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  • 251.
    Sirén Gustafsson, Linn
    Karlstad University.
    Interaction in the CLIL classroom: Comparing English interaction in two 7th grade classes in Sweden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Sjöberg, Viktoria
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Lifting the Veils in William Somerset Maugham's The Painted Veil2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Novels with love as a theme often deal with a passionate or forbidden love. In 1925 William Somerset Maugham wrote a different version of the typical love story we have read so many times. It tells a story about a married couple who never really shares the same love for each other. Maugham mentions that he was inspired by Dante when he wrote The Painted Veil. Indeed, he uses different sources of inspirations, such as poems from Shelley and Goldsmith. The aim of this essay is to investigate what these intertextual references bring to the novel and what their functions are. The method I use is looking at the different references used by Maugham and stating their purpose and significance to the novel. The result of my investigation illustrates how the use of Shelley’s theme of veiling signifies hiding, as well as not wanting to see the truth, while Goldsmith’s poem shows the true relationship between the married couple and how corrupted society is. Maugham also lets Dante’s Purgatorio demonstrate how Kitty, the wife, gets the chance to change her life for the better.

  • 253.
    Sjösteen, Sigrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Snickers or sneakers?: A study on francophone English L2 speakers’ ability to distinguish quantitatively between English vowels in perception and production2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When learning a second language, we tend to transfer rules regarding e.g. syntax, intonation and phonology from our first language to the target language. The way we are tuned in to the sounds of our first language might make it difficult for us to perceive the phonemes of a new language correctly. The aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent misperception influences francophone English L2 speakers’ difficulties in distinguishing quantitatively between long and short English vowels in their production, and to what extent a transfer of French sentence stress might affect their pronunciation.Eight subjects participated in a perception test in order to see how well they distinguished between minimal pairs consisting of long and short English vowels. The same subjects were also recorded reading English words and phrases, and the recordings were subsequently analysed in order to compare the duration of the long and short vowels.The results of the study indicate a negative correlation between the amount of errors made in the perception test and the quantitative difference between long and short vowels made by the individual speakers in the production.

  • 254.
    Sjösteen, Sigrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "You must stay for dinner; we're having cud": A study of the relationship between Swedish speakers' perception and production of English vowels2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a second language is different from learning our first one. A lot of rules from the first language, concerning e.g. grammar, intonation and phonology, are so firmly rooted within learners that they will transfer them to the new language regardless of whether they are correct or not. Studies show that the way we are tuned in to the sounds of our first language can make it difficult for us to perceive the phonemes of a new language correctly. In order to study the relationship between Swedish speakers’ faulty production of English vowels and their perception of them, ten subjects participated in a perception test to find out how well they could distinguish between minimal pairs containing phonemes that Swedes often have problems pronouncing correctly. They were also recorded while reading sentences containing the same minimal pairs. The results from the perception test were compared to graphs showing how consistent the subjects were in their pronunciation of these phonemes. The study shows that although some phonemes proved to be more difficult for the subjects to perceive a difference between, a faulty production of these sounds cannot be explained by misperception alone.

  • 255.
    Skar, Gustaf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Tengberg, MichaelKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Svenskämnet i går, i dag, i morgon: Svensklärarföreningen 100 år 1912-20122012Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 256.
    Sklar, Fabiana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    English as a Foreign language in Brazil and Sweden: A comparative study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, English is studied from first grade of elementary school. For some reason after eleven years of study, students in general have problems communicating orally and in writing. Swedish students, on the other hand, seem to be able to communicate quite proficiently in English, even though it is also considered to be foreign language learning. The purpose of this comparative study is to discover what differs in the Brazilian and Swedish learning and teaching that makes the Swedish results superior. The purpose was to compare English learning as a foreign language in Sweden and in Brazil, and questionnaires were distributed to teacher and students. Of the many possibilities raised as hypotheses for the effective English learning in Sweden, teacher’s educational background, working hours per week, number of students per teacher, were found to be more problematic in Brazil, according to the teachers’ questionnaire. When it comes to students, it appears that Brazilian students show a lack of commitment to their learning tasks and awareness of the importance of learning English. In addition, several social aspects have to be taken into account when judging the educational situation of a country, but the importance of a good education can never be overlooked.

  • 257.
    Sklar, Fabiana Andrioli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Avdelningen för språk.
    Present but not perfect: A study of problems Brazilian students encounter when learning the English present perfect tense2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most Brazilian students learning English face difficulty when studying thepresent perfect. It is one of the most challenging aspects of the Englishlanguage for Portuguese speakers due to the similar form with a divergentsemantic value. The Brazilian Portuguese present perfect forces iteration andthe student automatically transfers the same meaning when translating anEnglish sentence literally. Brazilian learners get confused about when and inwhat situations to use the English present perfect and frequently are not able todistinguish it from the simple past use. This study is comprised of two parts.First, a comparative study was done to investigate which Portuguese tensetranslators of famous literary books consider to be equivalent to the Englishpresent perfect according to the message which is being conveyed. Thedatabase used was the bidirectional parallel corpus of English and PortugueseCOMPARA. Second, textbooks developed to teach English in Brazil wereanalyzed in order to verify from what perspective students were beinginstructed concerning the present perfect and whether the semantic differencesbetween the two languages were pointed out. According to the translationcorpus, the English present perfect is mostly equivalent to Brazilian Portuguesesimple past. Adverbs are also often needed to express the English presentperfect meaning in Portuguese. The textbooks were found to present poorexplanations and seem not to call the learners’ attention to the source of the problems. Textbooks do not stress the importance of the semantic value and thecontext, and do not call attention to the different meanings between theBrazilian and the English present perfect.

  • 258.
    Skogs, Julie
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Community building from a distance2011In: EDULEARN11 Proceedings, Barcelona, 2011, p. 2295-2304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is concerned with communication in an online learning environment and attempts to shed light on community building strategies used by students in the asynchronous online discussion forums. The material for this study was collected from text-based asynchronous discussion forums which constituted part of the compulsory course work for a course in English proficiency at second semester university level in Sweden. The students were divided into three separate groups and all three had the same course material and were taught by the same instructor. The instructor had no discussion forum input besides the initial instructions for how the students were expected to use it. The students’ task was to ask questions and answer others’ questions. Instructor feedback was given at a later date in a seminar. All three groups had other course activities, such as real time seminars, besides the discussion forums. Two of the groups studied online exclusively while the third group studied had their real time seminars in the same physical environment on campus. In order to determine how and to what extent students used community building devices in their communication, Lapadat’s (2007) model of discourse devices used for community building was adapted. The study revealed that disclosure, asking for and offering help, inviting comment and alignment were used by all three groups. There were however discourse devices used for building community the two online groups used but that were not used by the campus group, that is, the group that met in the same physical environment for seminars. Those that studied on campus rarely used greetings, social remarks and nor did they employ closings adapted from the genre of letter writing and email. All three of these were commonly used by participants in the exclusively online groups.

  • 259.
    Skogs, Julie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Features of orality, academic writing and interaction in asynchronic student discussion forums2014In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 54-82Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to compare the frequency and usage of selected linguistic features with a deictic function in discussion forum messages taken from three undergraduate courses in English. The main aim of the study was to examine how the written asynchronous interaction in the discussion forums relates to spoken registers (conversation and an oral academic seminar) and written academic prose; a secondary aim was to investigate student interaction. The results of the study show that the frequencies of the majority of features examined were positioned between the spoken registers and academic prose and that these features were sometimes used in structures typical of conversation and other times used in structures typical of academic prose.

  • 260.
    Skogs, Julie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Getting a Response to Discussion Thread Messages in an Online Learning Environment2011In: International Conference on Information Communication Technologies in Education, Rhodes, Greece, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges of using discussion forums in a computer-mediated learning environment is getting students to contribute. Some discussion threads develop while others do not. The present study concerns factors affecting response rate. This presentation deals with response patterns and the strategies that teachers and students may consider using in order to increase the chance of getting a response to a message posted in an asynchronous discussion forum.

  • 261.
    Skogs, Julie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Language and interaction in online asynchronous communication in university level English courses2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction involves people communicating and reacting to each other. This process is key to the study of discourse, but it is not easy to study systematically how interaction takes place in a specific communicative event, or how it is typically performed over a series of repeated communicative events. However, with a written record of the interaction, it becomes possible to study the process in some detail. This thesis investigates interaction through asynchronous written discussion forums in a computer-mediated learning environment.

    In particular, this study investigates pragmatic aspects of the communicative event which the asynchronous online discussions comprise. The first case study examines response patterns to messages by looking at the content of initial messages and responses, in order to determine the extent to which characteristics of the messages themselves or other situational factors affect the interaction. The second study examines in what ways participants use a range of discourse devices, including formulaic politeness, humour and supportive feedback as community building strategies in the interaction. The third study investigates the role of the subject line of messages in the interaction, for example by examining how participants choose different types of subject lines for different types of messages. The fourth study examines to what extent features serving a deictic function are drawn on in the interaction and then compares the findings to both oral conversation and formal academic discourse.

    The overall findings show a complex communicative situation shaped by the medium itself, type of activity, the academic discipline and topic of discussion and by the social and cultural aspects of tertiary education in an online learning environment. In addition, the findings may also provide evidence of learning.

     

  • 262.
    Skoog, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Native Language Interference: A study of interference patterns in Swedish students' English writing2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Titel: Native Language Interference: A study of interference patterns in Swedish students’ English writing.

    Författare: Skoog, Petra

    Engelska C, 2006

    Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to find out if there are any patterns of native language interference in Swedish students’ written English. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of native language influence on the target language and a large number of terms are used when the influence of the native language is discussed, including contrastive analysis and positive and negative transfer. These are described in the theoretical background section of this study. The material for the empirical investigation was collected from students in year eight at a secondary school. They were given a task consisting in free essay writing, so that a general picture of interference problems would emerge. 42 essays were handed in, containing about 201 interference errors. The total number of non-interference errors found in the students’ essays was 1115 and this suggests that interference errors are not especially common among the students in my investigation. The errors committed due to interference mainly concerned the use of prepositions. One conclusion that can be drawn from this investigation is that it is very difficult to determine the source of errors and separate between errors in general and interference errors.

    Nyckelord: Foreign language learning, native language influence, errors, interference.

  • 263.
    Sköld, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Quelques aspects de la danse folklorique2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Sköld, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Spoken English in the EFL classroom: A study of Swedish pupils’ attitudes towards spoken English2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate pupils’ attitudes towards spoken English and towards speaking in front of their friends, and how these attitudes appear to be related to their oral communication and communicative behaviour in the classroom. The material was collected by video taping two classes, a questionnaire in these two classes and by interviewing their teacher.

    The results show that motivation and anxiety are psychological factors that play a significant role in the learning process. Attitudes, both towards the target language and towards their own production affect pupils’ willingness to communicate, and consequently their oral production in different tasks. The larger the group is, the more anxious they become. In order to motivate pupils, a variety of exercises is needed, where the topic is of great importance to awaken their interest for communication. The teacher also needs to circulate in the classroom to avoid a situation where pupils switch to their first language. Otherwise, pupils appear to code-switch as soon as an opportunity presents itself, which was observed in the analyses of recorded lessons.

  • 265.
    Smeds, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Adjective Comparison in Contemporary British English: A Corpus Study of More than One Hundred Adjectives2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are mainly two ways of comparing adjectives in English: the analytic and the synthetic. The analytic way is to use more and most (for example difficult, more difficult, most difficult). The synthetic, or inflectional, way is to add the endings –er and –est (for instance fast, faster, fastest). During the last twelve centuries the way of forming comparisons in English has evolved from predominately synthetic to the point where both inflections and analytic forms are used. Today many adjectives are almost always compared either synthetically or analytically (e.g. fast and difficult respectively), but sometimes we have two alternatives; for example, we can choose between more polite and politer. The author has three aims with this paper: firstly, to examine how adjectives in English are compared today; secondly, to determine how well the descriptions in modern grammars agree with authentic written English; thirdly, to see whether there have been any recent changes in the way of indicating comparison. This is a quantitative study. A corpus investigation was undertaken: some one hundred common adjectives in two British newspapers, The Guardian and The Observer, from 1990–91 and 2005 that vary in their way of expressing comparison were studied. The results were compared with six grammars from the last five decades. After the data collection, the chi square test was applied, showing how statistically significant the changes between 1990–91 and 2005 are. Judging from the data in this study, the synthetic comparison seems to be becoming less common. The author also concludes that the comparison of adjectives in contemporary British English varies considerably.

  • 266.
    Smeds, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Variationer i svensk verbböjning: En korpusundersökning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Variationer i svensk verbböjning: En korpusundersökning (Fredrik Smeds, D-uppsats i Svenska språket, Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk 2008). I uppsatsen undersöks svensk verbböjningsvariation från första hälften av 1800-talet till våra dagar dels genom studier av facklitteratur, ordböcker och ordlistor från skilda tider, dels genom att studera korpusar med skönlitteratur och brev skrivna av August Strindberg, äldre och yngre romaner samt dagstidningar från 1965–2004. De äldre romanerna är skrivna från första halvan av 1800-talet till första halvan av 1900-talet, och de yngre runt 1980. Materialet tillhandahölls av Språkdata vid Göteborgs universitet och omfattar ca 126 miljoner ord. Efter datainsamlingen användes chi-2-testet, för att se om skillnaderna var statistiskt signifikanta. Många verb som varierar eller har varierat efter år 1800 har undersökts. Tidigare förändringar omnämns mer kortfattat. Variationerna är av skilda slag: mellan stark och svag böjning (spridit och spritt), mellan korta och långa former (klär och kläder), mellan former med och utan j (stödjer och stöder) samt övriga variationer (t.ex. mellan tillbringade och tillbragte).

     

  • 267.
    Stark, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Grammatiken i praktiken: Om gymnasieelevers förmåga att tillämpa grammatiska kunskaper i muntlig kommunikation2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to examine to what extent French grammar teaching contributes to the students’ practical, oral skills. Are the students familiar with the grammatical system without knowing how to apply it orally in practice? The paper contains a theoretical background and an empirical survey. One quantitative and one qualitative method have been applied in the survey. 52 questionnaires have been completed and 6 High School students’ interviews have been carried out. Only 15 % of the surveyed students state that they completely approve with the statement that they can apply their grammatical knowledge in oral production. This shows that the teaching of grammar seems to contribute to the students’ oral skills to a relatively small extent. The result also suggests that there is a larger emphasis on theoretical explanations than on practice in grammar teaching. One of the problems seems to be that the practicing of grammar mainly is in written form. To reach the aims for communicative skills set in the syllabi for modern languages a functional method is suggested, which emphasises on meaning and includes oral practice of grammar.

  • 268.
    Stephanson, Ingela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    A Study of the Adjective Unique2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally so-called absolute adjectives such as unique are considered non-gradable and, therefore should not be used in comparative constructions or with degree modifiers. However, this conflicts with the actual usage of unique since the term seems to have aquired an additional, weakened meaning. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usage of the adjective unique in written British English. First, I wanted to know if the use of unique had increased between 1996 and 2005, and for this purpose a corpus investigation was carried out. The most common collocations were identified in order to trace changes in the collocational patterns. Second, I wished to find out if there had been an increase in the usage of a weakened sense of unique at the expense of the traditional meaning. In this part of the study, unique with degree modifiers and in comparative constructions were examined. Finally, I divided the collocations of this search into different fields based on context aiming to look for changes in the areas in which the modified unique occurred. The investigation showed that the use of unique has become more common with an increase of 74%. As to the collocational patterns, the study did not reveal any obvious changes. The second part of the study showed that the share of instances where unique occurred with a degree modifier or in a comparative construction was rather constant. Considering the choice of modifier, however, there was a greater variety of modifiers in 2005. Further, the study revealed that there was an increase of pre-modified unique in the context of Culture. Due to the limitation of scope, and the fact that there were no obvious changes as to the collocational patterns, it is difficult to draw any conclusions about the increase. Nevertheless, the results suggest that there might have been a widening of the sense of unique as well. Further studies, however, have to confirm that.

  • 269.
    Sternegård, Julia
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Vilka föreställningar har pedagoger kring dyslexi?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 270.
    Stridh, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Att lära barn läsa: Läsinlärning i ett historiskt perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammandrag

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att belysa läsinlärningsmetoder i ett historiskt perspektiv, samt att genom intervjuer med lärare undersöka hur olika fokus i lärarutbildningen, syn på läsinlärning, forskning och samtid påverkar undervisningen. Examensarbetet grundar sig på intervjusamtal med fyra lärare i olika åldrar som under olika tidsperioder, mellan 1950-talet och fram till idag, varit verksamma lärare i den svenska skolan.

    Läsundervisning har hög prioritet i skolans vardag och det finns olika läsinlärningsmetoder som under dessa år vuxit fram och gjort intåg i skolans värld, bland annat ljudmetoden, LTG-metoden, Wittingmetoden och Whole Language-metoden.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar tydligt att skolan under dessa decennier har genomgått stora förändringar, framför allt på grund av samhällets förändrade ekonomi och nya levnadsförhållanden men också på grund av nya forskningsrön och nya läsinlärningsmetoder. Trots de många läsinlärningsmetoder som lanserats under 1900-talets senare hälft, visar resultatet att alla de fyra lärarna fortfarande använder sig av ljudmetoden som grund, då de tycker att den fungerar bäst. De har dock olika syn på läsinlärning och på hur läsförmågan utvecklas, kanske framför allt på grund av att de utbildats under olika tidsperioder.

    En slutsats som kan dras utifrån materialet är att förändringar har skett både i lärarutbildningen och i skolans värld och trots detta arbetar de fyra lärarna fortfarande med en av de äldsta läsinlärningsmetoderna. Kan det då betyda att ljudmetoden är den bästa metoden?

    Nyckelord: läsinlärning, ljudmetoden, läsundervisningshistorik, lärarutbildning

  • 271.
    Ström, Sandra
    Karlstad University.
    Abandonment, loss and a yearning for love: A psychoanalytical interpretation of Willy Loman in Arthur Miller's play Death of a salesman2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Ståhlberg, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    The Functions of the Narratee in Kazuo Ishiguro's The Remains of the Day2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 80 points / 120 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since its publication in 1989, Kazuo Ishiguro’s third novel, The Remains of the Day, has received a great deal of attention. It has been the object of criticism as well as acclaim and even been turned into film. It is the purpose of this essay to explore reader communication and characterisation The Remains of the Day by analysing its narratee, i.e. the receiver of the narrator’s story within the text. This entails the application of a reader response approach on the level of the narrative. More precisely, the investigation focuses on the functions of the narratee in the areas of reader communication and characterisation of the narrator and main character of the novel, Stevens.

    I argue that the narratee, as an agent of the narrative, has two prominent functions in the novel: the first is as a tool for the author in the characterisation of the narrator of the story, and the second is as a device for achieving communication between author and reader. My thesis is that the narratee is not utilised in a mere supportive capacity in the novel, but as a primary way of achieving reader communication and characterisation of the narrator. Thus, methodologically this investigation is performed in part by reconstructing the narratee, and in part by analysing the communicative situation contained in the narrative.

    The investigation yields ample evidence to support that the narratee, as a device of the narrative, is utilised as a primary way of achieving reader communication and characterisation of the narrator in the novel. The narratee’s indirect influence in the novel is surprisingly tangible and the narratee is revealed as a major mover of the narrative. In addition to this, the analysis shows that the narrator can also be his own narratee. In this regard Stevens’s role in the narrative is twofold: he is both the narrator, who tells his story, and the narratee, who receives the story. The duality serves to highlight and reconcile the complexities and idiosyncrasies of his conflicted character, as well as make the narrative more accessible to the reader.

  • 273.
    Ståhlklo, Rebecka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Högläsning: Tre pedagoger berättar om hur de arbetar2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this work was to investigate if and in that case how three pedagogs use reading aloud in their work with the children. I also wanted to look a little closer if reading aloud can help children to improve their language proficiency and I also wanted to see if the environment plays a role in any way to achieve reading peace.

    My results showed that all three teachers are working quite a lot with reading aloud in their activities but they work in different ways with it. All of them, however, believe that reading aloud is extremely important for children's linguistic development, since when reading aloud they talk with the children about words and events in the book. Another thing that emerged from the survey was that the teachers felt it was important that there would be a special place in the room that the children could associate with storytelling and reading. This, unfortunately, was something that was not met really in everyone's daily activities, but nevertheless it shows how important they felt it was. Regarding the environment, so it was considered to play a fairly important role but what was especially emphasized was the importance of that when reading aloud to children you really need to devote yourself to the mission so that the children will be interested to listen to what is read.

    Keywords: Reading aloud, language, environment

  • 274.
    Sundberg, Jessica
    Karlstad University.
    IUP i svenska: Några lärares syn på arbetet med individuella utvecklingsplaner i svenska2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the first of January in 2006 the individual development plans was introduced, for all of the students in elementary school. The aim of this study was to examine some teachers’ thoughts about individual development plans and how they work with them in Swedish for grade 1-5.

    In my survey, I had the following start-issues:

    • What attitude do teachers have on the individual development plans?

    • How do teachers work with the individual development plans in Swedish grade 1-5?

    • How may students and parents participate in the work with individual development plans?

    In order to respond to these questions and to achieve the aim of the study there were several qualitative interviews with five teachers that work in different classes. Four of the teachers work at the same school, while the fifth teacher works at another school in the same town. Relevant literature in the matter has also been studied as basis for the work.

    The survey shows that the attitude and the work with the individual development plans are different in both schools. At the school where I interviewed four teachers, they work a lot for developing the individual development plans and see it as a positive thing for pupils, parents and teachers. At the other school the teacher works rather against individual development plans than towards it, she sees critically on the way to document students' development. The study also shows that the time is an extensive problem in the work with IUP. As a teacher you should reflect about how the time best can be disposed in order to make the schools education contribute to students' success.

    Keywords: Individual development plans, IUP, Swedish, teachers

  • 275.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    About a boy: A gamer and L2 English speaker coming into being by use of self-access2015In: Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, ISSN 2185-3762, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an interview study of Eldin, a 14-year-old Bosnian boy living in Sweden since the age of six. The aim is to investigate how Eldin became a gamer and how he, strongly motivated, learned foreign/second (L2) English mainly through self-access gameplay. Using language learning motivation theories, Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) L2 Motivational Self System and Dweck’s (2006) concept of mindsets, the questions are: (i) By whom and at what age was the learner introduced to video games?, (ii) What was it about the games that kept the learner motivated for two years before he started to play ‘for real’?, and (iii) How does the learner himself describe his process of language learning? Data consist of an in-depth interview and three university-level vocabulary/multiple-choice tests measuring English proficiency. Guided by the questions, interview data were analyzed qualitatively. Eldin’s mindset seems to favor naturalistic language learning, matching his interest in gaming. Experiences of having fun and daring to use ‘trial-and-error’ in gaming have contributed to his English proficiency, which is equivalent to a passing grade at second-semester university level. Elements of gaming (in particular, competition, stories, and escapism) appeal to Eldin, thereby indirectly contributing to his successful learning of English.

  • 276.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Categorization of Digital Games in English LanguageLearning Studies: Introducing the SSI Model2013In: 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: 2013 EUROCALL Conference, Évora, Portugal, Proceedings / [ed] Linda Bradley and Sylvie Thouësny, Dublin, Ireland; Voillans, France: Research-publishing.net , 2013, p. 231-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the present paper is to introduce a model for digital game categorization suitable for use in English language learning studies: the Scale of Social Interaction (SSI) Model (original idea published as Sundqvist, 2013). Based on sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978), the SSI Model proposes a classification of commercial off-the-shelf digital games into three categories: singleplayer, multiplayer, and massively multiplayer online games (MMOs). The potential for naturalistic learning (Benson, 2011) of English is hypothesized to be greater the larger the scale of the in-game social interaction. In other words, the larger the scale of social interaction offered by particular games, the higher the chances of encountering co-players of different nationalities, making the need for a shared language (i.e., English) for in-game interactions obvious. Subsequently, the more authentic English interactions there are, the higher the chances for naturalistic language learning to occur. In the SSI Model, the scale of social interaction is viewed as a continuum, from small scale (singleplayer games) to large scale (MMOs). Thus, from the perspective of language learning, the model suggests that MMOs are more beneficial than multiplayer games which, in turn, are more beneficial than singleplayer games. A secondary aim is to present some preliminary findings regarding the validation of the SSI Model based on data collected from Swedish learners (9th grade) in an ongoing 3-year study about the relation between out-of school digital gameplay and vocabulary acquisition. The results reveal that it is more common that learners who play games frequently play multiplayer games and/or MMOs than singleplayer games. Further, the results provide partial evidence of the validity of the SSI Model in that the learners who are categorized as playing multiplayer games and MMOs score higher on two vocabulary tests than the learners categorized as playing singleplayer games.

  • 277.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). University of Oslo.
    Commercial-off-the-shelf games in the digital wild and L2 learner vocabulary2019In: Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501, E-ISSN 1094-3501, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 87-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes of this study are to examine the relation between playing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) games in the wild and L2 English vocabulary and to offer comparisons with non-gamers’ vocabulary. Data were collected from two samples of teenage L2 English learners in Sweden, Sample A (N = 1,069) and Sample B (N = 16). Questionnaires and English grades were collected from A and B, productive and receptive vocabulary tests from A, and interviews and essays from B. A quantitative-dominant mixed-methods approach was adopted. Results showed a significant positive correlation between time played and test scores. They also showed that time played was related to types of games played. Multiple regression analysis including time played and types of games as predictor variables and L2 vocabulary as the outcome variable showed that the effect from type disappeared when it was entered into the model, whereas time remained significant. A close examination of 45 words (productive test) revealed significantly higher scores for gamers (compared with non-gamers) at all vocabulary frequency levels, and for particularly difficult words. Overall, findings from Sample B regarding gaming habits and vocabulary (i.e., use of advanced or infrequent words in essays) reflected the results from Sample A, making it possible to conclude that playing COTS games matters for L2 learner vocabulary.

  • 278.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Extramural engelska: En möjlig väg till studieframgång2010In: Kapet, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 94-109Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel handlar om extramural engelska (’engelska utanför klassrummets väggar’) och baseras på min doktorsavhandling Extramural English Matters: Out-of-School English and Its Impact on Swedish Ninth Graders’ Oral Proficiency and Vocabulary (Sundqvist, 2009). Studien undersöker extramural engelska och dess effekter på muntlig färdighet och vokabulär hos niondeklassare (N=80). Extramural engelska mättes med hjälp av enkät, språkdagböcker och intervjuer. Muntlig färdighet mättes med fem interaktiva tester (slumpmässiga elevpar) som spelades in och sedan betygssattes av externa bedömare. Vokabulären mättes med två skriftliga prov. Baserat på enkätdata undersöktes även socioekonomisk bakgrund och motivation. Insamlade data analyserades huvudsakligen kvantitativt. Resultaten visade på positiva och statistiskt signifikanta korrelationer mellan extramural engelska och muntlig färdighet respektive vokabulär. Aktiviteter som fordrade att eleverna var produktiva (spela tv-/dataspel, surfa på Internet, läsa) var relativt sett viktigare för engelskresultaten än aktiviteter där man kunde förhålla sig förhållandevis passiv (lyssna på musik, se på tv, se på film). En könsskillnad identifierades: pojkarna ägnade signifikant mer tid åt produktiva aktiviteter än flickorna; extramural engelska hade därför större effekt på pojkarnas resultat. En annan slutsats var att extramural engelska är en självständig variabel (utan samband med socioekonomiska bakgrundsfaktorer) och en möjlig väg till studieframgång för vilken elev som helst, oavsett bakgrund.

  • 279.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Extramural English Matters: Out-of-School English and Its Impact on Swedish Ninth Graders' Oral Proficiency and Vocabulary2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines possible effects of extramural English (EE) on oral proficiency (OP) and vocabulary (VOC). The study is based on data collected from Swedish learners of ESL in grade 9 (aged 15-16; N=80; 36 boys, 44 girls) over a period of one year. EE was defined as linguistic activities that learners engage in outside the classroom in their spare time. EE was measured with the help of a questionnaire and two language diaries, each covering one week. In the diaries, the learners recorded how much time they had spent on seven given EE activities (reading books, reading newspapers/magazines, watch­ing TV, watching films, surfing the Internet, playing video games, listening to music). There was also an open category. Speech data were collected with the help of five interactional speaking tests; learners were in random dyads on each occasion. Each student performance was assessed by three raters with the help of a profile scheme, resulting in an overall grade. Based on these grades from the tests, a mean grade for OP (the OP grade) was calculated for each student. OP was defined as the learner’s ability to speak and use the target language in actual communication with an interlocutor. Learners’ VOC was measured with an index variable based on the scores on two written vocabulary tests. For a selection of ten learners, additional analyses were made of oral fluency and the use of advanced vocabulary in speech. A mixed methods research design was used, but the lion’s share of data was analyzed using inferential statistics.

    Results showed that the total amount of time spent on EE correlated positively and significantly (p < .01) both with learners’ level of OP and size of VOC, but that the correlation between EE and VOC was stronger and more straightforward than the one between EE and OP. The conclusion drawn was that although EE impacts both OP and VOC, the causal relationship is more salient in the case of VOC. Results also showed that some activities were more important than others for OP and VOC respectively; i.e., the type of EE activity mattered. EE activities that required learners to be more productive and rely on their language skills (video games, the Internet, reading) had a greater impact on OP and VOC than activities where learners could remain fairly passive (music, TV, films). An important gender difference was identified. Boys spent significantly more time on productive EE activities than girls; therefore, EE had a greater impact on OP and VOC for boys than for girls. Four background variables were also studied. The conclusion was that EE is an independent variable and a possible path to progress in English for any learner, regard­less of his or her socioeconomic background.

  • 280.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Gaming and young language learners2016In: The Routledge handbook of language learning and technology / [ed] Fiona Farr and Liam Murray, Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 446-458Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Informal learning of English among young learners: Report from a one-year project in preschool class, grade 3, and grade 62012In: English for Young Learners – Forum: Proceedings from the Conference in Uppsala, 19 June 2012 / [ed] M. Allström & A.-M. Pinter, Centre for Professional Development and Internationalisation in Schools , 2012, p. 122-132Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary Sweden, the influx of English is great and research has shown that extramural contact with English correlates positively with secondary school students’ proficiency in English (Olsson, 2011; Sundqvist, 2009; Sylvén, 2004). However, little is known learners in primary school, because empirical studies are scare. Considering the fact that more than half of Swedish 5th-graders indicate that they have learned English as much or more outside of school as in school (Skolverket, 2004), the present study is one attempt to at least partially fulfil a void in research.

    The paper reports about an on-going project among young learners of English in Sweden. The informants (N=176) are at three levels in school: preschool class, grade 3, and grade 6. The main objective of the study is to examine extramural English (‘informal learning of English outside of school in the spare time’) among young children and its connection with school, socioeconomic background, gender, and ethnicity (L1).

    References

     

    Olsson, E. (2011). "Everything I read on the Internet is in English" - On the impact of extramural English on Swedish 16-year-old pupils' writing proficiency. Lic, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.  

    Skolverket. (2004). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan 2003: huvudrapport - svenska/svenska som andra språk, engelska, matematik och undersökningen i årskurs 5 Skolverkets rapport, 251 (pp. 116). Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders' oral proficiency and vocabulary. PhD, Karlstad University Studies, 2009:55, Karlstad.

    Sylvén, L. K. (2004). Teaching in English or English teaching? On the effects of content and language integrated learning on Swedish learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition. PhD, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg.  

     

  • 282.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    More research on motivation in early foreign language learning2014In: Conference Proceedings from Early Language Learning: Theory and Practice 2014 / [ed] Janet Enever, Eva Lindgren, Sergej Ivanov, Umeå, 2014, p. 116-120Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Review of Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks2015In: Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501, E-ISSN 1094-3501, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 36-39Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Taking a quantitative measure of oral proficiency in EFL.2009In: Taking the Measure of Applied Linguistics: Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference 2008 / [ed] M. Edwardes, London: Scitsiugnil Press, 2009, p. 117-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Två forskningsprojekt med en gemensam nämnare: informellt lärande av engelska utanför skolan, samt några ord om bedömning 2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 286.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Classroom vs. extramural English: Teachers dealing with demotivation2013In: Language and Linguistics Compass, ISSN 1749-818X, E-ISSN 1749-818X, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores challenges facing EFL classrooms in Sweden due to new informal out-of-school language learning settings created by the current media landscape. A recent Swedish national evaluation identifies that a problematic situation in secondary school EFL classrooms has emerged. EFL teachers find it difficult to bridge the gap (cf. Olsson 2011) between the English used in school and the English used outside of school, extramural English (Sundqvist 2009). As a consequence, the pupils (aged 13–16) become discouraged and demotivated. Based on experiences from language teaching methodology in-service training programs and a small-scale survey, the article discusses the problem with demotivation, the empowerment of EFL teachers, and the development of teaching practices in order to meet the new challenges. The article argues that the challenges that Swedish EFL teachers currently meet can be viewed as an early indication that similar challenges are likely to emerge also in EFL classrooms elsewhere.

  • 287.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Engelska på fritiden och engelska i skolan: en omöjlig ekvation?2015In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores challenges facing English language classrooms in Sweden and elsewhere due to new informal out-of-school language learning settings created by the current media landscape. The article also discusses the empowerment of teachers and teachers’ perceived ability to bridge the gap between the English used in school and the English used outside of school (extramural English) in various activities (blogging, playing digital games, watching TV/films etc.). Generally young people engage in extramural English activities on a voluntary basis and because of a specific interest; that is, they do not commonly do it for the purpose of language learning. As a consequence, they may become discouraged and demotivated during English classes in school. After an extensive literature review about motivation/demotivation in second language learning in general, and the current media landscape in relation to English language learning in particular, this article discusses problems with learner demotivation, the empowerment of teachers, and the development of teaching practices in order to meet the new challenges. The discussion draws on the authors’ experiences of in-service training programs (related to language teaching methodology) and on the results of a small-scale survey carried out among English teachers participating in Boost for teachers (Lärarlyftet).

  • 288.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    National speaking tests in English: Does group size matter?2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, Vol. 3, p. 3p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 289.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Speaking about speaking: English teachers' practices and views regarding Part A of the English national test2015In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 290.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blogpost about Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden.2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 291.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Extramural English in teaching and learning: From theory and research to practice2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is unique in bringing together theory, research, and practice about English encountered outside the classroom – extramural English – and how it affects teaching and learning. The book investigates ways in which learners successfully develop their language skills through extramural English and provides tools for teachers to make use of free time activities in primary and secondary education. The authors demonstrate that learning from involvement in extramural English activities tends to be incidental and is currently underutilized in classroom work. A distinctive strength is that this volume is grounded in theory, builds on results from empirical studies, and manages to link theory and research with practice in a reader-friendly way. Teacher-educators, teachers and researchers of English as a foreign language and teachers of English as a second language across the globe will find this book useful in developing their use of extramural English activities as tools for language learning.

  • 292.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fritidsspråk i femman: framtidens studenter formas2011In: Språk för framtiden. Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Falun, 12-13 november, 2010.: Language for the future. Papers from the ASLA Symposium in Falun, 12-13 November, 2010 / [ed] A. Ylikiiskilä & M. Westman, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2011, p. 186-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    How Swedish children learn English through gaming2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 294.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden2014In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N=76, aged 10–11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners’ L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their use of computers and engagement in playing digital games in particular. A comparison is made between language-related activities in English, Swedish, and other languages. Another purpose was to see whether there is a relationship between playing digital games and (a) gender, (b) L1, (c) motivation for learning English, (d) self-assessed English ability, and (e) self-reported strategies for speaking English. In order to do so, the sample was divided into three digitalgame groups, (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate, and (3) frequent gamers (>4 hours/week), based on diary data (using self-reported times for playing digital games in English). Results showedthat YELLs are extensively involved in extramural English (EE) activities (M=7.2 hrs/w).There are statistically significant gender differences, boys (11.5 hrs/w) and girls (5.1 hrs/w; p < .01), the reason being boys’ greater time investment in digital gaming and watching films.The girls, on the other hand, spent significantly more time on pastime language-relatedactivities in Swedish (11.5 hrs/w) than the boys (8.0 hrs/w; p < .05), the reason being girls’greater time investment in facebooking. Investigation of the digital game groups revealed that group (1) was predominantly female, (2) a mix, and (3) predominantly male. YELLs with an L1 other than Swedish were overrepresented in group (3). Motivation and self-assessed English ability were high across all groups. Finally, regarding the self-reported strategies, code-switching to one’s L1 was more commonly reported by non- and moderate gamers than frequent gamers.

  • 295.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Unveiling the force of learner-initiated informal language learning: Extramural learning2018In: Language Magazine, ISSN 1537-7350, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 296.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Gamers and girls: Avancerad vokabulär i engelska uppsatser (årskurs 9)2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 297.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes2015In: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

  • 298.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization.2017In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

  • 299.
    Sundqvist, Sofia
    Karlstad University.
    The Emancipation of Celie: The Color Purple as a womanist Bildungsroman2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Emancipation of Celie: The Color Purple as a womanist Bildungsroman

    The purpose of this essay is to study The Color Purple as a Bildungsroman, focusing on the development of the protagonist, Celie. The Color Purple is related to both the traditional Bildungsroman and to the female Bildungsroman, but the essay shows that it can also be seen as a womanist Bildungsroman. Initially, Celie believes that being a woman inescapably means that she has to serve and obey men and she is oppressed by patriarchy. She is eventually introduced to another way of living by the strong female characters of Sofia and Shug who embrace her in a kind of sisterhood, which is vital for Celie as she has nothing else to help her liberate herself from the patriarchal values that keep her down. In conclusion, this essay shows how Celie has developed from being a young girl, forced to act in an adult way, into a woman who displays signs of all the criteria for having achieved a womanist development: she is grown up (not just acting as though she is), she is in charge of a business, a house and, in short, her life. She is serious, she has a universalist perspective, and most importantly, she loves. Furthermore, the essay highlights which characteristics of her development can be linked to the traditional and the female Bildungsroman and which characteristics can be seen as typical of a womanist Bildungsroman.

  • 300.
    Sundström, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    El Ecoturismo como instrumento para desarrollo sostenible: Un estudio comparativo de campo entre Suecia y Ecuador2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
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