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  • 251.
    Ahlström, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Beteende eller sinnessjukdom?: Psykiatri och behandling vid Mariebergs sjukhus mellan 1930-19502015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is interested in Swedish psychiatry during the period between 1930-1950,localized to Mariebergs hospital in Sweden. The purpose of this paper has been to testSjöstroms evidence of the pattern that he used to create three analytical concepts, roughlytranslated to; morally educative discipline-treatment, the production process and the idealinstitution citizen. Sjöström motivates that his concepts gives insight into one aspect of thepsychiatric expansion between 1860-1960 as well as creates an understanding of psychiatryas an institution. The source material for this paper has been patients' medical notes writtenby the chief physician of the institution. Via a method which mainly different from Sjöstromin its selection, categorization and more thorough presentation, this paper has seen the samepatterns which Sjöström has created his three concepts from. The ideal institution citizen,defined by its well behaved and calm behaviour emerges also in this papers quantitativecompilation of qualitative data as the clear majority. The morally educative disciplinetreatment,treatments and punishments that focuses on creating an acceptable behaviourrather than the treatment of insanity itself, can be seen in the adjective behaviouraldescriptions of the type well-behaved / badly-behaved which are dominant. The focus in thejournals is behaviour rather than mental decease symptoms such as hallucinations andtreatment is based on unaccepted behaviour rather than symptoms. Also, the sequential orderthat exists between badly-behaved behaviour and treatments, and well-behaved behaviourand rewards shows the focus on behaviour which the concept is based on. The previous tworesults together is the two parts of Sjöströms production process, that trough the morallyeducative discipline-treatment the institution creates an acceptable, quiet and well behavedideal institution citizen were the mental decease becomes secondary.

  • 252.
    Ahlström, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Demokratiteoretisk analys av läromedel i Samhällskunskap: En kvalitativ studie om det demokratiteoretiska innehållet i läromedel för Samhällskunskap 1a1 och 1b under GY-20112013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study is done with the purpose of creating understanding for the theoretical democratic content in educational materials for Civic Education courses 1a1 and 1b during GY-11, so teachers create an intentional approach when using educational materials in their democratic education. This was motivated as important considering the reduction in obligatory Civic Education for the vocational programs. The study was conducted using a hermeneutic qualitative reading method where the educational materials, more specifically two series with one book for each course, was read with purpose of creating understanding for the democratic content according to ideal democratic models: deliberative democracy, participatory democracy and electoral democracy. A text voice analysis was also conducted using Bakhtins theory of dialogic and monologue text that contributed to the general result concerning the democratic content. The results show that the electoral democracy ideal is dominant in all educational materials, there is hence no striking difference between the democratic content in 1a1 and 1b educational materials. Though the study shows intention in the 1a1 educational materials towards a more participatory democracy ideal, the electoral ideal are still clearly dominant.

  • 253.
    Ahlström, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Riskhantering i kommuner och landsting: ISO 31000, riskbegreppet och organisationsövergripande riskhantering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 the first ISO-standard focused exclusively on risk management was adopted, ISO 31000:2009. It is supposed to be possible to use it in any societal sector. There is currently little information on how widely the standard has been used, regarding both public and private sector. The study at hand aims to collect information on how it is used in Swedish municipalities and county councils (i.e. local and regional level).  Furthermore, it aims to study how these actors’ risk management relates to some certain aspects of the standard. These are how risk is defined and enterprise risk management.

    A survey has been conducted. All county councils and 48 municipalities were contacted. Sampling regarding municipalities was made by using a categorization made by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions combined with random choices.

    The results of the study reveal that the use of ISO 31000 is very limited. It is used by two municipalities and not one of the county councils. Some of the latter are however considering using it.  It seems to be the ambition of both municipalities and county councils to apply enterprise risk management in a way that is principally in line with ISO 31000.  

    Furthermore, the results show that municipalities and county councils define risk in different ways. The majority of these organizations say that they use a defined definition of risk in the whole organization. Approximately half of the municipalities use the definition of risk being used by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, i.e. risk is the product of probability * consequence. Amongst county councils only a quarter use this definition. To a larger extent they use definitions that take into account the objectives of their organizations.

    It is hard to judge which consequences this might have. It might be good to know though, e.g. when future governmental controls are being developed.

    The results also show that there are differences between municipalities and county councils when it comes to enterprise risk management, where the latter use it more extensively. There is a gap however between how much enterprise risk management is used and how much municipalities and county councils would like to use it. 

  • 254.
    Ahlzen, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Illness as unhomelike being-in-the-world?: Phenomenology and medical practice2011In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific medicine has been successful by ways of an ever more detailed understanding and mastering of bodily functions and dysfunctions. Biomedical research promises new triumphs, but discontent with medical practice is all around. Since several decades this has been acknowledged and discussed. The philosophical traditions of phenomenology and hermeneutics have been proposed as promising ways to approach medical practice, by ways of a richer understanding of the meaning structures of health and illness. In 2000, Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus published a book where he proposes that the phenomenological hermeneutics of Martin Heidegger and also the reflections on health and illness of Hans-Georg Gadamer offer important ways to approach the nature of medicine. In particular, Svenaeus argues that the goal of medicine is to promote and restore health, and that health ought to be seen as "homelike being-in-the-world". Unhealth, illness, consequently should be understood as a situation where a person's "being-in-the-world" in characterized by that lack of the rhythm, balance and "tune" of everyday living that characterizes not "being at home". In this article, Svenaeus' position is briefly outlined. Questions are raised whether "unhomelikeness" is to be seen as a metaphor, and, if so, if it is a fruitful such. Furthermore, I discuss whether or not a discourse on health and illness in these terms may be misleading in a situation where the ontological presuppositions of Heidegger are lost out of sight and the popular understanding of health psychology predominates. I also approach the question whether Svenaeus' assumptions may inadvertently lead us to an unjustifiably broad understanding of the tasks of medicine. It is finally concluded that Svenaeus phenomenological and hermeneutical approach is both interesting and promising. There are, however, several questions that ought to be pursued further, and the step from philosophical analysis to everyday clinical discourse may be unexpectedly long and risky.

  • 255.
    Ahlzén, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Walderot, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans användande av omvårdnadsplaner: en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Ahlzén, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Bood, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    En gräns svår att dra: Studenters förhållningssätt till privat och offentligt på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society an increased use of social networking sites can be seen, which can present difficulties in deciding what is private and what is public. The questions and issues being discussed in this essay are made to determining how students at Karlstad University relate to the information published on Facebook. Through an explorative research design and methodological triangulation in the form of a questionnaire survey and focus group interviews, the authors seek to answer and discuss the students' different approaches to the use of Facebook.The paper shows that students at Karlstad University sometimes have a low awareness of the information displayed to others and inadequate use of the privacy settings available on the page. At the end of the study the authors discern three different categories of Facebook users with different levels of consciousness.

  • 257.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Medical humanities: arts and humanistic science2007In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 385-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature and scope of medical humanities are under debate. Some regard this field as consisting of those parts of the humanistic sciences that enhance our understanding of clinical practice and of medicine as historical phenomenon. In this article it is argued that aesthetic experience is as crucial to this project as are humanistic studies. To rightly understand what medicine is about we need to acknowledge the equal importance of two modes of understanding, intertwined and mutually reinforcing: the mode of aesthetic imagination and the mode of analytical reflection.

  • 258.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Not at home but healthy: Some second thoughts on health as "home-like being-in-the-world2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    The arts and the humanistic sciences in medicine: a case of synergism2006In: Medicine, philosophy and the humanities, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Why health is not a human right2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Why should physicians read?: Understanding clinical judgement and its relation to literary experience2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is literary experience of any practical relevance to the clinician? This is the overall question addressed by this investigation, which starts by tracing the historical roots of scientific medicine. These are found to be intimately linked to a form of rationality associated with the scientific revolution of the 17th century and with “modernity”. Medical practice, however, is dependent also on another form of rationality associated with what Stephen Toulmin calls “the epistemology of the biographical”. The very core of clinical medicine is shown to be the clinical encounter, an interpretive meeting where the illness experience is at the centre of attention. The physician can reach the goals of medicine only by developing clinical judgement. Clinical judgement is subjected to close analysis and is assumed to be intimately connected to the form of knowledge Aristotle called phronesis.

    In order to explore how literature – drama, novels, poetry – may be related to clinical judgement, a view of literature is presented that emphasizes literature as an invitation to the reader, to be met responsibly and responsively. Literature carries a potential for a widened experience, for a more nuanced perception of reality – and this potential is suggested to be ethically relevant to the practice of medicine. The “narrative rationality” of a literary text constitutes a complement to the rationality pervading scientific medicine.

    The final step in my analysis is a closer exploration of the potential of the literary text to contribute to the growth of clinical judgement, in relation to the challenges of everyday clinical work. Some of the conditions that may facilitate such growth are outlined, but it is also shown that full empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of reading on the clinician reader is beyond reach.

  • 262.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Evans, MartynHeath, IonaMacNaughton, Jane
    Medical Humanities Companion: Volume One: Symptom2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Evans, MartynLouhiala, PekkaPuustinen, Raimo
    Medical Humanities Companion: Volume two: Diagnosis2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a person falls ill, their experience changes - sometimes in a very minor and transient way, sometimes in a decisive and lasting one. ‘Diagnosis’ is often seen as the process of scientifically and objectively identifying the causes of this subjective experience, but is the process and meaning of ‘diagnosis’ really as simple as this implies?

    As this volume of The Medical Humanities Companion argues, diagnoses are an answer to complex human needs that spring from being ill, and are in turn a complex, culturally mediated interaction between individuals, scientific discoveries, social negotiation and historical change. This volume makes visible the complexities and ambiguities involved in giving and receiving diagnoses, and how they shape and are shaped by views on what is real and acceptable, and how people relate to the phenomena of illness.

  • 264.
    Ahlén, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Föreningen för Karlstads Arbetsstugor2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Ahlénius, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Öst, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Att ge eller att inte ge: En studie om projektledares arbete med återkoppling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of our paper is that feedback is needed as a tool on during work to make the individuals feel comfortable. This is basically related to our need of feeling accepted and to feel affinity. Research has demonstrated that the confirmation from the outside world is an important part of the individual's selfimage. In a project based environment, feedback is important, as project groups often consist of new constellations of people who quickly must learn to work together. If feed-back could be used successfully, this can have positive effects on work perfor-mance. The problem of providing feedback is how to give it in a constructive way so the receiver to take in the information and accept it. By examining past research, we examined why there is a need for feedback in project teams, what the research says that the giver should consider when it comes to feedback, and what consequences and results of feedback could be. Our purpose is, based on existing research, to examine how feedback is used in practice for five project managers. We asked ourselves following questions: Do project managers provide feedback? In what ways? How do they work with feedback? Do they know how the theory looks about the topic? How do they work to become better at giving feedback? To examine the issues, we used a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews. The interview subjects were all working in the same indus-try, the real estate industry. Our interview data were processed by transcribing and coding by predetermined themes. In our analysis we compared the theoretical background of the empirical data we collected. A matrix with a compilation of the collected data is presented in appendix 2. Our conclusion is that project managers mostly work with positive feedback and that giving negative feedback is perceived problematic. We also discovered that the project managers lacked a theo-retical knowledge about the subject and that the skills they possessed, had they learned through experience.

  • 266.
    Ahmad, Ramjar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Den hållbara urbanplaneringens paradoxer: The paradoxes of unsustainable urban planning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  This paper has investigated two urban planning ideals that emerges in the planning process. The study's starting point has been sustainable development to study the two existing urban planning ideals today. This means that the compact city and the green city has been the main focus of this study, but sustainability has large space with many of the aspects that is expected to lead to sustainable development. A case study was used to investigate how Karlstad is working on the issue and how the paradox appears in the municipal planning. Karlstad is currently developing a new green structure plan. The study's empirical evidence is based on two interviews with Karlstad municipality officials. The municipal documents Karlstad municipality's comprehensive plan (2012) and Olmårs densification study (2007) has been used. The municipal documents and the interview material was analyzed through meaning content. The study's analysis is based on the study's empirical and theoretical background which shows that there is a paradox in Karlstad municipality's urban planning. It also shows a trend in which cities aim to achieve the sustainable city. As the concept of sustainability is a diffuse concept, the compact city and the green city has become a complex strategy to achieve the sustainable city. This means that the green and compact city can be viewed from several different angles. Karlstad municipality's vision of the compact city is to have a compact city especially in the central parts of the city. These areas are green areas today. A planning dilemma between the aspirations of the planning arises, in which these must be weighed against each other. This means that if the green structure is prioritized then another aspect must be weighed out. In other words; there is a paradox in Karlstad municipal´s urban planning, and this means that if the green structure priority needs another aspect weighed out. This means that there is a paradox in municipal urban planning, and this is shown in this paper.

  • 267.
    ahmad, waqas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Development of algorithm for li-ion batteries in electric vehicles, taking into account SOC, charge control, cell balancing and SOF.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Ahmadi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Dahlgren, Kim
    Karlstad University.
    Karlsson Solaiman, Ari
    Karlstad University.
    Rabitsch, Alexander
    Karlstad University.
    Adding support for NEAT to iperf32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NEAT is an ongoing project which aims to re-enable the evolution ofthe transport layer of the Internet while at the same time providing aneasy to use API for developers of networked software. Researchers behindthe NEAT project has expressed an interest in a trac generator whichutilizes the NEAT framework in order to more easily conduct experiments,however, no such trac generator has previously been available. The goalof this project was to deliver a working implementation of NEAT in iperf3.This report covers the overall design, implementation and design decisionsmade during the project.

  • 269.
    Ahmadullah, Morshid Safi
    Karlstad University.
    Teaching and Learning second language: A comparison of teaching and learning Arabic and Dari languages in Secondary Schools of Kabul.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Afghan languages are, influenced by Arabic in the field of academic terms. Also, several Arabic words need to be learnt for daily conversation in Afghanistan. This study is about students and teachers’ views about learning and teaching Arabic and Dari as two second languages in the areas of Kabul where the residents’ native language as well as the language of instruction is Pashto. The aim of the study is to explore similarities and differences between teaching and learning Arabic and Dari in secondary schools of Kabul.

    The data for this quantitative study was collected from 9 schools in the eastern part of Kabul, Information was gathered through separate questionnaires for teachers and students as well as textbook analysis. The schools were selected via purposive sampling. A total of 60 students and 50 teachers (25 Dari and 25 Arabic) participated in this study.

    The main findings of the study included that all students are interested in learning both Arabic and Dari for various reasons. However, learning language helps students to understand the context of the textbooks and get knowledge about this is true about learning Arabic as it is a foreign language too.

    While teaching the languages, teachers only help students improve listening and reading skills as the teachers do most of the talking in class only sometime ask the students to repeat the lesson from textbook. The remaining two important skills i.e. writing and speaking are widely ignored because the teachers ask the students to do the writing at home and provide little time for verbal conversations inside class due to limited time.

    Likewise, the teachers thought it is important to focus on developing reading skills among students and very little or no attention is given to improving writing skills. In addition, memorization and recalling of information when required is the dominant feature of teaching in the schools I studied in this study.

    Arabic and Dari languages have lot of similarities, from having same alphabets to lot of common words. In my study most of students’ were interested to learn both Dari and Arabic, but the obstacle they faced during learning Arabic was, that there was not enough qualified Arabic language teachers but number of qualified teachers in Dari language was a lot and that made learning Dari easier for students who were interested.

    Generally, the results of this research confirm many previous results. However, a lot need to be done by teachers, school management and education authorities to improve the learning and teaching situations.

  • 270.
    Ahmadzai, Abdullah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN: A study of students’ drop   out and retention rates of boys and girls of primary schools in Maidan Wardak   Province - Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School access and staying in school is one the most important issue for the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan particularly for girls. According to the Ministry of Education (MoE), nearly seven million children have access to school in Afghanistan, 37 per cent of whom are girls.

    Students drop out of schools before completing their education cycle, to know who drops out and to what extent; this study describes some of factors that influence students to drop out of school in grade 4 and grade 6.

    To find out some factors that may influence girls and boys to drop out of schools in grade 4 and 6 six, structured interviews were conducted in 10 schools – 5 in rural area and 5 in urban area of Maidan Wardak province of Afghanistan. Data was collected by random sample from 32 girls and 48 boys who left schools. 20 teachers and 20 parents were also interviewed to know what their opinions are on drop out of students.

    After data collection, several factors were found to cause students drop out of schools; some of the most prominent causes were Poverty, lack of security, long distance to school and socio- culture factors.

    By looking to the current educational situation of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan, there is a need of research almost in all areas particularly in the area of girls’ education.

  • 271.
    Ahmed, Faisal Mahmood
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Estimated Droop Control for Parallel Connected Voltage Source Inverters: Stability Enhancement2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are considered as the replacement of conventionalenergy sources. These RES can use wind energy, solar light, bio waste and can alsobe in the form of small hydro power units. These RES has very poor power qualityand contains voltage uctuations and variable frequency. These factors make RES astability risk for the main utility grid. As a solution, currently inverters with dierentdesign techniques are being used as an interface between RES and main utility grid. Thecurrent study proposed a new technique "estimated droop control" for inverter design.The conventional droop control technique which was already used in inverter design, hasdiculty in synchronizing parallel connected inverters with dierent droop gains and lineimpedances. The proposed "estimated droop control" does not use any predened droopvalues for inverters and all inverters are responsible for the estimation of their own droopvalues with respect to their output power. Therefore, inverters are not bound to usesame and static droop values which are considered as a vital communication link. Theproposed design methodology has made inverters independent from this only virtual linkof communication due to which the reliability of a system has increased. The proposeddesign technique has given very good results in a simulation run. When the Simulinkmodel was run in parallel connected inverter with dierent line impedances, it was asuccess as both inverters started operating with same droop values as they were sharingan equal load. The most important test was with dierent line impedances because inconventional droop control it is dicult for inverters to keep their synchronism withdierent line impedances and an unequal load sharing make inverters to deviate fromtheir nominal values and to generate dierent tracking signals for each set. This problemhas been successfully solved with estimated droop control as in this method each inverterset its droop gains according to its output power, which helps an inverter to operate atnominal values with dierent droop gains and line impedance.

  • 272.
    Ahmed, Mohammed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Service Quality in Accounting Firms: its Effect on Client Satisfaction and Loyalty: A quantitative study based on the Swedish listed companies2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The quality of service is considered as an essential component in any service industry. It has been evolved in service marketing and has often been used in other research fields and sectors. Further, researchers have emphasized the importance of measuring the quality dimensions over years and in various industries in order to manage it. Also, they have proposed that enhancing the quality of services enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty, in turn that will enable the service provider to meet the changes and challenges in its business environment.

    Purpose: Based on listed companies’ perception at Nasdaq Stockholm OMX, the study seeks to evaluate the service quality provided by accounting firms in Sweden and determine the situation of its dimensions, as well as to explore their direct impact on the client satisfaction and client loyalty. In addition, the study utilizes the SERVPERF model to measure the service quality’s dimensions.

    Approach/methodology: To achieve the purpose, the study conducts a deductive and quantitative approach with explanatory purpose. Also, the data has been collected based an online questionnaire. It was sent to 450 listed companies at Nasdaq Stockholm OMX, resulting in a sample of 58 respondents. The analysis has been conducted based on regression analysis.

    Result/discussion: the research presents and discusses the result based on two hypotheses groups separately. The first hypotheses group regarding the impact of service quality and its dimensions on customer satisfaction. The second hypotheses group concerning the impact of service quality and its dimensions on customer loyalty.

    Originality: To the researcher’s knowledge this study is considered as a first attempt using a multi-dimension scale to assess the service quality of the accounting firms in Sweden based on the perception of Swedish listed companies. 

  • 273.
    Ahmed, Naeem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The great developments in the field of wireless communications that has been accelerated by the commercial need for better services has led to the application of wireless systems in many fields of life. The effect of wireless technology is much widened, like for safety applications, home automation, smart grid control, medical wearable, embedded wireless devices, entertainment systems etc.

    Direct and indirect surveillance of spectrum treatment has acknowledged the sequential and spatial accessibility of spectrum inside allocated frequency bands. This implies that spectrum deficiency is becoming a main problem. Therefore, spectrum deficiency problem arises here in terms of that most of the licensed primary users are not using their spectrum due to any reason of either geographical variation or temporal basis, and lot of allotted spectrum is unused and under-utilized. Moreover, along with spectrum deficiency problem, other issues are also linked like interference caused by secondary unlicensed users to primary licensed users while sharing the work load among each others, and problem of vacating the spectrum band in less fewer time frames after primary users detection.

    Cognitive networks assure to tackle these spectrum deficiency and other associated problems by accommodating secondary (unlicensed) users, in the spectrum region which is under-utilized. Spectrum Sensing is the prime motivation for cognitive radio and ensures that secondary (unlicensed) users do not propose unbearable levels of interference to primary (licensed) users.

    Cooperative Spectrum Sensing methodologies are still an open window of research. This work is related to cope up the problem of spectrum deficiency and associated problems, by developing an approach for establishment of grouping/clustering between secondary users in a cooperative spectral environment. This approach ensures that members within a group are highly correlated. As a result, the workload on each sensing node within a group is reduced. The effectiveness of this approach depends upon the accuracy of fused decision related to the presence or absence of primary (licensed) user at a particular band (50MHZ to 100MHZ). This approach also depends on the factor that time taken in sensing the primary (licensed) users should be less enough so that decision in vacating the band by the Cognitive Radio secondary users could be taken in fewer time frames. This latter metric is known to be ‘agility’, which eventually comes with the outcome of minimum interference to primary users via their early recognition.

  • 274.
    Ahmed, Tekosher
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Att identifiera signaler för obestånd i tid2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to protect themselves from credit risk, the banks must constantly check the performance of  the companies they have lent money to. There are many mathematical models for predicting financial distress. These models use accounting-based ratios, which often are historical and not representative for the present situation. This study describes how the banks do in practice to find signals of insolvency in time and the variables they are observing for doing that.

    In addition to financial reports which the company sends in to the bank at least once a year, also the relationship between them and information from different information  agencies are of great importance to track  signals of insolvency. Poor profitability is the primary cause of insolvency. It is caused mainly because of bad business and leadership.  Eventually will  poor profitability lead  to consuming of equity capital and place the company in an illiquid situation. Then it may be difficult for the company to pay their bills and signals of insolvency become obvious and  the  banks start then to sharpen  their attention on the companies and intensify the follow-up works.

    Another find-out  of the  study  is  that local factors which  are  contributing to failure are  the  large companies that are active  in the area. When they are in a bad situation, it affects the suppliers. The big difference between service and manufacturing companies  regarding insolvency  is  that service companies are more flexible regarding cutting down costs when bad times come.

  • 275.
    Ahmed, Umair
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Racing Driver Model in Dymola Vehicle Dynamics Library (VDL): Steering Controller Design2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Racing drivers always want to traverse path at vehicle’s maximum performance limits while keeping the vehicle at its ideal trajectory. The main objective of this report is to elaborate strategy for the path following problem in which driver has to follow the predefined 2D roads. New steering controller design for closed loop racing driver model in Dymola vehicle dynamics library is developed. The methodology proposed by Sharp et al. [2] is followed with the optimal velocity profile that tries to mimic the actions of the real drivers in real time scenarios. Vehicle handling limits i.e. longitudinal and lateral limits are defined before simulation. While travelling in the neighbourhood of optimal velocity on the straight road as well as during the curves, the performance of the steering controller is tested by conducting the test on J turn, Clothoid, Extended chicane and the closing curve path and also tested during the different environment effects e.g. when there is a side wind affecting the vehicle. Performance of existing and new steering controllers discussed and compared in result chapter. It is ensured that the drawbacks in the existing steering controller are eliminated by using the proposed methodology in new implemented steering controller.

    Key Words: Driver Model, Steering Controller, Path following, Velocity profile

  • 276.
    Ahmed, Walid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Skröder, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Hur jobbar destinationen Karlstad med att förlänga kinersernas vistelse?2018Other (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Ahmed, Walid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Skröder, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Hur jobbar destinationen Karlstad med att förlänga kinersernas vistelse?2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 278.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    Iran2018In: Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system / [ed] Carsten Anckar & Thomas Denk, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, p. 301-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Ahmedova, Sevindg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Skall vi leka?: Lekens betydelse för barnens utveckling2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 280.
    Ahnstedt, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nilsson, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av delegering för kompressionslindningi hemsjukvården2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title:                                   District nurses experience of delegation for compression therapy in home healthcare

    Faculty:                               Health, Science and Technology

    Course:                               OMA 312 Degree project - nursing,15 ECTS

    Authors:                              Malin Ahnstedt och Lina Nilsson

    Supervisor:                          Anna Nordin

    Examiner:                           Maria Harder

    Examiner:                           Birgitta Bisholt

    Pages:                                 31

    Date for the examination:   October 2018

    Key words:                         Home Health Care, District Nurse, Delegation, Safe care, Compression Therapy

     

    Background: Home healthcare today means increasingly advanced healthcare efforts which place high demands on district nurses' knowledge and leadership. The district nurse handles various medical information to nursing staff based on different regulations and guidelines. The district nurse's also have a central leadership role and will work for a safe care. In Sweden, an increase in chronic leg ulcer is seen which affects both the daily life and the quality of life for the victims. An important part of the treatment of leg ulcers is compression therapy. The district nurse's delegates compression therapy to nursing staff in home care. Purpose: Describe district nurses experience of delegating compression therapy in the home health care. Method: Qualitative interview study with inductive approach that was conducted and analyzed based on qualitative content analysis. 12 district nurses from six different municipalities working in municipal home healthcare were interviewed. Result: Results are presented within two generic categories which were, District nurse's approach to delegation and District nurse's experiences the consequences delegation can lead to. These are described with six subcategories each. Conclusion: The study showed that district nurses performed delegation of compression wound care to nursing staff in different ways, personal or general delegation. In general delegation, the activities do not fully comply with laws, regulations and guidelines and the patient's safety can be adversely affected. Their experience is that knowledge, as well as evidence-based work, is the basis for a safe delegation. The patient's safety and quality of life are influenced by the nursing staff's knowledge and interest in performing the delegated task.

  • 281.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Högskolan Dalarna.
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 282.
    Ahrnens, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lägesställare med I/P-omvandlare som alternativ2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a project instigated by Lennart Proper, Aspervall Instrument AB. The report deals with the development of Aspervalls pneumatic actuator, ASPEdonet and it is a part of the course degree project of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, MSGC17. The course covers 22.5 ECTS credits and it was accomplished during the spring term of 2016 at the faculty of health, natureand engineering, Karlstad University. Aspervall is a company located in Säffle that specialize in precision engineering, contract manufacturing and development of own products like ASPEdonet. ASPEdonet is a pneumatic actuator constructed of a pneumatic double-acting cylinder and a positioner. The pneumatic cylinder is used to convert air pressure into mechanical work through the moment of a piston with piston rod in a cylinder tube. The positioner is used to regulate the pressure to different sides of the piston with the use of a control signal. The thesis objective was to further develop the pneumatic positioner by converting it to electropneumatic, which means that the previous pneumatic control signal was replaced with a electronic analog control signal. This was accomplished through installing proportional technology into the positioner in the form of an I/P-transducer. I/P-transducer is also preferred to as E/P-transudcer or proportionalvalve, is a pressure regulator that is used to regulate air pressure proportional to an electronic signal. The problem definition of the project was how the positioner could be complemented with a I/P-transducer without compromising the basic function or the design of the positioner. The project followed the different stages of the product development process, pre-study, product specification, idea generation, concept selection and structure with detail design. The project resulted in a documentation that can serve as basis for product manufacturing and further development. The solution that was generated has the same basic construction and design as the previous model. Norgren VP12 was selected as I/P-transducer since it is compact enough to be integrated in the positioner. Standard components from Norgren and Nelco served as fittings and cable gland. A new more compact valve was designed as a part of the construction, the valve is manufactured from a single unit.

  • 283.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: Proceedings of QUIS 14: The 14th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence inManagement 2015, 2015, Vol. 14, p. 965-968Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 284.
    Aidantausta, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    3D-byggnadsmodeller utifrån takkonstruktioner: Lagring, hantering och bearbetning2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of cities and municipalities in Sweden begin to work with city models in 3D. For the most part the models are used for visualizations of ongoing planning processes, but also for the analysis of noise, shadow studies and environmental disaster simulations.

    Gothenburg continues to develop the use of 3D maps in municipal operations and is demanding a way to create building elements (walls), which generates in 3D buildings, from roof constructions that are mapped from the primary map. A method has been investigated in the present study. The results are then presented as a 3D model of buildings, along with a terrain map that will facilitate the localization of the area. The created 3D buildings are then compared with roof-data from the primary map to see how well they harmonize with each other. Then also the handling and storage of three-dimensional data with the information model CityGML is investigated. A specification of the requirements and characteristics that the customer, the City Planning in Gothenburg, looks are essential for building modeling in 3D has also been established.

    The final result shows of 4% increase in the plane of 3D buildings compared to primary map. The increase would be slightly greater if the comparison is made on the volume instead. The results also revealed that the increase in plan is something that has occurred during the creation of the roof constructions, which was something that I couldn’t have affected during the work. The results also show that the CityGML is an appropriate information model for storage and handling of 3D. Gothenburg still have insufficient knowledge of CityGML, which is also one of the reasons why the information model hasn’t been implemented in the municipality work with 3D models.

  • 285.
    Aiello, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att trivas på jobbet: En kvantitativ studie om trivsel och sociala relationer på ett svenskt callcenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research have concluded that social relations are an important factor that counteracts stress and increase comfort levels at the workplace. The purpose for this study has been to examine how, and if, different background factors affect the employee’s social relationships and job satisfaction but also if social relationships affect job satisfaction. The survey was conducted as an exploratory survey in which the dependent variables were studied on the basis of gender, age, period of employment and project. It turned out that no statistically significant relationship was found between background variables and job satisfaction. However, a statistically significant relationship was discovered between respondents' social relationships and job satisfaction level. Age and period of employment are factors that affect social relations inside the company.  In summary, the study provides support to theories that strong social support in the workplace improves job satisfaction. Age and period of employment create the conditions for social relationships between its employees and managers. There are also some indications in the data to suggest that age affects the employees job satisfaction.

  • 286. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Existence and uniqueness of solutions to a mathematical model predicting service life of concrete structures2009In: Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications, ISSN 1343-4373, Vol. 19, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Large-time behavior of solutions to a thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions2017In: Journal of Differential Equations, ISSN 0022-0396, E-ISSN 1090-2732, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 3009-3026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove the large time behavior of solutions to a coupled thermo-diffusion arising in the modeling of the motion of hot colloidal particles in porous media. Additionally, we also ensure the uniqueness of solutions of the target problem. The main mathematical difficulty is due to the presence in the right-hand side of the equations of products between temperature and concentration gradients. Such terms mimic the so-called thermodynamic Soret and Dufour effects. These are cross-coupling terms emphasizing in this context a strong interplay between heat conduction and molecular diffusion.

  • 288.
    Aikio Englund, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    A study of calculation models for fatigue life prediction: A thesis accomplished together with GKN Aerospace2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan don’t use the latest ANSYS version and need to upgrade their life analysis models. The aim with this thesis is to do a study of the new models and investigate the times required for the calculations. A flight mission were chosen and this mission together with different life analysis models were run in the GKN in house program Life Analysis System. The results were analyzed and depending on the results additional runs were made or the problem were sent to the life management group at GKN Aerospace. Strain levels versus time were also plotted for the runs with the new models to get a perception where any problems occurs. The results from the model 4.10.149 had no variations between equal runs for the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine but there was a variation between the results when equal runs was made with the high pressure compressor. The results from model 4.10.157 and 4.10.124 and 4.10.160 and 4.10.173 had variations in the fatigue life for equal runs. The variations can depend on that the calculations converges to different solutions, the reason for this can depend on the non-linear contact elements. The variation in the results between equal runs occurs when the model uses two or more cores. The time required for the calculation becomes faster with the use of more cores. The longest duration had model 4.10.173 because of the many requirements for the calculations in this model. The problem with the variation in the results is sent to ANSYS.

  • 289.
    Aikio, Felix
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Alvin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sjuksköterskestudenters upplevelser av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En empirisk studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 290.
    Aili, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Karlsson, Christian
    Karlstad University.
    Havöysund: En studie om hälleflundraturismen2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 291.
    Aimal, Pir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Mohsin, Main
    Analyzing Voltage control and reactive power support from full power converter wind turbine2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 292.
    Airola, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hager, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Image Classification, Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Frameworks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine learning and specifically neural networks is a growing trend in software development, and has grown immensely in the last couple of years in the light of an increasing need to handle big data and large information flows. Machine learning has a broad area of application, such as human-computer interaction, predicting stock prices, real-time translation, and self driving vehicles. Large companies such as Microsoft and Google have already implemented machine learning in some of their commercial products such as their search engines, and their intelligent personal assistants Cortana and Google Assistant.

    The main goal of this project was to evaluate the two deep learning frameworks Google TensorFlow and Microsoft CNTK, primarily based on their performance in the training time of neural networks. We chose to use the third-party API Keras instead of TensorFlow's own API when working with TensorFlow. CNTK was found to perform better in regards of training time compared to TensorFlow with Keras as frontend. Even though CNTK performed better on the benchmarking tests, we found Keras with TensorFlow as backend to be much easier and more intuitive to work with. In addition, CNTKs underlying implementation of the machine learning algorithms and functions differ from that of the literature and of other frameworks. Therefore, if we had to choose a framework to continue working in, we would choose Keras with TensorFlow as backend, even though the performance is less compared to CNTK.

  • 293.
    Aitman, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med terminal oro: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Terminal oro är i denna litteraturstudie en beteckning för en samling av symtom som utgör en särskild form av lidande i livets slutskede, sprunget ur fysisk, emotionell och existentiell utsatthet. Reversibla orsaker endast kan påvisas i uppskattningsvis hälften av fallen, vilket gör terminal oro till ett renodlat omvårdnadsproblem där sjuksköterskans roll är central.

    Syfte: Att belysa sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med terminal oro.

    Metod: Polit och Becks (2017) niostegsmodell. Litteratursökningar i Cinahl och PubMed resulterade i elva artiklar som kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades enligt Colaizzis (1978 refererad i Polit & Beck 2017) fenomenologiska metod.

    Resultat: Under databearbetningen framkom fem underkategorier (Att stå utanför, Att känna sig otillräcklig, Att söka samförstånd, Att vårda i relationen, Att skydda patienten), två huvudkategorier (Avstånd, Närhet) samt en övergripande kategori (Strävan efter att trösta).

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar utmaningar i omvårdnaden samt strategier för att hantera dessa. Medvetenhet och kompetens om terminal oro, tydliga rutiner för uppföljning av dess symtom samt reflektion tillsammans med arbetskamrater gav sjuksköterskorna större möjligheter att utföra omvårdnaden på ett tillfredsställande sätt. Närvaro i den dagliga omvårdnaden och ett respektfullt bemötande etablerade en tillitsfull relation med patienterna. När sjuksköterskorna hade god kännedom om patienterna kunde multidimensionella behov mötas och välbefinnande uppnås.

  • 294.
    Akaka, Melissa A.
    et al.
    Daniels College of BusinessUniversity of Denver.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Shidler College of BusinessUniversity of Hawai’i at Mānoa.
    Further Advancing Service Science with Service-Dominant Logic: Service Ecosystems, Institutions, and their Implications for Innovation2019In: Handbook of Service Science, Volume II / [ed] Maglio, P. P., Kieliszewski, C. A., Spohrer, J. C., Lyons, K., Patricio, L. & Sawatani, Y., New York: Springer, 2019, Volume II, p. 641-659Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-dominant (S-D) logic has been recognized as a theoretical foundation for developing a science of service. As the field of service science advances the understanding of value cocreation in service systems, S-D logic continues to evolve as well. Recent updates and consolidation of the foundational premises establish five core axioms of S-D logic and outline a pathway for understanding the role of institutions in value cocreation in general, and innovation in particular. This chapter overviews the evolution of S-D logic and its service ecosystems view, which can contribute to the furthering the development of service science and advancing the study of innovation in service systems. Future research directions are proposed.

  • 295.
    Akermo, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns möjligheter till lek i en sydafrikansk förskola: En studie från en sydafrikansk kåkstad2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to find out how South African preschool teachers regard play and its relationship to learning, development and influence in play. What teachers think about children’s learning and development, and if children have any influence in their preschool play, according to the preschool teachers.The empirical material consists of interviews with six South African preschool teachers. The analysis has been conducted according to a thematic content of analysis focusing two themes; play, learning and development as one theme and children’s influence on their play as a second theme.The preschool teachers considered that play is beneficial for children in their learning and development. Play is about everything in children’s life; through play children discover the world, learn and develop in a general sense. Play also contributes to children’s learning about interaction with others.A conclusion from the study is that play is considered as an essential part in children’s lives, both in literature and in the interviews. The result shows that the preschool teachers wanted what is best for the children. As the Convention on the rights of the Child states about play: it’s about survival and development, which the teachers considered was a priority.

  • 296.
    Akervall, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Engström, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Copingstrategier hos patienter med kolorektalcancer: en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 297.
    Akin, Serdar
    Karlstad University.
    Aggregerad konsumtion: En ekonometrisk studie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the real aggregated consumption and empirically determine its exogenous variables. A multiplicative analysis is done in the context of government stabilization policy to find out how policymakers can execute a stimulus package that will bring the best multiplicative effect to the economy The conclusion of the study is that real income, net financial assets and real-estate price index are all statistically significant. An effective expansive fiscal policy is a public-financed investment in the private sector. Coordination is going to be crucial when stimulus package is developed due to the fact that leakage in the form of imports will prevent the expected multiplicative effect.

  • 298.
    Akintola, Abayomi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hiring Discrimination in Racially Diverse Labour Markets:A Cross Country Study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is to determine if hiring managers are sensitive to racial background ofapplicants during hiring process. The author determined hiring discrimination using twoperspectives, first what did the hiring managers know about hiring discrimination? Second,correspondence testing was conducted to quantitatively determine if employers discriminateagainst certain names during resume screening. A cross country study was done betweenSweden and Canada. The results revealed that hiring managers in both countries are wellaware of negative impact of hiring discrimination on a firm or an organisation and all therespondents condemned it. However, correspondence testing showed that hiringdiscriminations occur in both countries. 1009 jobs were applied in Sweden while 1326 jobswere applied in Canada. The aggregate results for Sweden shows that applicants with foreignnames receive a call back rate of 66.3% while applicants with Swedish names receive a callback rate of 77.2%. The results for Canada show that applicants with foreign names receiveda call back rate of 73.5% while applicants with English names receive a call back rate of74.6%. Probit estimation was used to estimate the probability of applicants being invited forinterview. The results indicate that hiring discrimination against foreign names is morepronounced in Sweden compared to Canada.

  • 299.
    Aknooni, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University.
    Carlsson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vilken bank väljer du?  : - en nyckeltalsanalys av de fyra storbankerna i  Sverige 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Which bank do you choose? – A ratio analysis of the four major banks in Sweden 

     

    Background and problem: In 2008 the world was hit by an economic crisis. The crisis 

    has affected the major Swedish banks, mainly through increased credit losses. The 

    increase in credit losses incurred due to various factors but mainly due to banks' 

    exposures in the Baltic’s. The study should be considered whether any bank fared better 

    than the others, but even if some deterioration due to the economic crisis. This should be 

    investigated by using various financial ratios selected for this study. 

     

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the four main banks in Sweden, 

    Handelsbanken, Nordea, SEB and Swedbank, based on some selected indicators. We also 

    want to study how they influenced by the current economic crisis by studying a five-year 

    period between 2004 and 2008. 

     

    Methodology: For the collection of information, we mainly rely on banks' annual 

    reports, literature in finance and business valuation, and external information.  

    By studying the ratios for the years concerned, we shall compare the banks with each 

    other and study the extent of the crisis. 

     

    Results and conclusions: The results of the study's indicators show deterioration in 

    values for all of the banks in 2008 and the first quarter of 2009. The reason for these 

    declines is based in the current economic crisis. The most obvious change that is visible is 

    the increased credit losses that affect net income, which in turn affect many of the 

    selected ratios. The key figure shows the most visible changes is the credit loss rate, return 

    on equity and earnings per share. Furthermore, the economies of the banks are expected 

    to decrease further in 2009. 

     

    Proposal for further study: Our proposal for a further study is to follow the banks of 

    the current crisis and to study further about the indicators to get a deeper understanding 

    of what influenced the banks. A further proposal is to study how the banks are recovering 

    after the crisis during 2008. 

  • 300.
    Akrawi, Alberz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Petersson, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Resurshantering av personer i multiprojektmiljöer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important task for project managers in multi-project environments is to effectively choose the right people to the project team. For organizations, it means being able to prioritize and plan human resources among the various projects running in parallel. The purpose of this paper is to describe how a project manager in multi-project environments looks at the allocation of people in their projects. We did our research through literature reviews and interviews with seven project managers.

    The research shows that the studied organizations highlight both the expertise and the personal factors in an election. They do not use any specific personality test to identify their staff. The most important thing for them is instead the area of competence, although personality is seen as something important to complete the project. Why then don´t the different personality models have any impact in the selection? The organizations believe that they are already satisfied and think that the choice of simple manageable methods work well. One obstacle may be that they perceive the instep too high in the form of courses, training, purchasing models, etc., and the investment is perceived as being more costly than the estimated profit.

    A follow-up question to our main research question was how the project managers perceived the need for IT support system for resource management to help the business improve and streamline their processes of allocation of resources. We have, through our literature studies looked at the importance of using a more advanced IT support system for resource management in large organizations, but in the businesses we studied, they are not used. For example, it may be that IT support can mean large economic costs, large rearrangements and extensive training for staff.

    It turned out that those simpler IT support systems as MS Excel in combination with active internal communication is perceived as a sufficiently effective method of resource management particularly for the smaller businesses. Especially in these businesses, it is easier to get background information about potential project members' skills and personal qualities.

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