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  • 251.
    Hellberg Lindqvist, Miriam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rova, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Expression of the gene cluster for chlorate metabolism in the chlorate-respiring bacterium Ideonella dechloratans2012In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Bioenergetics, Volume 1817, Supplement, October 2012: EBEC Abstract Book / [ed] Friedrich T., Einsle O., Gräber P., Frankfurt, 2012, p. S157-S158Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideonella dechloratans is a facultative anaerobe able to use chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Two enzymes are necessary for the decomposition of chlorate to chloride and molecular oxygen; chlorate reductase (Clr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld).  The genes for these two enzymes are close to each other in the genome and form, together with a cytochrome c and a mob B gene, a gene cluster for chlorate metabolism. The localization of the cyt c gene suggests a function in electron transport during chlorate reduction but the corresponding protein has not been found. We have addressed the questions of how the expression of Cld and Clr is regulated during the aerob/anaerob switch and if the cyt c gene is expressed in I. dechloratans. The enzyme activities of Cld and Clr were measured in extracts from cells grown at different conditions; aerobically or anaerobically [1]. Both enzymes were found to be active in all samples and the activity increased upon transfer of the cells from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, by five times for Cld and more than 200 times for Clr. Relative mRNA levels of Cld and Clr were determined by qRT-PCR in RNA preparations from cells grown under the same conditions as for the enzyme activity measurements. mRNA from both genes was detected in all preparations but with ten times higher levels in samples from anaerobic conditions. This increase in mRNA level is on the same scale as the increase in enzyme activity for Cld but accounts for less than a tenth of the activity enhancement seen for Clr.  A possible effect of chlorate was tested by the addition of chlorate under aerobic conditions but this resulted in neither increased enzyme activities nor increased mRNA levels. qRT-PCR was performed with primers specific for the cyt c gene and this gene was also found to be expressed at both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In summary, the results show that chlorate respiration is activated by anaero­biosis but not by chlorate in I. dechloratans and that this activation occurs at the tran­scriptional level. Due to the much larger increase in enzyme activity compared to the increase in mRNA level, the activity of Clr also seems to be effected by other mechanisms. Detection of cyt c mRNA suggests that its gene product can be found and the function investigated.

    [1] Hellberg Lindqvist M, Johansson N, Nilsson T, Rova M (2012) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78: 4380-4385

  • 252.
    Hellberg, Miriam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rova, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Johansson, Nicklas
    Regulation of the genes for chlorate reductase (Clr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) in the chlorate-respiring bacterium Ideonella dechloratans2010In: FEBS Journal 277(2010) Supplement 1. Poster presentations, Wiley-Blackwell , 2010, p. B4.62.-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme activities and mRNA levels of chlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase was investigated in whole cell extracts of Ideonella dechloratans grown under different growth conditions. This bacterium grows well both at aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using oxygen and chlorate, respectively, as a terminal electron acceptor. It was found that preparations from cells grown in the absence of chlorate under aerobic conditions showed activity of both chlorate reductase, measured as chlorate dependent reduction of methyl viologen, and chlorite dismutase, measured as chlorite dependent oxygen production. At aerobic growth conditions, the addition of chlorate resulted in an increased activity of chlorate reductase. The highest activity of chlorate reductase was found in preparations from cells grown anaerobically in the presence of chlorate. No increase in enzyme activity could be detected for chlorite dismutase during anaerobic or aerobic growth in the presence of chlorate, compared to aerobic growth in the absence of chlorate. The mRNA levels for Clr and Cld, measured by real-time quantitative PCR using 16SrRNA as an intern standard, was found to be equal in preparations from cells grown anaerobically in the presence of chlorate compared to cells grown under aerobic conditions in the absence of chlorate. The results suggest that, in I. dechloratans, the activity of chlorate reductase is up-regulated by at least two factors, anaerobiosis and the presence of chlorate. Interestingly, the results also indicate that the studied regulation occurs at post-transcriptional level, while most examples of oxygen regulation in bacteria are reported to occur at transcriptional level.  

  • 253. Hermans, E
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bhaskar Dutt, G
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Feyter, S
    Boens, N
    Miller, RD
    Global compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface of intramolecular chain mediated and through space excited-state complex formation of a silane linked donor-acceptor system1996In: New J. Chem., 1996, 20, 829-838Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Hillerström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effect of solvents during material treatment applications: tuning hydrophilicity of silicone rubber and drug loading in mesoporous silica2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right solvent is critical for many industrial applications. A useful property for selection of solvents is their solubility parameters. This concept of solubility parameters is central to this thesis and has been used in two different case studies of material treatment applications.

    Silicone rubber (crosslinked poly(dimethyl siloxane), PDMS) has many favorable material properties making it useful in biomedical devices. However, a limiting aspect of its material properties is a hydrophobic surface. The aim of this work was to prepare a hydrophilic PDMS material while retaining the transparency of the material. To do this, PDMS was combined with a hydrophilic polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). A two-step IPN synthesis method was developed and it was found that the solvent used for polymerization of PVP had a significant influence on the water-wettability and the transparency of the PVP/PDMS IPN. Several different analytical techniques were used for determining the degree of phase separation in the PVP/PDMS IPN. It was found, by using microscopy techniques, that the PVP phase domains varied between 200 nm up to a few micrometers, and the size of the phase domains was correlated to the solvent used for polymerization of the IPN.

    The second topic for which solvent effects were explored was for the use of mesoporous silica particles as potential drug delivery devices. In the present work a drug molecule, ibuprofen, was loaded into mesoporous silica particles using different solvents, and in addition adsorption isotherms were established in each solvent. The maximum loading of ibuprofen in the mesoporous material was achieved when using a nonpolar solvent, in particular liquid carbon dioxide was successfully used. One of the advantages of using liquid carbon dioxide is that no solvent residues are left in the final material, which is important for pharmaceutical applications. Furthermore, it was concluded that ibuprofen was stored in an X-ray amorphous form in the mesoporous particles. Release studies in water showed a rapid release of ibuprofen from the mesoporous silica particles, while the dissolution of samples with crystalline ibuprofen was slower. This was verified to be an effect of a larger exposed ibuprofen area in the ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silica particles, and it was concluded that the intrinsic dissolution rate for the samples were identical.

  • 255.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute of Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Jan, Skov Pedersen
    University of Aarhus.
    Altskär, Annika
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Transparency and Wettability of PVD/PDMS-IPN Synthesized in Different Organic Solvents2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 1828-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    A Two-Step method for the Synthesis of a Hydrophilic PDMS Interpenetrating Polymer Network2008In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 3059-3067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrophilic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) surface was formed by the synthesis of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) in a two-step process. In the first step, PDMS was loaded with crosslinker and initiator using a solvent that swells the PDMS. In the second step, the PDMS sample was submerged into a solution containing the hydrophilic monomer followed by a UV-polymerization step. The choice of solvent in the second step is critical to obtain a hydrophilic surface. It can be concluded that the solubility parameter of the solvent should be above a threshold value. Hence, in the second step only sufficiently polar solvents will result in hydrophilic PDMS-IPNs. These principles are illustrated by using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone as the hydrophilic monomer forming PVP/PDMS-IPNs.

  • 257.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Ibuprofen Loading into Mesostructured Silica using Liquid Carbon Dioxide as a Solvent2009In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 662-667Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemsitry, Stockholm.
    Strategies for obtaining High Enrichment of ibuprofen in Mesoporous Silica, the Effect of Solvent Type, and Release KineticsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 259. Hirota, S.
    et al.
    Svensson, M.
    Ädelrot, P.
    Sone, N.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Malmström, B.G.
    Brzesinski, P.
    A flash-photolysis study of the reactions of a caa3-type cytochrome oxidase with dioxygen and carbon monoxide1996In: J. Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 28 , 495-501Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Mutationsanalys och biodistribution av en rekombinant terapeutisk antikropp2007Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 261.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Single-chain antibody construction and functional mapping of the monoclonal antibody TS1: Its interaction with the antigen and the anti-idiotype2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies are proteins with the ability to bind antigens rapidly and specifically. Antibodies consist of several different parts. The complementary determining regions (CDR) are the parts that recognize the antigen and are the focus of this study.



    The aims of this study are to synthesize and produce a single-chain antibody (scFv) of the anti-cytokeratin 8 monoclonal IgG antibody TS1 and to functionally map amino acid residues important for the interaction with its antigen and the anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1.

    Cytokeratins are present in significant amount in the necrotic areas of carcinomas and are not released into the circulation since they have low solubility.



    The TS1 antibody has been shown to be effective in binding cytokeratin 8 (CK8) expressed in tumors in vivo and is proposed to be useful in immunotargeting and/or immunotherapy. The anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1 can be used to regulate the tumor:non-tumor ratio. Mutagenesis of certain amino acid residues can be used to alter the affinity to improve the tumor:non-tumor ratio further.



    In the present study, the TS1 IgG was chemically modified to specify groups of residues important for interaction with both CK8 and anti-TS1. If important residues were found in the CDRs, they were mutated in the TS1 scFv construct and the effect was studied using ELISA.



    The main conclusions drawn from this study are that the important amino acid residues in TS1 for the interaction with both CK8 and anti-TS1 are mainly tyrosines, charged residues and a tryptophan. A central interacting interface was identified with the somewhat unusual participation of residues in the CDR 2 of the light chain. Mutations which resulted in increased affinity to both CK8 and anti-TS1 were also identified

  • 262.
    Holm, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    Stigbrand, T
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    ScFv construct and functional mapping, using site-directed mutagenesis of the monoclonal antibody TS12003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 263.
    Holm, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Stigbrand, T
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Paratope mapping of anti-idiotypic Mab anti-TS1 using chemical modification2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 264.
    Holm, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Stigbrand, T
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Paratope mapping of Mab TS1, using chemical modification and phage displayed peptides2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265. Hull, Angelica
    et al.
    Golubkov, I.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    Marandzheva, T.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    An Alternative Fuel for a Standard Spark Ignition Engine2006In: Int. J. Engine Res., 2006, 7, 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 266. Hull, Angelica
    et al.
    Golubkov, I.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Alternative Fuel for a Standard Diesel Engine2006In: Int. J. Engine Res., 2006, 7, 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267. Hull, Angelica
    et al.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Golubkov, I
    Kristensson, J
    Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixtures. Part I; ethanol+1-butanol, ethanol + octane, 1-butanol+octane2006In: J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2006, 51, 1996-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 268. Hull, Angelica
    et al.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Golubkov, I
    Kristensson, J
    Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixtures. Part II; ethanol+2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, 1-butanol+2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, ethanol+o-xylene2006In: J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2006, 51, 2002-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Helldén, Gustav
    Thomasson, M.
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Development of student teachers' understanding of conditions for life, cycles of matter and energy flow in an aquatic ecosystem - a case study2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Helldén, Gustav
    Thomasson, M.
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Development of student teachers' understanding of conditions for life, cycles of matter and energy flow in an aquatic ecosystem - a case study2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Helldén, Gustav
    Thomasson, Maria
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Student teacher content knowledge of life in an aquatic ecosystem and their experience in a teaching situation- a case study2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Thomasson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Helldén, Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Student teacher content knowledge of life in an aquatic ecosystem and their experience in a teaching situation - a case study2008In: Planning science instruction: From insight to learning to pedagogical practices: Proceedning of the 9th Nordic research symposium on Science education, 11th-15th June 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland / [ed] Macdonald, Allyson, Reykjavik: Science education research group, School of education, University of Iceland , 2008, p. 140-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Ismailov, Taner
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Quantification of resin acids, fatty acids and sterols in process and waste water from forest industry2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on wood extractives in effluents from the CTMP plant at Skoghall Mill. Pulp and paper industry effluents contain mostly natural compounds which are part of the trees. They are toxic to aquatic life but harmless in nature, as they are present in low concentrations. Processing tons of wood, such as in a pulp mill, strongly increases the concentrations of the toxic compounds (Ali, M. and Sreekrishnan, T., 2001) which have to be treated before transferring to the aquatic environment.Extractives can be found in different forms, as micelles soluble in water, unprocessed in fibers or absorbed on the surface of fibers. It is important to know in which forms extractives are mostly present in the effluent, so that they can be treated more efficiently. It is desired to have extractives absorbed on the fibers and fibrils present in the waste water, so they can be separated from the water and treated separately, e.g. burned for energy recovery. Dissolved extractives complicate the oxygen transfer in an aerated biological treatment step with their surface active properties (Sandberg, 2012).The aim of this study is quantification of extractives on the fibers suspended in the waste water and extractives dissolved in the water. The distribution between the two forms is an important input when designing future effluent treatment. Wood extractives itself are a wide group with different compounds. This work focuses on the main groups present in waste water: resin acids, free and esterified fatty acids and, free and esterified sterols. These groups are analyzed in different process waters and waste water before the waste water treatment plant. The measured concentrations of extractives were as expected, higher in process and effluent waters, lower in white water. Most of the extract was dissolved in the water and unfortunately fiber samples contained very low concentration from the total extract in the samples.

  • 274.
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Construction, expression and evaluation of anti-keratin 8 single-chain antibody fragments2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies are glycoproteins specifically binding to a variety of antigens and today extensively used in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Carcinomas originate from epithelial tissues and are the most common forms of human malignancies. In the necrotic areas of carcinomas significant amounts of keratins (K) are found extracellularly. They remain there due to their low solubility and can be used as targets in immuno-targeting and -therapy. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) may display several advantages over intact IgGs in various applications but their use in immunotherapy of tumors could be limited. Their small size and monovalency may result in low accumulation of the scFv in the tumors. The targeting efficiency of antibodies needs to be evaluated in vitro prior to in vivo studies in order to exclude poor candidates. In vitro models should preferably resemble the in vivo situation as much as possible.

    In the present study a scFv variant (TS1-218) of the anti-keratin 8 (K 8) monoclonal antibody TS1 (mAb TS1) was constructed and characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. In addition, the valency of the TS1-218 and one of its mutants, HE1-Q, were increased by construction of a covalently linked divalent single-chain fragment variable (sc(Fv)2). To improve the yield of the antibody fragments, the expression host was changed from E. coli to P. pastoris and culture conditions were optimized using Design of Experiments (DoE). Furthermore, a HeLa HEp-2 multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) in vitro model was established. The functionality of the radiolabeled TS1-218 alone and in immunocomplex with its anti-idiotype scFv, αTS1 scFv, were evaluated in the MCTS model and compared to a tumor xenograft nude mouse model. The targeting efficiency of the scFv and sc(Fv)2s were also investigated using MCTS.

    TS1-218 in immunocomplex with αTS1 scFv displayed a significantly higher uptake than the TS1-218 alone in both MCTS and tumor xenografts. The sc(Fv)2s, DiTS1-218 and DiHE1-Q demonstrated a higher functional affinity to K 8 in ELISA and MCTS and were retained to a larger extent in the MCTS than their scFv counterparts, with a 3.9 and 9.4-fold longer half-life, respectively. Furthermore, the yield of the antibody fragments were improved after expression in P. pastoris with an 86-fold improvement for the TS1-218 following optimization using DoE.

  • 275.
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Piercecchi, Marco
    Sundström, Birgitta E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Construction of divalent anti-keratin 8 single-chain antibodies (sc(FV)2), expression in Pichia Pastoris and their reactivity with multicellular tumor spheroids2011In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 364, no 1-2, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) are small monovalent recombinant antibody fragments that retain the specificity of their parent immunoglobulins. ScFvs are excellent building blocks for new and improved immunodiagnostic and therapeutic proteins. However, the monovalency and the rapid renal elimination of scFvs result in poor tumor accumulation and retention. Engineering divalent antibody fragments is an excellent way to address these shortcomings. In this study, covalent divalent single-chain variable fragments (sc(Fv)2s), were constructed from the monovalent anti-keratin 8 scFvs, TS1-218 and its mutant, HE1-Q. The scFvs and sc(Fv)2s were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, utilizing the alpha-factor secretion signal (α-factor) for extracellular secretion. The immunoreactivity and specificity of the antibody fragments were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the uptake and retention of the 125I labeled antibody fragments were evaluated using HeLa HEp-2 multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs). Analysis of the antibody fragments demonstrated that parts of the α-factor remained at the N-terminal of the antibody fragments. Despite incomplete processing of the α-factor, the antibody fragments were functional where the sc(Fv)2s gave a three-fold stronger signal in ELISA compared to their scFv counterparts and the mutant antibodies demonstrated a stronger signal than their initial wild types. In addition, the sc(Fv)2s DiTS1-218 and DiHE1-Q displayed an approximately two-fold higher uptake and were retained to a larger extent in the MCTS, demonstrating a 3.9 and 9.4-fold increase in half-life respectively compared to their corresponding scFvs. In conclusion, expression in P. pastoris improved the yield 20-fold and facilitated the purification of the antibody fragments. Furthermore, the sc(Fv)2s presented a higher functional affinity to K 8 both in ELISA and MCTS compared to the scFvs with DiHE1-Q being the best candidate for further studies.

  • 276.
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sandegren, Jenny
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Department of Immunology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundström, Birgitta E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Localization of Complexed Anticytokeratin 8 scFv TS1-218 to HeLa HEp-2 Multicellular Tumor Spheroids and Experimental Tumors2010In: Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, ISSN 1084-9785, E-ISSN 1557-8852, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sundström, Birgitta E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Optimization of production of the anti-keratin 8 single-chain Fv TS1-218 in Pichia Pastoris using design of experiments2011In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 10, p. 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 278. Jandera, P.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lundanes, E.
    Controlling the retention in capillary LC with solvents, temperature and electric fields2004In: J. Sep. Sci. 27 (2004) 1402-1418Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 279. Johansson, A
    et al.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Eriksson, E
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Roux, K
    Stigbrand, T
    Idiotypic-antiidiotypic interaction patterns and in vivo metabolism of immune complexes at immunotargeting2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 280. Johansson, A
    et al.
    Sandström, P
    Ullén, A
    Behravan, G
    Ärlestig, L
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Levi, M
    Stigbrand, T
    Epitope specificity of monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody TS11999In: Cancer Res 1999;59:45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their abundance in epithelial cells and deposition in necrotic regions intratumorally, cytokeratins (CKs) have been established as valuable targets for both radioimmunolocalization and radioimmunotherapy. The target epitope for the monoclonal anti-CK8 antibody, TS1, used for both experimental radioimmunolocalization and radioimmunotherapy, was determined by means of synthesis of 96 overlapping peptides that covered the entire CK8 molecule. A highly conserved peptide sequence, spanning amino acids (aa) 343357 and covering the discontinuous epitope in the helical 2B domain, was identified. The epitope retains its helical structure, as shown with circular dichroism spectroscopy, although the length of the peptide (i.e., >20 aa) is crucial for maintenance of immunoreactivity. To determine which aa residues are crucial for binding to the monoclonal antibody, alanine scanning was performed on a 26-mer covering aa 340365, with the sequence RGELAIKDANAKLSELEAALQRAKQ. The 26 modified peptides were evaluated using ELISA and BIAcore technology. The uniqueness of this epitope has been established by data base sequence comparisons

  • 281. Johansson, A
    et al.
    Sandström, P
    Ullén, A
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Riklund Åhlström, JK
    Hietala, S-O
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Stigbrand, T
    Stability and immunoractivity of the monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody TS1 after different degrees of iodination1999In: Acta Oncol 1999;38:329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282. Karlsson, J
    et al.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    The C subunit of Ideonella dechloratans chlorate reductase: expression, purification, refolding and heme reconstitution2005In: Protein Expression and Purification 41, 306-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The C subunit of Ideonella dechloratans chlorate reductase has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Purification from inclusion bodies, followed by refolding and reconstitution with heme, produced a protein with a heme/protein ratio of 0.4, and with UVvis spectral characteristics similar to those of native chlorate reductase. Wavelength maxima for the Éø and É¿ bands in the reduced state were 559 and 529 nm for both native chlorate reductase and the reconstituted recombinant subunit, whereas the reduced Soret bands were found at 426 and 424 nm, respectively. These results support the notion of the C subunit as the cytochrome b moiety of I. dechloratans chlorate reductase. Moreover, the availability of a recombinant version of the C subunit is expected to facilitate further studies of electron transfer and protein interaction included in the reaction catalyzed by chlorate reductase

  • 283.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Studies of prostaglandin E2 formationin human monocytes2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an eicosanoid derived from the polyunsaturated twenty carbon fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). PGE2 has physiological as well as pathophysiological functions and is known to be a key mediator of inflammatory responses. Formation of PGE2 is dependent upon the activities of three specific enzymes involved in the AA cascade; phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE synthase (PGEs). Although the research within this field has been intense for decades, the regulatory mechanisms concerning the PGE2 synthesising enzymes are not completely established.

    PGE2 was investigated in human monocytes with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-treatment followed by stimulation with calcium ionophore, opsonised zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cytosolic PLA2a (cPLA2a) was shown to be pivotal for the mobilization of AA and subsequent formation of PGE2. Although COX-1 was constitutively expressed, monocytes required expression of COX-2 protein in order to convert the mobilized AA into PGH2. The conversion of PGH2 to the final product PGE2 was to a large extent due to the action of microsomal PGEs-1 (mPGEs-1). In addition, experiments with inhibitors of extracellular signal regulated kinase and p38 activation, indicated that phosphorylation of cPLA2α was markedly advantageous for the formation of PGE2.

    Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, was shown to inhibit stimuli induced release of PGE2 in human monocytes. The effect of ellagic acid was not due to a direct effect on the activities of the enzymes but rather to inhibition of the LPS-induced protein expression of COX-2, mPGEs-1 and cPLA2a.

  • 284.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fjaeraa Alfredsson, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wijkander, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ellagic acid inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of enzymesinvolved in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 in human monocytes2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, p. 1102-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in certain fruits, nuts and vegetables, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. Pain, fever and swelling, all typical symptoms of inflammation, are ascribed to elevated levels of PGE(2). In the present study, we have investigated the effects of ellagic acid on PGE(2) release and on prostaglandin-synthesising enzymes in human monocytes. Ellagic acid was found to inhibit Ca ionophore A23187-, phorbol myristate acetate- and opsonised zymosan-induced release of PGE(2) from monocytes pre-treated with the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide. Ellagic acid suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGEs-1) and cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha), while it had no effect on the constitutively expressed COX-1 protein. Ellagic acid had no apparent inhibitory effect on these enzymes when the activities were determined in cell-free assays. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of ellagic acid on PGE(2) release from monocytes is due to a suppressed expression of COX-2, mPGEs-1 and cPLA(2)alpha, rather than a direct effect on the activities of these enzymes.

  • 285.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fjaeraa, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wijkander, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ellagic acid inhibits lipopolysaccharide-inducted expressions of enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 in human monocytes2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, no 8, p. 1102-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wijkander, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Requirement of cyclooxygenase-2 expression for cytosolic phospholipase A2 mediated prostaglandin E2 formation in human monocytesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Kvarnlöf, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Söderlund, Carl-Axel
    Svenska Rayon AB.
    Modification of the viscose process for enzymatically pre-treated dissolving pulpsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Larsson, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur påverkas lagringstiden av erytrocyter vid bestrålning2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 289.
    Lipponen, Katriina
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, Analyt Chem Lab, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Stege, Patricia W.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, Analyt Chem Lab, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Natl Univ San Luis, CONICET, Dept Chem, INQUISAL,Lab Analyt Chem, San Luis, Argentina..
    Cilpa, Geraldine
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, Analyt Chem Lab, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Samuelsson, Jorgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Analyt Chem, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Riekkola, Marja-Liisa
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, Analyt Chem Lab, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Three Different Approaches for the Clarification of the Interactions between Lipoproteins and Chondroitin-6-sulfate2011In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 83, no 15, p. 6040-6046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different experimental approaches were used for obtaining a comprehensive view and understanding of the interactions between apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) of low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) of high-density lipoprotein and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) of arterial proteoglycan. The techniques employed were partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE) and continuous flow quartz crystal inicrobalance (QCM). In addition, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were used to provide a supportive visual insight into the interaction mechanism. A new tool for analysis of QCM-data was utilized, i.e., adsorption energy distribution calculations, which allowed a deeper understanding of the interactions, especially at different temperatures. The PF-ACE technique probed mainly the strong adsorption interactions whereas in the MD calculations short:- and long-range interactions could be distinguished. Although there are differences in the techniques, a pretty good agreement was achieved between the three approaches for the interaction of 19 amino acid peptide of ApoB with C6S giving log affinity constants of 4.66 by QCM, 5.02 by PP-ACE, and 7.39 by MD, and for 15 amino acid peptide of ApoE with C6S 5.34 by QCM, 5.28 by PT-ACE, and 4.60 by MD at physiological temperature 37.0 degrees C.

  • 290. Magnusson, Ann
    et al.
    Rova, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Mamedov, Fikret
    Fredriksson, Per-Olof
    Styring, Stenbjörn
    The role of cytochrome b559 and tyrosineD in protection against photoinhibition during in vivo photoactivation of Photosystem II1999In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 1411, p. 180-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291. Magnusson, J.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Claude, S.
    Tabacchi, R.
    Saxer, A.
    Schürch, S.
    Olsson, Jeanette
    Gas chromatographic enantiomer separation of atropisomeric PCBs using modified cyclodextrins as chiral phases,2000In: J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 23 (2000) 619-627Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292. Magnusson, J.
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Olsson, Jeanette
    A simple and versatile scheme for reversing enantiomeric elution order and facilitating enantiomeric impurity determination in capillary electrophoresis2002In: Electrophoresis, 23 (2002) 3013-3019Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Seyyedi, Mehdi
    Botaniska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Younis, Suhaila
    Botaniska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundqvist, Christer
    Botaniska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Formation of short-wavelength chlorophyll (ide) after brief irradiation is correlated with the occurrence of protochlorophyll(ide)636-642 in dark-grown epi- and hypocotyls of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)1996In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 294. Meiners, C
    et al.
    De Feyter, S
    Lieser, G
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Soltermann, A
    Berghmans, H
    De Schryver, FC
    Müllen, K
    Identification and Characterization of Aggregates Formed by a Partly Neutralized Isophthalic Acid Derivative in Aqueous Solution1999In: Langmuir, 1999, 15, 3374-3380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Moons, Ellen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vertical Phase Separation in Polymer:Fullerene Films for Photovoltaics2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference 2012: Uppsala, Sweden, 6th to 9th May 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, Castelló, Spain: Society for Nanomolecular Photovoltaics (SEFIN) , 2012, p. 53-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 296. Nap, M
    et al.
    Andrés, L
    Bishr Omary, M C
    Bellanger, L
    Bodenmuller, H
    Bonfrer, H
    Brundell, J
    Einarsson, R
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Leca, JF
    Levi, M
    Meir, T
    Nustad, K
    Seguin, P
    Sjödin, A
    Stigbrand, T
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Dalen, A
    Wioebelhaus, E
    Wiklund, B
    , Ärl
    Immunohistochemical characterization of 30 monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin antigens. Second report of the ISOBM TD 5-1 workshop2001In: Tumor Biol 2001;22:4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ideonella äter klorat2003In: Kemivärlden 11, 2003, s. 47-48Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 298.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rova, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Smedja Bäcklund, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Microbial metabolism of oxochlorates: A bioenergetic perspective2013In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1827, no 2, p. 189-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial metabolism of oxochlorates is part of the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine. Organisms capable of growth using perchlorate or chlorate as respiratory electron acceptors are also interesting for applications in biotreatment of oxochlorate-containing effluents or bioremediation of contaminated areas. In this review, we discuss the reactions of oxochlorate respiration, the corresponding enzymes, and the relation to respiratory electron transport that can contribute to a proton gradient across the cell membrane. Enzymes specific for oxochlorate respiration are oxochlorate reductases and chlorite dismutase. The former belong to DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. The heme protein chlorite dismutase, which decomposes chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen, is only distantly related to other proteins with known functions. Pathways for electron transport may be different in perchlorate and chlorate reducers, but appear in both cases to be similar to pathways found in other respiratory systems.

  • 299.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sjöling-Eriksson, Å.
    Deinum, J.
    The mechanism of binding of low-molecular weight inhibitors to human thrombin1998In: J. Enzyme Inhibition 13, 11-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Novotny, Ann
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ryberg, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ullmark, Jenny Heiman
    Kungalv Dist Hosp, Dept Surg, Kungalv, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Linn
    Vaxjo Cent Hosp, Dept Surg, Vaxjo, Sweden..
    Khorram-Manesh, Amir
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Prehosp & Disaster Med Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nordgren, Svante
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Delbro, Dick S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nylund, Gunnar
    Sodra Alvsborgs Hosp, Dept Surg, SE-50182 Boras, Sweden..
    Is acetylcholine a signaling molecule for human colon cancer progression?2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 446-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) has been suggested to be a mediator for the development of various types of cancer. We analyzed a possible role for this molecule in carcinogenesis and/or progression of human colon cancer, in patient biopsies harvested from the colon during surgery. We addressed whether ACh synthesis (by choline acetyltransferase) and/or degradation (by ACh esterase), as well as the expression of the alpha alpha 7-subtype of the nicotinic ACh receptors, and the peptide ligand at the alpha alpha 7 receptors, secreted mammalian Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein-1, respectively, are deranged in tumor tissue as compared with macroscopically tumor-free colon tissue. Methods. A total of 38 patients were grouped for analysis based on their respective Dukes stage (either Dukes A ++ B or C ++ D). A mucosal tissue sample was harvested from macroscopically tumor-free colon tissue (i.e. control tissue), as well as from the tumor, and protein lysates were prepared for quantitative Western blotting. Full-thickness specimens were taken for immunohistochemistry. Results. For all the above named markers, there was a significant difference between control and tumor tissue with regard to protein levels, and there was, in addition, a significant difference in protein levels between the Dukes A ++ B and C ++ D groups. Conclusion. The current findings may suggest a role for ACh in colon carcinogenesis/cancer progression; the data obtained could have prognostic and/or therapeutic significance for this disease.

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