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  • 28651.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, G.
    Larsson, M.
    Starrin, B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Quality of care from the elderly person's perspective: Subjective importance and perceived reality1995In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 7, p. 140-149-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28652.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Larsson, M.
    Starrin, B.
    Quality of care from the patients' perspective: Development of a patient-centred questionnaire based on a grounded theory model1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 8, 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28653.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Rizell Carlson, S.
    Advanced home care: patients' opinions on quality compared with those of family members2004In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 226-233, 2004Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28654.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Starrin, B.
    Patients' views on quality of care of care: A comparison of men and women1999In: Journal of Nursing Manangement, 7 , 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28655.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Wickman Chantereau, M.
    Stael von Holstein, K.
    Patients' views on quality of care in England, France, Norway, and Sweden - A theory based assessment2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28656.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Wickman Chantereau, M.
    Stael von Holstein, K.
    Patients' views on quality of care: Theory-based assessment. In B. Edvardsson, S.W. Brown, R. Johnston & E.E. Scheving (Eds.), QUIS5: Advancing service quality: A global perspective, 1996 (pp. 164-168)1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28657.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wickman Chantereau, Marie
    Capio, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stael von Holstein, Karin
    Capio, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    International comparisons of patients' views on quality of care2005In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To compare patients’ views on quality of care in different countries using a theory-based instrument, while at the same time controlling for the following potential confounders: type of care system (private vs public), type of care (kind of health problem), gender, age, and subjective wellbeing.

    Design/methodology/approach – Patients capable of communicating in wards (medical and surgical departments) and day surgery departments in England, France, Norway, and Sweden were recruited consecutively, to participate in a programme run by the health-care company Capio. Ward patients: England (n =1,236), France (n =1,051), Norway (n =226), and Sweden (n =428). Day surgery patients: England (n =887), France (n =544), Norway (n =101), and Sweden (n =742). Average response rate across settings: approximately 75 per cent. Patients evaluated the quality of the care they actually received and the subjective importance they ascribed to different aspects of care. The questionnaire “Quality from the patient's perspective” (QPP) was used (modified short version).

    Findings – Cross-national comparisons were made within each of the two care contexts (wards and day surgery) separately for men and women. Quality of care evaluations were adjusted for age and subjective wellbeing. English and French patients scored significantly higher than Norwegian and Swedish on both kinds of ratings (perceived reality and subjective importance), in both kinds of care contexts, and in both sexes.

    Originality/value – Cross-national comparisons of patients’ views on care can give meaningful guidance for practitioners only if they are context-specific and if well-known confounders are controlled for.

  • 28658.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Quality of care from the patient and system perspective2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28659.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Quality of care from the patient and system perspectives2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28660.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Larsson, G
    Birthgiving Women´s feelings and perceptions of quality of intrapartal care: a nationwide Swedish cross-sectional study2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 1168-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim was to explore the relationships between the feelings of women who give birth and several birth-related care conditions, the womens' socio-demographic background, personality and perceptions of the quality of intrapartum care. Background. Childbirth is a highly significant emotional event for women and it is an explicit goal that each woman should have a positive childbirth experience. Design. The nationwide study is cross-sectional and was conducted at Swedish maternity units over two months in 2007. Methods. The study group consisted of 739 women (63% response rate). A dimensionality analysis of six emotion items was performed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Non-parametric tests and generalised linear mixed effects model analyses were used to study relationships and to make subgroup comparisons. Results. In the SEM analysis, a positive and a negative feeling factor were identified. Strong associations between the feeling factors and the womens' perceptions of the quality of care were found, particularly in regard to the so-called identity-oriented approach of the midwives and other health professionals. In addition, a higher intensity of negative feelings was associated with a personality pattern characterised by extraversion, emotional instability and lower degree of conscientiousness, a lower level of education and having had delivery through Caesarean section. Conclusions. The positive and negative feelings of women who give birth strongly covary with the women's perception of the quality of their intrapartum care. This pertains in particular to information issues, the midwives showing commitment, empathy and respect, being present during labour and allowing the women to actively participate as much as they want to. Relevance to clinical practice. Subgroup differences indicate that midwives should pay increased attention to childbearing women who have primary school education only, a lower emotional stability and/or deliver through Caesarean section.

  • 28661.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schmidt, I.
    Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, I.
    Psychotropic Drugs Related to Family Members Perceptions of Quality o Care Among Elderly People Living in Nursing Homes2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28662.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schmidt, I.
    Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, I.
    Psychotropic Drugs Related to Family Members Perceptions of Quality of Care Among Elderly People Living in Nursing Homes2001In: Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2001, 18, 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28663.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, A
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Kvalitet i Psykiatrisk vård: Nytt mätinstrument2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28664.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, G
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Quality in Psychiatric Care: a new measuring instrument in three versions based on patients´own experiences2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28665.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, G
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Quality in psychiatric care and instrument based on patients own experiences (oral presentation)2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28666.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Starrin, B.
    Larsson, G.
    Larsson, M.
    Quality of care from a patient perspective: A grounded theory study1993In: Scan-dinavian Journal of Caring Scien-ces, 7, 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28667.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Wilde, B.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Patients' views on quality of care: Theory-based assessment. In B. Edvardsson, S.W. Brown, R. Johnston & E.E. Scheving (Eds.), QUIS5: Advancing service quality: A global perspective,1996 (pp. 164-168)1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28668.
    Wilder, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Litteraturval på högstadiet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [un]

    Undersökningens huvudsyfte är få en insikt i vilka skönlitterära texter som läses på högstadiet. Lärare ifrån tre högstadieskolor har medverkat. Litteraturundervisningen är en stol del av svenskämnet och svensklärare har således ett stort ansvar när det gäller att välja ut adekvata texter. Därför är det intressant att ta reda på vilka texter som läses i sin helhet på högstadiet idag. Tidigare undersökningar är främst utförda på gymnasienivå och har visat att litteraturundervisningen tenderar att vara starkt styrd av lärare och gamla styrdokument samt förmedlar litteratur som ligger långt ifrån elevernas litterära register. Lärare måste ständigt förhålla sig till de didaktiska frågorna vad, varför och hur. Ytterligare frågeställningar som undersökningen vill svara på, handlar därför om på vilka grunder lärarna har gjort sina litteraturval. I studien har använts kvalitativa intervjufrågor, där sju lärare medverkar. Resultatet visar att val av litteratur ser mycket olika ut. Lärarna i studien väljer också litteratur på olika grunder.

  • 28669.
    Wildig Lindahl, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns hälsa och övervikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
  • 28670.
    Wildt, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Lindborg, Nelly
    Karlstad University.
    Står monstret bakom mig?: En kvalitativ undersökning av skräck i Virtual Reality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality has existed in different forms since around 80 years ago, but in its current form it has a more significant place on the current market. With this change, more research on how VR works and how humans are affected by it is needed to be able to develop products for this growing medium. The research today is lacking, so to expand the understanding of VR and specifically VR as a console for games, this qualitative study has researched how elements of fear are experienced in a VR-environment. The study also studied what can affect “immersion”, depth in the environment, as well as if previous experience can affect experiences in a VR-environment. These questions were analyzed based on two game tests that were made on the VR-console HTC Vive. The first test focused on controls and “immersion” to see how intuitive and easily understood the console is. The second test examined horror elements in VR and what kinds of elements could contribute to a more effective and intense horror experience.

    A total of 16 people between the ages of 19-26 participated in the game tests. The participants were students at Karlstad University, or had previously been so. The participants were divided in different kinds of groups depending on previous experiences in digital games (the first test) and horror (the second test).

    With the help of observation of the video recordings and the interviews the collected data could be divided into themes. The themes used to analyze the data were controls, disorientation/discomfort, “immersion” and horror elements. The results showed that HTC Vive have good qualifications for “immersion”. Though with a few problematic factors, the equipment for example, which disturbed the experience. Despite this, the console created a strong feeling of “immersion” as the participants experienced themselves to be present in the VR-environment because of factors such as background noise and a natural point-of-view of the VR-environment through the headset. The biggest contributor for “immersion” was that the environment needed to have a natural and believable behavior, acting the way the user expects it to. This kind of presence contributed positively to the horror experience as the participants seemed to believe themselves to be threatened by the horror elements as if it was directed at them personally and not just a character in a game.  

    In the subject of differences between the groups in experience there not a lot of substantial differences. A small difference could be found regarding how the controls were handled between the different groups of game experience. The participants with previous experience seemed to bring expectations about how the controls should work.

    The study had, because of its qualitative nature, no possibility to receive generalizable results. But the study did open up for questions for future research related to VR-games and their users, as well as VR-consoles.

  • 28671.
    Wilhelm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Matematikyftet, vad hände sen?: En studie kring Matematiklyftets inverkan på ett arbetslags bedömningsarbete.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how a teacher team's prospects and perceptions of peer learning and formative assessment has influenced their teaching after taking part in “Matematiklyftet”. The teacher team and their principal have been interviewed and an analysis of the texts concerning formative assessment from two modules in “Matematiklyftet” has been made to answer the purpose. During “Matematiklyftet” the teacher team has been given opportunities to try different methods to work with formative assessment in their teaching and they got an interest for some of them that they continued to use after the end of “Matematiklyftet”. They have discovered a link between assessment and teaching, that they need not be seen as two distinct parts that collide with each other, but rather that they can interact and complement each other. The teacher team has also realized the importance of peer learning in the planning of teaching. This, by the continuous meetings where they discussed mathematics didactics and shared each other’s experience, knowledge and collaborated with lesson planning and then discovered the benefits of helping each other. With the help of the principal’s support and the dedication from the leader of the discussion-group, which in my study proved to be critical success factors, the teacher team has been given opportunities to discuss and practice work methods, tools and point of views based on research articles during “Matematiklyftet”. Through this experience, both the principal and the teachers have realized the importance of continually work with peer learning to enhance mathematics teaching quality. Based on this, and the principal’s vision for how to continue the teachers peer learning after “Matematiklyftet”, the teacher team has been given opportunities to continue to work on formative assessment in mathematics education through peer learning.

  • 28672.
    Wilhelm, Söderkvist Vermelin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    3+1 Approach to Cosmological Perturbations: Deriving the First Order Scalar Perturbations of the Einstein Field Equations2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data suggest that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on sufficiently large scales. An exact solution of the Einstein field equations exists for a homogeneous and isotropic universe, also known as a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. However, this model is only a first approximation since we know that, locally, the universe has anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. In order to successfully introduce inhomogeneities and anisotropies to the model one uses perturbative methods. In cosmological perturbations the FLRW universe is considered the zeroth order term in a perturbation expansion and perturbation theory is used to derive higher order terms which one tries to match with observations. In this thesis I present a review of the main concepts of general relativity, discuss the 3+1 formalism which gives us the Einstein field equations in a useful form for the perturbative analysis, and lastly, I derive the first order scalar perturbations of the Einstein field equations.

  • 28673.
    Wilhelmsson, Linn
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Matsson, Patricia
    Karlstad University.
    Influencerupplevelse och dess effekt på konsumenter genom Instagram: En studie kring svenska influencers påverkan på konsumenters köpintentioner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society, famous social media profiles are gaining more attention due to the increasing use of social media. People who have become famous through their social media are often referred to as influencers and is a growing phenomenon in marketing, as they can contribute to an increased viral growth for companies. In order for consumers to want to buy a product, it is important to create attractive experiences in the encounter of a brand. Therefore, it is interesting to study whether influencers at Instagram can create experiences and if these experiences in turn have an impact on consumers’ purchase intentions of products and services seen in an influencers content on Instagram.

    Purpose: Given previous research, the purpose of this paper is to study whether influencer experience, or parts of the experience, at Instagram has an impact on consumers’ purchase intentions.

    Method: A quantitative research method has been used in this study. The data collection was conducted through a survey that comprised 200 students at the age of 19-39 from Karlstad University. The data was analysed using factoranalysis, as well as simple and multiple linear regression.

    Conclusion: In this study, the experience that is created around influencers has an impact on consumers’ buying behaviour. Additionally, every dimensionof the experience alone has an impact on purchase intentions, which shows that the dimensions are not dependent on each other to influence purchase intentions. However, they do have a better effect when they are put together. Influencer marketing can therefore be seen as effective, since the experiences that an influencer creates has an effect on the consumers’ intention to buy products and services.

  • 28674.
    Wiljergårdh, Staffan
    Karlstad University.
    Åtgärdsprogram: Kan och hur kan den administrativa delen effektiviseras i hanterandet av åtgärdsprogram?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28675.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Fördröja åldrandet av elektrotekniskt papper genom kemikalietillsats: En studie av dicyandiamids påverkan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Paper Åmotfors manufactures electro technical paper that is used to isolate the windings in transformers. It is important to maintain the properties of the paper during a long period of time because the life of a transformer is extensive. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether or not addition by a chemical consisting of dicyandiamide could delay the ageing of the papers that Nordic Paper manufactures. The aspiration was that their paper would then fulfil the requirements that are applicable to papers that have been aged in oil. The chemical that was utilised is called Cartafix® WE liquid.

    Experiments were conducted where different dosages of the chemical were added to the stock. Sheets of paper were manufactured and the nitrogen level was then measured in order to verify that the chemical had been fused in the finished paper. The paper sheets were then aged in either oil or air and the remaining degree of polymerisation was measured. Bursting strength and conductivity were also evaluated. Papers that Nordic Paper had manufactured were coated with different dosages of the chemical and then investigated in the same manner.

    The results showed that the retention of the chemical was relatively low. The nitrogen level did not exceed 1 %, which occurred at 10-20 % addition of the chemical.

    After ageing in oil, the degree of polymerisation was significantly reduced, which meant that the papers did not fulfil the requirement of a maximum of 50 % reduction. The addition of the chemical did however improve the ageing resistance with nearly 45 % if the unmodified paper is compared to the modified paper with the highest degree of polymerisation (10 % addition, equivalent to 1 % nitrogen).

    Papers that had been modified by addition of chemicals in the stock and had been aged in air exhibited lower degree of polymerisation than unmodified paper. The degree of polymerisation was significantly reduced for papers that had been coated and aged in air.

    Addition of chemicals resulted in both lower bursting strength and lower conductivity.

  • 28676.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    The Impact of Dissolved Matter on Fiberline Processes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of dissolved matter on the performance of four fiberline process stages was investigated: oxygen delignification, hot acid treatment, chlorine dioxide bleaching, and hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction. In particular the impact on delignification due to dissolved lignin was studied.

    The impact of unoxidized and oxidized dissolved matter on lignin and carbohydrate degradation was investigated in a laboratory oxygen delignification stage. It was concluded that the delignification was decreased by the presence of unoxidized dissolved matter but increased in the case of oxidized dissolved matter. Both types of dissolved matter comparably increased the carbohydrate degradation. Thus, the presence of unoxidized dissolved matter impaired the selectivity. In the case of oxidized dissolved matter, the selec­tiv­ity was affected in the same way as when using a higher sodium hydroxide charge.

    The presence of dissolved matter reduced the efficiency of a laboratory hot acid stage, and subsequently further affected the chemical demand in a following chlorine dioxide stage. In a laboratory chlorine dioxide stage, the presence of dissolved matter reduced the delignifica­tion. The additional chemical demand required to compensate for this reduc­tion was proportional to the content of dissolved matter. Moreover, the total chemical demand was found proportional to the total kappa number of the pulp, that is the sum of the fiber and filtrate kappa numbers. Finally, the presence of dissolved matter in a laboratory hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extrac­tion stage reduced both the delignification and the brightness.

    Furthermore, mill studies showed that the content of dissolved lignin varied significantly, and often more than the fiber-bound lignin, in a bleaching stage. For chlorine dioxide stages, it was proposed that the chemical consumption could be reduced by controlling the chemical charge based on the sum of the fiber-bound lignin and the dissolved lignin.

  • 28677.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments AB.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved matter in the oxygen delignification stage2017In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of dissolved matter in the pulp suspension in an oxygen (O-2) delignification stage, consisting mainly of dissolved lignin, is normally considered to negatively affect the delignification rate due to the competing reactions between the fiber bound lignin and the lignin dissolved in the filtrate. Recirculated oxidized filtrate from the post-O-2 washing is usually considered to be less harmful to the delignification efficiency than unoxidized dissolved matter originating from the cooking stage. To develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the dissolved matter's reactions and impact on the O-2 stage performance, laboratory oxygen delignification experiments with varying levels of unoxidized and oxidized dissolved matter were conducted. The results showed that unoxidized dissolved matter had a negative impact on the delignification in the O-2 stage, whereas oxidized dissolved matter actually had a positive effect. The delignification efficiency of the laboratory experiments thus depends on both the amount of dissolved matter and its origin. The pulp viscosity decreased with increasing dissolved matter content irrespective of its origin but at higher COD levels; however, the viscosity drop was larger for the unoxidized dissolved matter. In terms of selectivity, the oxidized filtrate had a similar impact as additional NaOH charge. Both types of filtrates consumed hydroxide and the final pH decreased with increasing dissolved matter content. The final pH was significantly lower in the unoxidized filtrate experiments at higher COD levels, indicating a high reactivity between the unoxidized dissolved matter and the oxygen in the reactor. Based on the results, further understanding is achieved about the relation between pre-O-2 washing performance and process configuration in an actual mill case, as well as the impact of dissolved matter on delignification. The importance of efficient removal of harmful unoxidized dissolved matter is verified, but the results also suggest that the oxidized dissolved matter that is recirculated from post-O-2 washing actually has a significant positive impact on the delignification and is not just a potential problem in case of carryover to the bleach plant. Subsequently, pulp washing efficiency is critical both pre- and post-O-2.

  • 28678.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved organic matter in DO-and ADO-stages in bleaching of birch kraft pulpManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28679.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved organic matter in hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction stagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28680.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Oxygen delignification – Laboratory evaluation of the impact of dissolved organic matter, sodium car­bonate and sodium thiosulfateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28681.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. BTG Instruments AB, Saffle, Sweden..
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments AB, R&D & Business Dev, Saffle, Sweden..
    Van Fleet, Rick
    BTG Amer Inc, Fiber Line, Norcross, GA USA..
    Mathur, Akhlesh
    BTG Instruments, BTG Asia Fiber Segment & SEA, Singapore, Singapore..
    Germgard, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Impact of dissolved lignin in oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide stages2016In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While carryover of dissolved lignin between stages in the pulp mill fiber line is a well-known problem, it is still typically seen only as a minor disturbance factor or bias in the control of oxygen (O-2) delignification and bleaching stages. The present study, however, reveals that it plays a larger role than anticipated, and that it should be properly analyzed in order to correctly control the process stages. This is especially important for the O-2 and D-0 stages as the lignin content is still high in these positions. The results of the study show that dissolved lignin carried over between stages may have a significant impact on the bleaching chemical consumption and, indirectly, on the pulp quality. Mill investigations have shown very large variations in the dissolved lignin content in the pulp before the oxygen delignification stage and before the D-0 stage that have significantly influenced the bleaching chemical demand and, subsequently, the degree of delignification. In order to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the dissolved lignin's reactions, laboratory O-2 and D-0 experiments with controlled levels of dissolved lignin were conducted. It was anticipated that a better feedforward control could be achieved using an online dissolved lignin measurement, and results from mill trials are presented. Chlorine dioxide laboratory experiments using different levels of carryover (i.e., different dissolved lignin contents) were conducted. It was concluded that the filtrate kappa number provides a relevant measure of the bleach demand due to the dissolved lignin and that, subsequently, the combined fiber and filtrate kappa number provides an appropriate measure for optimum feedforward control of the stages. Mill results support these findings, which show that the chemical consumption is reduced significantly using the total kappa number. The post-D or post-DE kappa number feedback control can most probably be eliminated by using this technology.

  • 28682.
    Wilke, Emily
    Karlstad University.
    Harry Potter som hjälte: En uppsats kring det fria valet, identitet och hjälterollen i Harry Potter och dödsrelikerna2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28683.
    Wilkins, Karin
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The privatization of development through global communication industries:Living Proof?2013In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development is meant to alleviate problems in the interests of the public good, yet thegrowing dominance of private donors problematizes this conceptualization. Workingthrough a political-economic analysis of development, we see global communications asan industry that channels wealth from citizens into the hands of few corporate moguls,who then have the resources to assert their agendas in a global development context.We begin by conceptualizing development and social change within communicationstudies, paying attention to the privatization of aid within global capitalism. Next,we contextualize our case study, describing the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationand ONE, promoted by Bono, as the funding and management settings of the LivingProof campaign. We analyze the initiative’s construction of development problems,its articulation of how communication is expected to work toward social change, andits conceptualizations of success. The dominant theme of Living Proof program is that“real people” have achieved development success, which can be shared as “proof” withwebsite consumers. We conclude by considering how such a framing serves the agenda of privatized development within a neoliberal project.

  • 28684.
    Willassen, Elin
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Blomberg, Ann-Catrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    von Post, Irene
    Åbo Akademi.
    Lindwall, Lillemor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Student nurses* experiences of undignified caring in perioperative practice: Part 22015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 688-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:In recent years, operating theatre nurse students' education focused on ethics, basic valuesand protecting and promoting the patients' dignity in perioperative practice. Health professionals are frequently confronted with ethical issues that can impact on patient's care during surgery.Objective:The objective of this study was to present what operating theatre nursing students perceivedand interpreted as undignified caring in perioperative practice.Research design:The study has a descriptive design with a hermeneutic approach. Data were collectedusing Flanagan's critical incident technique.Participants and research context:Operating theatre nurse students from Sweden and Norwayparticipated and collected data in 2011, after education in ethics and dignity. Data consisting of 47written stories and the text were analysed with hermeneutical text interpretation.Ethical considerations:The study was approved by the Karlstad University's Research Ethics Committee.Findings:The findings show careless behaviour and humiliating actions among health professionals. Healthprofessionals commit careless acts by rendering the patient invisible, ignoring the patient's worry and painand treating the patient as an object. They also humiliate the patient when speaking in negative terms aboutthe patient's body, and certain health professionals blame the patients for the situation they are in. Healthprofessionals lack the willingness and courage to protect the patient's dignity in perioperative practice.Discussion:In the discussion, we have illuminated how professional ethics may be threatened by morepragmatic and utilitarian arguments contained in regulations and transplant act.Conclusion:The findings reveal that patients were exposed to unnecessary suffering; furthermore, theoperating theatre nurse students suffered an inner ethical conflict due to the undignified caring situationsthey had witnessed

  • 28685.
    Wille, Bengtsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Krycktestare: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This assignment includes a development of a crutch approver that will test the physical strength of crutches. The project is assign by Johan Ljunger at Camatec Industriteknik AB located in Karlstad and is a bachelor thesis at Karlstad University and is performed during the spring term of 2017.

    Today several counties in Sweden reject returned crutches that have been used by patients, because they can’t ensure the patients safety if the crutches were to be reused. The used crutches might be defective because of bad handling by former user and therefor lost its physical properties. It is because of this the counties want a safe method that could test these properties and declare if the crutches still is reusable.

    These crutches are approved by ISO Standard 11334-1:2007 and if they were to be reused they have to be approved by this standard once again. This standard was studied and parts that are relative to this project are being presented in this report, as much as possible. Although it is necessary to obtain this standard to fully understand this report, because some content can only be obtained from the standard and not from this report.

    Delimitations were made or else the project would have been too big to handle with the time that was available. It has been limited to only use one model of crutches, which is the most commonly used by the counties. It’s also limited to only preform this sort of test on crutches that are still within their lifetime, which is two years for the model that is used.

    A construction that will test these crutches has been created by following the steps of product development. This machine will perform a static strength test on the crutches according to the standard, but it is not fully completed on certain parts. But it shows how a machine like this can be constructed and how it works. More ideas for further development on this machine are presented in this report.

  • 28686.
    Willemse, Isabella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Matematiksvårigheter i skolan: en studie i en sydafrikansk kåkstad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28687.
    Willersjö Nyfelt, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förbättring av snabbkoppling för högtryckshydraulik: Förhindrande av förslitning och oavsiktlig urkoppling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En snabbkopplingstyp för högtryckshydraulik (1000 Bar = 100 MPa) förbättrades med avseende på kulavtryck och låsmekanism. Kopplingen tenderade att ställa sig i halvlåst läge och kopplas ur oavsiktligt. Arbetet inkluderade minskning av kulavtryck i snabbkopplingens nippel samt förhindrande av oavsiktlig urkoppling och halvlåst läge. Geometriska förändringar och materialbyte ledde till dessa förbättringar. Snabbkopplingen är nu optimerad för hertzkontakter och sannolikheten för oavsiktlig urkoppling är mycket låg. Kopplingen är nu säkrare att hantera och är bättre lämpad att ta upp höga kultryck som orsakade kulavtrycken.

  • 28688.
    Willhed, Amelie
    Karlstad University.
    Mobbning i litteraturens värld: En undervisningsplan över hur lärare kan arbeta med temat mobbning i sin litteraturundervisning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28689.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Food Packaging for Sustainable Development2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue.

    This thesis focuses on the functions of packaging that can be used to preserve resources efficiently and reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system. The service perspective is used to increase knowledge about consumer interaction with packages. Fifteen packaging attributes, for example, ‘easy to empty’, ‘hygienic’ and ‘contain the right quantity’, were identified as influencing the amount of food losses at the consumer. The result showed that there are potentials to both increase consumer satisfaction and decrease the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, when new packaging design reduces food losses. A model was developed that calculates the balance of environmental impact between reduction of food losses, and more packaging material. The result showed that it can be environmentally motivated to increase the environmental impact of packaging, if the amount of food losses is reduced. This is especially true for food items with high environmental impact, e.g. meat and dairy products, and for food items that have a high share of loss, e.g. bread.

    I have also explored to what extent packaging can influence food losses in households. The study showed that about 20% to 25% of household food waste was related to packaging. The households noted three packaging attributes as the main causes for food losses; ‘too big packaging’, ‘difficult to empty’ and ‘best-before-date’.

    Finally there is a discussion of packaging research in the context of sustainability principles, and suggestions for further research.

  • 28690.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Global market trends and how packaging can support for reducing food waste2013In: International Research Workshop on Food Waste Prevention. Oslo 19th November 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to feed an increasing world population with good and safe food it is important to reduce the amount of food waste. The global population is expected to grow to 9 billion and over the same period food production will be under threat from climate change, competing land uses, erosion and diminishing supplies of clean water. Packaging plays an important role in containing and protecting the food as it moves from agriculture to households. This work is a summary from an international literature review and interviews from 15 organisations in the Australian food and packaging supply chain. It considers food waste in the supply chain with emphasis on food waste prior to consumption, and also food rescue through charities.

    A number of global trends and there effect on packaging development for reducing food waste was identified and analysed, these include:

    Longer supply chains-With longer supply chains there are increased risks of product damage which make the packaging even more critical. Distribution packaging should provide better protection and shelf life for fresh produce as it moves from the farm to the processor, wholesaler or retailer. This may require the development of tailored solutions for individual products. This also requires more collaboration between manufacturers and retailers to improve the industry’s understanding of food waste in the supply chain. More use of intelligent packaging and data sharing can be useful .

    More on-line shopping- Online expenditure in Australia was estimated to be around $8.4 billion in 2010 and is forecast to reach $26.9 billion by 2016. Online shopping requires more secondary packaging to protect the product during transport from the retail or manufacturer to the household, but it doesn’t need to be ‘shelf ready’ which may save resources. This increases the amount of packaging requiring recycling in the home but there could be some potential benefits for food waste.

    Consumption of meals out of the home- This trend shifts waste away from the home to a restaurant and/or processing facility and may give both pros and cons for reducing food waste and how packaging are recycled.    

    More small households- Product and packaging development need to cater for smaller households. Single and smaller serve products will reduce waste by meeting the needs of single and two person households, however this need to be environmentally analysed in relation to increased amount of packaging. . 

    More convenience- The trend from loose fresh produce to more pre-packed and processed food products has implications for packaging. With a better primary packaging a simpler and less robust secondary packaging may be sufficient. This may require adoption of new packaging materials and technologies, such as modified atmosphere packaging and oxygen scavengers, to extend the shelf life of foods.

    Food recovery for charity- It is important with distribution packaging that supports recovery of surplus and unsaleable fresh produce from farms and redirects it to food rescue organisations. These packaging systems will need to be flexible to accommodate the transport of bulk quantities from farm to food recovery organisations, as well as smaller orders from distribution centres to individual charities. The issue need to be addressed when developing new secondary packaging.

    The packaging itself also needs to be recoverable to minimise overall environmental impacts in the country where it is consumed.  

  • 28691.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Helhetssyn i förpackningsutvecklingen för att minska livsmedelsspill2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad händer med miljöpåverkan om man lyssnar mer på konsumenterna i förpackningsutvecklingen?



    Konsumenten i fokus är en trend som har ökat i betydelses för många verksamheter de senaste åren, detta gäller också för förpackningsindustrin. Vi har undersökt vad som händer med miljöpåverkan om förpackningsutvecklare lyssnar mer till vad konsumenten har för behov när det gäller förpackningars funktion.



    Förpackningar har varit med i miljödebatten sedan början på 1990-talet. Särskilt uppmärksammad har förpackningen varit när den används färdigt och blivit avfall. Myndigheterna styr att mängden material i förpackningar ska minska samt hur förpackningar ska återvinnas. Kunskapen om förpackningens miljöpåverkan har sedan dess ökat eftersom många livscykelanalyser presenterats. Förpackningar står för 5-10% av miljöpåverkan från produkter (Tempelman, Joore et al. 2004). Många av livscykelanalyserna har gjorts på själva förpackningen och inte systemet med produkt/förpackning. Det finns risk att ett sådant arbetssätt leder till subotimering i det större systemet som rör förpackning/produkt (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    Förpackningar används för att skydda varor under lagring och transporter från producent till konsument. Förpackningen spelar också en viktig roll i att skapa varumärken och informera konsumenten (Löfgren 2006). Genom att utgå från vad konsumenten tycker är viktigt och samtidigt undersöka miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan med mat/förpackning så kunde vi se att förpackningar som medför mindre förluster av mat kan förväntas ge nöjdare kunder och mindre miljöpåverkan. Mat och dryck står för 20-30 % av den totala miljöpåverkan i EU (Tukker, Huppes et al. 2005). I en brittisk studie konstaterades att nästan 30 % av maten som bärs hem till hushållen slängs (Ventour 2008). Att så mycket mat slängs bidrar till en onödig och stor miljöpåverkan.



    Om varumärkesägare och förpackningsutvecklare ser mer till hur förpackningen kan förhindra uppkomst av matspill så kan det innebära att nya förpackningslösningar introduceras. Åtgärder i förpackningsutformningen som påverkar spill är till exempel, hur den skyddar, hur lätt den är att tömma, storleken (konsumenten kan köpa den mängd den har behov av), dosering, information om innehåll eller instruktioner kring förvaring. Dessa lösningar kan medföra, nya tekniska lösningar i produktionen av förpackningen, nya material i ytor och ibland ökad mängd förpackningsmaterial. För att minska miljöpåverkan i hela systemet med mat/förpackning finns det utrymme för att till och med öka miljöbelastningen av förpackningar, då nya lösningar leder till minskade förluster av livsmedel (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    När man vill kartlägga miljöpåverkan på förpackningar genom att göra livscykelanalyser bör dessa alltid också omfatta innehållet i förpackningen samt brukarbeteende/behov.

  • 28692.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging and losses of food2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28693.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging Development and Environmental Effects of Food Losses2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-in-focus is a trend that is important for many businesses. We have explored what happens with the environmental impact in the food-packaging systems if packaging developers and brand-owners listen more to what the consumer finds important about packaging. We found that it is possible to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease the environmental impact, especially when the new packaging design reduces food losses

  • 28694.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Annika, Olsson
    Lunds Tekniska högskola.
    Consumer perceptions of sustainable packaging - Limited by lack of knowledge?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This is due to its primary role to protect products. This paper reports on how Swedish consumers perceive and select food packages in general, and how environmental aspects of conventional and organic food packaging are perceived in particular. The study is based on a consumer survey. The findings indicate that contrary to research that emphasizes the protective function of packaging as most important, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to the environmental impact of packaging. This indicates a lack of knowledge among consumers on sustainable packaging.

  • 28695.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Consumer Perceptions of Food Packaging: Contributing to or Counteracting Envir onmentally Sustainable Development?2016In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has a fundamental role in ensuring safe delivery of goods throughout supply chains to the end consumer in good condition. It also has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This paper explores and provides insights on Swedish consumer perceptions and knowledge of environmental aspects of food packaging and elaborates on how these can contribute to or counteract environmentally sustainable development. A study based on a consumer survey carried out in Sweden is presented. A review of recent packaging research emphasizes the protective function of packaging as its most important contribution to the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Contrary to this, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to their perceptions of the environmental impact of packaging. Paper-based packaging is strongly understood by the surveyed consumers to be environmentally advantageous, whereas plastic and metal are not. This study further indicates that a majority of the Swedish consumers surveyed are aware of their shortcomings in judging the environmental status of food packaging, indicating a need for guidance; otherwise, consumer choices can unintendedly counteract environmentally sustainable intentions

  • 28696.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Förpackad för hållbar framtid2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28697.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Verghese, Karli
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Lockrey, Simon
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Crossin, Enda
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Clune, Stephen
    ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster University, UK.
    Rio, Maud
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The greenhouse gas profile of a “Hungry Planet”; quantifying the impacts of the weekly food purchases including associated packaging and food waste of three families2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have estimated that 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted across the supply chain, while food security emerges as one of the leading challenges facing a growing global population. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can illustrate the environmental implications of food production, consumption and waste. In 2005, Peter Menzel and Faith D’Aluisio presented a photographic study in “Hungry Planet – What the World Eats” documenting what thirty families across twenty-four countries ate during the course of one week. The weekly food purchasing inventories of three of these families have been combined with LCA data to report the greenhouse gas intensity of these food purchases. The greenhouse gas emission profile including those of 128 varieties of fresh food, along with data on packaging material production and household food waste, have been used in the calculations. The paper will present the findings illustrating the contribution each component has: food, packaging and food waste; and will also discuss the implications for food packaging design. 

  • 28698.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

  • 28699.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Environmental impact of packaging and food losses in a life cycle perspective: a comparative analysis of five food items2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmentalimpact from the whole foodpackaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmentalimpactofpackagingin order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmentalimpactofpackagingandfoodlossesand the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmentalimpact, even if there is an increase inimpact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environmentalimpactof the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing foodlosses when packaging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packagingandpackaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 28700.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract

    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development

    By moving from:

    Packaging waste, Production-oriented, Product-oriented (packaging), Selective and Regulations on packaging reduction

    to:

    Food waste, Consumption-oriented, Service-oriented(packaging functions), Comprehensive and

    Regulations on packaging optimization

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