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  • 2751. Wang, Y.R.
    et al.
    Duke, C.B.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Photoemission from surface states on the (1010) and (1120) surfaces of CdSe1988In: Surf. Sci. 206, L817 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2752.
    Wang, Yu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Mechanical properties and microstructure of laser sintered and starch consolidated iron-based powders2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In powder metallurgy research field, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Metal Powder Starch Consolidation (MPSC) are relatively new rapid forming techniques to fabricate complex and near net-shaped components. The working principles of DMLS are to melt and fuse metal powder layer by layer in computer controlled systems to pile up components like three dimensional printing. It has been for instance extensively used for mould inserts, die parts, and functional metal prototypes. Another, less explored method, starch consolidation is a pressureless direct casting method which consists principally of mixing powder slurry, casting into moulds, consolidation, drying, and sintering. With a strong focus on both methods, the study here combines several strong material technology sectors; powder, rapid forming, mechanical property testing and surface technology. It covers the processing chain from green body preparation, optimization of

    sintering, nitriding, post sinter heat treatment, to modeling and assessment of material behaviour for end-user applications. An iron based powder and a high vanadium high speed steel powder with low and high carbon contents were used in the DMLS and MPSC processes, respectively. The overall aim of the study is to synthesize near net-shaped powder-based components, to characterize pores and microstructure, and to establish a fundamental understanding of failure mechanisms of powder based materials in bending fatigue, thermal fatigue and wear.

    The study showed the DMLS and MPSC technologies could produce shaped components with a multi-phased structure, controllable nitriding depth and high relative densities in a range of 97 - 99.7 %. Materials' heterogeneity and porosity have detrimental influence on mechanical properties, especially on crack initiation and subsequent propagation.

  • 2753. Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Characterization and fatigue behaviour of a starch consolidated and sintered high speed steel2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2754. Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Fatigue and microstructure of iron based sintered alloys2007In: Journal of Iron and Steel research, 2007, 14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2755. Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Room temperature and thermal fatigue behaviour f an iron-based laser sintered metal2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2756.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Borgström, Henrik
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Characterization and bending fatigue behaviour of a starch consolidated high speed steel: as-sintered, sintered and tempered, and sintered and nitridedManuscript (Other academic)
  • 2757.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Characterization of an iron-based laser sintered material2006In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 172, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2758.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Four-point bending fatigue behaviour of an iron-based laser sintered material2006In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 1705-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2759.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Thermal fatigue behavior of an iron-based laser sintered material2009In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 513-514, no 15 july, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2760.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Thermal fatigue behaviour of an iron-based laser sintered material2009In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 513-514, p. 67-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct metal laser sintering is a rapid manufacturing technique to make intricate and near net-shaped parts. An iron-based laser sintered metal was studied to evaluate its thermal fatigue properties. The test was performed using cylindrical specimens in a high power induction heating system equipped with a laser strain gauge for a contactless surface strain measurement. Initiation of thermal fatigue cracks occurred preferentially at pores and layer interfaces, while propagation of cracks followed along phase boundaries and thin inter-dendritic phases and showed an inter-granular fracture. By using the fundamental Fourier equation for heat conduction, the temperature cycle was modeled and calculated. A thermo elastic ideal plastic model was used to deduce the thermal stress based on surface strain experimentally measured. Finally, the temperature distribution, thermal stresses and mechanical strains were discussed with respect to thermal fatigue damage.

  • 2761.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University.
    Hogmark, Sture
    Uppsala University.
    Borgström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harlin, Peter
    Dalarna University.
    Microstructure, strentgth and wear of high speed steel in HIPed, HIPed + nitrided, and SC+nitrided conditionsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 2762.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Characterization and fatigue behaviour of a starch consolidated and sintered high speed steel2006In: Tooling materials and their applications from research to market: Proceedings of 7th international tooling conference : Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy, 2-5 May 2006, - , 2006, p. 643-650Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2763. Wang, Z.
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Separation of Lidocaine and its Metabolites by Capillary Electrophoresis using Volatile Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems,2001In: Electrophoresis, 22 (2001) 2495-2502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2764.
    Warmland, Eric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Adamsson, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Mätprocessen kring propelleraxlar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion regarding the alignment and measuring procedure of propeller shafts has arose due to the competing situation in the industry, and higher standards from the customers. An estimation of the deflection of shafts in different alignment situations has been made with help of FEM-analysis and beam theory. This has been analyzed and compared with the experience from Rolls-Royce AB suppliers of shafts. An evaluation of measuring protocols has been made and the result indicates that there is a correlation between the deflection of the shaft and the run out. Results from a measuring test performed by Balino, Spain, verifies this conclusion. But the main issue is considered to be the type of supports that prevent the shaft from moving in the horizontal plane. The solution to this issue is to use supports along the shaft that only prevents the deflection in the median plane.

     

    A recommendation to the Rolls-Royce AB is to perform changes in their measuring protocols to make them easier to use and to include more information. The sequence of the measuring points in the protocol should be re-arranged and re-named. Information of what type of support that has been used by the supplier and where they been placed should be added to the protocols to increase the traceability when questions arise. To make the measuring protocol unequivocal, the position of the measuring gauge should be marked in the protocol and the point of reference marked on the shaft.

     

    External expertise will participate in a workshop to educate and discuss with Rolls-Royce AB personnel how to change required references in the drawing of the shaft arrangements.

  • 2765.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Characterization of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Oligo(phenyleneethynylene) Derivatives on Gold2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) molecules are a class of fully conjugated aromatic molecules, that attract attention for their application as “molecular wires” in molecular electronic devices. In this thesis work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from a variety of OPE derivatives have been studied. The chemical properties, structure, and packing density of the SAMs have been characterized utilizing techniques such as high-resolution X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HRXPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    In a first study, three OPE-derivatives, with benzene, naphthalene and anthracene, respectively, inserted into the backbone, and an acetyl-protected thiophenol binding group were found to form SAMs on Au(111) substrates with lower molecular surface densities and larger molecular inclination as the lateral π-system increases.

    In a second study, porphyrin was introduced as the end group to a wire-like molecule such as OPE. The purpose was to obtain well-organized and functionalized surfaces with optical and redox properties. Three porphyrin-functionalized OPEs had different binding groups, an acetyl-protected thiophenol, a benzylic thiol, and a trimethylsilylethynylene group, and were found to form SAMs on gold surfaces with difference in structure and degree of order. The molecules with the acetyl-protected thiophenol binding group were found to form a high quality SAM compared to the other two. This SAM exhibits a well-ordered and densely packed layer.

    This study gives rise to a better understanding of SAM formation of OPE derivatives, and will form a base for further investigations of charge transport properties of these molecular films, which is of interest for applications in molecular electronic devices.

  • 2766.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold Studied by NEXAFS and Photoelectron Spectroscopy2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provide well-defined and ordered films of molecules spontaneously chemisorbed on a surface. By designing molecules with desired functionalities, such molecular film can be interesting for a range of applications from molecular electronics to catalysis. Important parameters for SAM applications are the film structure and quality, which are dependent on the structure of molecular constituents, the substrate, and the self-assembly process. In this work, SAMs on Au(111) of a variety of functionalized molecules, with thiol and silane headgroups, have been studied using high-resolution X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HRXPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), contact angle measurements and Kelvin probe measurements. In particular, the effects of varying the size of the backbone, varying the headgroup, inclusion of a porphyrin tailgroup, different ways of deprotection of the headgroups, and mixed molecular layers have been investigated.

    The first part of thesis work is focused on SAMs of oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) derivatives. First the effect of the extent of the conjugated system on the structure of SAM was investigated. As the lateral π-system in the OPE backbone increases, molecular surface densities become lower and molecular inclinations larger. Subsequently, a bulky porphyrin tailgroup was added onto the OPE molecule. Porphyrin-functionalized OPE with several headgroups were compared and the thioacetyl anchor group was found to form a high quality SAM.

    In the second part of the work, the molecular orientation of thiol-derivatized tetraphenylporphyrin layers was studied. The geometry of the molecular layer and the number of linkers that bind to the gold surface depend strongly on preparation schemes, i.e. whether or not the acetyl protection groups on the thiol were removed before adsorption.

    Finally, mixed SAMs of a ferrocene-terminated alkanethiol and alkanethiols were studied. By diluting the ferrocene-functionalized molecules in unfunctionalized alkanethiols, the orientational order and the packing density improved. The geometrical structure and the fraction of the ferrocene-terminated molecules can be tuned by controlling the parameters in the preparation scheme.

  • 2767.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars S.O.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers of Ferrocene-Terminated and Unsubstituted Alkanethiols on Gold: Surface Structure and Work Function2009In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 113, no 5, p. 1972-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed self-assembled monolayers of 11-ferrocene-1-undecanethiol (FcC11) and decanethiol (C10) were prepared by two different methods: from a mixed solution and by subsequent immersion. These preparations result in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different portions of FcC11 molecules, orientations, and degrees of order in the SAM. The structure of these layers was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and their effect on the surface electronic properties was investigated by Kelvin probe. The fraction of FcC11 in C10 thiol could be estimated from the intensity of the HRXPS Fe 2p3/2 peaks. The SAM prepared from the mixed solution was of high quality, and the portion of FcC11 molecules in this film was about 60%. The interaction of neighboring ferrocene moieties indicated phase separation between FcC11 and C10 species in the film. For the SAMs prepared by subsequent immersion in C10 and FcC11 solutions, the portion of FcC11 molecules varied from 35% to 55% dependent on the immersion times in the C10 solution. The degree of orientational order of the alkyl chains increased with increasing immersion time in C10. In addition, the adsorption of C10 decreased the work function of the gold surface while the adsorption of FcC11 increased this value. By varying the fraction of FcC11 in the SAMs with different preparation schemes, the work function of the gold surface could be varied in a controllable way

  • 2768.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Shaporenko, Andrey
    Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg im Neuenheimer Feld 253.
    Zharnikov, Michael
    Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg im Neuenheimer Feld 253.
    Albinsson, Bo
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Jerker
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johansson, Lars S.O.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    A spectroscopic study of self-assembled monolayer of porphyrin-functionalized oligo(phenyleneethynylene)s on gold: the influence of the anchor moiety2008In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 10, no 34, p. 5264-5275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porphyrin-functionalized oligo(phenyleneethynylene)s (OPE) are promising molecules for molecular electronics applications. Three such molecules (1-3) with the common structure P-OPE-AG (P and AG are a porphyrin and anchor group, respectively) and different anchor groups, viz. an acetyl protected thiol, -S-COCH3 (1), an acetyl protected thiol with methylene linker, -CH2-S-COCH3 (2), and a trimethylsilylethynyl group, -C(triple bond)C-Si(CH3)3 (3) have been synthesized and the corresponding self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) substrates have been prepared. The integrity and structural properties of these films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results suggest that the films formed from 1 have a high orientational order with an almost upright orientation and dense packing of the molecular constituents, i.e. represent a high quality SAM. In contrast, molecule 2 formed disordered molecular layers on Au, even though the molecule-surface bonding (thiolate) is the same as in the case of molecule 1. This suggests that the methylene linker in molecule 2 has a strong impact on the quality of the resulting film, so that a well-ordered SAM cannot be formed. The silane system, 3, is also able to bind to the gold surface but the resulting SAM has a poor quality, being significantly disordered and/or comprised of strongly inclined molecules. The above results suggest that the nature of the anchor group along with a possible linker is an important parameter which, to a high extent, predetermines the entire quality of OPE-based molecular layers

  • 2769.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Zharnikov, Michael
    Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Germany.
    Shaporenko, Andrey
    Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Germany.
    Albinsson, Bo
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Jerker
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    HRXPS and NEXAFS Study of Self-Assembled Monolayer of Porphyrin- Functionalized Oligo(phenyleneethynylene) on Gold: The Influence of the Binding GroupManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2770.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Puglia, Carla
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University.
    Göthelid, Emmanuelle
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Molecular orientation of thiol-derivatized tetraphenylporphyrin on gold studied by XPS and NEXAFS2009In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 603, no 7, p. 1026-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetraphenylporphyrins bearing four linkers consisting of thioacetyl-functionalized carbon chains were immobilized on a gold surface via thiolate–gold bonds using two different preparation routes. The structure of these molecular layers was characterized in detail with synchrotron radiation based core-level spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show that the geometry of the molecular layers and the number of linkers that bind to the gold surface depends on the preparation schemes. The deprotection of the linkers through removal of the terminal acetyl group before the molecular adsorption (deprotected systems) resulted in porphyrins bound to the gold surface with on the average three linkers, their normal axis being tilted ∼38° with respect to the surface normal. On the other hand, porphyrin layers prepared directly with the acetyl group still in place on the linkers (protected systems) are made of molecules bound to the gold surface via two linkers on the average. The resulting orientation is more upright, with the normal axis of the porphyrin plane tilted ∼50° with respect to the surface normal. Moreover, NEXAFS measurements revealed that the acetyl deprotected porphyrin layers have a higher degree of ordering than the protected systems.

  • 2771.
    Wedin, Pär
    et al.
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Svanholm, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Alberius, Peter C. A.
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Fogden, Andrew
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Surfactant-Templated Mesoporous Silica as a Pigment in Inkjet Paper Coatings2006In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2772. Welin-Klintström, S.
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Liedberg, B.
    Tengvall, P.
    Comparison between wettability gradients made on gold and on Si/SiO2 substrates1999In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. vol 15, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2773. Wenzhöfer, Frank
    et al.
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Glud, Ronnie N.
    Nielsen, Helle K.
    Gundersen, Jens K.
    In situ microsensor studies of a shallow water hydrothermal vent at Milos, Greece2000In: Marine Chemistry. 69: 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2774. Wenzhöfer, Frank
    et al.
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kohls, Oliver
    Deep penetrating benthic oxygen profiles measured in situ by oxygen optodes2001In: Deep-Sea Research I 48: 1741-1755(In press, Deep Sea Research)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2775.
    Westberg, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Fysikundervisningens förutsättningar i år F-5: Lärares attityder och kunskap2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2776.
    Westerlund, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Tunnelkonsol för Volvo PV2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project has been carried out by Martin Westerlund and Martin Karlsson, students at the Innovation and Design Engineer programme at the Faculty of Technology and Science at Karlstad University during spring 2007. The degree project extend over 15 weeks of full time studies, in addition Martin Westerlund carried out an in depth study in the area of drivers ergonomics concerning the handle brake, giving a total of 20 weeks of full time studies. Assigner for the project was Volvo Car Corporation at Torslanda in Gothenburg, department for design and product development PVC. Orderer was Bernt Lahneljung, Senior Studio Engineer; supervisor at Karlstads Universitet was Lennart Wihk.

    Volvo Car Corporation is a car manufacturer in the incredibly competitive car industry. At the department for design and product development the cars interior as well as exterior design is established, driven along by the company’s vision to be the worlds most sought after premium car brand, with a mission to create the safest and most exiting car experience for modern families.

    From this, the students were given the assignment to develop a tunnel console with fresh thinking as a parole word. The tunnel console is the part of the interior that sits between both front seats, most commonly including handle brake, gear shifter, arm rest and storage compartments at most cars. The assigner witnessed of stagnation in the innovative thinking at this part of the car and longed for new ideas.

    The goal was to develop a complete tunnel console based on a given, soon to come into the market car (classified). A prototype was to be build in full scale and 3D-generated images and animations would present the result. The result was to be presented at an exhibit during two days at Karlstads University, as well as to the assigner.

    Through a extensive research of the current market, including a trip down to Geneva for a visit at the Auto Saloon, followed by a creative faze of generating ides and finally an extensive work to tie the whole project together to one presentable product, the degree project has resulted in a complete tunnel console, full of innovative solutions.

    The degree project resulted in a full scale prototype, 3D-generated animations, an exhibit display, a presentation made in Flash™ as well as this academic report. The end result was not classified, but were to be used within Volvo CC as a source of inspiration for a future project in the given care model.

  • 2777.
    Westerlund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Glanander, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Stödbricka för muffinsformar: Bakning i bagerimiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Support tray for muffin cups” is a final thesis which was independently executed by Sara Glanander and Rebecka Westerlund during spring 2011. It was carried out through Karlstad University Faculty of Technology and Science in the study program of Innovation and Design Engineering.

    The employer of the project is Siluett of Sweden AB in Kristinehamn. The contact person and instructor at the company is Bernt Rådberg, sales and marketing manager. The supervisor at Karlstad University is Monica Jakobsson, lecturer and director of studies for the study program in Innovation and Design Engineering. Examiner is Fredrik Thuvander, lecturer and professor at Karlstad University.

    Siluett manufactures muffin cups and other cardboard- and paperbased products for the bakery- and patisserie industry. They have noticed an increase in demand from their customers for set up, patterned, muffin cups. The project was initiated to fulfill this need.

    Since the company had already noticed the need, only a smaller preliminary study was performed. The study was in the shape of short interviews at ten different bakeries in Karlstad and four mass-producing bakeries around the country. The focus was on the defining of the product where the inquired demands and functions were specified.

    Different methods were used during the concept generation, both individually and in group. The project team noticed that the easiest way to get understandable descriptions were by making small models in paper and cardboard. This method was diligently used throughout the project. Also the physiological ergonomics was studied and the heat resistance of the material was tested by laboratory experiments.

    The produced concepts were evaluated and developed. In the end, only four concepts remained and were presented to the instructor at the company. The best concept was chosen and later adjusted for manufacturing by Nicklas Karlén, a constructor at Peterson Packaging AB in Norrköping.

    For the present a novelty search is going on, which entails that the final result cannot be shown. The most eminent characteristic of the chosen concept is its simplicity. It is easy to fold, easy to stack and easy to handle, which was some of the goals of the project.

  • 2778.
    Westin, Fredric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Attityder, Relevans & Genus: En kvalitativ studie av praktisk undervisning i NO bland elever i grundskolans senare år2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study the attitudes that exist among secondary-school pupils, to practical education in natural science, through a gender perspective.

    Semi-structured interviews were chosen as method of studying the pupils’ attitudes. A semi- structured interview gives the interviewer a possibility to follow up the answers given by the respondent with varied attendant questions. For the interviewer this contributes to develop an insight of the attitudes.

    The interviews reveal that most of the pupils have a positive attitude towards practical education in natural science and all of the respondents agreed on the fact that practical education helps to improve their understanding. The research showed that girls prefer biology since they find it less difficult than physics and chemistry, while boys on the other hand prefer physics and technology. There is a disagreement among the respondents on whether or not examinations exist in practical education.

    The conclusion of the dissertation is that pedagogues need to develop a practical education suited for all youths irrespective of gender, as well as stating the aim and purpose before the practical education starts.

  • 2779.
    Westlund, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kontrollerad interaktion för kreativare möten: Summit Flexiwall2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring semester 2012 Robin Westlund has accomplished “Controlled interaction for more creative meetings - Summit Flexiwall” with the individual focus on social communication based on visual interaction in future office. The project was a part of the course Degree Project for degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering (MSGC12) which includes 22,5 ECTS Credits. The course is a part in the program Innovation and Design Engineering program within the Faculty of Technology and Science at Karlstad University.

    Assigner of the project was Moelven Eurowand AB with their head office in Örebro. The company manufactures and assembles entire room solutions for offices. Supervisor at the company was Pernilla Irewhärn. Supervisor at Karlstads University was adjunct and program holder Monica Jakobsson. Examiner has been professor at the Faculty of Technology and Science at Karlstad University, Fredrik Thuvander.

    Moelven Eurowand is the market leading company and intends to maintain that position. To keep that position the company needs to take the lead of developing new room solutions. With that in mind this project was initiated.

    In the beginning of the project the main focus was to identify the needs on future offices. These were analyzed and summarized. The summary resulted in a vision which was visualized as an adjustable dimmer for fully control of the environment on the individual workplace. The dimmer was vital for further development of a realizable   product and operated as a symbol through the entire project.

     

    Summit Flexiwall is a product developed to satisfy the needs of an office worker in terms of privacy and social interaction. Summit Flexiwall is a flexible panel wall who operates as a screen wall when necessary. The product is designed to encourage spontaneous meetings because these kinds of meetings are the ones who are the most creative and leading the work forward. Summit Flexiwall creates room in a room and because of this very suitable for Moelven Eurowand AB product range.

  • 2780.
    Westrich, Quinton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Lie Algebras in Braided Monoidal Categories2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We begin by recalling some basic definitions from Lie algebra theory to motivate our subsequent transition to the more general setting of category theory. Next, we develop a relatively self-contained introduction to those areas of category theory needed for an understanding of what follows. Here we also motivate and introduce the graphical calculus notations. We then state the definitions of a braided commutator algebra, a braided Lie algebra, and a braided commutator Lie algebra. We proceed to show that color Lie algebras and Lie superalgebras are examples of braided Lie algebras. Thus, we are interested in examining color Lie algebras and Lie superalgebras in the generalized setting of braided Lie algebras. So we end by examining the representation theory of braided Lie algebras and braided commutator Lie algebras. In paricular, we find analogues of the adjoint representation, the tensor product representation, and the contragredient representation.

  • 2781.
    Wettergren, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    ”Det är järnet i blodet som väger”: Elevers uppfattningar om materia en kvalitativ undersökning i årskurs 32007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to find out more about students’ spontaneous ideas about properties and transformations of matter. Examples of matter chosen are such which students know about from everyday life and focus is mainly on the questions if students know that all matter has weight and that matter is preserved in transformations.

    The method used is semi structured qualitative interviews with individual students. Different experiments were carried out together with the students who afterwards were interviewed. However, the students show varying answers and no generalizations can be done. However, when their conclusions from observations differ from their earlier experiences they trust their eyes. All students know that a human body has weight as well as a grain of dust. They also know that with addition of a colored substance in the water, the mass increases, but more hesitation exists when the additive is sugar. A couple of students are capable of discussing logically sometimes but not at all events.

  • 2782.
    Weyers, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Teaching botany on the sunny side of the tree.: Promoting investigative studies in plant ecophysiology through observations and experiments on sun and shade leaves1997In: Teaching botany on the sunny side of the tree.: Promoting investigative studies in plant ecophysiology through observations and experiments on sun and shade leaves, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2783.
    Whern, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Teknik och teknisk kompetens enligt förskolans pedagoger: En studie av pedagogernas syn på teknik2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2784.
    Widell, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Frihängande kylbaffel för Swegon: Freely suspended chilled beam for Swegon2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2785.
    Widlund, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Simulering av värmeförluster i ett värmevattensystem: för distrubution av värmevatten till disk, tvättmaskin samt torktumlare.2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2786. Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Larsson, M.I.
    Yeom, H. W.
    Hara, S.
    Yoshida, S.
    Angle-resolved photoemission study of the hydrogenated 3C-SiC(001)-2x1-H surface2001In: Surf. Sci. 479, 247 (2001)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2787. Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Angle-resolved photoemission from stoichiometric GaN(0001)-1x12005In: Surf. Sci, 584, 169 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2788. Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gurnett, Michael
    Miki, H.
    Yeom, H.W.
    Oshima, M.
    Preparation of stoichiometric GaN(0001)1x1: an XPS study2004In: MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 9, 4 (2004)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2789. Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gurnett, Michael
    Oshima, M.
    Core-level photoemission from stoichiometric GaN(0001)-1x12005In: MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 10, 1(2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2790.
    Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Larsson, Mats I.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars S.O.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Miki, H.
    Yeom, H.W.
    Oshima, M.
    Preparation of stoichiometric GaN(0001)1x1 studied with spectromicroscopy2004In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 572, no 2-3, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2791.
    Wigers, Susanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Intresse för naturvetenskap: Hur lärare påverkar elevernas intresse2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether interest in science among pupils in grades 6 – 9 in elementary school depends on earlier teachers’ interest in and commitment to science. The investigation was carried out by means of both interviews with ten teachers, who teach in the earlier years of the elementary school, and surveys with 269 pupils in grades 6 – 9.

    The findings show that most of the teachers in grades 1 – 5 teach biology but teaching in physics, chemistry and technology depends on the teachers’ knowledge and interest. The pupils like chemistry and technology the most whereas biology is the least preferred subject. The findings also show that pupils’ interest in science, in grades 6 – 9, does not depend on the earlier teachers’ commitment and interest in the subjects.

  • 2792.
    Wigren, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality: Proofs and applications in various spaces2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We give some background information about the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality including its history. We then continue by providing a number of proofs for the inequality in its classical form using various proof techniques, including proofs without words. Next we build up the theory of inner product spaces from metric and normed spaces and show applications of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in each content, including the triangle inequality, Minkowski's inequality and Hölder's inequality. In the final part we present a few problems with solutions, some proved by the author and some by others.

  • 2793.
    Wijkander, Jonny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Engström, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Macrophages, cancer cells and radiation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2794.
    Wik, Greger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Headbox Slice Opening Arrangement: An Alternative Solution for Tissue Machines2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The head box in a tissue machine distributes the fiber suspension to a flat jet along the width of the machine. By adjusting the so-called lip opening, the flow is regulated and the jet is accelerated to match the machine speed. In this work, ideas for alternative solutions for lip opening mechanism is generated and evaluated with a focus on making a cost saving. One of the concepts has been selected for a deeper analysis with respect to the design, strength and cost. The selected concept is based on reducing the number of jacks required by using one jack operating a shaft parallel to the apron beam. Levers convey the movement to the apron beam. The analysis show that the shaft is exposed to high torque which results in large elastic twisting of the shaft, which means that the force that supports the apron beam will not be equal over the entire width. If the difference in force is too big, the apron beam will twist which results in an uneven lip opening. The shaft stiffness is therefore crucial. For the head box with a width of 2946 mm, the number of jacks is reduced from three to one. Wider head boxes may need more than one jack since the shaft cannot be made to long without getting too much twisted. A lip opening mechanism of the current design with six 20 ton jacks can be compared to the new concept in which only two jacks is needed and the cost is reduced by 18%. There is further potential for savings if the jack, separate gear and electric motor are replaced with an actuator that has the motor mounted directly.

  • 2795.
    Wikeling, Danuta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Barns uppfattning om naturvetenskapliga begrepp: Enkätundersökning i årskurs 42008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har påvisats under åtskilliga undersökningar att naturvetenskapligt tänkande bland barn har oftast sin bakgrund i egna erfarenheter och observationer. Barnens idéer skiljer sig många gånger från vetenskapliga idéer. Syftet med arbetet är att presentera en fältstudie baserad på enkäter som har som mål att ta reda på barnens egna idéer kring begreppen: gas, partikel och blandning/lösning och samtidigt undersöka språket som barnen använder för att uttrycka dessa tankar. Undersökningens resultat har bekräftat det som man redan kommit fram i tidigare forskning att barnen redan har utvecklat sin egen synpunkt på de flesta naturvetenskapliga fenomen som sker runt omkring oss och att deras tankar uttrycks oftast med hjälp av vardagsspråket. Konsekvenserna av detta blir att vi som pedagoger måste beakta detta i vår verksamhet och anpassa undervisningen till barnens behov.

    Nyckelord: blandning, gas, lösning, naturvetenskap, partikel

  • 2796. Wiklund, S.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Surface core level shifts on CdS(1010)1990In: Surf. Sci. 238, 187 (1990)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2797.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    A theoretical explanation of the Piper-Steenbjerg effect1994In: Plant, Cell and Environment 17: 1053-1060, 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2798.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Allocation of mass in trees under nitrogen and magnesium limitation1995In: Tree Physiology 15, 339-344, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2799.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Att undervisa i och examinera abstrakt tänkande2006In: Proceedings 2005: utvecklingskonferensen 16-18 november i Karlstad / [ed] Ingrid Järnefelt, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2800.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Beräkningar av näringsbalanser och kväveförluster vid helträdsutnyttjande1992In: Vattenfall Bioenergi Research, U(B) 1992/16Article in journal (Refereed)
53545556575859 2751 - 2800 of 2918
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