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  • 251.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Quality of Life and Daily Travel2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume analyses the relevance of daily travel in the quality of life of individuals. It provides a broad understanding of the links between life satisfaction, well-being and travel, the importance of commuting, and different evaluations and measures to assess the experience of commuting and quality of life. Chapters in this book relate travel and quality of life to the built environment, accessibility and exclusion, travel mode choice, travel satisfaction and emotions. It brings together distinguished researchers from a variety of academic backgrounds providing conceptualizations and applications, presented as case studies, for daily travel and well-being. Findings presented in this book are highly relevant for transport planners, transport marketers, public transport authorities, and environmental professionals in the pursuit of improving people’s life. 

  • 252.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, D.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

  • 253.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 254.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Maier, Raphaela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Applying a motivational stage-based approach in order to study a temporary free public transport intervention2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 81, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines temporary free public transport as an intervention for increasing public transport use, hence promoting sustainable mobility. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to understand how psychological mechanisms relate to motivational stage-based models of behavioral change, and the role of such a model when implementing temporary free public transport, and (2) to determine the effectiveness of temporary free public transport on car-use behavior, public transport satisfaction and attitudes. A literature review of studies reporting temporary free public transport interventions was first carried out, resulting in 13 studies that yielded non-conclusive results. We then conducted an intervention and follow-up surveys of 190 participants who tested public transport for free for one month in the County of Värmland (Sweden). The results show that psychological mechanisms are crucial determinants of motivational stage-based models, whereby personal norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control form the stage of change, and that social norms have an indirect effect through personal norms. Although an increased use of public transport was observed, only minor reduction in car use occurred. It was also found that participants moved up their motivational ladders, indicating a stronger motivation to reduce their car use post-intervention, something that may lead to a change in behavior over time. It is concluded that, although weak effects were observed on behavior in the short-term perspective, a temporary free public transport intervention may not be a waste of money, nevertheless, in a long-term perspective.

  • 255.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Travel and residual emotional well-being2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

  • 256.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Waygood, E.O.D
    Mitra, R
    Transportation and Children’s Wellbeing: Future directions2019In: Transportation and Children's Well-Being / [ed] Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson & Raktim Mitra ., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Rosenbaum, Mark
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA .
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The relationship between exchanged resources and loyalty intentions2019In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    his research aims to revive the applicability of the exchange concept in the marketing domain. The authors draw on current exchange theories to show how members of an aquatic center receive relational, social support, and restorative resources from other center members and employees. They then empirically demonstrate that members’ loyalty to the center is fueled by the resources they receive from others in the center and that their experience in the center mediates the relationship between exchanged resources and member loyalty. This research reveals that service organizations may foster person-place bonds by providing customers with resources over and above goods and services. Customers appreciate resources that transform their well-being, such as social support and natural, restorative resources, and they demonstrate loyalty to places where they can obtain therapeutic resources. From a theoretical standpoint, this work shows support for the notion that the exchange concept is a foundational aspect of a general theory of marketing and explains how the exchange and value concepts in marketing are linked together.

  • 258.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel2018In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1319-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand children’s experiences of their daily travel, and the consequences of these experiences, it is essential that we directly address children. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) is a self-report instrument consisting of nine items divided into three subscales – two reflecting affective travel experiences and one reflecting cognitive travel experiences. The present study has two aims: (i) to examine the psychometric properties of a child version of the STS (referred to as the STS-C), and (ii) to test a potentially positive relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction among children, something which has been found among adults. Three hundred and forty-five children completed the STS-C, life satisfaction scales, and sociodemographic variables. Analyses using Partial Least Square structural equation modelling revealed that the STS-C was internally reliable, had a sound construct validity, and confirmed a one-factor second-order measurement model with three first-order constructs (subscales). Furthermore, children’s satisfaction with school travel was also significantly related to their life satisfaction as measured by their satisfaction with: themselves, school experiences, friendships, family, and living environment. The relationship between travel satisfaction and life satisfaction varied between modes, whereby it was stronger among those who traveled by active modes than those who traveled by school bus or car. Younger children and boys were more satisfied with their travel to school, something which also had an indirect effect on their life satisfaction.

  • 259.
    Frostell, Björn M.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Canada.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Modeling both direct and indirect environmental load of purchase decisions: A web-based tool addressing household metabolism2015In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 71, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer awareness is continuously increasing towards pro-environmental behavior. Thus, we developed a web-based environmental feedback tool EcoRunner, which is designed for Swedish households aiming at increasing the awareness in a more pro-environmental direction. The conceptual model of EcoRunner has been developed based on top-down and bottom-up approaches connecting economic activities within a household to environmental pressures (both direct and indirect). In addition, the development of the tool includes a multi-level model aiming at better tailor-made advice to consumers. In this paper, we examine the EcoRunner tool with average single Swedish household expenditures as well as explore options for reductions and systems effects. Analysis shows that food and non-alcoholic beverages, fuel for personal transport (e.g. car) and air transports have significant environmental pressures. In addition, this study suggests that EcoRunner could be used in education systems as an environmental feedback tool to enlighten consumers motivation and change consumption patterns. 

  • 260.
    Frykstedt, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ideellt engagemang – en dold erfarenhet: En studie om hur arbetsmarknadspolitik för unga kan utvecklas.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Frykstedt, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    ”Gå inte och sätt dig vid fel bord”: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetardialogen på två lokalpolisområden i Värmland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 262.
    Furebo, Evelina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Marina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Konsten att samtala med barn: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares tillvägagångssätt och kunskap i utredande samtal med barn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine social workers approach in professional conversations with children in an investigating purpose, and their knowledge about the task. The method was qualitative consisting of six semistructured interviews with social workers in childcare investigations. The theoretical framework of the study consisted of Aristoteles theory about knowledge and the concept ”child’s best”. The result was also analyzed relative to previous research on the subject. Professional conversations with children were stated to be complex and all of the social workers found it to be a difficult task. None of them felt comfortable in leading the conversations when they first started working. They all thought that the university should’ve given them more knowledge about the subject. The social workers approach in conversations with children differed from each other and none of them used a pure communication method. Their approaches corresponded to the guidelines presented by The National Board of Health and Welfare. The analyze showed that the knowledge and approach goes hand in hand, and that social workers had three forms of knowledge which interacts with each other – theoretical, technical and practical. Even though theoretical and practical knowledge is significant, the knowledge based on the personal wisdom was more important. By analyzing the interviews we interpreted that the social workers aim their focus towards the childrens needs then having professional conversations with a child.

  • 263.
    Fäldt, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Klaric, Nikolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det är tufft att vara mellanchef": En studie om hur chefer på socialtjänsten upplever sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how managers in social services experience their psychosocial work environment. Interviews were conducted with five managers who are closest to the operational level in three different municipalities. The collected material from the interviews was analyzed using the concepts of demands, control and social support from requirements/control/support model. The result shows that the demands on manegers are high and that the demands on managers from the bottom and from the top of the organization can be conflicting. Managers have the opportunity to influence and control their everyday work, something that is perceived to be negative in the sense that it can be hard to prioritize the tasks. The manager’s ability to influence major decisions is comprehensive for its own operations, which is less than the ability to influence and control their everyday work. The managers have support from their hierarchical superior and from senior colleagues. The results show that the support is inadequate, mainly due to lack of time.

  • 264.
    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umea Univ, Ctr Demog & Aging Res CEDAR, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Div Physiotherapy, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Jarvholm, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion2015In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p50.001). Further, evidence was found of selective near transfer effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  • 265.
    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå universitet.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion: Cross-sectional observations and interventional effects2017In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 269, p. 17-25, article id S0925-4927(17)30054-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions.

  • 266.
    Gidlund, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan stress och sömn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this student thesis was to examine stress among students at Karlstad University in relation to their sleep. The study was a quantitative survey that was sent out to students through the university’s learning platform Itslearning. The number of participants in the study was 106. The survey used the instruments Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14) to measure participants‘ perceived stress in the past month, and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) to measure the participants’ sleep habits. The data was handled and processed in the statistics program IBM SPSS. Data Analysis method was Pearson product-moment correlation and simple linear regression. The result of Pearson product-moment correlation showed a strong significant negative correlation between stress and sleep quality index, disturbed sleep index, snoring problem index and sleepiness index. The result of the regression analyzes showed that stress was a significant predictor of all dimensions of sleep where 9% of the variance could be explained in sleep quality index, 21% in disturbed sleep index, 4,2% of snoring problem index and 23% of the sleepiness index.The conclusion was that the students who scored high on PSS14 also scored low on KSQ, which can be explained as the more stressed out the student was the worse their sleep. Perceived stress can to some extent predict sleep.

  • 267.
    Giota, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Emanuelsson, Ingemar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Changes in individualized teaching practices in municipal and independent schools 2003, 2008 and 2014: Student achievement, family background and school choice in Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, p. 78-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated student experiences of teaching practices in grade 9 at 2003, 2008 and 2014 after the Swedish education reforms of the 1990s. Teaching practices in both municipal and independent schools were related to student achievement and family background. Data from three nationally representative cohorts within the ongoing Swedish longitudinal ETF-project have been used. The results show changes from more conventional to more individualistic teaching practices. Independent schools emphasize more self-regulated learning. Child-centred forms of work are though found to be equally beneficial for student achievement as more conventional teaching methods. In spite of education reforms, family background is equally important for student achievement as earlier. Obtained results are discussed in relation to increased school competition in Sweden.

  • 268.
    Glaa, Besma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköping University, Sweden .
    Service teams and understanding of customer value creation2019In: Service Innovation for Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the value from Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter R. Magnusson, Lars Witell, World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2019, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following sections are included: Introduction Service Innovation as a Change in the Customer Value Creation Process What is a Service Team? Different Configurations of Service Teams Service Teams and Their Understanding of Customer Value Creation Conclusion References

  • 269.
    Gonäs, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning (from 2013).
    Jämställd hållbar tillväxt - från ord till handling. Introduktion till nr 2 2012 (tema JämVäxt).2012In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 270.
    Gonäs, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tyrkkö, Arja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Changing Structures and Women’s Role as Labor Force2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 89-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in the development of women's role as labor force over a 40-year period. This is done by presenting research results that concern the restructur-ing of the labor market over different time periods. The empirical material is from the 1960s, the heyday of the Swedish model; from the 1980s, the period that economic historians label the third industrial revolution; and from the 1990s, a period labeled the new working life that is covering the reorganization of the public sector.For the first period results from restructuring in the shipyard industry are presented as well as employment outcomes for single individuals. This industry was male dominated with very few women employed, but regional policy measures were implemented to reach a latent female labor force. The second period is covered by a study of closures and cutbacks in different industries in Sweden during 1982–1983. The proportion of women employed in the industries studied was around one third and employment outcomes had a specific gendered pattern. Women did to a lower extent than men get new permanent jobs. Permanent temporariness was introduced as a concept to describe their labor market situation.The recession that one decade later hit both female- and male-dominated sectors is il-lustrated by a study of the relations between labor market attachment, working life, and family conditions. The material comes from a regional research program based on a questionnaire and on register data on incomes from 1990 to 1999. The paper analyzes several areas related to work and outside of work that indicate a gendered pattern of multidimensional subordination and an increased polarization in terms of both gender and class. In conclusion, the 40 years has been a period of dramatic change in women's situation as labor force. In times of restructuring they often entered into precarious job situations or unemploy-ment. Women's double burden proved remarkably resilient when explaining gender differences in employment and working conditions.

  • 271.
    Gottzén, Lucas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Mellström, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Changing and globalising masculinity Studies2014In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1--4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Gran, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Attityden till upplevelsen av Mervärde Funäsfjällen: En kvantitativ studie för att undersöka attitydskillnader till upplevelsen av Mervärde Funäsfjällen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie utfördes för att undersöka om den sammanlagda attityden samt dess tre subkategorier beteende, känslor och kognitiva tankar visade eventuella skillnader beroende på vilken information om Mervärde individen tagit del av. Syftet var att undersöka om detaljerad information hade någon inverkan på individens attityd till Mervärde Funäsfjällen. Studiens respondenter delades in i två grupper där grupp 1 bestod av respondenter som besvarat enkäten bestående av informationsscenario 1 och grupp 2 bestod av respondenter som besvarat enkäten bestående av informationsscenario 2. Manipuleringen utfördes genom att deltagarna i grupp 1 fick en kort information om Mervärde och deltagarna i grupp 2 fick en mer utförlig och detaljerad information. Avsikten var att deltagarna i grupp 2 skulle bli manipulerade av en mer utförlig och detaljrik information om Mervärde. Populationen som undersöktes var individer som någon gång under säsongen 2016/2017 befunnit sig på Destination Funäsfjällens anläggningar i Funäsfjällen. Sammanlagt deltog 230 respondenter i studien varav grupp 1 bestod av 127 respondenter och grupp 2 bestod av 103 respondenter. Två olika enkäter designades i Survey and report och skillnaden mellan de olika enkäterna var informationen om Mervärde. Data samlades in genom att fysiska enkäter delades ut vid någon av Destination Funäsfjällens anläggningar och genom att länkar till studiens två elektroniska enkäter skickades ut till tidigare gäster som besökt destinationen. Respondenternas attityd och tre subkategorier mättes med hjälp av ett egetkonstruerat mätinstrument som innehöll 15 påståenden som besvarades med en fem gradig likertskala. Fyra stycken oberoende t-test visade att den detaljrika informationen inte hade någon signifikant effekt på individens attityd. Den detaljrika informationen visade inte heller någon effekt på individens beteende eller känslomässiga kognitiva komponent av attityd. Därav kan slutsatsen antas att ingen av studiens informationer hade någon inverkan på individens attityd. Slutsatsen för studien var att informationen om Mervärde inte hade någon effekt på respondenternas attityd, men att resultatet inte kan generaliseras antas gälla i hela populationen. 

  • 273.
    Granerud, Arild
    et al.
    Avdeling for folkhelsefag, Högskolen i Hedmark.
    Eriksson, Bengt G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    God omsorg på gård2013In: Psykisk helse og rus, ISSN 1892-6509, p. 8--17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Grenander, Amanda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Biståndshandläggares upplevelser av sitt handlingsutrymme inom äldreomsorgen: En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how social worker in elderly care experience their discretion based on the street-level bureaucrats role and to identify the factors affecting the discretion. Five interviews with seven informants, six women and one man, have been completed and the study has a qualitative approach. The analysis of the results showed that the discretion increases or decreases due to a number of identified factors. These factors are: the background, support functions, pressure, regulations and practices. The study describes how the discretion is performed and how it is perceived by the informants. A consequence of a small discretion is that the social workers position between the authority´s  mission and the needs of citizens can contribute to stress.

  • 275.
    Grim, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå universitet.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Schon, Ulla-Karin
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Development and Usability Testing of a Web-Based Decision Support for Users and Health Professionals in Psychiatric Services2017In: Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, ISSN 1095-158X, E-ISSN 1559-3126, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Shared decision making (SMD) related to treatment and rehabilitation is considered a central component in recovery-oriented practice. Although decision aids are regarded as an essential component for successfully implementing SDM, these aids are often lacking within psychiatric services. The aim of this study was to use a participatory design to facilitate the development of a user-generated, web-based decision aid for individuals receiving psychiatric services. The results of this effort as well as the lessons learned during the development and usability processes are reported. Method: The participatory design included 4 iterative cycles of development. Various qualitative methods for data collection were used with potential end users participating as informants in focus group and individual interviews and as usability and pilot testers. Results: Interviewing and testing identified usability problems that then led to refinements and making the subsequent prototypes increasingly user-friendly and relevant. In each phase of the process, feedback from potential end-users provided guidance in developing the formation of the web-based decision aid that strengthens the position of users by integrating access to information regarding alternative supports, interactivity between staff and users, and user preferences as a continual focus in the tool. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: This web-based decision aid has the potential to strengthen service users' experience of self-efficacy and control as well as provide staff access to user knowledge and preferences. Studies employing participatory models focusing on usability have potential to significantly contribute to the development and implementation of tools that reflect user perspectives.

  • 276.
    Grip, Karin K
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Broberg, Anders G
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Children exposed to intimate partner violence and the reported effects of psychosocial interventions2013In: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, E-ISSN 1945-7073, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 635-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a repeated measures design posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological and behavioral problems significantly decreased following intervention in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), with use of traditional group analyses. Analyses using the reliable change index (RCI), however, revealed that few children were improved or recovered, implying that interventions in common use should be evaluated for their significant impact on the individual level in addition to group level statistics. Positive changes in children's behavioral problems were related to the mother's improvement of their own mental health. Direct victimization by the perpetrator was not associated with treatment changes but with higher symptom levels at study entry. Amount of contact with the perpetrator was neither related to symptom load nor to changes following treatment.

  • 277.
    Grip, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Engström, Lars-Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Krekula, Clary
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The woman as problem and solution: Analysis of a gender equality initiative within the Swedish Rescue Services2016In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to study how problem definitions of gender equality affect the possible outcomes of gender equality initiatives. The Swedish Municipal Rescue Services were chosen as the empirical example because they offer a workplace where women are greatly under-represented despite years of gender equality efforts. The article analyses how reasoning around gender equality shapes and constructs problem formulations around gender and equality. This article contributes to the debate on the conditions of gender equality founded on gender equality definitions, and how this relates to the potential for change. The gender equality efforts within the Rescue Services are problematized based on Bacchi’s policy analysis model. We do so by analysing the applications attracted by a call for a gender equality initiative within the Municipal Rescue Services—A Fire Station for Everyone. The article argues that, to some extent, the problem definitions in this case undermine gender equality initiatives as they place women—whom they wish to recruit to the Rescue Services to make it more gender equal in a numerical sense—in a paradoxical position as both problem and solution. Nor do they problematize power issues. It is stated that the given problem descriptions do not leave a lot of room for change, but that the method used to analyse the problem descriptions can be an important tool for understanding why gender equality initiatives may struggle to achieve their intended objectives.

  • 278.
    Grip, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Jansson, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Obstacles and Possibilities with Collaboration in Municipal Public Sector: A study of collaboration between the rescue service and home-help services2016In: The 2016 RSA Annual Conference Building Bridges: Cities and Regions in a Transnational World, Karl-Franzen University, Graz, Austria. 3rd-6th April 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of collaboration in municipal public sector is to ensure welfare and safety for its citizen, as well as to ensure economic sustainability in the municipality. Different forms of collaboration in the public sector can be an important part of sustaining a satisfactory service, especially in regions with a declining population, but also to give a faster and better service in all kind of regions. In this study we put focus on collaboration between municipal rescue service and home-help service, a collaboration that can be placed in civil and societal contingency and preparedness for unexpected events.

    Both the rescue service and the home-help service are highly gendered sectors. The point of departure for this study is that the gender coding of occupations and competences lay down conditions for the collaboration, why it is important to shed light on these codings and how they effect an effective collaboration and sustainable implementation. Our understanding is that gender is a social construction that is produced and reproduced through interaction. This construction have effect on how we are “made” as men and women, how we are formed as individuals, and how the society is both symbolic and structurally organized around what is conceived and perceived as male and female duties, occupations and places.

    The results of this study build on 30 interviews with staff in rescue services and home-care services (both employees and heads of these services). The results show that collaborations differ between municipalities, both what is included in the collaboration and how it is staged and performed, and that the processes of collaboration are complex and that they challenge ideal of organization, contents, responsibilities and who or whom should do different work tasks. We can see that conceptions of gender in male and female dominated work are often reproduced and reinforced in many of the studied cases, which hinder an effective service. But we can also notice that the collaboration by home-care service staff is perceived as a possibility for increased status and better resources when they collaborate with the rescue service.

  • 279.
    Grip, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jansson, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    The Unchallenging Method is a Good One: about Measures for gender Equality and Diversity in the Swedish Rescue Service2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality in the Swedish Rescue Services has been a political directive since the 1990ies, but has led to few visible changes. The Swedish Rescue Service is still a male-dominated organization with a traditional focus on firefighting. The call for change is made with references to new economic realities, conceptualizations of risk, and directives for gender and ethnic equality. The overriding concern of this paper is discursive constructions of equality work in relation to political directives on increasing equal opportunities in the Swedish Rescue Services. Gender is treated as a prevailing power structure and as an integral part of organizational practices. The paper is based on a questionnaire about the practical work made on equality in the Swedish Rescue Service, answered by over 1000 persons working in the Swedish Rescue Service. The questionnaire contains a large amount of open comments, which is analyzed in this paper. The result shows that two thirds of the respondents have a mainly positive attitude towards gender equality in the Rescue Service, but that the measures for equality are considered as "wrong methods". Our analysis discusses that only methods that doesn’t challenge the present organization are considered as acceptable.

  • 280.
    Gronholm-Nyman, Petra
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Soveri, Anna
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Ek, Emilia
    Student Hlth Care, Porvoo, Finland..
    Nyholm, Alexandra
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Laine, Matti
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Turku Brain & Mind Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre-and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  • 281.
    Gull, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevd beroendefokuserad psykologisk kontroll och dess inverkan på social ångest: En kvantitativ enkätstudie om relationen mellan beroendefokuserat psykologiskt kontrollerande föräldrar och social ångest hos svenska ungdomar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between experienced dependency-oriented psychological control and social anxiety in adolescents, and if there were any differences in adolescents’ social anxiety depending on the participant’s and the parent’s gender, as well as degree of experienced dependency-oriented psychological control. Data was collected via the ongoing project Trestadsstudien through a survey conducted during the spring of 2015. Dependency-oriented psychological control was measured with the subscale for DPC in DAPCS, and social anxiety with SPSQ-C. 2958 students in eight and ninth grade from twelve Swedish schools participated. Data was analyzed via correlations, t-tests and ANOVA. Results showed significant positive correlations between experienced dependency-oriented psychological control and social anxiety, as well as significant main effects in the form of the participant’s gender and degree of experienced dependency-oriented psychological control regarding social anxiety. Results also showed that boys to a higher extent experienced dependency-oriented psychological control from their fathers, and that girls experienced more social anxiety. It was concluded that experienced dependency-oriented psychological control seems like a contributing factor to the development of social anxiety, but that other underlying variables likely contribute to the anxiety, and mostly in girls. Other areas of interest for future research concerning both phenomena were pointed out based on the results. Lastly some practical suggestions were made regarding what could be done in schools to note the phenomena and help the adolescents who suffer from social anxiety and are subjected to dependency-oriented psychological control.

  • 282.
    Gustafsschöld, Denise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hunden som familjemedlem: En kvalitativ undersökning om hundägares uppfattning och tolkning av hundars personlighet2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie genomfördes med syfte att undersöka hur hundägare uppfattar och förstår sina hundars personlighet. Urvalet bestod av hundägare i Karlstadområdet, vilka levde tillsammans med sin hund och inte var utbildade inom ”hund-ämnet”.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer användes för att samla in data, vilka sedan transkriberades och analyserades med hjälp av en tematisk analys. Resultatet tydde på att hundägare har svårt att skilja personlighetsdrag från beteenden, många människoliknande egenskaper tillskrevs hunden. Positiva egenskaper hos hunden motiverades utifrån hundens inre (dess personlighet eller sinnestillstånd) medan negativa egenskaper tenderade att förklaras genom yttre faktorer i hundens omgivning. 

  • 283.
    Gustafsson, Ann-Sophie
    et al.
    Karlstads kommun.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Behovsstyrd utveckling av välfärdsteknik med test och utvärdering som en naturlig del av verksamhetens förbättringsarbete2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentation om hur införandet av en automatiserad duschlösning skapade olika värden för två användargrupper, äldre och vårdpersonal. Där oberoende var en viktig aspekt för både personal och äldre, men där personalens perspektiv var mer tvetydigt och ambivalent då deras arbetsinsatser inte bara förbättrades utan även i vissa aspekter försvårades. De äldre användarnas perspektiv handlade mer om ett ökat oberoende och upplevelsen av att återfå kontrollen i duschsituationen. Här diskuterades också resultatens implikationer samt lärdomar från studien.

  • 284.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    USA.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 285.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Helena
    Örebro universitet.
    Perfectionism and athlete burnout: Does the motivational climate matter?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Gustafsson, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Att möta psykisk ohälsa som ordningsvakt: En explorativ studie av ordningsvakters upplevelser av att bemöta och hantera människor i olika tillstånd av psykisk ohälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Gustavsson, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Beslutsfattande och uppmärksamhet: Heuristikers påverkan på kognitiva resurser inom konsumentpsykologi2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day we make numerous decisions. Some are better than others. Intuitive decisions usually results in less good decisions when we do not reason about our choices. Research has been interested about the process that is behind how we make good decisions. Decisions we face every day, such as when we shop, determined using various mental shortcuts that we use unconsciously. These shortcuts are called heuristics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the consequences for the use of various heuristics and if they reduce the cognitive resources to varying degrees. A quantitative data collection was performed by a laboratory experiment with a total of 34 participants. A convenience sample was done and participants were divided into three different heuristic groups by randomization. Groups were examined and compared by using eye-tracking equipment where there where a controlling number of observations during the decision process. Number of observations represents how many products participants viewed during the decision making. There may be multiple observations on the same product or different products. A mixed ANOVA with a repeated measurement of the various groups was used. Results show that the heuristic group “recognition” had the least number of observations in the decision before the cognitive load and increased the number of observations in the decision after the cognitive load. This indicates a greater attention after cognitive load. The conclusion is that this group had the least reduction of cognitive resources after cognitive load. This is resulting in a less risk to make impulsive decisions. 

  • 288.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars2018In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

  • 289. Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Influences on Current Mood of Experienced Sequences of Events2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Gårdestedt, Katja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sömnvanor hos tonåringar, att sova gott eller inte: En tvärsnittsstudie om hur sömnstabilitet och medieanvändning är relaterade till insomni hos svenska skolungdomar på högstadiet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the teenage years biological and social changes appear in individuals. This can lead to changes in sleep and sleeping problems can arise. A decrease in sleep can lead to impairments in behavior, emotion regulation and academic achievements.The aim of the study was to examine how sleep stability and media use could be related to insomnia in Swedish high school adolescents. Furthermore gender differences were examined. The study had a cross sectional design and surveys were used to collect the data with a sample of 2424 high school students in grade 7 and 8.Pearsons r showed significant correlations between sleep stability and insomnia and media use and insomnia. A multiple regression showed that sleep stability and media use could predict insomnia. Independent t-tests showed that there were significant gender differences where the girls showed a higher degree of insomnia and media use and the boys showed a higher degree of sleep stability.A conclusion from the study was that for schoolchildren in their teens sleeping problems may be prevented by good sleeping habits. Sufficient sleep may cause physical and mental health to be strengthen which is important for adolescents on their way into adulthood.

  • 291.
    Göransson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet samt North-West University, Sydafrika.
    Dialog och kunskap om arbetsmiljö - En intervention som balanserar?2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorers inverkan på hälsa och produktivitet kan sammanfattas i ett antal balanser; balanserna krav–kontroll, ansträngning–belöning, arbete–återhämtning, mål–resurser och kvantitet–kvalitet. Trots befintlig kunskap saknas interventionsstudier som fokuserat på dessa balanser. Här redovisas resultat från ett pilotprojekt där medarbetare och chefer deltog i en intervention med fokus på dialog om uppdraget och arbetsmiljöns balanser.

  • 292.
    Hagelin, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fager, Tina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Inkludera eller exkludera: En kvalitativ studie om professionellas upplevelser om samarbete med missbrukares anhöriga2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was to find out how social workers feel that the relatives are important in client work and how the social workers relates to the relatives. A narrative interview as a basis for the study was conducted with a relative, five qualitative interviews with social workers and one addiction therapist. The empiricism from the study was analyzed using EBP, social capital / social support and role-theory. The result shows that the informants felt that the relatives were an important part of the client's context, which could have an effect on the treatment-result. Research findings indicate that social support is an important component for successful treatment, while also being backed by evidence-based research. The result shows an explicit pattern: That having access to relatives was considered an asset, The relatives were excluded from the work with the client, That the relatives were clientified. The relatives could be an asset to the client, especially when the client returns home from treatment while the social workers exclude the relatives from the client’s treatment process. If the relatives initiated contact with the social workers, the focus turned to the relative’s needs, thus leading to clientification. The social workers were found in the analysis to act out two roles towards the relatives; one were they keep the same professional role that they have when meeting with the addicts, which clientifies the relatives; the second being a more personal role where they handle the relatives from a more humane perspective.

  • 293.
    Hahne, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att hitta sin roll som terapeut: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen som Masterstudent i Psykologi med inriktning Kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative interview-based study was carried out on 10 student therapists undergoing a master’s degree which included basic psychotherapy practice in cognitive behavioural psychology. The study aim was to investigate the experiences of the student therapist in the attempt to find the therapy role. The method used was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The result showed five themes with a total of six sub themes. The first sub theme was The therapeutic personality, followed by Living up to the therapeutic role with the sub themes The ideal therapist; Performance anxiety and performance based self- esteem and Insecurity and the fear of making mistakes. The last main theme was Problems and possibilities during a therapy education with the sub themes Being one’s own therapist; Therapy supervision and the supervisory role and Structure that helps and prevents. The themes addressed the student therapists ideas of a therapeutic ideal to relate to and the perception of a congenital therapeutic personality. The students experienced performance anxiety related to fear of making mistakes. The participants experienced a heightened self- awareness and perceived structure in the therapy session to be a reassuring strategy but also a hindrance when it comes to flexibility. The importance of supervision and the supervisory role also emerged in the study. The study shows that there are areas within student therapy experiences which need to be highlighted.

  • 294.
    Hallberg, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kreativiteten i Humor: Domängenerella Mätningar av ett Domänspecifikt Område2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine whether measurements of creativity as a domain general trait can explain possible connections between a domain general creative performance and one of the creative domain specific areas, humor. Another aim was to examine whether the maladaptive humor styles can explain possible differences in creative performances. An Internet-based survey was used on 281 students from a Swedish university. The survey was composed of three parts consisting of three separate measuring instruments – Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ-6) was used to measure the respondents’ sense of humor, Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) measured the respondents’ humor style and Alternate Uses Test (AUT) gave the respondents an opportunity to account for their creative performances. The results showed no significant correlations between the respondents’ sense of humor and their creative performances. Neither could the maladaptive humor styles explain any significant differences in creative performances. However it was found that a low degree of self-defeating humor style had a significant interaction effect on differences in elaboration between low and high degrees of aggressive humor style.

  • 295.
    Hallstenson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ringsåker, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Mamma är lik sin mamma: En kvalitativ studie av moderskap ur ett livsloppsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of studying motherhood was born out of our own self- perceived experiences as mothers, and in the sense of having a “book of rules” constantly present in the motherly role. Throughout times the motherly discourses surrounding motherhood have included aspects such as caring for and nurturing children, to take care of the household chores and to overall have an all seeing eye over the logistics of the home. In contrast, the men´s primary task is to provide the family with economic capital. ”The good mother”- this pure madonna figure, is often linked to a naturalness discourse which points towards women as created to bear children, giving birth and then finding themselves instinctively knowing how to take care of the newborn. This idea of motherhood as the women´s primary task is traditional in the sense of being rooted in historical contexts. Through a qualitative study, we wish to contribute to a wider understanding of the complex ways in which discourses work and affect the individual lives of women adulging in motherhood, focusing on their own experiences of motherhood. We have chosen to interview nine women from three different families, in each family three generations. Previous research points at two big discourses in western society- the naturalness discourse and the discourse surrounding gender equality. With a focus on these two discourses the study also is carried out with a lifecourse perspective as a way of capture the very important aspect of time. Time is a central part in our attempt to understand the ways in which discourses work, travels and modifies over time. Our findings, watching three generations of mothers reinforces the picture of the work towards equality is both complex and far from done. The motherly discourses are, even today, often characterized by a traditional thinking motivated by and linked to a perception of the natural when it comes to the different roles men and women are attributed. This, in turn, causes a collision with a “modern” discourse surrounding equality. Nowadays the roles embedded in the gender contract is overall more equal than before. Thus you could expect women to, in greater occurence, be freed of the discursive fetters. Despite this, this study points at the opposite direction, leaving us with a feeling of failure when it comes to gender equality. A traditional discourse of “the good mother” is still present in a modified “modern” version. Women in western society therefor are free when it comes to a lot of aspects, but not fully free in the sense of being themselves in the motherly role.

  • 296.
    Hamehveysi, Hayat
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Sambandet mellan arbetstillfredsställelse och attityd till samverkan med föräldrar som har utländsk bakgrund, ur grundskollärares perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a correlation between job satisfaction (Extrinsic, intrinsic and general MSQ/Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) and the attitude of primary school teachers towards cooperation with parents with foreign origins (ATS). Additionally, another aim was to investigate if the background variable, experience of students with foreign origins, predicts the attitudes of primary school teachers towards cooperation with parents with foreign origins. A web-based survey was sent to five different Facebook groups which were addressed to primary school teachers in Sweden. The study was conducted on a total of 173 primary school teachers (women). The collected data was analyzed through two Pearson’s correlation coefficients and a regression analysis in SPSS. The results could not demonstrate a significant correlation between teachers' MSQ and ATS. The results indicated however a weak but positive significant correlation between teachers' experiences of foreign origins students and their ATS. Further, this significant correlation contributed to the predicting of ATS. This significant relationship contributed to predicting 2.2% of the variance in ATS. The conclusion is that the MSQ and ATS of primary school teachers have no relation with each other. The teachers' experience of students with foreign background predicted ATS with very low explanatory values, which means that the predictions have no significance for ATS. ATS could therefore be explained by other factors, as well as studies relevant to implementation.

  • 297.
    Hammar, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hemligheten: En kvalitativ studie om tio kvinnors upplevelse av att dölja sin sexuella läggning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about what it means for an individual to conceal his or her sexual orientation to the environment. Data was collected through a semi structured interview and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The analysis resulted in five themes that describe the subjects experience of hiding their sexual orientation: Perceived inner conflict, fear of the environments reactions, adaption and alienation, negative attitudes and silence and expectations of a heterosexual lifestyle. The study´s participants describe that attitudes toward homosexuality improved, but at the same time is neither bi- or homosexuality as accepted as heterosexuality.

    Keywords: Homosexuality, bisexuality, sexual orientation, keep secret, alienation, heterosexual norm

  • 298.
    Hammarlund, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Empati i en överväldigande värld: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 299.
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Svenska upplevelser av spice: En kvalitativ studie av upplevelser av spice på ett svenskt internet forum2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 300.
    Hansson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lundblad Månsson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Busar eller stackare?: En studie om samarbetet mellan socialtjänst och polis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the social services and the police co-operate with each other when they come into contact with an individual within their realms of influence. It has been shown in a report by Fridolf (2008) that co-operation is not the aim itself but used as a mean to reach for better processes and better results. We have used qualitative interviews in the study, where three social workers and three policemen have participated from the same municipality to answer our questions. To analyze our result we have used system theory and organization theory. The result of our study shows that within this specific municipality the two agencies co-operate very well. The main reasons why are that co-operation has been going on for a long time and that because of this they have been able to build up a good strategy that works well. Another reason is the fact that this very municipality is relatively small, which in its turn leads to closeness to each other which makes it easy to get in contact and to be aware of who the others involved are. However, this very co-operation can sometimes cause friction, because of the fact that the police and the social services do not always get the same picture of the youth that they are working with. This is because both agencies get to see the youth in different circumstances. The police see the youth from the perspective of being a perpetrator and the social services see the youth from the perspective of needing help. This is something that from both sides can be looked upon as being unfavorable in certain circumstances which could also in other words cause a friction in the co-operation.

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