, Level of Detail (LOD).Esri CityEngine is a 3D-modelling program which is developed for skilled users of GIS and 3Dmodelling.SketchUp is a 3D-modelling program which supports 2D-modelling as well as 3Dmodelling.The program is used for the creation and visualization of geodata.The studyarea is interesting for future buildings and were chosen by Köpings municipality. Inorder to create realistic 3D-city models access of geographic data is needed. The geographic datais for an example terrain models, orthophotos, buildings with the right LOD-level and otherinformation. The 3D-models were created in the programs.The result shows that data from low (400 meters) and high (4000 meters) flight height can beused for creating 3D-city models in Esri CityEngine and SketchUp. In SketchUp all data can beimported but it is not as good as Esri CityEngine for combining data. Using photographs is onlytimesaving when texturing few buildings but not when texturing a larger area with several ofbuildings. When texturing a larger area, predefined rules should be used in order to shorten theprocessing time.

  • 329.
    Larsson, Pia L. M.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Foraging efficiencies on drifting and benthic prey in juvenile salmonids - effect of light2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stream living salmonids are generally regarded as drift feeders that rely upon their vision when foraging. It has been shown that salmonids become nocturnal at low water temperatures, but have a low foraging efficiency as light intensity is low, due to their dependence upon vision. Shifting from drift feeding to benthic feeding, has been suggested, and analyses of gut contents during winter have shown that the diet of salmonids mainly consists of benthic invertebrates. Most experimental studies of salmonid foraging have only offered the fish drifting prey or only given the fish access to benthic prey in total darkness. Such conditions rarely occur in nature and the importance of benthic foraging to salmonids may therefore have been underestimated. In this study I conducted a stream laboratory experiment to test if low light intensity caused juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) (age 0+) to forage more on benthic than drifting prey. The salmon foraged on both drifting and benthic prey during high light but consumed only benthic prey during low light (by one of six fish). Trout foraged on both drifting and benthic prey during both high and low light, but foraging efficiency was lower during low than high light and foraging efficiency was lower for benthic prey than for drifting prey. These results indicate that both species forage more opportunistically than previously thought.

  • 330.
    Lee, Marcus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Huan
    Lund University, Sweden ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Sha, Yongcui
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hegg, Alexander
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ugge, Gustaf Ekelund
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Skerlep, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Parssinen, Varpu
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Herzog, Simon David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjorneras, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gollnisch, Raphael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hu, Nan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulthen, Kaj
    Lund University, Sweden ; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Langerhans, R. Brian
    North Carolina State University, USA ; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Low-latitude zooplankton pigmentation plasticity in response to multiple threats2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1-10, article id 190321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crustacean copepods in high-latitude lakes frequently alter their pigmentation facultatively to defend themselves against prevailing threats, such as solar ultraviolet radiation ( UVR) and visually oriented predators. Strong seasonality in those environments promotes phenotypic plasticity. To date, no one has investigated whether low-latitude copepods, experiencing continuous stress from UVR and predation threats, exhibit similar inducible defences. We here investigated the pigmentation levels of Bahamian 'blue hole' copepods, addressing this deficit. Examining several populations varying in predation risk, we found the lowest levels of pigmentation in the population experiencing the highest predation pressure. In a laboratory experiment, we found that, in contrast with our predictions, copepods from these relatively constant environments did show some changes in pigmentation subsequent to the removal of UVR; however, exposure to water from different predation regimes induced minor and idiosyncratic pigmentation change. Our findings suggest that low-latitude zooplankton in inland environments may exhibit reduced, but non-zero, levels of phenotypic plasticity compared with their high-latitude counterparts.

  • 331.
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Klaipeda Univ, Marine Sci & Technol Ctr, Klaipeda, Lithuania.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Biol, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stankeviciene, Daiva
    Nat Res Ctr, Inst Ecol, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Light Increases Energy Transfer Efficiency in a Boreal Stream2014In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e113675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different light and nutrient levels to estimate energy transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic C-13. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to light levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating light and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. Light had significant positive effect on C-13 uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on C-13 uptake but only at sub-saturating light levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, C-13 uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific C-13 uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of light and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific C-13 uptake and C: nutrient ratios. The energy transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between C-13 uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by light conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on energy transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher light levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low light levels would facilitate energy loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in light intensity could result in community-wide effects on periphyton in boreal streams, with a subsequent increase in energy transfer and system productivity.

  • 332.
    Lexomboon, Duangjai
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlson, Christina
    Varmland Publ Dent Hlth, Dept Prevent Dent, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    von Bultzingslowen, Inger
    Varmland Publ Dent Hlth, Dept Prevent Dent, Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Oral Microbiol & Immunol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mensah, Tita
    Clin Paediat Dent, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Incidence and causes of dental trauma in children living in the county of Varmland, Sweden2016In: Dental Traumatology, ISSN 1600-4469, E-ISSN 1600-9657, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aims of this study were to determine the incidence of injuries to permanent incisors in 2011-2013 in children aged 8-10years living in the county of Varmland, Sweden, and to compare it with the incidence rates in 1989/1990 in the county of Vastmanland, as well as to determine the cause of dental trauma in relation to time and place. MethodThe study analysed the patient records from dental visits (2011-2013) of trauma to the permanent incisors in children aged 8-10years. The incidence rates were the incidence per 1000 children at risk. Standardized incidence rates were calculated for the comparison between different years. Information about month, location where the trauma occurred as well as cause of trauma was recorded. ResultsA total of 2.2% of 21721 children aged 8-10years had experienced at least one trauma. The incidence rate in Varmland increased from 18.9 in 2011 to 21.3 in 2012 to 28.5 in 2013. The standardized incidence rate in Varmland in 2011 and 2012 was not significantly different than in Vastmanland in 1989/1990 (P>0.05), but the standardized rates in 2013 were significantly higher than in 1989/90 (P<0.001). Dental trauma occurred most often outdoors, followed by sports arenas/sports fields, and more often at school than at home. Falling and slipping was the most common cause of trauma, followed by accidents during leisure activities, playing and sports. ConclusionThe incidence rate for dental trauma has not decreased in the past 20years, and there is an indication that parents and teachers should be more aware of the risks of dental trauma at leisure times and at school as well as during sports and exercise.

  • 333. Liebiedieva, Svitlana
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Geospatial support2017In: Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Management / [ed] Amir Khorram-Manesh, Göteborg: Amir Khorram-Manesh , 2017, p. 92-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Lin, Wamei
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Malutta, Raffaelle
    Waste heat recovery by organic rankine cycle (ORC) for moist exhaust gases from paper industry2017In: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2017, Vol. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large potential exists in recovering waste heat from paper industry processes and machinery. If the overall energy efficiency would be increased, it could lead to significant fuel savings and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is a very strong candidate for converting low-grade waste heat into power. However, there is a lot of water vapor containing latent heat in the exhaust gases from the drying process in the paper industry. Thus, the aim of this research work is to increase the efficiency of the ORC system by recovering not only the sensible heat but also the latent heat from the exhaust gases in the paper drying process. In order to recover the latent heat from the moist exhaust gases, one idea of this article is to introduce a direct contact condensing unit into the ORC system. The performance of ORC system with the direct contact condensing unit was analyzed by using the CHEMCAD software. A case study was conducted based on data of the exhaust gases from a tissue production / drying machine. Latent heat will be recovered when the evaporating temperature of the ORC working fluid is lower than the dew point of the water vapor in the exhaust gases. The results showed that the available heat load was increased when the evaporating temperature was reduced. Furthermore, a performance comparison of the ORC systems with and without the direct contact condensing unit was carried out in the case study as well. The results showed that the ORC system with the direct contact condensing unit not only could recover latent heat from the water vapor in the exhaust gases but also could have a small size and small volume evaporator in the ORC system.

  • 335. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Holmgren, Ingela
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Pinoberget. En socialhistorisk studie utifrån sentida bebyggelselämningar och obesuttna människor2000Report (Other academic)
  • 336. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Holmgren, Ingela
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Emilsson, Stig
    Crofters, thieves and workers: The social history of the inhabitants of a group of 19th century settlement remains2003In: Lund archeological review, Vol. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 337. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Sentida bebyggelse i antikvarisk och arkeologisk verksamhet - en tematisk utvärdering2001Report (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Lind, Lovisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges Lantbruks Universitet.
    Towards ecologically functional riparian zones: A meta-analysis to develop guidelines for protecting ecosystem functions and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 249, p. 1-8, article id 109391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian zones contribute with biodiversity and ecosystem functions of fundamental importance for regulating flow and nutrient transport in waterways. However, agricultural land-use and physical changes made to improve crop productivity and yield have resulted in modified hydrology and displaced natural vegetation. The modification to the hydrology and natural vegetation have affected the biodiversity and many ecosystem functions provided by riparian zones. Here we review the literature to provide state-of-the-art recommendations for riparian zones in agricultural landscapes. We analysed all available publications since 1984 that have quantified services provided by riparian zones and use this information to recommend minimum buffer widths. We also analysed publications that gave buffer width recommendations to sustain different groups of organisms. We found that drainage size matters for nutrient and sediment removal, but also that a 3 m wide buffer zone acts as a basic nutrient filter. However, to maintain a high floral diversity, a 24 m buffer zone is required, while a 144 m buffer is needed to preserve bird diversity. Based on the analysis, we developed the concept of “Ecologically Functional Riparian Zones” (ERZ) and provide a step-by-step framework that managers can use to balance agricultural needs and environmental protection of waterways from negative impacts. By applying ERZ in already existing agricultural areas, we can better meet small targets and move towards the long-term goal of achieving a more functional land management and better environmental status of waterways.

  • 339.
    Lindegren, Martin
    et al.
    University of California.
    Waldo, Staffan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations,2013In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 1140-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound ("Oresund") as a case study, and perform a sub-stock-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i. e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular.

  • 340.
    Lindgren, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitatets inverkan på förekomst av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i svenska vattendrag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Data över förekomst av två storleksklasser (0-150 mm och >150 mm) av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i vattendrag på svenska västkusten hämtades från SERS (Svenskt ElfiskeRegiSter vid SLU). Dessa analyserades genom logistisk regression för att avgöra vilka olika makrohabitat-, landskaps- och hindervariabler som bäst kunde användas för att förutspå förekomst av ål. Resultatet visade att det för makrohabitatvariablerna var vattendragets bredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd som bäst förutspådde förekomst av båda storleksklasserna. För landskapsvariablerna var det avstånd till mynningen, fosforkoncentration och vattentemperatur som bäst förutspådde förekomsten av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även sjöprocent en viktig variabel för att förklara förekomsten av den större klassen ål. För variabler som beskriver vandringshinder var det dammar, ålyngelledare och naturlika fiskvägar som bäst förutspådde ålförekomst av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även avstånd till uppströms hinder viktigt för att förklara förekomsten av större ål (>150 mm). Mängden lämpliga tillväxthabitat för ålen kan därför troligtvis ökas genom åtgärder riktade mot lokalens vattendragsbredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd.

  • 341.
    Linzie, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Väneramplitud – Lönsamhet?: Kvalitativ studie av åtgärder, genomförda för att reducera risker och kostnadspåföljder av en förändrad vattenregim2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The water amplitude of the lake Vänern was lowered by a decision by the County Administrative board of Västra Götaland, this was carried out by the electric company Vattenfall AB in the year 2008. This was done to reduce the risks of severe flooding’s. The procedure was recommended by the report “Climate and vulnerability”. This will have adverse effects on the natural values around Vänern. The method used in the report was the Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) method. In this valuation method, it is very difficult to value natural values according to their monetary value since the method itself lacks the procedures to do so properly. And also the investigators chose to not value these in a monetary sense because of the difficulties in doing so. This thesis questions through interviews and an extensive literature study why this came to pass, and how and why the natural values of the lake Vänern could have been valued. The possibility that the adverse effects on the natural values around the lake is diminishing is a fact not implemented in the report makes the proceeding decision to lower the water amplitude of Vänern, makes it difficult to determine the final consequences. 

  • 342.
    Lotsari, Ellisa
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, University of Turku.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kämäri, Maria
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Impacts of hydro-climatically varying years on ice growth and decay in a subarctic river2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the future changes in river ice development and impacts on seasonal sediment transport requires more in-depth examination of present river ice cover growth processes. This paper therefore investigates: (1) the impacts of hydro-climatically varying years on river ice development in a Scandinavian subarctic meandering river and (2) the accuracy of existing analytical models for predicting ice thickness growth and ice decay. Stefan's ice growth equation (version by Michel et al.) and Bilello's ice decay equation are applied to varying hydro-climatic conditions experienced in the years 2013-2019. Estimates from these equations are compared with observed field conditions such as ice thicknesses, ice clearance dates and freeze-thaw days. Overall, the equations were most accurate in the winter of 2016-2017 when the maximum mid-winter snow thickness value was high, the number of freeze-thaw days was the closest to the long-term average of northern Scandinavia, and the rate of thermal snow-melt in the subsequent spring was slow. The equations would need to be adjusted to take into account expected future changes to conditions such as shorter winters, less snow formation and increased frequency of air temperatures crossing 0 °C.

  • 343.
    Loydi, Alejandro
    et al.
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gebauer, Tobias
    Univ Hamburg, Appl Plant Ecol, Bioctr Klein Flottbek.
    Ludewig, Kristin
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Reisdorff, Christoph
    Univ Hamburg,.
    Jensen, Kai
    Univ Hamburg.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel.
    Opposite effects of litter and hemiparasites on a dominant grass under different water regimes and competition levels2018In: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 219, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct and indirect biotic interactions may affect plant growth and development, but the magnitude of these effects may vary depending on environmental conditions. In grassland ecosystems, competition is a strong structuring force. Nonetheless, if hemiparasitic plant species are introduced the competition intensity caused by the dominant species may be affected. However, the outcome of these interactions may change between wet or dry periods. In order to study this, we performed a pot experiment with different densities of the dominant species Schedonorus arundinaceus (1, 2 or 4 individuals) under constantly moist or intermittently dry conditions. The different Schenodorus densities were crossed with presence or absence of hemiparasites (either Rhinanthus minor or R. alectorolophus). Additionally, pots remained with bare ground or received a grass litter layer (400 g m(-2)). We expected that indirect litter effects on vegetation (here Schedonorus or Rhinanthus) vary depending on soil moisture. We measured Schedonorus and Rhinanthus aboveground biomass and C stable isotope signature (delta C-13) as response variables. Overall, Schedonorus attained similar biomass under moist conditions with Rhinanthus as in pots under dry conditions without Rhinanthus. Presence of Rhinanthus also increased delta C-13 in moist pots, indicating hemiparasite-induced water stress. Litter presence increased Schedonorus biomass and reduced delta C-13, indicating improved water availability. Plants under dry conditions with litter showed similar biomass as under wet conditions without litter. Hemiparasites and litter had opposite effects: hemiparasites reduced Schedonorus biomass while litter presence facilitated grass growth. Contrary to our expectations, litter did not compensate Schedonorus biomass when Rhinanthus was present.

  • 344.
    Ludewig, K.
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Hanke, J. M.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Wuthe, B.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, A.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, E.
    Hochschule Geisen heim University, Geisenheim, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, T. W.
    Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Differential effect of drought regimes on the seedling performance of six floodplain grassland species2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands. In a greenhouse study, we exposed seedlings of three confamilial pairs of species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Selinum carvifolia, Veronica teucrium, Veronica maritima, Sanguisorba minor, Sanguisorba officinalis) to increasing drought treatments. Within each plant family, one species is characteristic of wet and one of dry floodplain grasslands, confamilial in order to avoid phylogenetic bias of the results. In accordance with our hypotheses, drought conditions reduced aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. Contrary to our hypotheses, drought conditions increased SLA and decreased root biomass and RMF of seedlings. Beyond the effects of the families, the results were species-specific (V. maritima being the most sensitive species) and habitat-specific. Species indicative of wet floodplain grasslands appear to be more sensitive to drought than species indicative of dry grasslands. Because of species- and habitat-specific responses to reduced water availability, future drought periods due to climate change may severely affect some species from dry and wet habitats, while others may be unaffected.

  • 345. Ludewig, Kristin
    et al.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Zelle, Bianka
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. nstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Managementnstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Management, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, Eva
    Otte, Annette
    Jensen, Kai
    Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0124140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future.

    Methods

    We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    Results

    The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change.

  • 346.
    Lund Björnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Spatially explicit models: planning salmonid habitat restoration in regulated rivers2019Report (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Luning, H.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Mangelus, C.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Carlstrom, E.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Borjesson, M.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Incidence and characteristics of severe exercise-associated collapse at the world's largest half-marathon2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0217465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whilst many health benefits are associated with regular exercise, medical complications may occur during higher-intensity activities, such as long distance running contests. The most common complication is collapse. However, the incidence and characteristics of these collapses are not very well studied. Method This is a retrospective study of severe collapse, defined as a patient in need of advanced medical care after a collapse, during the large Gothenburg's half marathon, Goteborgsvarvet. The study included 230,501 competitors during the study-period of 5 years (20132017) with data being collected from medical race tents and using ambulance data. Vital signs, treatment and blood gas samples were noted and analyzed. Results The incidence of severe collapse was 1.53 per 1000 starting runners. The average age for patients was 34 years old and no difference in incidence were seen between male and female runners. The typical collapsed runner presented with tachycardia, normal systolic blood pressure, elevated body temperature and metabolic acidosis. The most common medical encounter was exercise-associated collapse. Conclusion The incidence of severe collapse was similar to findings in other studies, even though this study was set in different part of the world. Typical characteristics of a collapsed runner were identified providing new information which could be beneficial in the medical planning of larger running competitions and future preventative interventions. Importantly, life threatening conditions seem uncommon; no case of hyponatremia and only two cases of hypoglycemia were seen.

  • 348.
    Långkvist, Isabella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Storleksskillnader i rörelsemönster hos gädda (Esox lucius)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 349.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Information Systems for Disaster Management Training: Investigating User Needs with a Design Science Research Approach2018In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM2018 / [ed] F.K. Boersma & B. Tomaszewski, ISCRAM , 2018, p. 841-850Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal threats such as global warming and terror attacks make crisis preparedness and crisis training a major priority in governments worldwide. Unfortunately, training is limited, partly due to complex and resource-demanding planning of traditional exercises. Several crisis training software have been developed as a complement. However, reports in research on their usage are rare, which indicates that the diffusion is limited. A potential explanation is that the systems fail to meet important needs in the organizations and/or sound information systems (IS) design principles. This paper describes the first phase of a design science research (DSR) project aiming at developing information systems for disaster management (ISDM) training, and accompanying training methods in local and regional governments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate perceived problems in current crisis training and identify opportunities for ISDM training in the application domain. Another purpose is to outline expected artifacts in the project.

  • 350.
    Majlöv Modig, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Om dammen brister: En kvantitativ studie om hur risken med dammbrott uppfattas av invånare i Bodens kommun2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of how the inhabitants of the municipality of Boden perceived risk of dam failure based on the following questions: What knowledge do the residents have of dam failure and its risks? How do the residents perceive that their risk perception has been affected by the municipality's risk communication? Does the residents risk perception differ from that of the risk picture that the municipality has and in such case how?Data were collected through a web survey in August 2014. The link to the online survey was sent to all county employees, all registered sports, and other, clubs, and posted on the municipal website, to acquaintance in Boden and was also posted on a Facebook page. A total of 677 responses were obtained. Responses were collected and different variables were compared with each other.In this study it was found that generally Boden Municipality's residents have a good knowledge of the risk of dam failure. Variables such as the respondents gender, age, your homes distance to the water and how long they have lived in Boden had only a marginal effect on the responses. The municipality and the respondents have the same understanding of risk dam failure.

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