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  • 251.
    Irshad, Yasir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Söderström, Torsten
    Division of Systems and Control, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    System identification in a networked environment using second order statistical properties2013In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 652-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System identification for networked control is considered. Due to the time-delays in the network, it can be difficult to work with a discrete-time model and a continuous-time model is therefore chosen. A covariance function based method that relies on the second order statistical properties of the output signal, where it is assumed that the input signal samples are from a discrete-time white noise sequence, is proposed for estimating the parameters. The method is easy to use since the actual time instants when new input signal levels are applied at the actuator do not have to be known. An analysis of the networked system and the effects of the time-delays is made, and the results of the analysis motivate and support the chosen approach. Numerical studies indicate that the method is robust to randomly distributed time-delays, packet drop-outs, and additive measurement noise.

  • 252.
    Israelsson, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Worldizing kontra IR-reverb2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree work is to compare two sound design tools, which both are used to virtually place a sound in an acoustic environment. The tools in question are both methods to add reverb on sound files. The angle of the comparison is mainly frequency analysis. Above technicality, practical details are taken into consideration.

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    fulltext
  • 253.
    Jackman, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties, and many potential applications have been proposed, ranging from nanoscale devices to reinforcement of macroscopic structures. However, due to their small sizes, characterization of their mechanical properties and deformation behaviours are major challenges. Theoretical modelling of deformation behaviours has shown that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can develop ripples in the walls on the contracted side when bent above a critical curvature. The rippling is reversible and accompanied by a reduction in the bending stiffness of the tubes. This behaviour will have implications for future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Although rippling has been thoroughly modelled there has been a lack of experimental data thus far. In this study, force measurements have been performed on individual MWCNTs and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). This was accomplished by using a custom-made atomic force microscope (AFM) inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The measurements were done by bending free-standing MWCNTs/VACNFs with the AFM sensor in a cantilever-to-cantilever fashion, providing force-displacement curves. From such curves and the MWCNT/VACNF dimensions, measured from SEM-images, the critical strain for the very onset of rippling and the Young’s modulus, E, could be obtained. To enable accurate estimations of the nanotube diameter, we have developed a model of the SEM-image formation, such that intrinsic diameters can be retrieved. We have found an increase in the critical strain for smaller diameter tubes, a behaviour that compares well with previous theoretical modelling. VACNFs behaved very differently, as they did not display any rippling and had low bending stiffnesses due to inter-wall shear. We believe that our findings will have implications for the design of future NEMS devices that employ MWCNTs and VACNFs.

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    KUS_2012_18
  • 254.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bending modulus of freestanding carbon nanotubes2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Direct Measurements Of Bending Stiffness And Rippling Phenomena In Free-Standing Carbon Nanotubes2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    High resolution SEM imaging of carbon nanotubes: deconvolution and retrieval of intrinsic nanotube dimensions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing physical properties of individual nanotubes is crucial for their implementation in nano electromechanical systems (NEMS). This requires measurements on suspended or free-standing structures together with accurate determination of the nanotubes dimensions. In situ methods are often used where physical measurements are performed inside electron microscopes [1-3]. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has the advantage of high resolution, providing accurate determination of both dimensions and the internal structure. The space inside a TEM is however rather restricted, leaving limited room for additional probes [4]. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the other hand, has a large specimen chamber which facilitates the addition of probes, but the image resolution is lower, making the evaluation of material properties less accurate or even impossible for very thin nanotubes [1]. One way to solve this is to first measure the physical properties inside an SEM, and then determine the diameter using a TEM afterwards [1]. This approach requires transfer of the nanotube from the SEM to a suitable TEM sample holder, and analysis of the same sample-location in both instruments. It would thereby be advantageous to obtain accurate structural information directly inside the SEM [2]. We have studied the mechanisms involved in SEM image formation of small multiwalled nanotubes, 2-5 nm in diameter. The electron-probe shape in an SEM broadens the sample details, and the image can be seen as a convolution of the secondary electron yield at each sample position and the probe shape. By comparing SEM and TEM images, we found that the probe intensity profile was best described by a linear combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions. Using the obtained probe shape, the SEM images could then be deconvoluted to reveal more details, including the inner diameter in some cases. We also show how the outer diameter can be obtained by differentiating image profiles, a method that does not require any detailed knowledge regarding the probe shape and is reliable down to dimensions comparable to the electron-probe size. This significantly improves the capabilities of in-situ SEM experiments by enabling accurate characterizations of nanofibres inside SEM instruments, without the need for subsequent TEM imaging

  • 257.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Image formation mechanisms in scanning electron microscopy of carbon nanotubes,and retrieval of their intrinsic dimensions.2013In: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, Vol. 124, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed analysis of the image formation mechanisms that are involved in the imaging of carbon nanotubes with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We show how SEM images can be modelled by accounting for surface enhancement effects together with the absorption coefficient for secondary electrons, and the electron-probe shape. Images can then be deconvoluted, enabling retrieval of the intrinsic nanotube dimensions. Accurate estimates of their dimensions can thereby be obtained even for structures that are comparable to the electron-probe size (on the order of 2 nm). We also present a simple and robust model for obtaining the outer diameter of nanotubes without any detailed knowledge about the electron-probe shape.

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    preprint_jackman
  • 258.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Large variations in the onset of rippling in concentric nanotubes.2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 104, article id 021910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed experimental study of the onset of rippling in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes. Modeling has shown that there should be a material constant, called the critical length, describing the dependence of the critical strain on the nanotube outer radius. Surprisingly, we have found very large variations, by a factor of three, in the critical length. We attribute this to a supporting effect from the inner walls in multiwalled concentric nanotubes. We provide an analytical expression for the maximum deflection prior to rippling, which is an important design consideration in nanoelectromechanical systems utilizing nanotubes.

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    APL 2014
  • 259.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Measurements of the critical strain for rippling in carbon nanotubes2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 98, no 18, p. 3 pages-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report measurements of the bending stiffness in free standing carbon nanotubes, using atomic force microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope. Two regimes with different bending stiffness were observed, indicative of a rippling deformation at high curvatures. The observed critical strains for rippling were in the order of a few percent and comparable to previous modeling predictions. We have also found indications that the presence of defects can give a higher critical strain value and a concomitant reduction in Youngs modulus.

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    fulltext
  • 260.
    Jaczewska, Justyna
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Rysz, Jakub
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Polymer vs Solvent Diagram of Film Structures Formed in Spin-Cast Poly(3-alkylthiophene) Blends2008In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 41, p. 4802-4810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polymer vs solvent diagram of film structures, formed in polystyrene (PS) blends (1:1 w:w PS/PT) with poly(3-alkylthiophenes) PT [regioregular R-P3DDT, R-P3HT and regiorandom P3BT, P3DDT] spincoated onto oxidized silicon surfaces from various common solvents [p-xylene, toluene, chloroform, chlorobenzene, cyclohexanone] is presented. The structures were determined with microscopic techniques (atomic, AFM and lateral, LFM, force microscopy, fluorescent microscopy FM) and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (dSIMS). The diagram, arranged according to the solubility parameter of the PTs and the solvents, exhibits three main structural classes: dewetting, lamellar, and lateral (quasi-2-dim) morphology. Decrease in PT solubility parameter δPT inhibits dewetting of polymer films. It induces also a transition from lamellar to lateral film structure. Increase in solvent solubility parameter δS has similar effects. Such behavior is related to the stability of transient homogeneous films and multilayers in the course of spin-casting. The role of δPT and δS is elucidated based on the stability analysis performed in terms of spreading coefficient (dependent on δPT) and effective interfacial tension of solvent-rich polymer phase (dependent on δS).

  • 261.
    Jaczewska, Justyna
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Raptis, Ioannis
    Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR ‘‘Demokritos’’, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens 15310, Greece.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Goustouridis, Dimitrios
    Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR ‘‘Demokritos’’, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens 15310, Greece.
    Haberko, Jakub
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Ordering domains of spin cast blends of conjugated and dielectric polymers on surfaces patterned by soft- and photo-lithography2009In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 234-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin casting polymer blends of conjugated and dielectric macromolecules onto chemically patterned metal and oxidized silicon surfaces might provide a simple method to fabricate polymer-based circuitries that can be integrated with conventional electronics. Such solution-processing of the blend components offers simultaneous deposition and pattern-directed alignment of the phase separated polymer domains. The alignment is driven by self-organization guided by preferential surface segregation. Here we demonstrate that the laterally arranged domain structures in spin cast films of the

    conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs): P3BT, P3DDT and regioregular R-P3HT, blended with dielectric polystyrene (PS), can be ordered by three different surface templates. The templates are formed by a patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM), micro-contact printed on the surface of interest, i.e. hexadecanethiols on gold (for alignment of P3DDT/PS blend) and octadecyltrichlorosilanes on oxidized silicon (for R-P3HT/PS). Additionally gold lines are micropatterned on SiO2 with photo-lithography (for P3BT/PS mixture). The forces driving pattern-directed self-organization of the polymers are discussed based on complementary studies of preferential surface segregation, observed for blend films spin cast on homogeneous surfaces that correspond to the different regions of the surface templates

  • 262.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Butt, Naveed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Somasundaram, S. D.
    Rowe, M. D.
    Smith, J. A. S.
    Althoefer, K.
    Robust Detection of Stochastic Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Signals: to appear2009In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 4221-4229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263. Jakobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Multi-channel detection of narcotics and explosives using NQR signals2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Using Spatial Diversity to Detect Narcotics and Explosives Using NQR Signals2007In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 4721-4726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) offers an unequivocal method of detecting hidden narcotics and explosives. Unfortunately, the practical use of NQR is restricted by the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and means to improve the SNR are vital to enable a rapid, reliable and convenient system. In this correspondence, we develop two multichannel detectors to counter the typically present radio frequency interference. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed methods offers a significantly improved robustness to uncertainties in the parameters detailing the examined sample.

  • 265. Jakobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rowe, M. D.
    Smith, J. A. S.
    Exploiting temperature dependency in the detection of NQR signals2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rowe, M. D.
    Department of Chemistry, King’s College, London.
    Smith, J. A. S.
    Department of Chemistry, King’s College, London.
    Exploiting temperature dependency in the detection of NQR signals2006In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1610-1616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) offers an unequivocal method of detecting and identifying land mines. Unfortunately, the practical use of NQR is restricted by the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the means to improve the SNR are vital to enable a rapid, reliable, and convenient system. In this paper, an approximate maximum-likelihood detector (AML) is developed, exploiting the temperature dependency of the NQR frequencies as a way to enhance the SNR. Numerical evaluation using both simulated and real NQR data indicate a significant gain in probability of accurate detection as compared with the current state-of-the-art approach.

  • 267.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Nafari, Alexandra
    Sanz-Velasco, Anke
    MC2, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    Kemi, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Olsson, Eva
    Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Novel Method for Controlled Wetting of Materials in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope2013In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 30-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy has been extensively used for studying the wetting properties of different materials. For some types of investigation, however, the traditional ways of conducting in situ dynamic wetting experiments do not offer sufficient control over the wetting process. Here, we present a novel method for controlled wetting of materials in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). It offers improved control of the point of interaction between the water and the specimen and renders it more accessible for imaging. It also enables the study of water transport through a material by direct imaging. The method is based on the use of a piezo-driven nanomanipulator to bring a specimen in contact with a water reservoir in the ESEM chamber. The water reservoir is established by local condensation on a Peltier-cooled surface. A fixture was designed to make the experimental setup compatible with the standard Peltier cooling stage of the microscope. The developed technique was successfully applied to individual cellulose fibers, and the absorption and transport of water by individual cellulose fibers were imaged.

  • 268.
    Jansson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Dämpning av pulsationer i kylkretsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The heat pump emits noise when the temperature increases, which can be a disturbing factor to the surrounding environment. The heat pump could become more attractive to the costumers if the noise was decreased.The objective with the examination paper is to investigate if the noise and vibrations could be measured that occurs when a compressed gas expands and leaves the compressor rapidly. A cheap, costeffective and simple damper will be constructed.The dampers that were tested had a diversity of shapes and forms, and at last the damper with damping materials gave a decreased vibration.

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    fulltext
  • 269. Jemander, S. T.
    et al.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Hansson, G. V.
    STM study of the C-induced Si(100)-c(4x4) reconstruction2002In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 65, no 11, article id 115321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270. Jemander, S. T.
    et al.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg,, R. I. G.
    Hansson, G. V.
    Surface structure of Si(100) with submonolayer coverages of C2002In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 89, no 1-3, p. 415-419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 271. Jemander, S.T.
    et al.
    Lin, N.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Hansson, G. V.
    An STM study of the surface defects of the (√3 × √3)-Sn/Si(111) surface2001In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 475, no 1-3, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Johansson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Duda, L.
    Laurenzis, M.
    Krieftewirth, M.
    Reihl, B.
    Electronic Structure of the 6H-SiC(0001)-3×3 Surface Studied with Angle-Resolved Inverse and Direct Photoemission2000In: Surface Science 445, 109 (2000)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 273. Johansson, Lars Erik
    et al.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Hamp, Sven
    Roeraade, Johan
    Determination of Conductivity of Bacteria by Using Cross-flow Filtration2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry of Proteins Adsorbed to Nitrocellulose1989Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Technology in pre-school and primary school analyzed in a degree project perspective2009In: Strengthening the Position of Technology Education in the Curriculum: Proceedings PATT-22 ConferenceDelft, the Netherlands, August 24-28, 2009 / [ed] Arien Bekker, Ilja Mottier & Marc J. de Vries, ITEEA , 2009, p. 262-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, technology is a very important part of our society, further more it has be-come apparent that an early start with this subject is important to arouse young peoples interest. Therefore, also preschool educators and teacher for the early years of primary school need knowledge in technology. In that sense it is worrying to read the report on the new syllabus for teacher education in Sweden (SOU 2008:109), since the subject syllabus for technology has been strongly reduced for these categories of teachers.

    Technology is a relatively young school subject in Sweden. It has been compulsory in the Swedish curriculum since 1980 (Skolöverstyrelsen, 1980), with its own syl-labus since 1994 (Utbildningsdepartementet, 1994). Therefore, some of the teach-ers teaching the subject today lack experience of being taught technology them-selves. In addition, many of them have only little or no background education in the subject at all (Bjurulf, 2005; Teknikföretagen, 2005). In the first Swedish cur-riculum for preschool, technology is mentioned only once: Develop their ability to build, create and design using different materials and techniques (Utbildningsde-partementet, 2006, p 9). This raises questions about how technology in preschool and school settings is presented to the children.

    The purpose of the study is to find out how technology in the Swedish preschools and primary schools, is construed in degree projects in the frame of the teacher training programme at Karlstad University (2007-2008).

    The results from this study indicate that there is a need of skills development by educators, both in pre- and primary school, concerning technology. This may be the reason why the trainee teachers themselves carry through exercises in technology, in the frame of their degree projects.

    The results also indicate differences between boys and girls, where the boys focus more on functional aspects during their construction work, while the girls focus more on the appearance of the artifacts. Preschools that are organized from a gen-der perspective encourage children to play in a more varying way. When the pre-schools are organized in a traditional way, with dolls rooms and building rooms, the girls often misses the chance to play with construction toys.

  • 276.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Discussing Physics in Groups Using Quantitative and Qualitative Problems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Enghag, Margareta
    Context Rich Problems - An Educational Tool in Physics Teaching2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 278.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Enghag, Margareta
    Context Rich Problems as an Educational Tool in Physics Teaching: a Case Study2007In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study, in which we used context rich problems as an educational tool in a university level physics course. The students worked in groups of three to four when solving these problems, which provided them with an opportunity to discuss physics together at their own level. Video recordings of groups working with the problems allowed us to study how different groups functioned and also to look for what is known as exploratory talks. This form of communication was interpreted as situational interest on the part of the students. A questionnaire at the end of the course, and interviews with a few of the students after the course, revealed that the students considered that context rich problems facilitated understanding of physical concepts and made physics more interesting.

  • 279.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Hedin, A.
    Håkansson, P.
    Sundqvist, B.
    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry Studies of Small Proteins Adsorbed to Nitrocellulose1989Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Hedin, A.
    Håkansson, P.
    Sundqvist, B.
    Säve, G.
    Nielsen, P. F.
    Roepstorff, P.
    Johansson, K. E.
    Kamensky, I.
    Lindberg, M.
    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry of Peptides and Proteins adsorbed on Nitrocellulose1986Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Juteräng, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Polymera solceller på färgtäckt tunnplåt: En genomförbarhetsstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om att undersöka om polymera solceller kan tillverkas på stålsubstrat. Polymera solceller är ett alternativ till kristallina solceller och tunnfilmssolceller där organiska material med halvledaregenskaper, det vill säga konjugerade molekyler och polymerer, används för att tillverka det aktiva lagret i solceller. Ett framgångsrikt sätt att tillverka sådana solceller är att blanda givarmolekyler och mottagarmolekyler i det aktiva skiktet. Detta kallas för en bulk-heteroövergång. När ljuset faller på skiktet exciteras en elektron i givarmaterialet och överförs till mottagarmaterialet. Ett elektriskt fält transporterar ut elektronen till en kontakt. Det är detta som ger upphov till strömmen i en polymersolcell.

     

    Polymera solceller har tillverkats på substrat av färgtäckt stål. Stålsubstratens ytegenskaper undersöktes för olika beläggningar och några potentiella substrat selekterades. Eftersom dessa substrat är ogenomskinliga behöver toppkontakten vara transparat. Detta kan uppnås genom att applicera solcellens skikt i omvänd ordning mot vad som är brukligt för polymera solceller. Den här typen av uppbyggnad kallas för en inverterad struktur och är lämplig för solceller på stål. En inverterad struktur användes med silver som bottenkontakt och PEDOT:PSS som toppkontakt. Det aktiva skiktet utgjordes av en blandning av poly-hexyltiofen och en fullerenderivat. De färdigtillverkade solcellernas elektriska egenskaper uppmättes och tydliga diodegenskaper noterades. Dock uppvisade solcellerna ingen fotoström. De aktuella substraten bedömdes vara för grova för att användas vid tillverkning av polymera solceller. Framtida studier bör inrikta sig på släta metallsubstrat istället. Alternativa tillvägagångssätt och förbättringar diskuteras.

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    Solceller på tunnplåt
  • 282. Jönsson, Mats
    et al.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    Johansson, Lars-Erik
    Lindberg, Ulf
    Roeraade, Johan
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Hamp, Sven
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    A Study of Biological Particles in a Bio-MEMS Device Using Dielectrophorersis2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 283.
    Kahn, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Saar, Nimrod
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Analys och utredning av hjulmotorer/kontrollsystem samt SotA inom det valda området ur ett elektromekaniskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Precer Group is a Swedish company that develops and provides technological solutions to produce electricity by burning solid fuels. Precer has developed a unique system based on an adaptive technique for charging different kinds of hybrid vehicles such as cars, trucks, utility vehicles and boats but, also for housing in the form of electricity generation. They have a patent on a heat engine that drives a generator that charges the battery.Precer Group also has collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) in which they are working together to develop new types of powertrains and fuels to create very environmentally friendly hybrid vehicles that do not run on fossil fuels.We have been working together with Precer Group to try to determine how todays technology with wheel motors and the motor controls can be implemented in this specific concept vehicle and also see how the problem that exsist with this tecnology e.g. unsprung weight, power and controlfunctions and systems can be solved. We have concentrated on finding out the best performance for in-wheel motors and the best functionality, safety and usage of motor controllers available on the present market.We received a list of specifications from Precer that we adhered to when we checked and analyzed different manufacturer’s motors. The reason behind attempting to use wheel motors, in oppose to more conventional motors, is weight reduction. By using wheel motors we are able to omit axels and gearboxes, thereby reducing the total weight of the vehicle which must be kept within a maximum limit. Another reason is that the use of in-wheel motors gives possibilities to implement smart electrical systems to control the motors and the vehicle through CAN buses. This leads to faster and more complex steering of the vehicle to improve the efficiency, stability and safety. Precer also specified the use of four separate wheel motors in order to utilize a four-wheel drive concept. We have compared the performance of the various motors and controllers available, and we have concluded which motor best suits this vehicle. Through physical calculations and functional comparisons of data that we have received from some of the leading companies we have come to results that show that systems which integrate the in-wheel motors and the controllers demonstrate a better performance when it comes to acceleration and climb ability. Also their functionality is considerably higher than the systems that integrate in-wheel motors with a universal controller. Although it’s able to configure the universal controllers considerably more and so make it possible for the user to personalize the system by desire.

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  • 284.
    Kapnas, Theodoros Göran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Concert Hall Acoustic Design of The Salt Silo, Tvøroyri2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Salt Silo in Tvøroyri, The Faroe Islands, is set to be turned the largest concert hall in The Faroe Islands. The Salt Silo is a large old silo with wood and concrete walls, and currently acoustics which are not suitable for musical reproduction.

    The project leaders require the concert hall to be suitable for both classical and rock music, which poses an interesting acoustical challenge.

    In this paper I will go through which variables should be known and controlled to be able to acoustically analyze and design a concert hall such as The Salt Silo. To not become too large of a project, the paper will focus on the hall's lateral energy fraction and reverberation time. The paper will also look at the Clarity Index parameter (C80) and note how it is affected by the change of reverberation time.

    The concert hall will be simulated with Odeon auralization software by Brüel & Kjær, and the paper will present the author's suggestion of how the concert hall should be acoustically designed to optimize the values of the reverberation time and lateral energy fraction. The design objective is to create a hall which is suitable for classical music, but where the acoustics can be varied to be able to house modern rock concerts as well. The paper will present a suggestion as to how The Salt Silo should be transformed from an old silo to a modern concert hall which fulfills the criteria which the project leaders have set on reverberation time and lateral energy fraction.

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  • 285.
    Karlsson, Christoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Vision based control and landing of Micro aerial vehicles2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelors thesis presents a vision based control system for the quadrotor aerial vehicle,Crazy ie 2.0, developed by Bitcraze AB. The main goal of this thesis is to design andimplement an o-board control system based on visual input, in order to control the positionand orientation of the vehicle with respect to a single ducial marker. By integrating a cameraand wireless video transmitter onto the MAV platform, we are able to achieve autonomousnavigation and landing in relatively close proximity to the dedicated target location.The control system was developed in the programming language Python and all processing ofthe vision-data take place on an o-board computer. This thesis describes the methods usedfor developing and implementing the control system and a number of experiments have beencarried out in order to determine the performance of the overall vision control system. Withthe proposed method of using ducial markers for calculating the control demands for thequadrotor, we are able to achieve autonomous targeted landing within a radius of 10centimetres away from the target location.

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  • 286. Kickelbick, G.
    et al.
    Holzinger, D.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Brick, C.
    Trimmel, G.
    Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Core-Shell Nanoparticles from Surface-Functionalized Titanium, Zirconium, and Vanadium Oxo Clusters2002In: Chem. Mater. 14, 10 (2002) p. 4382-4389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Teoretiska och praktiska uppgifter i teknikundervisningen2009In: Cetis ,Norrköping, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Linköping university.
    Transfer of knowledge in technical vocational education: A narrative study in Swedish upper secondary school2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 519-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vocational education, teaching and learning are expected to take place in the different learning arenas; schools and workplaces. In such a dual school system, the question of transfer is vital, i.e. how to use knowledge learned in previous situations in new situations. This article is an empirical contribution to research concerning transfer, by means of results from semi-structured group interviews with teachers and supervisors who educate students in the Energy program and the Industry program in Swedish upper secondary school. The interviews were analysed by analyses of narratives. The results show four themes of transfer in the interviews: (1) transfer of basic knowledge, (2) transfer of principles and skills, (3) transfer of written materials and real life and (4) transfer of experiences. The results also show three factors that are crucial in order to create possibilities for transfer: (1) communication, (2) financial resources and (3) reflection. These factors demand close cooperation between the teachers and supervisors during the students’ vocational education.

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  • 289.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Baartman, Liesbeth
    Faculty of Education of Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands.
    de Bruijn, Elly
    Utrecht University and HU University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht.
    Students’ experiences of factors for transfer in technical vocational education: A narrative study in Swedish upper secondary school2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In technical vocationaleducation, carried out both in school and as workplace training, it isimportant to study how the different learning arenas contribute to the students’learning and how the students can build further on their previous knowledge andlearn for an unknown future. This research therefore provides empirical resultsfrom the learners’ point of view. This article concerns students’ experiencesof factors for transfer in the different learning arenas during technicalvocational education in Swedish upper secondary school. The research questionexamined is: What factors for transferappear in students’ narratives of learning at school and workplaces intechnical vocational education? Theory and method in this study refer tophenomenology of the life-world and narrative tradition. Interviews withstudents were conducted in two different vocational programs: the Energy andIndustry programs. Through an analysis of narratives, three different factorsfor transfer were identified: Learning atschool, Practical experiences and Holisticlearning. The results display how teachers and supervisors could supportstudents in achieving transfer, the students’ need for theoretical knowledgeabout the learning objects, as well as improving learning through variation inlearning arenas and situations.

  • 290. Kildal, P-S
    et al.
    Rengarajan, S.
    Moldsvor, Arild
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Analysis of Nearly Cylindrical Antennas and Scattering Problems Using a Spectrum of Two-Dimentional Solutions1996In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 8, August 1996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a powerful method to analyzeantennas which can be considered principally two-dimensional(2-D) or cylindrical, except for some three-dimensional (3-D)physical or equivalent sources, e.g., dipoles or slots. It is shown byFourier transform techniques that such antennas can be analyzedas 2-D problems with harmonic longitudinal field variation. Theradiation pattern can often be determined directly from a finiteset of such 2-D solutions, each one obtained by any method, e.g.,the moment method. The mutual interaction between the cylindrical scatterer and the sources must be calculated to determine theexact current distribution on the sources and their impedances oradmittances. This is facilitated by performing an inverse Fouriertransform of an infinite spectrum of the numerical 2-D solutionsfollowed by a moment method solution in the spatial domain tosatisfy the boundary conditions on the 3-D equivalent sourcesthemselves. The inverse Fourier transform is simplified by theuse of asymptote extraction. The method is in itself a hybridtechnique as one method is used to solve the harmonic 2-Dproblem, and the other to solve for the source currents

  • 291.
    Kivelö, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Utveckling av GPS för stöttning av IMU2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 292.
    Klarin, Christoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Utredning och implementation av OPC-kommunikation med .NET2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the OPC standard OPC Data Access and the corresponding part in OPC Unified Architecture, and to implement OPC communication in a system.

    The need for a communication standard was born out of the interoperability problems that existed mainly in industrial production systems. With an OPC interface implemented between a data source and an application, the data exchange can be done in a standardized way.

    OPC Foundation, which is an organization that provides various OPC standards, has now developed two OPC standards, Classic OPC and OPC Unified Architecture. Classic OPC is a set of specifications that are based on COM and DCOM interfaces, which means that these specifications are tied to the Windows platform. OPC Unified Architecture provides a safer and more versatile communications interfaces than the Classic OPC standard provides, thanks to the communication stack.

    The practical bit of the project consisted of implementing OPC communication in a system. Two parts that were included in the implementation was to create a test environment and to develop an application on top of the class library that dealt with communication with OPC DA and OPC UA servers.

    The OPC Unified Architecture standard defines only the format of the message before it reaches the communication stack. This makes it possible to provide communication stacks that communicate according to other protocols and formats in the future, which allowing OPC Unified Architecture to be adaptable to future needs and thus will be an option for an interoperable system for a long time to come.

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  • 293. Koga, H.
    et al.
    Usuda, Y.
    Matsuno, M.
    Ogura, Y.
    Ishii, H.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Takanishi, A.
    Katsumata, A.
    Development of an Oral Rehabilitation Robot2008In: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 142-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that the massage therapy is useful for the rehabilitation of various diseases. Althoughvarious apparatus have been developed for the massage of the torso and limbs, a machineto perform precise massage therapy to maxillofacial region is not developed yet.Therefore, we developed a robot system that provides massage therapy to the maxillofacialregion. The name of our newly developed robot was WAO-1. WAO-1 has been designedto perform appropriate massage to the patients with dry mouth. System descriptionThe mechanism of WAO-1 consists of two main parts: robot arms and the plungerdevice. The robot arms consist of two 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) manipulators used tocontrol the movement of the plunger device attached to the end-effector of each manipulator(Figure 1). The plunger device is the only part of the robot having direct contact withthe patient face. In order to control the motion of the plungers attached at each arm ofWAO-1, a position control system is implemented. The control system of WAO-1 is composedby a Massage Pattern Generator and Virtual Compliance Control1. Method Anevaluation experiment of WAO-1 is performed. In this experiment, WAO-1 provides themassage to 6 healthy volunteers (without any maxillofacial disorders). Each subject isprovided the massage to its parotid gland for 2 minutes. In order to confirm the effectivenessof the massage provide by WAO-1, the production of saliva was considered as aperformance index. This index is measured by using the Saxon test2; which is a standardmethod to confirm the effectiveness of the massage therapy. Results and discussionThe average production of saliva was increased by 0.63 g after providing the massage. Byanalyzing the collected data with a t-test, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05). Thusthe effectiveness of the massage to the parotid gland by WAO-1 is confirmed. On theother hand, when the doctor gives the massage to the parotid gland of the people, productionof saliva increases 1.4 g (average of 6 people). Therefore, the effect of WAO-1’s massageis less than that of doctor’s massage. We developed a robot system (WAO-1) whichcan massage the face. We think clinical trial is necessary to collect the data to certify theeffectiveness of robotic massage. The goal of this study is to establish robot massagetherapy as physiotherapy.

  • 294. Koga, H.
    et al.
    Usuda, Y.
    Matsuno, M.
    Ogura, Y.
    Ishii, H.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Takanishi, A.
    Katsumata, A.
    Development of an Oral Rehabilitation Robot for Massage Therapy2007In: Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, 2007. ITAB 2007. 6th International Special Topic Conference on, IEEE , 2007, p. 111-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that the massage therapy is useful for the rehabilitation of various diseases. Although various apparatus have been developed for the massage of the torso and limbs, a machine to perform precise massage therapy to maxillofacial region is not developed yet. Therefore, we developed a robot system that provides massage therapy to maxillofacial region. The name of our newly developed robot was WAO-1. WAO-1 has been designed to perform appropriate massage to the patients with dry mouth, etc. WAO-1 is composed by two 6-degree of freedom arms with plungers attached at the end-effectors. The massage is applied to the patient by controlling the force and position of the plunger (virtual compliance). As a preliminary step of the clinical application, a simulation therapy of robotic massage to stimulate salivary flow from parotid gland was performed. The dynamic force on patient's head during the massage using WAO-1 was evaluated. The results suggested that WAO-1 could perform equivalent massage to human hand. We expect that WAO-1 will be useful to provide massage therapy to several patients with oral health problems. This will aim in reducing the therapy costs due to the need of human efforts when long-time therapies are needed

  • 295. Koga, H.
    et al.
    Usuda, Y.
    Matsuno, M.
    Ogura, Y.
    Ishii, H.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Takanishi, A.
    Katsumata, A.
    Development of Oral-Rehabilitation Robot2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 296. Koga, H.
    et al.
    Usuda, Yuichi
    Matsuno, M.
    Ogura, Y.
    Ishii, H.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Takanishi, A.
    Katsumata, A.
    Development of a Massage Robot Designed to Provide Massage Manipulation for Medical Therapy in Patients with Oral Health Problems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297. Krishnamurthy, S.
    et al.
    Montalti, M.
    Wardle, M.G.
    Shaw, M.J.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Hunt, M.R.C.
    Siller, L.
    Nitrogen ion irradiation of Au(110): Photoemission spectroscopy and possible crystal structures of gold nitride2004In: Physical Review BArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 298. Larsson, E. K.
    et al.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Estimation of fading channels modeled by stochastic differential equations from unevenly sampled data2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 299. Larsson, E. K.
    et al.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    On possibilities for estimating continuous-time ARMA parameters2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 300. Larsson, E. K.
    et al.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Söderström, T.
    Estimation of continuous-time stochastic system parameters2008In: Continuous-time model identification from sampled data / [ed] H. Garnier and L. Wang, Springer-Verlag , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
3456789 251 - 300 of 699
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