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  • 251.
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Klaipeda Univ, Marine Sci & Technol Ctr, Klaipeda, Lithuania.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Biol, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stankeviciene, Daiva
    Nat Res Ctr, Inst Ecol, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Light Increases Energy Transfer Efficiency in a Boreal Stream2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e113675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different light and nutrient levels to estimate energy transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic C-13. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to light levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating light and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. Light had significant positive effect on C-13 uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on C-13 uptake but only at sub-saturating light levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, C-13 uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific C-13 uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of light and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific C-13 uptake and C: nutrient ratios. The energy transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between C-13 uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by light conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on energy transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher light levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low light levels would facilitate energy loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in light intensity could result in community-wide effects on periphyton in boreal streams, with a subsequent increase in energy transfer and system productivity.

  • 252.
    Lexomboon, Duangjai
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlson, Christina
    Varmland Publ Dent Hlth, Dept Prevent Dent, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    von Bultzingslowen, Inger
    Varmland Publ Dent Hlth, Dept Prevent Dent, Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Oral Microbiol & Immunol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mensah, Tita
    Clin Paediat Dent, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Incidence and causes of dental trauma in children living in the county of Varmland, Sweden2016In: Dental Traumatology, ISSN 1600-4469, E-ISSN 1600-9657, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aims of this study were to determine the incidence of injuries to permanent incisors in 2011-2013 in children aged 8-10years living in the county of Varmland, Sweden, and to compare it with the incidence rates in 1989/1990 in the county of Vastmanland, as well as to determine the cause of dental trauma in relation to time and place. MethodThe study analysed the patient records from dental visits (2011-2013) of trauma to the permanent incisors in children aged 8-10years. The incidence rates were the incidence per 1000 children at risk. Standardized incidence rates were calculated for the comparison between different years. Information about month, location where the trauma occurred as well as cause of trauma was recorded. ResultsA total of 2.2% of 21721 children aged 8-10years had experienced at least one trauma. The incidence rate in Varmland increased from 18.9 in 2011 to 21.3 in 2012 to 28.5 in 2013. The standardized incidence rate in Varmland in 2011 and 2012 was not significantly different than in Vastmanland in 1989/1990 (P>0.05), but the standardized rates in 2013 were significantly higher than in 1989/90 (P<0.001). Dental trauma occurred most often outdoors, followed by sports arenas/sports fields, and more often at school than at home. Falling and slipping was the most common cause of trauma, followed by accidents during leisure activities, playing and sports. ConclusionThe incidence rate for dental trauma has not decreased in the past 20years, and there is an indication that parents and teachers should be more aware of the risks of dental trauma at leisure times and at school as well as during sports and exercise.

  • 253.
    Lin, Wamei
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Malutta, Raffaelle
    Waste heat recovery by organic rankine cycle (ORC) for moist exhaust gases from paper industry2017In: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2017, Vol. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large potential exists in recovering waste heat from paper industry processes and machinery. If the overall energy efficiency would be increased, it could lead to significant fuel savings and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is a very strong candidate for converting low-grade waste heat into power. However, there is a lot of water vapor containing latent heat in the exhaust gases from the drying process in the paper industry. Thus, the aim of this research work is to increase the efficiency of the ORC system by recovering not only the sensible heat but also the latent heat from the exhaust gases in the paper drying process. In order to recover the latent heat from the moist exhaust gases, one idea of this article is to introduce a direct contact condensing unit into the ORC system. The performance of ORC system with the direct contact condensing unit was analyzed by using the CHEMCAD software. A case study was conducted based on data of the exhaust gases from a tissue production / drying machine. Latent heat will be recovered when the evaporating temperature of the ORC working fluid is lower than the dew point of the water vapor in the exhaust gases. The results showed that the available heat load was increased when the evaporating temperature was reduced. Furthermore, a performance comparison of the ORC systems with and without the direct contact condensing unit was carried out in the case study as well. The results showed that the ORC system with the direct contact condensing unit not only could recover latent heat from the water vapor in the exhaust gases but also could have a small size and small volume evaporator in the ORC system.

  • 254. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Holmgren, Ingela
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Pinoberget. En socialhistorisk studie utifrån sentida bebyggelselämningar och obesuttna människor2000Report (Other academic)
  • 255. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Holmgren, Ingela
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Emilsson, Stig
    Crofters, thieves and workers: The social history of the inhabitants of a group of 19th century settlement remains2003In: Lund archeological review, Vol. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 256. Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Sentida bebyggelse i antikvarisk och arkeologisk verksamhet - en tematisk utvärdering2001Report (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Lindegren, Martin
    et al.
    University of California.
    Waldo, Staffan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations,2013In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 1140-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound ("Oresund") as a case study, and perform a sub-stock-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i. e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular.

  • 258.
    Lindgren, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitatets inverkan på förekomst av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i svenska vattendrag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Data över förekomst av två storleksklasser (0-150 mm och >150 mm) av Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla) i vattendrag på svenska västkusten hämtades från SERS (Svenskt ElfiskeRegiSter vid SLU). Dessa analyserades genom logistisk regression för att avgöra vilka olika makrohabitat-, landskaps- och hindervariabler som bäst kunde användas för att förutspå förekomst av ål. Resultatet visade att det för makrohabitatvariablerna var vattendragets bredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd som bäst förutspådde förekomst av båda storleksklasserna. För landskapsvariablerna var det avstånd till mynningen, fosforkoncentration och vattentemperatur som bäst förutspådde förekomsten av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även sjöprocent en viktig variabel för att förklara förekomsten av den större klassen ål. För variabler som beskriver vandringshinder var det dammar, ålyngelledare och naturlika fiskvägar som bäst förutspådde ålförekomst av båda storleksklasserna. Därtill var även avstånd till uppströms hinder viktigt för att förklara förekomsten av större ål (>150 mm). Mängden lämpliga tillväxthabitat för ålen kan därför troligtvis ökas genom åtgärder riktade mot lokalens vattendragsbredd, vattenhastighet och vegetationsmängd.

  • 259.
    Linzie, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Väneramplitud – Lönsamhet?: Kvalitativ studie av åtgärder, genomförda för att reducera risker och kostnadspåföljder av en förändrad vattenregim2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The water amplitude of the lake Vänern was lowered by a decision by the County Administrative board of Västra Götaland, this was carried out by the electric company Vattenfall AB in the year 2008. This was done to reduce the risks of severe flooding’s. The procedure was recommended by the report “Climate and vulnerability”. This will have adverse effects on the natural values around Vänern. The method used in the report was the Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) method. In this valuation method, it is very difficult to value natural values according to their monetary value since the method itself lacks the procedures to do so properly. And also the investigators chose to not value these in a monetary sense because of the difficulties in doing so. This thesis questions through interviews and an extensive literature study why this came to pass, and how and why the natural values of the lake Vänern could have been valued. The possibility that the adverse effects on the natural values around the lake is diminishing is a fact not implemented in the report makes the proceeding decision to lower the water amplitude of Vänern, makes it difficult to determine the final consequences. 

  • 260.
    Loydi, Alejandro
    et al.
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gebauer, Tobias
    Univ Hamburg, Appl Plant Ecol, Bioctr Klein Flottbek.
    Ludewig, Kristin
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Tyskland.
    Reisdorff, Christoph
    Univ Hamburg,.
    Jensen, Kai
    Univ Hamburg.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel.
    Opposite effects of litter and hemiparasites on a dominant grass under different water regimes and competition levels2018In: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 219, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct and indirect biotic interactions may affect plant growth and development, but the magnitude of these effects may vary depending on environmental conditions. In grassland ecosystems, competition is a strong structuring force. Nonetheless, if hemiparasitic plant species are introduced the competition intensity caused by the dominant species may be affected. However, the outcome of these interactions may change between wet or dry periods. In order to study this, we performed a pot experiment with different densities of the dominant species Schedonorus arundinaceus (1, 2 or 4 individuals) under constantly moist or intermittently dry conditions. The different Schenodorus densities were crossed with presence or absence of hemiparasites (either Rhinanthus minor or R. alectorolophus). Additionally, pots remained with bare ground or received a grass litter layer (400 g m(-2)). We expected that indirect litter effects on vegetation (here Schedonorus or Rhinanthus) vary depending on soil moisture. We measured Schedonorus and Rhinanthus aboveground biomass and C stable isotope signature (delta C-13) as response variables. Overall, Schedonorus attained similar biomass under moist conditions with Rhinanthus as in pots under dry conditions without Rhinanthus. Presence of Rhinanthus also increased delta C-13 in moist pots, indicating hemiparasite-induced water stress. Litter presence increased Schedonorus biomass and reduced delta C-13, indicating improved water availability. Plants under dry conditions with litter showed similar biomass as under wet conditions without litter. Hemiparasites and litter had opposite effects: hemiparasites reduced Schedonorus biomass while litter presence facilitated grass growth. Contrary to our expectations, litter did not compensate Schedonorus biomass when Rhinanthus was present.

  • 261.
    Ludewig, K.
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Hanke, J. M.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Wuthe, B.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, A.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, E.
    Hochschule Geisen heim University, Geisenheim, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, T. W.
    Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Differential effect of drought regimes on the seedling performance of six floodplain grassland species2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands. In a greenhouse study, we exposed seedlings of three confamilial pairs of species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Selinum carvifolia, Veronica teucrium, Veronica maritima, Sanguisorba minor, Sanguisorba officinalis) to increasing drought treatments. Within each plant family, one species is characteristic of wet and one of dry floodplain grasslands, confamilial in order to avoid phylogenetic bias of the results. In accordance with our hypotheses, drought conditions reduced aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. Contrary to our hypotheses, drought conditions increased SLA and decreased root biomass and RMF of seedlings. Beyond the effects of the families, the results were species-specific (V. maritima being the most sensitive species) and habitat-specific. Species indicative of wet floodplain grasslands appear to be more sensitive to drought than species indicative of dry grasslands. Because of species- and habitat-specific responses to reduced water availability, future drought periods due to climate change may severely affect some species from dry and wet habitats, while others may be unaffected.

  • 262. Ludewig, Kristin
    et al.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Zelle, Bianka
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. nstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Managementnstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Management, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, Eva
    Otte, Annette
    Jensen, Kai
    Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0124140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future.

    Methods

    We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    Results

    The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change.

  • 263.
    Långkvist, Isabella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Storleksskillnader i rörelsemönster hos gädda (Esox lucius)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Information Systems for Disaster Management Training: Investigating User Needs with a Design Science Research Approach2018In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM2018 / [ed] F.K. Boersma & B. Tomaszewski, ISCRAM , 2018, p. 841-850Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal threats such as global warming and terror attacks make crisis preparedness and crisis training a major priority in governments worldwide. Unfortunately, training is limited, partly due to complex and resource-demanding planning of traditional exercises. Several crisis training software have been developed as a complement. However, reports in research on their usage are rare, which indicates that the diffusion is limited. A potential explanation is that the systems fail to meet important needs in the organizations and/or sound information systems (IS) design principles. This paper describes the first phase of a design science research (DSR) project aiming at developing information systems for disaster management (ISDM) training, and accompanying training methods in local and regional governments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate perceived problems in current crisis training and identify opportunities for ISDM training in the application domain. Another purpose is to outline expected artifacts in the project.

  • 265.
    Majlöv Modig, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Om dammen brister: En kvantitativ studie om hur risken med dammbrott uppfattas av invånare i Bodens kommun2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of how the inhabitants of the municipality of Boden perceived risk of dam failure based on the following questions: What knowledge do the residents have of dam failure and its risks? How do the residents perceive that their risk perception has been affected by the municipality's risk communication? Does the residents risk perception differ from that of the risk picture that the municipality has and in such case how?Data were collected through a web survey in August 2014. The link to the online survey was sent to all county employees, all registered sports, and other, clubs, and posted on the municipal website, to acquaintance in Boden and was also posted on a Facebook page. A total of 677 responses were obtained. Responses were collected and different variables were compared with each other.In this study it was found that generally Boden Municipality's residents have a good knowledge of the risk of dam failure. Variables such as the respondents gender, age, your homes distance to the water and how long they have lived in Boden had only a marginal effect on the responses. The municipality and the respondents have the same understanding of risk dam failure.

  • 266.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Clemént, Pierre
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Eva
    Hagman, Mats
    Landström, Jan
    Female and male teachers’ pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment do not differ: Ecofeminism put to the test2015In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-25, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre-and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one questions were further analysed in terms of ecofeminism. Ecofeminism claims that women and men's conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the ...

  • 267.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling: En studie av rektors förståelse av kvalitet i skolans organisation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Student outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is reported to be weak and empirical studies investigating the underlying causes have been called for. School organization is pointed out as essential, which highlights the role of school leaders in realizing ESD. This study aims to identify characteristic features of ESD active school organizations, by investigating how school leaders maintain high quality in their organizations. ESD is thus studied from an internal organizational perspective. Fourteen school leaders at ten upper secondary schools, active in ESD implementation, were interviewed and qualitative data quantified. A special focus was on school leaders’ transformative statements, in response to earlier criticism that ESD implementation has been too structural. Results consist of 26 identified quality criteria. By means of cluster analysis, the quality criteria were merged into four principal quality criteria: collaborative interaction and school development, student-centred education, cooperation with local society and proactive leadership and continuity. The school leaders’ quality strategies were identified through correlation analysis of their principal quality criteria. The quality strategies reveal a difference in the schools’ internal or external focus. An analysis of the school leaders’ quality statements in relation to their quality strategy implementation indicates that ESD to a large degree is introduced from a transformative perspective. One school in the study stands out as highly transformation-oriented, and has a quality strategy combining an internal and external focus, thus making it a possible benchmark for successful ESD-implementation. The study contributes a suggestion on how a progression of ESD implementation can take place and as well as possible obstacles.  

  • 268.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education forSustainable Development, ESD implementation and transformative schoolorganization: a Swedish perspective of Whole school approach2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD, a matter of School Organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 1 – investigating the quality criteria guiding school leaders’ work at recognized ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 972-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level. Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level.

  • 271.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 2 – investigating the transformative perspective in school leaders’ quality strategies at ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 993-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has suggested that adopting a transformative school organisation perspective when implementing ESD may be more productive than the previously recommended transmissive perspectives, but it is not clear how transformative perspectives could be introduced. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ leaders, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. The arguments used by the leaders to justify their criteria were analysed and categorised based on their relationships with the transmissive and transformative quality strategies. Both school organisation perspectives were found to co-exist within the schools. A detailed analysis of schools where the transformative perspective was dominant revealed three distinct quality strategies, one of which was found to embody a strong focus on a transformative approach. This specific quality strategy is discussed and suggested as a way for interested schools to implement ESD in a more transformative way at the school organisation level.

  • 272.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling – den skolorganisatoriska nivån som ett stöd eller hinder?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The role of school organization in ESD implementation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), a matter of school organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Whole school approaches to education for sustainable development: a model that links to school improvement2018In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies a model of school organisation developed by one of the authors to investigate school improvement processes leading to a whole school approach in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) literature. The model is operationalized to a survey instrument and distributed to Swedish upper secondary teachers. The instrument provides empirical indications of teachers’ perceptions of their schools in terms of four major dimensions of an ESD whole school approach, the importance assigned to a holistic vision, routines and structures, professional knowledge creation, and practical pedagogical work. The aims of the study are to compare the teachers’ perception of their school organisation. We compare perceptions of teachers working in schools actively implementing ESD and teachers in comparable reference schools. Comparisons are also made between teachers from schools applying different strategies and quality approaches in implementing ESD. The results indicate that, relative to teachers in ordinary schools, those in ESD schools perceive their school organisations to have higher quality and coherence, with greater potential to support teaching and pedagogical work in practice. However, there is substantial variation in perceptions of teachers from different ESD schools. The model’s robustness is validated by coherence of earlier results in the same schools

  • 276.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Divergent trends in emergency department visits for poisonings by intent in Varmland, Sweden2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A227-A227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    SELMA - Research for a healthier future2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Perceptions and perspectives of child maltreatment in Bangladesh: a pilot study2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A160-A160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Via Spatiosa: Festschrift to Ragnar Andersson on his 67th birthday2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk management is a comparatively new, and most definitely complex, research field, combining knowledge from several other disciplines such as medicine, engineering, economics and psychology, to name a few. Consequently, risk management is important in a variety of subjects and disciplines, clearly illustrated in this festschrift. Professor Ragnar Andersson has played an important roll in not only promoting the importance of risk management and injury prevention, but also developing a deeper understanding of the field through always actively choosing a broad, multi-disciplinary perspective. In other words, he has always chosen “via spatiosa”. Or in Swedish, “den breda vägen”

  • 280. Moora, Mari
    et al.
    Opik, Maarja
    Davison, John
    Jairus, Teele
    Vasar, Martti
    Zobel, Martin
    Eckstein, R. Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    AM fungal communities inhabiting the roots of submerged aquatic plant Lobelia dortmanna are diverse and include a high proportion of novel taxa2016In: Mycorrhiza, ISSN 0940-6360, E-ISSN 1432-1890, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 735-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to be widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, there is growing evidence that aquatic plants also form the symbiosis. It has been suggested that symbiosis with AM fungi may represent an important adaptation for isoA << tid plants growing on nutrient-poor sediments in oligotrophic lakes. In this study, we address AM fungal root colonization intensity, richness and community composition (based on small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing) in five populations of the isoA << tid plant species Lobelia dortmanna inhabiting oligotrophic lakes in Southern Sweden. We found that the roots of L. dortmanna hosted rich AM fungal communities and about 15 % of the detected molecular taxa were previously unrecorded. AM fungal root colonization intensity and taxon richness varied along an environmental gradient, being higher in oligotrophic and lower in mesotrophic lakes. The overall phylogenetic structure of this aquatic fungal community differed from that described in terrestrial systems: The roots of L. dortmanna hosted more Archaeosporaceae and fewer Glomeraceae taxa than would be expected based on global data from terrestrial AM fungal communities.

  • 281.
    Naslund, Joacim
    et al.
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Malin
    University Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Del Villar, Diego
    Technical University Denmark, Denmark.
    Gansel, Lars
    SINTEF Fisheries & Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway.
    Norrgard, Johnny R.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Persson, Lo
    Swedish University Agricultuaral Sciences, Sweden.
    Winkowski, John James
    Canada.
    Kvingedal, Eli
    Norway.
    Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocking programs using hatchery-reared salmon are often implemented for augmenting natural populations. However, survival of these fish is often low compared with wild conspecifics, possibly because of genetic, physiological, and behavioural deficiencies. Here, we compared presmolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter, potentially owing to higher aggression levels. These results suggest that enrichment can reduce the impact of stressors experienced in the hatchery and thus increase fish welfare. Tank enrichment may also be used to produce salmon better adapted for the more complex environment encountered after release.

  • 282.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fall-Related Injuries Amongst Elderly in Sweden: Still an Emerging Risk?2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, injuries due to falls are the most common cause of injury-related hospitalization and injury-related death amongst elderly. Also, during the 20th century, increasing trends in fall-related injuries have been observed in many high-income countries. Whilst fall-related injury trends have been reported from national studies in other comparable countries, no studies from Sweden using national data have been published, despite this issue sometimes being pointed out as one of the most important emerging societal risks both in Sweden and elsewhere. With large individual and societal costs, as well as prognosticated continued increases in high-income countries, the aim of this thesis is to update the knowledge on the trends of fall-related injuries amongst elderly in Sweden and to determine whether the issue is still to be considered an emerging risk.

    National injury morbidity and mortality data from Sweden can show that with regards to all hospitalized fall-related injuries as well as hip fractures, the risk is decreasing. However, diverging trends are observed in age- and sex-specific groups, with younger elderly now having considerably lower rates of fall-related injuries, whilst older elderly are increasingly hospitalized due to minor fall-related injuries. Also, amongst older elderly, increasing hip fracture mortality trends are observed. With regards to sex-specific groups, although fall-related injuries in general are more common amongst women, the injury trends for women are generally decreasing at a quicker rate than for men. Also, contradictorily to almost all fall-related injury morbidity, hip fracture mortality risk is higher amongst men.

    This thesis can show a change in trend in fall-related injuries amongst elderly in Sweden since the turn of the century, apart from amongst older elderly and with regards to hip fracture mortality. The implications on prognoses needs to be studied further as do the underlying causes behind this shift in trend.

  • 283.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trends in hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden 1987-20092012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of the transition from the ninth to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases on external cause registration of injury morbidity in Sweden2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 189-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) have previously been shown to cause dramatic effects with regard to injury mortality data when implemented. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects on the coding of external causes of injury morbidity, despite this being an important aspect with regard to injury prevention.

    Method Hospitalised injuries in Sweden were studied using time series intervention analysis to observe the effect of the ICD change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 in 1997 on external cause coding.

    Results The results would suggest considerable coding issues with a large spike in the proportion of injury admissions registered without an external cause code in 1997, with continuing, although gradually diminishing, problems up to 2002. The coding change seems to have had an immediate effect on all external cause of injury categories, although the categories that were not directly convertible from ICD-9 to ICD-10 were seemingly more greatly affected.

    Discussion The study illustrates the potential issues associated with changes between ICD revisions and the importance of data quality control both during surveillance and collection of data, but also when presenting injury trends across ICD versions.

  • 285.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in Sweden – results from a cross-sectional study 2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in sweden-: results from a cross-sectional study2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A40-A40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007–20162018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the last decade, an increasing popularity of marathons has been seen. Although running has been shown to have considerable positive health effects, the risk of sudden death, most often due to sudden cardiac arrests, is also a risk runners expose themselves to. Whilst there are some studies on the mortality amongst long-distance runners, much of the evidence is dated. Given the increased popularity in running during the 21st century as well as the improvements in medical care at marathons, more knowledge is required on the mortality risk. Materials and method Publicly available racing and news databases were used to identify the number of entrants and finishers in half to full marathons in Sweden between 2007 and 2016 and the number of deaths that occurred in conjunction with the races. Results A total of 1,156,271 runners entered a long distance (21-42km) running race in Sweden between 2007 and 2016, and 834,412 runners finished the races (72.2%). A large majority of the finishers (677,050 (81%)) competed in distances under a full marathon. Two deaths occurred during the time period, meaning that the death rate was 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.79) per 100,000 finishers. Conclusions This study can show that death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies. When added to the existing literature, the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s. 

  • 288.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Increasing hip fracture mortality amongst elderly in Sweden - a new emerging risk?Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fall-related fracture trends among elderly in Sweden – exploring transitions among hospitalized cases2013In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, no 45, p. 141-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Fall-related injuries have been a cause of worry during the end of the 20th century with increasing trends among the elderly.

    Method

    Using data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) based on hospital admissions, this study explores the trends in fall-related fractures between 1998 and 2010.

    Results

    The data shows a decreasing trend in fall-related fractures in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from men 80 years and above. While hip fracture incidence rates decreased in all age- and sex-specific groups, both central fractures and upper extremity fractures have increased in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from women 65–79 years. Lower extremity fractures have increased in the older age groups and decreased in the younger. Discussion: The differences found between the groups of fractures and by age- and sex-specific groups indicate a possible transition where more serious fractures are decreasing while less serious fractures increase among hospitalized cases.

    Summary

    Perhaps due to a focus on hip fracture prevention, this study shows that while the incidence rate of hospitalized hip fractures has decreased, other fall-related hospitalized fractures have increased.

    Impact on industry

    Potentially, this could be indicative of a healthier younger elderly, coupled with a frailer older elderly requiring more comprehensive healthcare also for less serious injuries. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  • 291.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hospitalized fall-related injury trends in Sweden between 2001 and 20102016In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated increasing trends of hospitalized fall-related injuries amongst elderly. Whether this is true also in Sweden is unknown though it is important to study considering the potential societal impact. Data were obtained regarding hospitalized injuries with falls as external cause among those aged 65 years and above with information on injury type, gender and age, on a yearly basis, from 2001 to 2010. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated (per 100,000 population) for all fall-related injuries, and for each injury type and trend lines were drawn. Linear regression analyses and percentage change were calculated for the types of fall-related injuries. A decreasing incidence was observed in the younger age groups (65-79 years) with greater decreases amongst women (women: -14.6%, men 65-79 years: -10.5%). However, increasing rates were observed in the older age group (80 years and above), with greater increases amongst men (women: 4.3%, men: 11.4%). Superficial injuries showed greater increases than fractures amongst those aged 80 years and above. This study indicates that older elderly in Sweden are increasingly being hospitalized for less serious injuries. This changing injury panorama is important to include in the future planning of both health care and fall-related prevention.

  • 292.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trends in hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden 1987-20092013In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1741-3842, E-ISSN 1741-3850, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous trend studies have shown large increases in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly. International research, however, suggests a levelling off, or decline, of hip fracture incidence rates, although for Sweden this remains to be studied.

    Methods Data were obtained regarding hip fractures among individuals 65 years and above from 1987 to 2009. Analysis was performed in three steps. First, age- and sex-specific trends in hip fracture rates per 100 000 and the mean age when sustaining a hip fracture were analysed. Secondly, the annual percentage change was used to compare time periods that helped to quantify changes in secular trends. Finally, linear and Poisson regression models were used to examine the trend data and observed rates.

    Results The absolute number of hip fractures among the elderly in Sweden has largely remained constant between 1987 and 2009, while incidence rates have decreased for all age- and sex-specific groups, with the largest changes in the younger age groups and among women. The mean age of sustaining a hip fracture has increased for both men and women.

    Conclusions This study supports other international studies in showing a decrease in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly, especially since the mid-1990s.

  • 293.
    Nilsson, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    En jämförelse av mängden död ved i kalhygge och produktionsskog2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Woody debris is an important part in many ecosystems and has several different functions. Many species depend on the existence of woody debris, where it is used for example as a food source, nesting site, growing site or as a refuge. In clearcut areas, where the natural production of woody debris no longer exists, it is therefore important that a certain amount of woody debris is left behind to make sure that the area continues to have good biological function? In this investigation, I compared clearcut areas with production forest to see if there was a difference in the volume of woody debris. Five sites with 70–100-year-old spruce- and pine forests were inventoried. Every site consisted of one clearcut area that was adjacent to an area with production forest. No difference in volume of woody debris was found between the areas. The inventory showed that many of the measured trunk diameters that were found in the clearcut areas were around 10 centimeters, whereas in the areas with production forest the diameter varied more. Larger volumes of woody debris were found in spruce forests then in pine forests. Thus,the conclusion is that clearcutting an area with production forest does not seem to have a big impact on the volume of woody debris. Nevertheless, the measured amounts of woody debris are far less then what are found in natural forests, which indicates management needs to see what improvements can be done to increase the amount of woody debris in many of our forests.    

  • 294.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Roach partial migration: predation, personality and propensity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration may confer benefits, such as foraging opportunity and predator avoidance, but partial migration, i.e. that not the whole population migrates, can be expected if benefits differ between individual phenotypes. We here show that seasonal migration from lakes to connected streams in the freshwater fish roach is strongly affected by risk of cormorant predation. We show that the duration away from the lake, as well as roach individual body size, influence the probability of being predated by cormorants. We also present novel field data showing that cormorant predation acts as a selective pressure against individuals with bold personality, providing a mechanism behind the evolution and maintenance of behavioural phenotypic diversity along the bold-shy continuum. Accordingly, we argue that bold individuals have a higher migratory propensity to avoid cormorants, and that cormorant predation on bold individuals may shift animal-personality composition of roach populations, with consequences for selective processes and lake system composition and function.

  • 295.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eklöv, Peter
    Finding food and staying alive2018In: Biology and ecology of pike / [ed] Skov & Nilsson, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Nilsson, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fjärranalys av skogsskador efter stormen Gudrun: Skogens återhämtning efter den värsta stormen i modern tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On January 8th, 2005 one of the most devastating storms in Sweden’s history occurred, where hundreds of thousands became powerless and seven people lost their lives. The storm Gudrun hit central Götaland worst and nearly nine years’ professional felling of forests was estimated to have fallen in some areas. Previous studies of the storm were carried out on behalf of the Swedish Forest Agency, where the results show that the proportion of windthrown forest area was 11 % in the worst affected municipality of Ljungby. About 80 % of all damaged forests were spruce, 18 % were pine and 2 % were deciduous.                       

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the amount of windthrown forest after the storm Gudrun through analysis of satellite remote sensing data. The proportion of windthrown coniferous and deciduous forest was calculated and the results were compared to the reports written on behalf of the Swedish Forest Agency. Furthermore, the proportion of reforested areas in 2016 was calculated. A change analysis based on satellite data from Landsat 5 from 2004 and 2005 was performed which included a forest mask created by supervised MLC classification. The forest mask was used to exclude uninteresting areas in the analyses. The result was then used for the analysis of the proportion of windthrown coniferous and deciduous forest and for the analysis of reforested areas in 2016. In the latter, a forest mask based on Landsat 8 data was used.

    The results from the analyses show that about 15.8 % of the forest was windthrown, of which 78 % were coniferous and 13 % were deciduous forest. By 2016, 25% of the windthrown areas had been reforested. The accuracy of the results is generally high, but despite this, it substantially differs from the results of earlier studies. The reason for this could be differences in satellite images and programs and additional error sources in conjunction with the analyses.

  • 297.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Mathematical models for compressible flow in porous media2014In: Proceedings of the 19th International Drying Symposium / [ed] Julien Andrieu, Roman Peczalski, Séverine Vessot, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical dewateringcan be accomplished by applying vacuum on one side of the material. In suchapplications, the air flow accompanying dewatering can be substantial and energy-efficient operation requires accurate design and control of the vacuum system. The present study analyses one-dimensional, compressible flow through porous media.Three types of flow are investigated: isothermal, isentropic and adiabatic. The results are presented in terms of relations between dimensionless numbers. The main result is that the difference between assumptions of adiabatic andisothermal flow will be quite small for the majority of foreseeable process conditions.

  • 298.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Stepwise Development of a Mathematical Model for Air Flow in Vacuum Dewatering of Paper2014In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1587-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lunds universitet.
    Chapman, Ben
    University of Nottingham & University of Manchester, UK.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Baktoft, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Lunds universitet.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild2017In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 1-4, article id 20170208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of par- ental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post- zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive. Here we provide proof-of- concept for predation on hybrids being a postzygotic barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama) and their hybrids in 2005. Tagged fish were returned to their lake of origin, exposing them to natural predation risk from apex avian predators (great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo). Scanning for regurgitated tags under cormorant roosts 3–4 years later ident- ified cormorant-killed individual fish and allowed us to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification.

  • 300.
    Nord, Madelene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Metabolism och personlighetstyp hos svartmunnad smörbult (Neogobuis melanostomus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between the body mass of an organism, activity level and metabolism (metabolic rate, MR) where a higher body mass and activity level correlate with a higher MR. How is it then with an organism's personality and its MR; does the type of personality of the organism play a part in its MR? To test the prediction that a more active personality, such as boldness, would show a higher value of MR in comparison to a more inactive personality, such as shyness, personality, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope (MMR-SMR) were compared for the invasive fish species round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) sampled from Guldborgsund in the Western Baltic. In total, about 400 round goby were captured, of which 19 individuals underwent the entire study. Personality was assessed by two different experiments, scototaxis and boldness, where the individuals then were divided into the personality groups bold and shy. SMR, MMR and aerobic scope were analyzed by respirometry.

    There was a significant difference in SMR between the two types of personality (bold and shy), which also has been found in previous studies (Toscano & Monacos, 2015). There were no significant differences between either MMR, aerobic scope or weight between bold and shy fish. In conclusion, the significant difference in SMR between bold and shy fishes, was probably based on the fact that individuals with a higher proportion of boldness had a higher energy consumption to compensate for the phenotypic benefits (such as higher and easier dispersibility) compared to individuals with less boldness. However, further studies on round goby would have to be performed to investigate whether there is a connection between boldness and a higher dispersibility.

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