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  • 251. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Defining and Curing the Digital Divide: EU and US Approaches2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 252. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    EU Policy and the Creation of a European Information Society in a Global Economy2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 253. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Genre Blending in Popular Turkish Television2006In: Northern Lights 2005. Film and Media Studies Yearbook / [ed] L. Höjbjerg & H. Söndergaard, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press , 2006, p. 159-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 254. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Information Society And Digital Economy in The 'Post-Industrial' Era: A Comparative Look at the Digital Divide in the US And The EU Contexts2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The After-Life of Eurovision 2003: Turkish and European Social Imaginaries and Ephemeral Communicative Space2008In: Popular Communication: International Journal of Media and Culture, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 256. Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Christensen, Miyase
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Being EuropeanAny Way that Turkey Can2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Erdogan, E.
    Shifting Landscapes: Film and Media in European Context2008Book (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Erdogan, N
    The Many Faces of Film and Media in Europe2008In: in M. Christensen & N. Erdogan (eds) Shifting Landscapes: Media and Film in European Context, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Body, Soul and Society:: Rethinking Media and Communication Ontologies2010In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 32, no 2-3, p. 7-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Complicit Surveillance, Interveillance and the Question of Cosmopolitanism2015In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 1473-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Cosmopolitanism and the Media: Cartographies of Change2015Book (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cultural Citizenship and the Communicative Space of Mediated Sexual Expressivity2011In: International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, ISSN 1740-8296, E-ISSN 2040-0918, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 209-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of pornography in contemporary media societies constitutes one of the underresearched areas in media and communication studies. The purpose of this article is to explore the potentiality latent in the user-porn-related Internet domains, blogs and forums – as extensions of offline agency and sociality – for motivating communicative action and engagement with civic practice in various forms. In this study, we utilize an interdisciplinary approach that feeds from social, political and cultural theory and we take ‘self-pornographic pursuit as cultural citizenship’ as a paradigmatic intersection. The discussion is based on our analysis of a variety of expressive venues (some purely online, some amalgamated with the offline) over the course of our preliminary research. Of these, we refer to two Swedish examples: Bodycontact, a sexual dating site, and Dirty Diaries, a feminist film project and the adjacent website, as illustrative of the theoretical arguments presented throughout our discussion.

  • 263.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fields, Territories and Bridges: Networked Communities and Mediate Surveillance in Transnational Social Space2012In: The Internet and Surveillance: the Challenges of Web 2.0 and Social Media / [ed] Fuchs, Christian; Kees Boersma, Anders Albrechtslund and Marisol Sandoval, London: Routledge , 2012, p. 220-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Interveillance, Complicit Surveillance and the Question of Cosmopolitanism: Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatization2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Networked Communities and Interactive Surveillance in Transnational Social Space2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 266.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Encapsulated Self vs the Cosmopolitan Self: Towards a Phenomenological Conceptualization of Mediatized Communication and Complicit Surveillance2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Encapsulated vs. the Cosmopolitan Self? : Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatized Communication and Complicit Surveillance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediatization refers to a meta-process whereby social life in its totality is (re)embedded in and saturated with mediated processes. This paper addresses the relationship between two theoretically diverging, yet socially intertwined, realms pertaining to various mediatization patterns: cosmopolitanism and surveillance. Mediatization implies increasing opportunities for ‘extending the self’, experienced in terms of mediated proximity, immediacy and boundary transgression – ultimately sustaining a more cosmopolitan outlook of the world. Yet, mediatization also brings growing opportunities for securitization, boundary control and social encapsulation, on behalf of societal institutions as well as individuals and groups. Contemporary forms and extensions of surveillance and cosmopolitanism are increasingly interwoven through the meta-process of mediatization, most recently the social saturation of converging ‘social’ media. This paper suggests that phenomenology, as a heuristic tool, offers a well-contextualized and grounded socio-cultural perspective to grasp the everyday dimensions and subjective moral positionalities ensuing from increased mediatization and related openings and closures

  • 268.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Lenert, E
    Tufekci, Z
    Gustafson, K
    The Digital Divide: The National Debate and Federal and State Level Programs2012In: Inequity in the Technopolis: Race, Class and the Digital Divide in Austin / [ed] Straubhaar, Z. Tufekci, B. Lentz, and J. Spence, Austin: University of Texas Press , 2012, p. 109-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Challenges in an Evolving e-Service Landscape - The Contact Centre Case: A Position Paper2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-Services must be designed and made available in accordance with the demands and needs of the citizens. One way to meet these requirements is to establish contact centres in the municipalities to guide citizens and employees in their handling of public services to improve business processes and to incorporate social media and e-Services into the daily business. With an evolving e-Service landscape, new challenges arise  and the role of a contact centre is likely to change from a purely advising function to being a central player in developing the service game in municipalities. The paper presents arguments and plans for using a mix of methods in data collection aimed at identifying challenges in the pre-implementation phase as well as in the handling of e-Services and in the local administrations's outsourcing business processes to the new organisational body (the contact centre). Limitations in the design of the case study include the restricted focus on challenges in communicating e-Service offerings to citizens and employees, based on the overall municipality portfolio. Expected contributions are an “e-Service Communication Map” as a modelling technique for use in service performance and e-Service development.

  • 270.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Improving Business Processes and Delivering Better e-Services: a guide for municipalities from Smart Cities2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do you know your business and e-service solutions? Is your IT aligned with your business to support, enable and deliver your services? Your business processes define your ability and potential to provide customers and employees with effective and high quality services and solutions. Your processes influence your performance, your service delivery and what administrative support is available for your service offerings.

    This document outlines a model, or framework, which can help you to improve your existing business processes to support and develop your e-services. The Common Process Model comprises a set of preconditions, directives, guidelines and templates that will help employees in different roles to identify, measure and improve the performance of the business processes that make up your e-service solutions.

    The Common Process Model stems from a collaborative project between Karlstad University and the municipality of Karlstad in Sweden, that began in February 2009. The project aimed to develop a simple methodology that would help the municipality to think about, to describe and to improve its business processes in a logical, strategic and self-reflective manner.

  • 271.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Improving citizens’ ability to find, understand and use e-services: Communicating the social interaction dimension2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 177-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the ability to communicate public e-Services, as a part of e-Service development. The purpose is to elaborate on the concept “communicability”, and to define elements and criteria useful in the evaluation and improvement of public e-Services. In terms of public e-Services, communication takes place in a context based on an understanding and relation between the public sector and the citizens using the provider’s e-Service solution. Public sectors are increasing their e-Service offers, making communicating e-Services an important part of the service delivery. The citizens’ ability to find, understand, and use the service is a return on investment. This paper combines a business process and a social interac- tion approach to e-Services. The empirical grounding is a Swedish municipality case study with a pilot evaluation, interviews with developers, and an eye tracking usability test on e- Services with citizens partaking in a university course. The research contributions include a first version of a defined concept of communicability in the e-Service context together with a conceptual basis for evaluation purposes. Findings can be used as a basis for developing an evaluation tool and a handbook to improve communicability in public e-Service solutions.

  • 272.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kontaktcenter i Karlstads kommun: En uppföljning från kundens och medarbetarens perspektiv2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 31 januari 2013 öppnade Karlstads kommun en ny verksamhet i form av ett Kontaktcenter (KC) i syfte att öka tillgängligheten, ge god service och avlasta förvaltningarnas hantering av enklare ärenden. Karlstadsborna får hjälp med information och vägledning till all verksamhet i kommunen och kommunvägledare i tre svarsgrupper hanterar delar av eller hela ärenden. Uppdrag från förvaltningar initierar KCs verksamhet och definierar dess innehåll. Rapporten beskriver en processorienterad uppföljning av KCs verksamhet som genomförts under våren 2013. Intervjuer har genomförts med 24 externa kunder (20 medborgare), 9 interna kunder (förvaltningar) och 25 utförare i KCs processer (kommunvägledare och telefonister). Syftet med uppföljningen är att nå ett underlag till verksamhetsutveckling. Uttalanden från respondenterna publiceras som resultat i bilagor till rapporten. Dessa avser upplevda problem, styrkor och förbättringsförslag som struktureras i kategorier för effektiva verksamhetsprocesser. Rapporten kan ses som ett underlag för att lära och sprida erfarenheter. Den kan därför vara intressant för andra organisationer som står inför en etablering av KC eller som redan bedriver en liknande verksamhet. Genom att publicera data i insamlad empiri öppnas möjligheter till flera och olika typer av analyser. I den här rapporten finns enbart några reflektioner kring varje uppföljning, en summering och avslutande rekommendation.

  • 273.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Practice Research Design: a Channel to the Meaning of BPM Maturity in Government2011In: International and Inter-disciplinary Workshop on Practice Research, Linköpings universitet , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a practice research design for studying the practical meaning of business process management (BPM) maturity in municipalities within a university course. The course design enables the identification of practitioners’ ‘questions’ (needed knowledge in BPM), actions and business issues (problematic situations). Applications from practitioners’ everyday work are used as case studies in course assignments. Thereby, it will be possible to collect empirical data to be used in the research, as well as to collect, answers and provide discussions that will give useful perspectives,concepts and methods contributing to changes (interventions) in the local practice. Moreover, it will be possible to conduct practical inquiries to develop a general knowledge of practical relevance and usefulness among course participants. The practitioners are interested in the same practical scope, i.e.BPM initiatives with process mapping as the first step. In the course a generic process methodology (the PoP model) serves as a knowledge transfer from ten local practices and is improved upon the course participants as a joint result of the knowledge development and a general practice contribution. The model can be adjusted by each practitioner’s own business context in use and thus is in everyone’s interest to share lessons learned.

  • 274.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet.
    Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective2015In: Electronic Government: 14th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece, August 30 -- September 2, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Efthimios Tambouris, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Konstantinos Tarabanis, Mila Gascó, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 183-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

  • 275.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Granström, Klas
    Sharpening the BPM Knowledge Transfer in a Practice Research Design: A Case Study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice research in this paper is based on the common interest of Telge AB and Karlstad University to explore knowledge transfer between research results and their use in practice when applying a Business Process Management (BPM) maturity assessment model. In our case study, we explore how knowledge transfer can become explicit, based on the foundation of practice research and a mapping of the practice research process. The main idea with the case study is to contribute to the articulation of sharpening the knowledge transfer in practice research design. Our findings show e.g. the importance of enabling practitioners in finding the research results, a suitable packaging to gain understanding and guidance to the way the practitioners are supposed to use the results as well as prerequisites in the domain knowledge. Additionally, the complexity in the BPM maturity concept and challenges in the BPM knowledge transfer are findings that can lead to bridging the gap between assessment model in theory and lessons learned from the practitioners using the model in practice. Finally, the paper contributes with a snapshot of practice research design with key elements regarding pre-conditions for knowledge transfer to use in planning, specifying and evaluating practice research.

  • 276.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Granström, Klas
    Sharpening the knowledge domain transfer in practice research design: The BPM assessment2012In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 22-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice research design described in this paper is based on the common interest of Telge AB and Karlstad University to explore knowledge transfer from research results to their use in practice when applying a Business Process Management (BPM) maturity assessment model. In our case study, we explore how knowledge transfer can become explicit, based on components in the foundation of practice research and a mapping of the practice research process. The main idea is to contribute to the articulation of sharpening the knowledge transfer in practice research design. Our findings show e.g. the importance of enabling practitioners in finding the research results, using an explicit model package to gain understanding and guidance towards the intended way in which the practitioners are supposed to use the knowledge, as well as prerequisites in the knowledge domain. Additionally, the complexity in the BPM maturity concept and challenges in the knowledge domain transfer are findings that can lead to bridging the gap between a BPM maturity assessment model in theory and lessons learned from using the model in practice. Finally, the paper contributes with a knowledge domain transfer loop model to be used in planning and evaluating practice research between practitioners and research stakeholders as well as a snapshot of practice research design to be used to communicate key elements as pre-conditions for the knowledge domain transfer.

  • 277.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Van Looy, Amy
    Department of Business Informatics and Operations Management, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Elements for Tailoring a BPM Maturity Model to Simplify its Use2017In: Business Process Management Forum. BPM 2017 / [ed] Carmona J., Engels G., Kumar A., Springer, 2017, p. 3-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research exists on Business Process Management (BPM) maturity models, few studies report on their practical use. This paper explores the situational needs and practitioner's views on assessing BPM maturity. Data triangulation uncovered different applications in Swedish industry and public sector organizations through three phases: 1) data collection in a practitioner-driven BPM maturity model design, 2) validation of the design in a workshop and follow-up interviews, and 3) testing the BPM maturity model by practitioners. The basic assumption is that a generic BPM maturity model will most likely not fit all organizations. Therefore, a framework is presented with elements (e.g. scope and measures) for a BPM maturity model to be customized to an organization’s needs, supplemented by a practical ‘tailoring template’. The framework and template contribute to the BPM discipline with a Swedish example, and allows twelve design propositions with recommendations to simplify the application of BPM maturity models and enhance their fit.

  • 278.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    A Process Oriented User Test on Public e-Services: The Swedish Municipality Case2014In: Proceedings of The 8th European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation – ECIME 2014 held at the University of Ghent, Ghent, Belguim / [ed] Jan Devos, Steven De Haes, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014, p. 39-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates on the potential to design and conduct process-oriented user tests on public e-Services. The purpose is to use key constructs of business process orientation (BPO) to develop a basis for design and communicating the value of user tests in a public e-Service context. Our hypotheses are that user tests can provide valuable results for all actors involved in e-Service development, not only in terms of how to conduct user tests per se, but also to provide incentives for a customer driven focus and highlighting the value derived from user tests. In the municipality case, actors and stakeholders are involved municipalities in an inter-organisational collaboration on e-Service development, i.e. different municipalities, locally and regionally, as well as the supplier.  Citizens partaking in a university course conduct the user tests with the eye tracking technology. In total 71 users performed in test sessions on 11 different e-Services in a standard platform provided by one supplier. In this paper, we elaborate on a BPO test design based on basic constructs in the approach compared with findings from reconstructing the test process design used with an implicit approach 2012 and an explicit BPO approach in 2013. Contributions include a generic test-process design for data collection, analysis and delivery to stakeholders in an overall e-Service development. Furthermore, findings from our test sessions and test process design will inspire and guide other universities to collaborate with practitioners. Beside the strength with a real case for the students, user test sessions in collaboration can be an eye-opener to not only for municipalities but also suppliers. Thus, the potential for impacts from test results to be applied in the further development of e-Services has thereby increased.  

  • 279.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Testing Communicability in Municipality e-Services2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the ability to communicate public e-Services, as one part of e-Service evaluation. The purpose is to use and further develop the emerging concept of “communicability” to be used as a base in an evaluation tool in the context of public e-Services. The ability of citizens’ to find, understand and use the e-Services provided is return on investment for public sectors, governments and agencies. The point of departure in this paper is to elaborate on a test process design for data collection and analysis from an empirical driven approach. Empirical grounding is based on a Swedish municipality case with a pilot usability test with eye tracking in 2012 and a second further improved test sessions 2013 on e-Services with citizens partaking in a university course. The research contributions include a further defined concept together with a generic test process for data collection and analysis to be useful as an evaluation tool, in research as in practice. Our research design and experiences from test sessions might also work as an inspiration to other university courses. Further more, findings from our test sessions can be used as a point of departure in formulating guidelines in a handbook to improve communicability in public e-Services.

  • 280.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Testing Communicability in Public e-Services: Process and Outcomes2014In: Electronic government and electronic participation / [ed] Marijn F.W.H.A. Janssen, Frank Bannister, Olivier Glassey, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria A. Wimmer, Ann Macintosh, IOS Press, 2014, Vol. 21, p. 244-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a case of testing public e-Service communicability is analysed in terms of process as well as outcomes. Key elements in test processes are defined, together with the meaning of communicability identified in terms of information-oriented metrics. The purpose of our paper is to develop knowledge about how e-Service providers should improve their ability to communicate and support users in finding, understanding and using e-Services. The reconstructed test process design is based of an analysis of gaze replays in citizen test sessions by means of eyetracking technology. Empirical findings on communicability metrics are further grounded in theory. Our main contribution to the research community and the field of practice, are a test process and a communicability framework to support the assessing of e-Service information. The use of wireframes for the e-Service five layers, together with a multifunctional template for data collection, analysis and presentation are introduced.

  • 281.
    Ciallellla, Alessandro
    et al.
    Sapienza Univ Roma, Dipartimento Sci Base & Applicate Ingn, Rome, Italy.
    Cirillo, Emilio
    Sapienza Univ Roma, Dipartimento Sci Base & Applicate Ingn, Rome, Italy.
    Curseu, Petre
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Dept Psychol, Cluj, Romania Open Univ Netherlands, Dept Org, Heerlen, Netherlands.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Free to move or trapped in your group: Mathematical modeling of information overload and coordination in crowded populations2018In: Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, ISSN 0218-2025, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 1831-1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present modeling strategies that describe the motion and interaction of groups of pedestrians in obscured spaces. We start off with an approach based on balance equations in terms of measures and then we exploit the descriptive power of a probabilistic cellular automaton model. Based on a variation of the simple symmetric random walk on the square lattice, we test the interplay between population size and an interpersonal attraction parameter for the evacuation of confined and darkened spaces. We argue that information overload and coordination costs associated with information processing in small groups are two key processes that influence the evacuation rate. Our results show that substantial computational resources are necessary to compensate for incomplete information - the more individuals in (information processing) groups the higher the exit rate for low population size. For simple social systems, it is likely that the individual representations are not redundant and large group sizes ensure that this non-redundant information is actually available to a substantial number of individuals. For complex social systems, information redundancy makes information evaluation and transfer inefficient and, as such, group size becomes a drawback rather than a benefit. The effect of group sizes on outgoing fluxes, evacuation times and wall effects is carefully studied with a Monte Carlo framework accounting also for the presence of an internal obstacle.

  • 282.
    Cieleszky, Kinga
    Karlstad University.
    Long-Distance Intimacy: How Intimacy in Long-Distance Relationships Changes over Erasmus+ Exchange2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years technology has developed significantly and rapidly become an intricate part of people’s daily life in the globalised world. There is a growing recognition that within intimate relationships, technology usage has many functions which can create both negative and positive impacts on intimacy.  Yet research on intimacy in online social relationships is still underdeveloped. This paper maps the literature on long-distance relationships and how its participants use information and communication technologies to overcome the physical detachment. The purpose of this study is to examine whether intimacy changes over Erasmus+ exchange studies in long-distance romantic and parental relationships. Data from an online survey of 100 Erasmus+ exchange students residing in Budapest, Hungary were analysed to see whether the quality of their relationship worsens during the exchange period. Based on the data collected it can be concluded that the majority of respondents does not experience critical decay in neither of their relationships and that preparation for distance communication with ICTs is not strongly connected to preventing a decay in intimacy.

  • 283.
    Claesson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nya aktörer på arenan: En kvalitativ studie av företags närvaro på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Assessing the qualities of automated content2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of new technologies has always spurred questions about changes in journalism – its content, its means of production, and its consumption. A quite recent development in the realm of digital journalism is software-generated content, i.e. automatically produced content. Companies such as Automated Insights offer services that, according to themselves “humanizes big data sets by spotting patterns, trends and key insights and describing those findings in plain English that is indistinguishable from that produced by a human writer” (Automated Insights, 2012).

    This paper seeks to investigate how readers perceive software-generated content in relation to similar content written by a journalist. This is investigated through the following empirical research questions:

    RQ1 – How is software-generated content perceived by readers, in regards to overall quality and credibility?

    RQ2 – Are the software-generated content discernable from similar content written by human journalists?

    The study utilizes an experimental methodology where respondents were subjected to different news articles that were written by a journalist or software-generated. The respondents were then asked to answer questions about how they perceived the article; its overall quality, credibility, objectiveness etc.The paper presents the results from a first small-scale study and they indicate that the software-generated content is perceived as, for example, descriptive, boring and objective, but not necessarily discernable from content written by journalists.

    The paper discusses the results of the study and its implication for journalism practice.

  • 285.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Bakom webben: En studie av produktionsvillkor och svenska universitetswebbplatsers form och innehåll2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since their breakthrough in the mid 1990's, web sites have become one of the most important channels for communication at Swedish universities. Drawing upon the analytical framework of "the production of culture perspective", the thesis investigates how the form and content of Swedish university web sites are influenced by the production milieu in which they are produced.

    Based on quantitative content analysis of the home pages of university web sites, the thesis documents changes in the form and content, such as links, headings, and body matter becoming more focused on marketing, as well as an increasing need for different kinds of navigation aids on the web sites. In addition to this, the thesis presents the results of fifteen in-depth interviews with informants working at various levels of the web organizations at Swedish universities. Using the production of culture perspective, together with previous research on media production in general, and literature on more specific areas, such as organization theory and communication, and media and technology, this presentation is followed by a discussion and analysis of structural, production related, factors, and their influence on the form and content of the web sites.

    The overall conclusion of the thesis is that the production of university web sites - their form and content - is about much more than available technology, web development processes, and different programming languages, to mention but a few examples. It is also about organizational routines, about the ways decisions are made, about policies for web publishing within the overall organization, about different stakeholders being put against each other, and it is about strategic choices about what to publish on the web and not. Furthermore, the thesis shows that structural factors function as constraints, as well as facilitators of web site production. For example, the width of web pages increases in correspondence with the increasing number of larger, high-resolution, displays used by the user; local policies and strategies decides the content to be focused; and a consistent form and layout of the university web sites are inhibited by the organizational structures and lines of command.

  • 286.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Behind the web: an exploratory study of the production of Swedish university web sites2008In: Abstracts: Media and Global Divides, International Assocciation for Media and Communication Research , 2008, p. 432-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Datorn i journalistiken: och datorn som journalist2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Karlsson, Michael & Strömbäck, Jesper, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 445-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Enter the Robot Journalist: Users' perceptions of automated content2014In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of new technologies has always spurred questions about changes in journalism—its content, its means of production, and its consumption. A quite recent development in the realm of digital journalism is software-generated content, i.e. automatically produced content. This paper seeks to investigate how readers perceive software-generated content in relation to similar content written by a journalist. The study utilizes an experimental methodology where respondents were subjected to different news articles that were written either by a journalist or were software-generated. The respondents were then asked to answer questions about how they perceived the article—its overall quality, credibility, objectivity, etc. The paper presents the results from an initial small-scale study with findings suggesting that while the software-generated content is perceived as descriptive and boring, it is also considered to be objective although not necessarily discernible from content written by journalists. The paper discusses the results of the study and its implication for journalism practice.

  • 289.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Form and Content in Numbers: using content analysis to explore changes in form and content on web sites over time2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and exemplify a method for analyzing the form and content of web sites. The paper is based on empirical work conducted by myself in late 2004 and beginning of 2005. Using quantitative content analysis I analyzed Swedish university web sites in different versions from 1996 to 2005. The purpose of the analysis was to explore how the form and content of these web sites has changed over time. This paper shows how the analysis was done; focusing on the methodological aspects of, and the different steps in, the analysis. To exemplify what kind of data the analysis yielded, a preliminary short version of the results of the analysis is included. The paper ends with a few examples of how the empirical data may be used in the analysis of how production conditions affect the outcome of the web design processes

  • 290.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Form and Content in Numbers: using content analysis to explore changes in form and content on web sites over time2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and exemplify a method for analyzing the form and content of web sites. The paper is based on empirical work conducted by myself in late 2004 and beginning of 2005. Using quantitative content analysis I analyzed Swedish university web sites in different versions from 1996 to 2005. The purpose of the analysis was to explore how the form and content of these web sites has changed over time. This paper shows how the analysis was done; focusing on the methodological aspects of, and the different steps in, the analysis. To exemplify what kind of data the analysis yielded, a preliminary short version of the results of the analysis is included. The paper ends with a few examples of how the empirical data may be used in the analysis of how production conditions affect the outcome of the web design processes.

  • 291.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Information Architecture - a descriptive overview2003In: / [ed] John Sören Pettersson, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyhetskonsumtion i Värmland2012In: Värmländska landskap: Politik, ekonomi, samhälle, kultur, medier / [ed] Nilsson, Lennart, Aronsson, Lars och Norell, PO, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 387-403Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Robot journalism in Swedish newsrooms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Who wrote this? Users' perception of software-generated content in online news2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of new technologies has always spurred questions about changes injournalism – its content, its means of production, and its consumption. A quite recentdevelopment in the realm of digital journalism is software-generated content, i.e.automatically produced content.

    This paper seeks to investigate how readers perceive software-generated content inrelation to similar content written by (human) journalists. This is investigated through the following empirical research questions:

    RQ1 – How is software-generated content perceived by readers, in regards to overallquality and credibility?

    RQ2 – Are the software-generated content discernable from similar content written byhuman journalists?

  • 295.
    Clerwall, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Public Trust and Journalistic Transparency: An experimental study of disclosure and participatory effects in online news2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media matter. Most citizens’ in contemporary democracies get their information about current affairs and politics through the media. Political communication studies have for long time analysed the interplay between media content and journalistic style and political attitudes and public trust in political institutions. This paper adds to this discussion by addressing another dimension: the possible impact of journalistic transparency – offered in online-journalism – on political trust.

    Methodologically, the study was based on a web-based experiment including 1,320 respondents. The treatment groups comprised the same version of an online news article with additional indicators for disclosure transparency and participatory transparency. The article covered a local political issue and politicians form both ruling and opposition political parties appeared in the text.

    The results indicate that transparency effects on political trust may be overestimated. This experimental study did not confirm any significant positive correlation between transparency and the public trust towards local politicians appearing in the news.

  • 296.
    Corinne, Lundqvist
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Linnea, Ström
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Blodigt allvar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This student thesis examines what discourses exist within Libresse's advertising for sanitary products and if these have evolved over time. To examine this, two epochs have been selected; the first epoch covers the years 1990 to 2003 and the latter epoch covering 2014 to 2017. The purpose of this study has been to probe whether factors such as new media development and increased involvement in feminist issues can interact with the possible development of Libresse advertising. The purpose has also been to study how the taboo discourse around menstruation is managed by the company as well as if they have changed between the two epochs.

    The thesis is based on intersectionality and feminist media theory as the theoretical base. In order to answer the study's proposal, the method used was a critical discourse analysis combined with a semiotic analysis. To create a pre-understanding of the subject, the reader starts with a description of the company Libresse, to give examples of how women stereotyped, how feminism has developed over the last decades and what existing discourse there is about menstruation. This is due to a deeper insight into what previous feminist researchers said about advertising and marketing, new media and girls' potential, definition of the third wave feminism, social media and cyber-feminism.

    The study has been based on these research questions:

    - Has the discourse in Libresse’s advertising for sanitary products changed over time?

    - If so, how have these discourses changed and has the development of media and feminism have a significant role?

    The results show that a change between these epochs can be distinguished. Libresse has adapted their communication techniques to a modern society and the feminist commitment that prevails. The taboo discourse about menstruation still exists within Libresse commercials, but more subtle in the later era. The woman is made in today's commercials in a more positive and beneficial way.

    Keywords: Libresse, discourse, feminism, menstruation

  • 297. Cras, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Hoff, Rebecca
    Norges Eget 11 september: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av tidningsrapporteringen om terrordåden i Norge den 22 juli 20112011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Dahlberg, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Forslund, Elsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Tolv år av professionalisering: En kvalitativ studie av Sverigedemokraternas professionalisering av valaffischer.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Election posters are an old traditional medium for political parties to reach out with their communication. Despite the new approaches to reach out with political communication thanks to digitalization, election posters are still a relevant medium despite having been used for a long time. Sverigedemokraterna are a relatively "young" party. They became interesting for this study as they have their roots in nazism and therefrom quickly grew to become Sweden's third largest party.

    This study presents an analysis of Sverigedemokraterna’s professionalization of electionposters during the electoral campaigns 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. A total of fifteen electionposters were analyzed, all of which were included in Sverigedemokraterna’s electioncampaigns during four different electoral movements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of professionalization of politics for Sverigedemokraterna’s visualpolitical communication, in form of their election posters. From this, questions at issue were formulated to answer the purpose: How has the communication through election posters from Sverigdemokraterna changed from 2006 to 2018? and How has the professionalization of visual political communication shown in Sverigedemokraternas election posters?

    The election posters in this study are processed on the basis of a qualitative textanalysis and with focus on one party. The qualitative textanalysis is based on a semiotic analysis, where a analysis model is used. The analysis model is a composition of 5 themes, 14 categories and 1 subcategory. The results of the study have primarily been analyzed with the help of previous research by Nicklas Håkansson, Bengt Johansson and Orla Vigsø (2014), who are often seen as references in connection with studies of election posters. The theories of political communication and professionalization form the basis of this study.

    The result of the analysis has been applied to a four time period in the development of the election posters and the conclusion shows that Sverigedemokraterna has gone through a

    change in the professionalization of election posters between 2006 and 2018, though for shorter periods than the four time periods of election posters. It is a change that has been adapted in line with developments in society, including in the form of digital development and the development of specialist professions in marketing and visual communication. The professionalization has also shown through the normalization of the party. The change inSverigedemokraterna’s communication in election posters has among other things been shown in their use of clear messages and strong opinions in their election posters to that their message has become more and more abstract and that they no longer need to argue for their cause. Their opinions have been normalized to the point that they no longer need to convince voters and other parties with their election posters.

  • 299.
    Dahlberg, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Forslund, Elsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Tolv år av professionalisering: En kvalitativ studie av Sverigedemokraternas professionalisering av valaffischer.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Election posters are an old traditional medium for political parties to reach out with their communication. Despite the new approaches to reach out with political communication thanks to digitalization, election posters are still a relevant medium despite having been used for a long time. Sverigedemokraterna are a relatively "young" party. They became interesting for this study as they have their roots in nazism and therefrom quickly grew to become Sweden's third largest party.

    This study presents an analysis of Sverigedemokraterna’s professionalization of electionposters during the electoral campaigns 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. A total of fifteen electionposters were analyzed, all of which were included in Sverigedemokraterna’s electioncampaigns during four different electoral movements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of professionalization of politics for Sverigedemokraterna’s visualpolitical communication, in form of their election posters. From this, questions at issue were formulated to answer the purpose: How has the communication through election posters from Sverigdemokraterna changed from 2006 to 2018? and How has the professionalization of visual political communication shown in Sverigedemokraternas election posters?

    The election posters in this study are processed on the basis of a qualitative textanalysis and with focus on one party. The qualitative textanalysis is based on a semiotic analysis, where a analysis model is used. The analysis model is a composition of 5 themes, 14 categories and 1 subcategory. The results of the study have primarily been analyzed with the help of previous research by Nicklas Håkansson, Bengt Johansson and Orla Vigsø (2014), who are often seen as references in connection with studies of election posters. The theories of political communication and professionalization form the basis of this study.

    The result of the analysis has been applied to a four time period in the development of the election posters and the conclusion shows that Sverigedemokraterna has gone through a

    change in the professionalization of election posters between 2006 and 2018, though for shorter periods than the four time periods of election posters. It is a change that has been adapted in line with developments in society, including in the form of digital development and the development of specialist professions in marketing and visual communication. The professionalization has also shown through the normalization of the party. The change inSverigedemokraterna’s communication in election posters has among other things been shown in their use of clear messages and strong opinions in their election posters to that their message has become more and more abstract and that they no longer need to argue for their cause. Their opinions have been normalized to the point that they no longer need to convince voters and other parties with their election posters.

  • 300.
    Dahlman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Students, teachers and media use: A quantitative study of media use in and outside school environment2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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