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  • 28651.
    Åström, Joachim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Khakee, Abdul
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Apple pie - spinach metaphor: shall e-democracy make participatory planning more wholesome?2011In: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 571-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite claims that planners' attitude towards public participation has not always been enthusiastic, there have been genuine attempts to devolve powers through participation—although seldom with success. In this paper we discuss several major attempts to improve participation in Sweden including case studies of e-participation. Despite great expectations on information and communication technologies, Swedish experience indicates that the status quo between planners and people remains.

  • 28652.
    Åström, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Vad kännetecknar ämnestexter? (inriktning fysik)2016Other (Other academic)
  • 28653. Åström, S.
    et al.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Ljungquist, M.
    Johansson, J.
    Wiklund, B.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i kommunal hälso- och sjukvård1997Report (Other academic)
  • 28654.
    Çelebi, Burçak
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Sticky Tweets: Decoding Social Contagion Traces Between Politicians and Other Users on Twitter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study observes and discusses online interactions realized between political actors and other users accounts during an electoral campaign. The aim of this study is to decode social contagion traces of messages shared by Turkish leading politicians and political parties with their online audiences, using asymmetrical social media website Twitter. Both quantity and content of politicians’ messages are representative of their political campaigns reflecting to social media and voters who use the same tools as them can also express retaliation towards their communication. In this study, like behavior on Twitter is identified as representative of appreciation and retweet behavior is identified as representative of adoption of an idea in relation to social contagion theory. The objective is to find out, compare and analyze voters’ behaviors towards different kind of messages according to their quantity and content nature. By this study, it will be possible to answer some questions; such as how much interaction is generated on Twitter by chosen political accounts, are voters getting into more interaction with positive or negative affirmations, which are the main subjects that voters are getting into more interaction and what are the tendency of voters to show appreciation or adoption of ideas on Twitter during the pre-election phase in Turkey.

  • 28655.
    Öberg, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Är det viktigare att förstå världen genom tanken än genom sinnet?: Om estetik, estetiska lärprocesser och lärande kroppar i en förskolekontext2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work refers to taking the pulse of aesthetic learning processes in preschool. What is defined as aesthetic learning processes? How much influence teachers' subject knowledge staging of aesthetic learning processes in preschool? Do the aesthetic learning processes mean that the body is seen as the main tool and starting point for all knowledge creation? By use of literature review, questionnaire and interview methods examined this closely. The survey shows that there is a certain imbalance in the teachers' subject knowledge connected to aesthetic expression. The art subject can be seen to have a head start when it comes to staging aesthetic learning processes in preschool. 

  • 28656.
    Öberg, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Flow och rädsla för negativ bedömning hos musiker2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie hade för avsikt att undersöka om det går att förutse graden av flow hos musiker utifrån rädsla för negativ bedömning. En internetbaserad enkät skickades till musiker via meddelandefunktionen på en studentplattform, internetforumet Vi Musiker samt facebookgruppen Musiker i Karlstad, och antalet deltagare blev 164 stycken. Enkäten bestod av två etablerade tester som kunde framställa mått på graden av flow samt rädsla för negativ bedömning. Enligt resultatet så fanns det en signifikant negativ korrelation mellan rädsla för negativ bedömning och flow, där hög grad av rädsla för negativ bedömning innebar lägre grad av flow. En regressionsanalys utfördes med rädsla för negativ bedömning som prediktor för graden av flow, men trots ett signifikant resultat visade sig sambandet vara svagt. Slutsatsen är att en liten del av graden av flow kan förklaras av rädsla för negativ bedömning.

  • 28657.
    Öberg, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Identitetens språk: Svensklärares attityd till dialekt i Värmland2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28658.
    Öberg, Emilia
    Karlstad University.
    Ammoniumkvävereduktion vid lakvattenrening med mobil bioreaktor: vid olika temperaturer och fosfortillskott2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for energy efficient and well-functioning water treatment systems is high, and grows as the growing population increases. Leachate is formed as water flows through landfilled waste. The problem of leachate treatment is that the reactors are located outdoors, which causes low temperatures during the winter months. As the leachate treatment is mainly carried out with biological purification techniques, the low temperatures cause a decrease in bacterial activity, which reduces the purification efficiency. Another problem that often arises in this type of water treatment is that the contaminated water consists of high nitrogen levels, while phosphorus levels are low. This gives an imbalance in the metabolism of the bacteria and can lead to limitations in purification efficiency. In this work, a newly developed bioreactor, which is tested at Djupdalen's waste facility, has been investigated. The bioreactor was put into operation in autumn 2015 and from April to December 2016. Measurement data from Djupdalen based on monthly water samples and chemical analyzes for 2014-2016 have been studied to find out the bioreactor's contribution to the purification efficiency of ammonium nitrogen. Water sampling was carried out in May 2017, where purification efficiency and active biofilm surface were calculated during the operation start of the bioreactor. Finally, experiments were performed where biofilms from Djupdalen were tested at 17-18 as well as 12-15 ° C with different levels of phosphorus supplementation, to investigate whether purification efficiency could be improved if phosphorus levels were increased. The results indicate that the bioreactor contributes to a significant improvement in the purification efficiency of the aeration reactor, but there is still an improvement potential. Several of the environmental factors in the aeration reactor cause less favorable conditions for bacterial growth, such as temperatures below 15 ˚C, severe phosphorus deficiency in the incoming leachate and slightly for basic pH values. Through water sampling and the accompanying chemical analysis it was found that temperatures above 15 ˚C in the leachate favor a faster development of the biofilm. Finally, laboratory experiments showed that phosphorus additions at temperatures of 12-15 ° C resulted in increased purification efficiency, while the result was unchanged for temperatures of 17-18 ° C at a water residence time at 24 hours. However, at a lower water residence time of 16 hours, the phosphorous supplement gave an effect for both temperatures. This indicates that a phosphorus supplement during the autumn of the aeration reactor, when the temperatures in the leachate go below 15 ˚C, should allow the bioreactor to improve its purification efficiency despite the sinking water temperature.

  • 28659.
    Öberg, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sondell, Benny
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    BOSSE: Bofors Soldatsystem Ex-jobb2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination assignment was executed as a part of the innovation and design mechanical engineer program at Karlstad University. The program is a 120 point (180 points ECTS) where the examination assignment is 15 points (22, 5 points ECTS). BAE Systems Bofors in Karlskoga was the company who gave us the assignment and with Jan Ainali as the supervisor. Monica Jakobsson was the supervisor at Karlstad University.

    The assignment was to develop a soldier system and an interface between this system and combat vehicle CV9040. The reason for thhe assignment is that the soldier’s role recently has changed to demand equipment more capable in information technology.

    To get started with the project an inventory was carried out partly to gather information about competing soldier systems, partly to investigate the vital components of such a system to start the development process.

    The method used was largely based on the design process taught at Karlstads University as the project started with idea generation and the result of the assignment was presented in the form of a concept.

    The result of this process was the soldier system BOSSE (Bofors SoldatSystemsExjobb) and consists of a number of components and concept of how to integrate the system with CV9040. Of the developed components two was pushed further in the process, the aiming module and the PDA (personal digital assistant).

  • 28660.
    Öberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Två elevers berättade erfarenheter av dyslexi: En narrativ studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this narrative study is to investigate and develop an understanding of pupils´ experiences of being diagnosed as dyslectics and their experiences of school life. The study aims to examine the following questions:

    • What and how do pupils narrate about being diagnosed as dyslectics?
    • What told experiences have pupils with dyslexia of their school life?
    • What identity appearances do the pupils make in their narrations?

     

    The empirical study consists of narrations of two pupils´ experiences of being diagnosed with dyslexia and being a pupil in school. Methodologically, this study is socially situated, which means that the narrations and identity appearances are constructed in the meeting between the interviewee and the interviewer and the life stories were created in a social context together with others. The analysis is focused on what and how the pupils narrate and the narrations have been compiled to life stories.

     

    The result showed that the pupils were positive to being diagnosed, because it helped them to understand the specific difficulties and they became aware of that the difficulties are not related to intelligence. The relations to and the teachers´ attitudes, strategies for helping and understanding of their difficulties and needs were highly valued in this study.

     

    When pupils´ experiences are described in life stories, teachers and special educators can gain an understanding for their situations and the life stories can motivate a change and form basis for decisions on further research of pupils´ reading and writing difficulties. This is especially important in special educator´s mission to create opportunities for each pupils´ learning and development. 

  • 28661.
    Öberg, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Djurliv i svensk barnlitteratur: Kan böckerna lära barnen om djur?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim whit this study was to perform a qualitative literary study and to analyze how animal life is presented in Swedish literature for children. With the purpose to find out if children’s books can work as a source of scientific knowledge and be used in a pedagogical environment. The analysis started by investigating which type of animal and their attributes that the literature describes in text and images. In the study the children books are categories in five different categories, the books were placed in different categories based on the scientific knowledge that the books contained. The study showed that many of the books contained scientific knowledge about animal life, but the facts in the literature where different between books. After the investigation the conclusion was that the children’s literature which was placed in category 1, 2 and 3 can be used in a pedagogical purpose and teach children about animal life.

  • 28662.
    Öberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hållbar utveckling i förskolan: En jämförelse av det pedagogiska arbetet i förskolor med grön flagg och en vanliga förskolor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examens arbete var mitt syfte att ta reda på hur man arbetar med hållbar utveckling i förskolor som har Grön flagg och i vanliga förskolor. Metoden som har används i undersökningen är kvalitativ intervju. Intervjuerna gjordes med 16 pedagoger, från fyra förskolor där av två förskolor med Grön flagg och de andra är vanliga förskolor. Syftet som jag hade med denna undersökningen är att jämföra hur pedagogerna arbetar med hållbar utvekling ur ett miljö perspektiv i förskolans verksamhet. I resultaten framgår det att det finns både likheter och skillnader. De likheter som jag finner i undersökningen är att samtliga förskolor arbetar med teman som är inriktat mot miljön. Den skillnad som jag finner i resultaten är att de förskolor som har Grön flagg arbetar enbart utifrån miljöarbete. De vanliga förskolorna arbetar inte enbart med ett miljöarbete i verksamheten.

  • 28663.
    Öberg, Mirjam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    "Killarna spelar mest fotboll. Tjejerna leker bara tillsammans hela tiden typ": – En studie av barns uppfattning av relationen mellan lek och kön analyserat ur ett genusperspektiv2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The purpose of the study is to examine how children perceive the relation between play and sex and analyse it from a gender perspective. This by answering the questions: "Is the children’s choice of place, materials and company in play dependent on gender?" and "Is there a significant difference between the sexes and/or ages?" The study was done through twelve focusgroup interviews with three children in each group except two groups of two children in each. Eight boys and nine girls of six years old and nine boys and eight girls of nine years old were interviewed. Boys and girls were interviewed in separate groups and the questions were open ended and followed up. The analysis was done from a gender perspective where gender is considered a social construction, and the dichotomous and hierarchal gender system is the normative point of view for this essay.

    The results showed that there were differences between both the sexes and the ages in the children included in the study. The children had a strong opinion of what was common for boys and what was common for girls to play. The boys had more difficulty crossing gender boundaries than the girls. There was a difference between the ages in that the younger children played more role-play and the older children tended to play games with structured rules. There were differences in power between the sexes. The boys played in a larger area than the girls and the girls positioned themselves as weaker or subordinate. In the choice of playmates the boys and girls played largely separated and when integrated play occurred it was generally as opposite sides of a chasing game. The girls verbalised a lager focus on the relationship to their playmates than the boys did, where signs of hierarchical orders within the groups of girls was evident. There were also differences in choice of materials used in play in both ages. Examples for further research could be an observation of the children combined with interviews to note differences in the children’s view of the relation between gender and play in theory and what it looks like in practice. Further research in the power yielded by girls could also be done.

  • 28664.
    Öberg, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Yngre elevers uppfattningar av historia: En studie bland elever i mellanstadiet om intresse för- och betydelsen av historia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how pupils in elementary school perceive the subject history, which includes pupils wiew of the subjects meaning, if history is perceived as interesting and which areas in history the pupils find interesting. In order to reach the purpose of the study a survey was made in two schools with a total amount of 110 participant pupils. The results of the study shows that the pupils mainly have a positive attitude towards history. A large amount of the pupils shows interest for the subject and an even larger amount pupils find knowledge in history important. When they are to describe why, or why not it is important to have knowledge in history, a big variety of answers is shown, many pupils states that it`s important because it`s a way of understanding our development, while others means that we`re not supposed to look back into the past, instead live in the moment. In the terms of which areas the pupils shows interest in, it was shown that history about war was popular among the boys, while the history of the pupils own family was most intersting among the girls. 

  • 28665.
    Öberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Kiuru, Saga
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Att leva med endometrios2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28666.
    Öborn, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Upplevelsemönster på arbetsplatsen: En genusanalys av Karlstad Kommuns Ledar- och medarbetarundersökning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar resultatet från en enkätundersökning bland ledare och medarbetareanställda inom Karlstad Kommun, ur ett genusperspektiv. Syftet är att se om det verkar finnas någrakönsbundna mönster i de anställdas upplevelser av att arbeta inom den kommunala organisationen.Uppsatsen utgår från andrahandsmaterial i form av resultatet från nämnda enkätundersökning samtregisterdata och rapporter gällande den aktuella organisationen. Främst är det tre av kommunensförvaltningar som står i fokus, två kvinnodominerade och en mansdominerad. Detta för att se omoch i så fall på vilka sätt förvaltningarnas genusmärkning kan spela in för de anställdas upplevelser.Även genomgående skillnader i upplevelse inom de olika förvaltningarna undersöks, utifrån dengjorda enkätundersökningens resultat. Registerdata och rapportmaterial som finns gällandekommunen används för att få en djupare förståelse kring den omgivning som de anställda sombesvarat enkäten återfinns i. Avgränsningar i det empiriska materialet och val av teorier har skett ien växelgång. Den ursprungliga ambitionen, att anlägga ett genusperspektiv på organisationen, harpåverkat valen av vilka förvaltningar som skulle undersökas närmare. På samma sätt har de mönstersom funnits i enkätresultaten påverkat valen av teorier som använts för att dra slutsatser kringmaterialet. Uppsatsen utgår från genusteori med särskilt fokus på teorier kring kön ochorganisationer. Även socialpsykologiska resonemang kring identitet och skapandet av världsbilderfyller en grundläggande funktion. Till det läggs också vissa aspekter kring psykosocial arbetsmiljö.Uppsatsen mynnar ut i två resonemangstrådar som återfinns efter varandra i slutet. Den ena trådendrar slutsatser utifrån analyser av det empiriska material denna uppsats grundar sig i. Den andratråden kretsar kring relationen mellan könsteorier och etablerade modeller kring psykosocialarbetsmiljö. Dessa två trådar landar i att peka ut hur arbetet skulle kunna gå vidare – dels medjämställdhetsfrågor inom organisationen, dels med utformandet av verktyg för att lägga engenomgående könsförståelse till förståelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö.

  • 28667.
    Öborn, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Berg, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Utbyggnad av Diamond: ett generellt dokumenthanteringssystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28668.
    Öborn Regin, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Att göra rum - Erfarenheter från ett jämställdhetsprojekt2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel bygger på en undersökning av ett omfattande jämställdhetsprojekt som enligt undersökningens deltagare haft en relativt direkt och genomgripande effekt inom organisationen där det genomförts. I artikeln analyseras projektets effekter, strategier och verktyg. Artikelns syfte är påvisa viktiga förutsättningar för jämställdhetsarbete och analysera de använda strategiernas relevans för jämställdhetsprojekt inom andra organisationer. Projektet förefaller framgångsrikt, varför det är intressant att studera närmare. Det är också genomfört i en ideell organisation som, jämfört med privat och offentlig sektor, är relativt outforskad mark i jämställdhetsfrågor

  • 28669.
    Öborn Regin, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Omvälvning eller invävning: En sociologisk undersökning av Feministiskt Initiativs partiprogram2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master degree paper is a sociological investigation of the political platform from the Swedish party Feministiskt Initiativ (feminist initiative). The paper is made with an discourse theoretical influence, aiming to explore the views of the world that are constructed in the platform, in terms of overturning and integrating, in regards of political discourses and the human as a being. The papers handle the research questions 1) What pictures of reality is constructed in the political platform regarding a) politics, b) the world, c) human equality? 2) How could those constructions be understood in terms of overturning or integration? Besides that does the paper aim to trace the outline of a role model for the equal person in the platform: how should one be, and who should one strive to be, in order to get the authority to speak on equality issues?

    The main focus for this paper is the opening text in the platform, which serves as the foundation of this investigation. The rest of the program, form as well as content, serves as supporting and a way to deepen the analysis made from the introductory text.

    The view of the world as it appears in the platform has been analysed with mainly sociological theories regarding identity, gender, power and politics. According to those views is the question raised whether the view of the world in the platform can be seen as a way to integrate new perspective in the current order of things, or rather to overturn the same.

    The findings indicate that there is not one uniform view of the world in the platform, but several, which also can be found in the feministic academic debate. There are however a main focus on gender as political subject, and a strong connection to an emancipatory and liberating tradition. There is also a tendency in the platform to stress the importance of formal knowledge and education as tools to see trough discriminating structures, to set the human potential free. My analysis point to an outline of the equal person as a literate and cultivated person, and that it is that kind of person that the platform recommends us to integrate in the established political arenas. Lastly, the paper points towards several directions for further investigation, mainly about how negotiations regarding views of the world and spokes position are made in a political movement, in its wider sense.

  • 28670.
    Ögren, Emmeli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    ”- Jag känner ingen pojke som har klänning för pojkar tycker inte så mycket om tjejsaker.”: En studie om flickor och pojkars egen syn på att vara flicka eller pojke.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute with knowledge about how children themselves think about how to be as a girl and a boy. I performed interviews with six kids, all of them five years old, in a preschool in Sweden about being boys and girls. Our conversations were about what girls and boys play with, how they dress and if there are any limits or possibilities with being a girl or a boy. The results show that the boys and the girls had strong opinions about how boys and girls should dress, and what they should play with. The girls chose to play with Barbie dolls and the boys chose to play with tractors. When we talked about limits and possibilities the kids mostly saw limits for example that girls are slow runners. There was however children who meant that you can do anything irrespective of your sex.

  • 28671.
    Öhberg, Torbjörn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Undersökning av transformationsmetoder inom Ammenäs området, Uddevalla kommun2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Ammenäs area within Uddevalla municipality there are some tensions/deviation between real estate boundaries that lies in the municipality database, and the boundary coordinates that are given from the GNSS-measure equipment, (despite that both systems are in RT90 7.5 gon V).

    The real estate boundaries that lies in the database has previously been translated from Uddevalla local system U38, to RT90 7.5 gon V, and the GNSS-equipment also uses

    RT90 7.5 gon V.

    To get a homogeneous and concordant coordinate system, control points and the real estate boundaries has to be transformed to the system that the GNSS-system uses (RT90 7.5 gon V).

    To get to the best result from a transformation method, I have tried a couple of transformation methods.

    When there are such big tensions as in this case the best way to get to a good result is to transform smaller areas instead of the whole area at once.

    When you have reached an acceptable accuracy in the boundary coordinates you can perform municipality measurement assignments with coordinates from the GNSS-equipment, which was the purpose with this examination.

  • 28672.
    Öhlin, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Representant för hälsa: En kvalitativ studie om personliga tränarens roll i fenomenet hälsoism2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to shed light on the phenomenon healthism based on personal trainers’ perspective. Previous research has shown that healthism is a rapidly growing phenomenon in the western world.

    Based on the purpose, three issues were created; How do personal trainers discuss their view as a role model in health? How does health awareness appear in everyday life for personal trainer? What does a healthy lifestyle for personal trainer mean?

    The study used the qualitative method and consisted of four interviews. The informants were educated and worked in some form of personal training.

    A part of the the results show that personal trainers consider themselves as role models and representatives of health. This leads to the proper behavior must occur in an environment where clients or potential clients can keep track of one. Not having the right behavior in such situations can result in being considered as an extremely unreliable personal trainer. Another result shows that a healthy lifestyle is important for personal trainers but it is equally important not to have too healthy behavior either. A too healthy behavior or to have health as a religion can be regarded as unhealthy behavior.

    The conclusion in the paper suggest that the personal trainer is part of the healthism and fulfill some requirements to have health as a religion. But there is still a negative attitude towards taking health as a religion and prioritize health first. This can be explained on the basis that it is not socially acceptable yet to have health as a religion perhaps because it is such a new phenomenon.

  • 28673.
    Öhléh, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Matematiklyftets effekter: En studie om Matematiklyftets effekter på lärares undervisning och ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper inom problemlösning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetets syfte är att undersöka vilka ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper, lärare som deltagit i Matematiklyftet, utvecklat och hur kompetensutvecklingen bidragit till deras undervisning. För att besvara frågeställningarna har lärare i årkurs 1–3, som deltagit i Matematiklyftet, intervjuats. Studien är avgränsad till undervisning i problemlösning och taluppfattning, därför har även en avgränsning i urvalet gjorts. De lärare som har intervjuats har deltagit i modulen problemlösning.  

    Matematiklyftets målsättning var bland annat att utveckla lärares ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper och på sikt öka elevernas måluppfyllelse i matematik. Studien visar att lärare som deltagit i Matematiklyftet har utvecklat ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper och nya metoder att använda i sin undervisning som berör problemlösning. I intervjuerna har lärare beskrivit hur deras undervisning och planering har påverkats av deras deltagande i Matematiklyftet. Analysarbetet av det empiriska materialet har lett fram till att specifika ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper identifierats och presenteras genom Ball, Thames och Phelps (2008) teorin för matematikundervisning (Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching).

  • 28674.
    Öhlén, J.
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Berg, L.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Björk Brämberg, E.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Engström, Å.
    Luleå universitet.
    German Millberg, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Höglund, I.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Jacobsson, C.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lepp, M.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lidén, E.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindström, I.
    Göteborgs university.
    Petzäll, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Norge.
    Söderberg, S.
    Luleå universitet.
    Wijk, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Students’ learning as the focus for shared involvement between universities and clinical practice: a didactic model for postgraduate degree projects2012In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 17, p. 471-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an academic programme, completion of a postgraduate degree project could be a significant means of promoting student learning in evidence- and experience-based practice. In specialist nursing education, which through the European Bologna process would be raised to the master’s level, there is no tradition of including a postgraduate degree project. The aim was to develop a didactic model for specialist nursing students’ postgraduate degree projects within the second cycle of higher education (master’s level) and with a specific focus on nurturing shared involvement between universities and healthcare settings. This study embodies a participatory action research and theory-generating design founded on empirically practical try-outs. The 3-year project included five Swedish universities and related healthcare settings. A series of activities was performed and a number of data sources secured. Constant comparative analysis was applied. A didactic model is proposed for postgraduate degree projects in specialist nursing education aimed at nurturing shared involvement between universities and healthcare settings. The focus of the model is student learning in order to prepare the students for participation as specialist nurses in clinical knowledge development. The model is developed for the specialist nursing education, but it is general and could be applicable to various education programmes.

  • 28675.
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Cykler och loopar i Salongen: En studie av återkoppling i frisörklassrummet2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The interest in this empirical study aims at assessment, more precisely feedback as part of ordinary activities within hairdressing education. The study investigates feedback practices related to assessment of knowing during production, with focus on communication between student and teacher. Communication is regarded as interactively constructed and is investigated through a multimodal social semiotic perspective which implies studying verbal as well as nonverbal resources in meaning making. Speech and body movements are not subordinate to each other and are studied as contributing in communication on their own terms.

    Video observations were used to investigate feedback practices in the hairdressing classroom, during a couple of lessons when last year’s students received customers for various treatments. From one hour recording, a selection was made showing communication between student and teacher with joint focus of attention during production. The selection is based on the assumption of feedback as interactively constructed and represented in a multimodal way.

    The analysis of the feedback practice shows a multifaceted result, since each interaction between a student and a teacher is unique. Nevertheless, a recurrent pattern of feedback construction could be discerned. Three important functions of feedback were distinguished, that of control, instruction and evaluation. Furthermore, these functions interact in temporal processes of cycles and loops. The core of feedback practice is found within the loop, where questions and wonders from the student are brought into a joint investigation.

  • 28676.
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Kameraanvändning i videoobservation2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 75-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28677.
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Nyckelkompetenser eller professionellt omdöme?: En kritisk diskussion av nyliberala influenser inom yrkesutbildning2017In: Karlstads universitets Pedagogiska Tidskrift, E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln, med sitt utbildningssociologiska perspektiv, har sin bakgrund i empiriska studier där intresset är riktat mot klassrumsbaserad bedömning, närmare bestämt återkoppling som en del av den dagliga undervisningen. Data konstruerades genom videoobservationer i frisörklassrummet. Analyserna av återkopplingspraktikerna synliggör lärares professionella yrkeskunnande steg för steg, koordinerade med och i respons till eleverna. Dessa empiriskt baserade resultat ställs i kontrast till neoliberalt färgad utbildningspolitik, som framkommer ur några centrala dokument och artiklar, där professionellt yrkeskunnande reduceras och yrkesutbildning generaliseras till instrumentella nyckelkompetenser och anställningsbarhet.

  • 28678.
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Twist and shape: Feedback practices within creative subject content of hairdressing education2018In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore feedback practices and how such actions of assessment emerge from embodied participation in classroom interactions between teachers and students. Using video recordings of teacher and student interactions in hairdressing education, I look at how feedback practices within creative subject content are produced between the participants as social actions situated in interaction, using conversation analysis. Feedback is contingent upon an embodied moment-to-moment monitoring and collaboration between the teacher and student, and is organized as a trajectory from problem detection through exploration until a final solution is found. Feedback within creative subject content is displayed as a multifarious exploration of embodied as well as materially situated professional knowledge. Overall, the findings show how feedback is mutually produced in a process, making tacit dimensions of hairdressers’ knowing explicit. This allows for improving the quality of the work over time in a trajectory of problem solving phases gradually displaying how to assess creative subject content of the material product worked on.

  • 28679.
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Återkoppling i interaktion: En studie av klassrumsbaserad bedömning i frisörutbildningen2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation concerns social organization of feedback in ongoing hairdressing education. The central aim is to explore feedback between teacher and student in multimodal interaction within classroom assessment, as co-production of action and student’s participation. Classroom assessment and feedback are understood as social actions situated in interaction.

    The empirical data consists of video recordings from two vocational schools. From 31 hours of video material, selections of feedback interactions were made. At first, teacher and student communication in feedback cycles and loops was analysed from a social semiotic perspective. Secondly, examples of student initiated feedback loops were analysed from a conversation analytic perspective. Thirdly, a single case of a teacher and a student interacting through feedback related to creative subject content was analysed from a conversation analytic perspective. 

    The analyses show the importance of collaborative use of artefacts and embodied communication in the production of mutual understanding; opening for student initiatives in actions of assessment as well as feedback. Silence and body position were found to be important resources giving the student space to display concern. Participation in feedback practices within creative subject content emerged in a trajectory of problem detection to problem solving, resulting in tacit dimensions of hairdressers’ knowing made explicit.

    The findings indicate the importance of taking a participatory perspective on multimodal interaction when exploring actions of assessment and feedback between teacher and student. This study shows how feedback is not only given from the teacher, but also locally produced as a collaborative practice between teachers and students, displaying tacit dimensions of professional knowledge and subject content.

  • 28680.
    Öhman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Creating space for students' concerns: Embodied feedback practices in hairdressing education2017In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 14, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore feedback practices in situated activities and how such actions of assessment emerge from embodied participation in classroom interactions between teachers and students. Using video recordings of teacher and student interactions in hairdressing education, we investigate through conversation analysis how feedback practices such as making loops are initiated and enabled between the participants in situated activities. Feedback in the practice of loops is contingent upon an embodied moment-to-moment monitoring and collaboration between the teacher and student, and is initiated with a concern from the student that is responded to by the teacher, enabling feedback to become a common exploration of professional knowledge. Overall, the findings show how feedback is mutually produced, making visible that salient aspects of the education are emanating from the student’s own concern.

  • 28681.
    Öhman, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Hållbar utveckling i förskolan: Förskollärares uppfattningar och erfarenheter av återvinning och återanvändning i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and experiences among pre-school teachers, regarding working with recycling and re-use in their work, related to the science of chemistry in the field of sustainable development, which is included as a goal to aim for in the Lpfö 98 (curriculum) of all preschools. The survey was conducted through a qualitative approach, the choice of method was using semi-structured interviews, to provide as much interview material as possible. The interviews were conducted with six different pre-school teachers from two different pre-schools in a smaller municipality in central Sweden. The questions in the interviews had been constructed to meet the preschool teachers' perceptions and experiences of chemistry, sustainable development and more specifically on the recycling and re-use of different materials, which were used within the educational activities. The results showed several similarities but also differences. All preschool teachers felt comfortable with the concept and meaning of re-use, compared to the other concepts. They were actively working with the re-use of materials, however, they were not only doing this from an environmental or natural point of view, but also in terms of design and working with a creative purpose in the educational activities. All pre-school teachers agreed that they did not work with re-use as much as working out of a perspective of design. However, there was a variety of views on why working with re-use and recycling did not meet the intended expectations of the work in the pre-schools. All pre-school teachers agreed with the fact that the link between sustainable development, recycling and re-use, and the science of chemistry has to become stronger in their work, partly due to the fact that the level of knowledge the children need to achieve by every certain age stated in the curriculum, must be met. All agreed that the process of recycling and re-use should be emphasized more, here the fact was also mentioned that it was a difficult task to work with recycling and re-use, and that this to a great extent depended on their own experiences and their lack of knowledge of the subject.

  • 28682.
    Öhman, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Att synliggöra språket i historieämnet ur svenska som andraspråksperspektiv: En kvalitativ studie av hur gymnasielärare arbetar med ämnesspråket i historia.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with my essay is to examine how teachers in high school are working with subject language in history based on swedish as second language. By assuming previous research my intentions with this essay is to seek the favorable conditions in the educational work on language development, subject language and school language. In my essay I use a qualitative method for the collection of empirical data. Five history teachers are interviewed about their knowledge and methods when working with language development. The questions to the teachers are about the challenges, benefits and potentials they see in the work on subject language in history and how their attitudes are to work with language development. The result shows that the majority of respondents are positive to work explicitly with the language in their subject. Some of the interviewees have good knowledge while others request further education. However, the majority of the teachers in the survey thought that they don't had the time to develop new working methods and requested more support from the school management in coordinating the development of language and skills. 

  • 28683.
    Öhman, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    En analys av gymnsaieelevers historiesyn2011Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28684.
    Öhman, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Läkemedelsbehandling med klomipramin och fluoxetin till hundar och katter med beteendestörningar: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28685.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    An educational tool for outdoor education and environmental concern2012In: Outdoor recreation in change: current knowledge and future challenges : proceedings / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 260-261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28686. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Environmental concerns and outdoor studies: nature as fosterer2016In: Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies / [ed] Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather & Henderson, Karla A., New York: Routledge , 2016, p. 30-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28687. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Naturmötets betydelse i utbildning för hållbar utveckling2015In: Naturmötespraktiker och miljömoraliskt lärande / [ed] Östman, Leif, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2015, p. 255-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28688. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Naturmötets betydelse i utbildning för hållbar utveckling; Abstract och presentation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28689.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Outdoor Recreation in Exergames: A New Step in the Detachement From Nature2016In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 285-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new teaching aidexergamesis increasing in popularity in schools and is regarded as an interesting, varied and effective way of improving students' fitness. These exercise television games often contain references to physical activities carried out in different outdoor landscapes. The purpose of this article is to examine the views of landscape and nature offered by the games and the consequences this may have for students' relationships with nature and future environmental commitment. The methodological approach used is companion meaning analysis: the meaning of nature that follows when playing the games. The results show a controlled landscape that is perfectly arranged for the activity (functional specialisation). It is an obvious anthropocentric base and commands an instrumental value where nature is valuable because it satisfies our felt preferences (demand value). Exergames can thus be seen as a further step in an ongoing detachment process from the physical landscape (indoorisation).

  • 28690. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hamberg, M.
    Separation of Divinyl Ether Fatty Acid Isomers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography,2001In: Electrophoresis, 22 (2001) 1163-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28691.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Development of new methods for miniaturized separation techniques2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to develop and investigate separation methods for miniaturized systems. Micro liquid chromatography was coupled on-line with a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source for the separation and characterization of flavonoids in Citrus juices. Capillary electrophoresis was utilized for the separation of four different types of fatty acid isomers. In the micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode the performance of a number of buffer systems with different additives was examined. For the composition of the basic buffers ingredients multivariate methods were employed. In order to improve electrophoretic separations of analytes that easily adsorb onto the capillary wall, e.g. proteins, a new coating method was developed.

    The coated capillaries were tested for a broad range of applications and a new method for fingerprinting peptide digest of a bacterial protein was developed.The main conclusions are that miniaturized systems offer a lot of benefits due to extremely low volume requirement of buffer components as well as samples. These advantages make it possible to use more expensive buffer ingredients and lower the consumption of solvents dramatically. Low sample consumption is desirable in a lot of areas e.g. in the field of analytical biotechnology. Moreover, separation and detection parameters were improved in miniaturized systems.

  • 28692.
    Öhman, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blomberg, L.G.
    Bonded dimethylacrylamide as a permanent coating for capillary electrophoresis2001In: J. Chromatogr. A, 924 (2001) 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28693.
    Öhman, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wan, Hong
    Hamberg, Mats
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Separation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and parinaric fatty acid isomers by capillary electrophoresis2002In: Journal of separation scienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 28694.
    Öhman, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wan, Hong
    Hamberg, Mats
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Separation of divinyl ether fatty acid isomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography2001In: ElectrophoresisArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 28695.
    Öhman, Maria
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Att stå på en bro: - känslan av tillhörighet hos den uthyrda personalen i bemanningsbranschen2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personaluthyrningsbranschens branschorganisation Almega (2005) framställer arbetet som uthyrd personal som ett framtidsarbete där den anställde både får en trygghet i en fast anställning samt möjlighet att prova olika arbetsuppgifter och branscher. Min studie visar dock att bemanningsbranschen har en baksida, där den uthyrda personalen får hantera tillhörighetsproblematik. Att arbeta som uthyrd personal innebär att ständigt konfronteras med bland annat ensamhet, dubbla chefer och lojalitetsproblem. Genom sju halvstrukturerade djupintervjuer undersöktes fenomenet tillhörighetskänsla hos uthyrningspersonal på ett av Stockholms Uthyrningsföretag. Studien visar att den uthyrda personalen strävar efter att finna sin roll och tillhörighet hos Kundföretaget, men att denna strävan kan möta motstånd i Kundföretagets föresatser.

  • 28696.
    Öhman, Marie
    Karlstad University.
    Skolkunskaper i arbetslivet: -utifrån före detta elever på Hotell- och restaurangprogrammet2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna undersökning är bland annat att se vilka kunskaper före detta gymnasieelever på Hotell och restaurangprogrammet har tillägnat sig i skolan och vad de, sett ur sitt nuvarande perspektiv, tycker har varit användbar kunskap. För att uppnå syftet har jag valt ett kvalitativt undersökningssätt där jag har intervjuat sju personer ur ovannämnd grupp. Jag har sedan presenterat och analyserat dessa intervjuer. Av resultatet framkom att samtliga elever beskrev att de tillägnat sig användbar kunskap, bland annat i förmåga att ta eget ansvar, samarbeta och planera. Det var däremot endast ett fåtal av dem som uppgav att de lärt sig att tänka kritiskt och granska fakta. Medan de flesta av de tidigare eleverna tyckte att de tack vare utbildningens bredd och apu: n fått en insikt och förståelse för de olika arbetssituationerna i serviceyrket. En slutsats av detta resultat är att elevernas nytta av kunskaperna förstärks med sammanhanget och mognaden.

  • 28697.
    Öhrn, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Skoldaghem2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om vikten av ett bra samarbete mellan olika personalkategorier för att det ska gå bra för skoldaghem-/heldagsskolelever när de återskolats till klass igen efter en tid på nämnda institutioner. Jag ställde mig frågan om skoldaghem och heldagsskolor i allmänhet klarar av att hjälpa sina elever att minska sina problem så att de klarar av sin skolsituation på ett bättre sätt när de återgår till vanlig klass igen. I litteraturgenomgången har jag sökt efter svar, bl.a. från tidigare forskning. Där framgår att samarbetet mellan skoldaghemmet/heldagsskolan och ”hemskolans” personal är väldigt viktigt för en lyckad återskolning och skolgången fortsättningsvis. Jag har intervjuat personal på heldagsskolor för att se hur de samarbetar med klasslärarna, framförallt vid återskolningprocessen. Jag har också via enkäter frågat klasslärare om deras erfarenheter av hur det går för elever som återskolats till vanlig klass igen och hur de ser på samarbetet med heldagsskolan.

    Nyckelord: heldagsskola, segregering, skoldaghem, återskolning

  • 28698. Öhrn, E.
    et al.
    Hägglund, Solveig
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Social responsibility in the classroom: Learning the code and develop the skill1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28699.
    Öhrn, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Vart är våra bostäder?: En fallstudie av Karlstad kommuns höga planreserv för bostäder och det låga bostadsbyggandet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ju mer den svenska bostadsbristen breder ut sig desto hetare blir debatten om dess orsaker och lösningar i frågan. Bostadsbristen är inte längre ett storstadsproblem och när flera tillväxtkommuner, som exempelvis Karlstad, bekräftar brist på framförallt hyresrättslägenheter handlar debatten till stor del om hur byggandet av dessa ska öka.

    Kommunerna har flera gånger pekats ut som hinder i bostadsbyggandet men när SKL (2014) visar på höga planreserver som möjliggör bostadsbyggande i flera svenska tillväxtkommuner med bostadsbrist ändrar debatten riktning. Varför byggs det inte?

    Efter en genomgång av publicerade rapporter, debattinlägg och annan relevant litteratur har en fallstudie på Karlstad genomförts. Med hjälp av intervjuer av verksamma byggherrar, politiker och allmännyttigt bostadsbolag kan det konstateras att bostadspolitiken har skapat en bostadsmarknad som inte klarar av att fylla de bostadsbehov Sverige idag har. Det är omöjligt att peka ut en skyldig aktör till det låga bostadsbyggandet eftersom ansvaret idag är fördelat på stat, finansinstitut, kommuner och byggherrar. Även om kommunen har ett bostadsförsörjningsansvar så sitter marknaden och byggherrarna på självaste verktygen. Finansinstitut, lagar och regler har också avgörande roller i bostadsbyggandet och den höga planreserven beror till stor del på den allt friare marknaden som ger upphov till spekulation och ackumulation. Även om varje outnyttjad detaljplan har sina särpräglade förutsättningar så påverkas alla planer av marknadens och fastighetsbranschens vinstsökande.

    Resultaten i intervjuerna pekar på att hyresrättslägenheten är missgynnad på bekostnad av bostadsrätten, vilket är en anledning till att vi idag har en bostadsbrist i kombination med hög planreserv. Hyresrätter är det som allt fler efterfrågar men när det är mer fördelaktigt att bygga bostadsrätter är det svårt att hitta tillräckligt med byggherrar som investerar i nybyggnation av denna upplåtelseform. Många av de hyresrätter som byggs idag har höga kostnader som speglar sig i hyran, vilket tillsammans med låga räntor resulterar i att det i regel blir mer lönsamt att bo i bostadsrätt. Något som också på kan tänkas påverka efterfrågan av bostäder.

    Utfasningen av allmännyttan och indragningen av kommunernas bostadsförsörjningsansvar är också bidragande orsaker till det låga byggandet av hyresrätter. För att lösa problemet med bostadsbristen, utan segregering och ojämn geografisk utveckling som resultat, kan det förutsättas att breda insatser i både skatte- och finanspolitik och kommunpolitik behövs.

  • 28700.
    Öhrn, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Läsinlärningsprocessen: Hur arbetar pedagoger med läsinlärning?2011Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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