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  • 22851.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Värmland i världen: Medborgares attityder till globalisering2012In: Värmländska landskap: Politik, ekonomi, samhälle, kultur, medier / [ed] Lennart Nilsson, Lars Aronsson och P.O Norell, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22852.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Working for Change: Projectified Politics and Gender Equality2017In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 163-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I argue that the project, a governmental technology that is now widespread and accepted throughout the public sector, is not a neutral tool for implementing policy and conducting politics. Rather, my argument is that this form is intrinsically political in so far as it produces disruptions and sets boundaries for how any given task is to be performed. By mobilizing a set of optical metaphors from feminist theory of difference, I examine organizations that work for gender equality in Swedish regional development and illustrate how the governmental technology of the project reflects, refracts, and diffracts the practices associated with this work. Thus, I argue that if one wishes to understand contemporary gender-equality work, it is reasonable to consider the specific effects that are produced as it passes through the project form. The short empirical illustrations given here indicate, among other things, how the project form functions in some respects as a mirror, and reflects aspects of gender-equality work that are commonly experienced regardless of form or setting, such as encountering resistance. In other respects, the project form refracts gender-equality work, bending it into new directions so that, for instance, securing funds and coming up with new innovative project plans takes precedence over the actual work that respondents feel they should be doing. Finally, the intersection of gender-equality work and the project form also produces diffraction effects, such as the emergence of hybrid consultants. These multi-faceted figures function as evaluators, controllers, activists, and disseminators of knowledge, which makes them simultaneously important to and disdained by the respondents in this study. Thus, it is concluded that the disruptive effects of the project form should be recognized as political and studied more extensively in the future.

  • 22853.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Working for Change: Projectified Politics and Gender Equality in Swedish Regional Development2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to show how the organisational form “the project” functions as a governmental technology that disrupts the ongoing work for gender equality in Swedish regional development. Rather than assuming that projects are neutral forms for organizing public sector practices, I argue that they are imbued with politics and power in the first place and therefore should be studied critically. In particular, I suggest that as the project form intersects with the practice of gender equality work it will function as a lens that influences the trajectories of this work. Inspired be feminist theories of difference I therefore articulate a set of optical metaphors, namely reflection, refraction and diffraction, in order to make this intersection more visible. By mobilizing these metaphors and by drawing on data generated during empirical fieldwork in five Swedish regions the critical potential of this approach is illustrated. In terms of reflection, I mean to designate aspects common to most gender equality work, regardless of organizational form. Here, this is demonstrated by showing how activists and civil servants feel that they are subjected to various forms of resistance from established structures. As for refractions, I use the concept to exemplify how the project form produces new directions in the way gender equality work is carried out. For instance, securing new funding and to survive economically becomes central concerns under projectified politics. Finally, I also illustrate the emergence of hybrid forms, what is here called diffraction effects, as gender equality work passes through the governmental technology of “the project”. In our case this is exemplified by how private consultants fill central roles in gender equality work. I conclude that taken together the illustrations calls for a recognition of the project form as political as well as for more detailed research regarding its expressions. 

  • 22854.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    World views: Attitudes towards globalization in the Swedish periphery2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22855.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Local Government and Public Procurement: Organizational Trends and the Rise of New Bureaucrats in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Swedish local government play a central role in welfare production and in handling environmental issues at large. In addition, they also plan the physical use of land and water areas within its territory. Accordingly, Swedish local government are crucial actors in driving sustainable development. During the last decades reform of local government has been taking place under the umbrella of New Public Management (NPM) following a pattern seen in most parts of the world entailing market inspired logics and values that subsumes political and democratic ambitions and tasks. The political rationalities underpinning NPM continues to exist and are well researched. There are, however, significant gaps. In particular, of studies concerning the politics of public procurement. In this paper we present an analysis where public procurement is understood more broadly, as a governmental technology, an instrument of governing associated with the rationalities of marketization and competition that continues to be more or less unquestioned as virtues in contemporary society. We assume that as such a technology it is not a neutral tool, but rather designed to realize particular understandings of how to govern and with what effects. The case we present is based on interviews with civil servants, consultants and politicians working with public procurement in Swedish local government. With the perceptions of our respondents as a base, we construct a narrative where three themes emerge as important: public procurement expansion; organizational change and centralization, and: the procurer as bureaucrat. We conclude that the importance and scope of public procurement within the larger local government organization has rapidly expanded, public procurement has been centralized and, perhaps most importantly, we witness the emergence of a new bureaucrat representing values not compatible with traditional Weberian understandings.

  • 22856.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Public Procurement as Marketisation: Impacts on Civil Servants and Public Administration in Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Swedish local government plays a central role in welfare production, providing some of the most crucial services to citizens. However, over the last decades there have been significant changes in how local governments are governed and how services are implemented. In many cases, these changes entail the promotion of rationalities and technologies associated with market-oriented principles and values as the primary means to providing welfare services. A central feature in this is public procurement. This phenomenon has been surprisingly absent from scholarly work that focuses on marketisation and the politics of public sector reform in Sweden. In this article, we present a case study based on interviews with actors involved in public procurement in Swedish local government. We provide insights into how public procurement sustains and expands the rationalities of marketisation. We conclude that the importance of public procurement has expanded, producing organisational changes and, perhaps most importantly, we are witnessing changes in the role of civil servants in Swedish public administration.

  • 22857.
    Öljarstrand, Anneli
    Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Stockholms Universitet.
    ”När jag slutar känna, är det dags att byta jobb!”: Om begravningsentreprenörers känsloregler och känslohantering2020In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 70-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a sociological study on the emotional rules and emotional management of funeral directors and their daily work with death. Data consists on in-depth interviews with seven funeral directors, employed at four different funeral offices. The result highlights emotionally challenging work situations accompanied by emotional rules such as: Show empathy and respect, Cry but controlled; The customer is always right and Laughs at the mourners’ terms. To manage their emotions, they use methods such as: Control their thoughts; Focus on the practical; Don’t look at the faces of the dead; Joke and laugh as well as Social support of colleagues. The results also suggest that the societal regime of death is also found at an organisational level.

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  • 22858.
    Örbring, David
    Lunds universitet, Campus Helsingborg.
    Geografiska perspektiv i utbildning av lärare i samhällskunskap2014In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2014:1, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers in Social Studies can benefit from geographical perspectives in their teaching of Social Studies in elementary and high school. The aim is to connect geographical perspectives to various social processes and to integrate it in teaching of Social Studies. But how can the relevance of geographical perspectives in an education for teachers in Social Studies be motivated and to what benefits can it be internalized? I will try to answer that question in this article. This relevance is mainly, with basis in a literature study, focused on democracy, sustainable development and digital literacy. It is also relevant by giving teachers a broader teaching skill and thus they are able to help pupils achieve higher-order skills.

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  • 22859.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Alias2009In: The Essential Cult Television Reader / [ed] David Lavery, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky , 2009, p. 22-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22860.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford, England.
    Alternate Reality Games and Convergence Culture: The Case of Alias2007In: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 445-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are a form of internet-based mystery game in which participants are immersed in a fictional                     world and engage in collective problem-solving. This article studies three ARGs connected to the TV series Alias (ABC, 2001—6), two of them launched by the network ABC as part of the marketing of the TV series, the third produced by fans.                     Previous research on ARGs has not sufficiently problematized the fact that many ARGs are marketing tools. While ARGs can be                     analysed as part of a wider context of convergence culture and fan culture, such an analysis must take into account the underlying                     commercial logic of popular culture production. Despite the differences found between industry-produced and fan-produced ARGs,                     they still share a framework of consumption that conforms to corporate goals of marketing and brand-building as well as fan                     audiences' goals of pleasurable interaction with fictional worlds

  • 22861.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Anything you can do, I can do better?: Professional journalists vs. citizen journalistsin six European countries2013In: International Communication Gazette, ISSN 1748-0485, E-ISSN 1748-0493, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on 63 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with professional journalists across career stages and across media in six European countries (UK, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden), and is concerned with how journalists answer the question: How is what you do different from what citizen journalists do? Based on existing literature on journalistic authority and the professional project, three areas where claims to professional legitimacy and distinction from amateurs are identified: expertise, duty and autonomy. The interview data show that while claims based on expertise and duty are common when professional journalists want to demarcate the boundary between them and citizen journalism, claims based on direct reference to autonomy are non-existent. However, claims based indirectly on reference to autonomy, but institutional or collective rather than individual autonomy, are common. Indeed the key result of this study is that legitimacy claims based on the collective nature of the journalistic endeavour are very common, in contrast to earlier constructions of journalistic professionalism, which emphasized individualism and individual autonomy.

  • 22862.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clientelism, Elites and the Media in Central and Eastern Europe2012In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the traditional political science definition of clientelism is insufficient for explaining how the media fit in with clientelistic systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It is suggested that a broader understanding of clientelism, looking in particular at how media are used as elite-to-elite communication tools as well as elite-to-mass communication tools, better explains the place of the media in the clientelistic systems of the CEE nations. Empirically, it is based on a set of 272 elite and expert interviews conducted across ten CEE countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in 2010 and 2011. The article presents some general findings on the nature and character of the linkages between political elites and the media, and the extent to which such linkages can be considered clientelistic. Then follows a discussion of specific practices of media instrumentalization, charting the many ways in which the media can function as a resource in conflicts and negotiations between clientelistic elite networks, directly as well as indirectly. Particular attention is given to the phenomena of advertorials and kompromat.

  • 22863.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Comparative Journalism Research: an Overview2012In: Sociology Compass, ISSN 1751-9020, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 769-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview focuses on the most common type of comparative journalism research, which is cross-national comparative research. The overview presents a typology for different types of comparative journalism research, based on whether the research interest is in journalism as an activity or as a product; and, in the case of journalism as an activity, whether the interest is in the system level, the organizational level, or the individual level of journalism. The overview finds that the analysis of journalism on the individual level and of journalism as a product are the most common types of comparative research, whereas comparative analysis of journalism on the organizational level is much under-studied.

  • 22864.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Det journalistiska arbetets förändring2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 497-513Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22865.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Epistemologies and Professional Roles2017In: Journalistic Role Performance: Concepts, Contexts, and Methods / [ed] Claudia Mellado, Lea Hellmueller & Wolfgang Donsbach, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22866.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    University of Oxford faculty Politics and Int Relations.
    Introduction: Questioning European Journalism2009In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that previous research on European journalism (widely defined) to a large extent tells a story of failure. Journalism is characterised as having “failed Europe” in three ways: through failure of representation, failure of production and failure of participation. However, this image of media failure rests on certain descriptive and normative assumptions about Europe and about journalism—assumptions that are sometimes explicit but more often implicit. This article suggests some new ways of questioning these assumptions in order to move research on European journalism forward.

  • 22867.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalism and Change2018In: Journalism / [ed] Tim P Vos, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018, p. 555-574Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22868.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as institution and work in Europe, circa 1860: A comparative history of journalism2013In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 393-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative historical analysis of the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e., a particular set of organizations in society) and journalism as work (i.e., an activity practiced by individuals) in four European countries: Britain, Sweden, Germany, and Estonia. The analysis compares the institutional context of journalistic work in these four countries around 1860, focusing in particular on the organization of journalistic labor at the national newspaper of record. The historical comparison reveals how exceptional the British case is. The study finds that British journalism circa 1860 exhibited a high division of labor, high labor specialization, and was increasingly focused on news gathering and production. Swedish and German journalism exhibited an emerging division of labor and labor specialization, and was focused on political debate (rather than news gathering and production). Estonian journalism exhibited hardly any division of labor or labor specialization, and was focused on raising national awareness.

  • 22869.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as Institution and Work in Europe, Circa 1860: A Comparative History of Journalism2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e. the collective of organizations involved in the production of journalism) and journalism as work (i.e. as an activity performed by individuals) by comparing and contrasting journalism – as exemplified by the ‘newspaper of record’ in each respective country – in four European countries, Britain, Sweden, Germany and Estonia, around 1860. The focus is on the organization of journalistic work and on journalism as salaried labour. In particular Britain has been studies extensively in this regard before, so this paper uses Britain and the Times as its prime example but also highlights the exceptional nature of this case and uses comparative analysis to demonstrate key differences in the journalism-as-work/journalism-as-institution relationship between these four countries.

  • 22870.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalism cannot solve journalism's problems2019In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 226-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22871.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalistic Ideals Versus Journalistic Practice: The Relationship Between Role Perception and Valued Skills Among Journalists in Six European Countries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the role perceptions of journalism is well-established, but there is significantly less research on whether such perceptions translate into actual journalistic practice. This presentation explores this link between journalistic ideals and journalistic practice by studying the relationship between role perceptions and valued skills among journalists. Do the skills journalists place value on somehow match the perceptions they have of their societal role? This is examined using comparative survey data from six Europan countries: Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden.

  • 22872.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalists, PR Professionals and the Practice of Paid News in Central and Eastern Europe: An Overview2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 5-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22873.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalists thinking about precarity: Making sense of the "new normal"2018In: # ISOJ Journal, ISSN 2328-0700, E-ISSN 2328-0662, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the effects of precarity on thinking about professionalism and professional identity among journalists, based on a re-analysis of three different datasets of semi-structured in-depth interviews (gathered in 2008-09, 2010-12 and 2017, respectively) with journalists (n = 63, 55 and 11, respectively) across 14 European countries. The study shows that journalists in this cross-national sample are “primed” for precarity; i.e. they largely accept precarity as natural part of journalism because precarity is in line with key professional norms such as norms of entrepreneurship and meritocracy.

  • 22874.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Newsworkers: A Comparative European Perspective2016Book (Other academic)
  • 22875.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Participation or outsourcing?: Some reflections on the space and status of newswork in the digital news ecosystem.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing the contemporary changing media environment, participation is often viewed as a good in and of itself (e.g Rosen 1999, Bruns, Allan 2013) – various forms of citizen participation in various news/journalistic ventures are viewed as a type of fulfillment of the normative ideals of journalism as a democratic institution. Many researchers have noted the limits of such participation, as well as analyzed the problems (of quality, of trustworthiness, of inclusion, etc) inherent in different forms of ‘pro-am’ production of news content and news texts (e.g. Singer et al 2011, Paterson & Domingo 2005, Reich 2008, to mention but a few examples), but the overall perspective on participation is positive.

    I am here presenting an alternative view on participation on journalism, arguing that the democratic good of participation can easily become the democratic problem of outsourcing. Today, many forms of journalistic labour are unpaid or paid at very low rates, as well as produced outside the news organization per se: journalistic production is becoming outsourced. Based on existing research on outsourcing and on contemporary journalistic production, I argue that the shift to fluid, casual labor where more of the risk is borne by the individual employee (Benner 2002; Deuze 2007) that is increasingly characterizing news work in the new digital ecosystem will thus have far-reaching consequences for the emergence and continued health of something usually considered to be a key part of journalism as a democratic institution: professional values.

  • 22876.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reassessing journalism as a profession2010In: The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism / [ed] Stuart Allan, Abingdon: Routledge, 2010, 2, p. 568-577Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22877.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reporters, Editors, and Networkers: Trends in Journalistic Work Roles and Journalistic Labour Across Europe2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden. The most interesting finding is perhaps the emergence of what seems like a new or at least somewhat different functional role of the journalist: that of the networker (emphasizing social skills like networking, teamwork and time management). Complementary data from a qualitative interview study of journalists in the same six countries indicate that this role is most prevalent among younger journalists and to a great extent is a response to changes in the organization of journalistic labor, e.g. increased prevalence of project work and work in ad hoc groups, increased labor precariousness, and the gradual convergence of the newsroom.

  • 22878.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Review of Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska & Gunnar Nygren (eds.) Journalism in Change: Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 137-140Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22879.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Technology and journalism-as-labour: historical perspectives2010In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 57-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological determinism is common among journalists when reflecting on changes in their profession; several studies show that journalists ascribe great power and independent agency to technology. There are at least two reasons for the persistence of technological determinism as an explanatory factor among journalists vis-a-vis their own work: first, technology is a highly integrated and therefore very tangible part of the everyday working life of journalists; and second, the technological paradigm for explaining change in journalism has deep historical roots. It is argued that analysing journalism as labour presents a way to address both the integration of technology in the everyday working practices of journalists, and the history of the inter-relations between journalism and technology. It is further argued that journalism studies as a field has not paid much attention to journalism as labour. This article is concerned with the second part of this programme for research, i.e. the historical analysis of journalism as labour. The framework of analysis is based on labour process theory, focusing on four themes in the history of journalism: (1) the importance of the separation of conception and execution of labour; (2) the increased differentiation of the labour process; (3) the use of technology to increase productivity; and (4) the deskilling of labour.

  • 22880.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The Maiden Tribute and the Naming of Monsters: two case studies of popular journalism as alternative public sphere2006In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 851-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the critical potential of tabloid journalism. It does so through a comparison of two popular journalism campaigns: the “Maiden Tribute” campaign in the London newspaper the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885 (dealing with underage prostitution), and the “naming-and-shaming” campaign in the News of the World in 2000, concerning child abuse and paedophilia. The main research question is whether any or both of these campaigns can be viewed as contributions to an alternative public sphere, as defined using concepts from Örnebring and Jönsson (2004

    16.           Örnebring  ,   Henrik       and     Jönsson  ,   Anna Maria     (  2004  )   “Tabloid Journalism and the Public Sphere: a historical perspective on tabloid journalism”  ,    Journalism Studies    5  (  3  ), pp.   283  –  95  .[Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) and Atton (2002

    1.        Atton, Chris. 2002. Alternative Media, London: Sage. View all references). Three aspects of the campaigns are compared: (1) How they discursively frame the issue at hand, (2) How they discursively frame the key actors present in the texts, and (3) What mode of address is employed. The purpose of this comparison is to examine whether the campaigns open up alternative possibilities in how they frame and present the issue and the actors, and in how they address and give space to their audiences. The main result is that the Pall Mall Gazette campaign has the greater claim to being a contribution to an alternative public sphere in terms of how it frames the issue and the actors. The article further argues that while there is a distinct potential of tabloid journalism to contribute to an alternative public sphere in certain circumstances, this potential should not be overstated.

  • 22881.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The producer as consumer – of what?: User-generated tabloid content in The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)2008In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 771-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producer–consumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced “for free”? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)—both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence—by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.

  • 22882.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Transmedia histories: Disjunctions and continuities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents two case studies of transmedial entertainment, one of the pulp franchise The Shadow and one of the contemporary franchise Transformers. The article argues that previous studies of transmedia entertainment have focused too much on narrative in a strict sense (plot/story), ignoring the interplay between the contexts of production and reception as well as narrative elements other than plot, notably those that create the greater narrative ‘world’. The article therefore focuses on an integrated analysis of the production/reception of the two transmedia properties, and the narrative disjunctions created by extending a transmedia world across different media platforms. The study finds that transmedia narratives cannot be understood without taking media industry objectives into account, and that previous studies have overemphasized the narrative integration of transmedial properties.

  • 22883.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Outsourcing newswork2016In: Handbook of Digital Journalism / [ed] David Domingo, Tamara Witschge, Alfred Hermida, Chris Anderson, London: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22884.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns Högskola.
    User-generated content and the news: Empowerment of citizens or an interactive illusion?2011In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of citizens in public life through the Internet, variously described by terms such as interactivity and user-generated content, is frequently held up as a democracy-enhancing development. However, these concepts say little about the exact nature and character of media–audience relations. We wish to introduce a more detailed taxonomy of user-generated content (UGC) that takes issues of power and influence into account. We examine the media–reader relationship (in online newspapers) by looking at (1) degree of participation and (2) type of content. We also suggest that it might be fruitful to think in terms of a political economy of UGC. Our results show that users are mostly empowered to create popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content rather than news/informational content. Direct user involvement in news production is minimal. There is a clear political economy of UGC: UGC provision in mainstream media to a great extent addresses users-as-consumers and is part of a context of consumption

  • 22885.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The labor of journalism: Challeneges of technological and economic restructuring2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will analyze how the technological and economic restructuring of journalistic labor impacts on three key theoretical concepts in journalism:  routines, professionalism and autonomy. Journalistic labor will be analyzed along three dichotomous dimensions: paid/unpaid, skilled/unskilled and individual/collective.

    For most of the 20th century, defining journalism in terms of labor (for the purposes of this paper, “labor” is defined as exertion that generates surplus value, organized through a contractual employer-employee relationship) was straightforward: journalistic labor was done by those who were employed, commonly on permanent, full-time contracts, by traditional media organizations. It was essentially not possible to conduct the work of a journalist outside this system.

    Many of the key journalism scholars of the postwar era imported concepts and theories from the sociology of work and used them to analyze journalism – among them routines (e.g. Gans 1979, Tuchman 1978), professionalism and the related concept of professional roles  (e.g. Johnstone, Slawski & Bowman 1976, Tunstall 1971) and autonomy (e.g. Breed 1955, Merrill 1974). However, when reading these works today, it is striking that the intellectual foundation of these concepts is that journalism is conducted by people who are in stable contractual relationships with likewise stable, large organizations. This, as we know, is not true anymore.

    The introduction of digital technologies and networked communications poses many challenges to the understanding of journalism as labor. The barriers of entry for performing journalistic work (though not necessarily labor, see below) have all but disappeared. It is now possible for individuals to produce and distribute news content without the need for a large organization and expensive production equipment. Conversely, as distribution channels multiply and become more fragmented, audiences can also increasingly chose to not consume journalistic content, or to consume journalistic content that is available at no cost to the end-user. It is at once easier to perform journalistic work and harder to get (adequately) paid for it, i.e. to perform journalistic labor. Permanent full-time jobs in journalism are getting fewer in most of the Western world, and freelancing, part-time work and occupational fluidity (e.g. journalists producing news one day and PR material the next) are becoming more common. While journalism scholarship has had much to say about the challenges of the new digital, networked environment, less attention has been paid to the validity of the many underlying concepts and theories that presuppose a particular way of organizing journalistic labor (Deuze 2007, 2011 being notable exceptions).

                                 We focus here on three concepts in particular – routines,  professionalism, and autonomy.  The theoretical challenges to these concepts are examined using three dichotomous dimensions: paid vs. unpaid labor (and its close companion, work time vs. free time), skilled vs unskilled labor, and individual vs. collective labor. What types of journalistic labor can you be expected to be paid for, and what do you increasingly have to do for free? If journalism can be outsourced and journalists replaced by algorithms and software (see Clerwall, 2014), how “skilled” is journalistic labor? As employers shift risk and responsibility to employees, individual journalists have to spend more time on personal branding and marketing. This has consequences for the possibilities of doing collective work (as in a traditional newsroom setting) when you may be competing with colleagues for scarce resources. We argue that ongoing fundamental changes to how journalistic labor is organized also require fundamentally rethinking many of the key concepts of journalism studies.

  • 22886.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    The Space of Journalistic Work: A Theoretical Model2018In: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 28, no 04, p. 403-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts to define journalism are often normative in nature but do not add to our theoretical understanding of what journalism is. There is a need for journalism scholarship to recognize explicitly that journalism is a space in which participants are not equal—or even similar—in terms of status, influence, work tasks, and working conditions. This paper offers a theoretical model combining the field theory of Pierre Bourdieu with recent insights from the sociology of work in order to articulate how journalistic work is stratified across three dimensions: journalistic capital, resource access, and material security. These dimensions create a space in which to place different types of journalistic work in order to make sense of contemporary journalism.

  • 22887.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Ander Ctr Res News & Opin Digital Era NODE.
    Kingsepp, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalism in small towns: A special issue of Journalism: Theory, Practice, Criticism2020In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, p. 1-6, article id 1464884919886442Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22888.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Autonomy from the inside: Journalists’ perceptions of workplace autonomy in five European countries2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22889.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Dimensions of journalistic workplace autonomy: A five-nation comparison2016In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 307-326, article id 1215833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how journalists perceive workplace autonomy in five European countries, based on an email survey (N = 2238) conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Estonia. The article argues that the workplace level functions as a link between the macro level of external pressures and the micro level of perceived influences on news work. Using principal component analysis we explore the dimensionality of workplace autonomy based on a set of 20 survey questions. Regression analysis is then used on the dimensions found in order to determine what affects perception of autonomy in the different dimensions. The most salient explanatory variables are found on the country and organisational levels, whereas the variables age, experience, gender, managerial role and medium have no or limited effects. The results show the organisational and country levels being integrated and that national journalistic culture is the most salient factor explaining perception of autonomy.

  • 22890.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Löfgren Nilsson, Monica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Journalism under threat: Intimidation and harassment of Swedish journalists2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22891.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
    Valued skills among journalists: An exploratory comparison of six European nations2016In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Systematic studies of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This article reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2238 news professionals, journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editing, and networking skills.

    The data also show a number of similarities, but also important differences regarding the importance journalists give to different professional skills in different European countries.

  • 22892.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    University of Santiago de Chile.
    Valued Skills Among Journalists: An Exploratory Comparison of Six European Nations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Comparisons of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden.

  • 22893.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    In the Margins of Journalism: Gender and livelihood among local (ex-) journalists in Sweden2018In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1051-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on journalists and journalistic work has focused on journalists with permanent, full-time employment. Given the rapid decrease of such employment opportunities, we argue that journalism research needs to pay more attention to those who those who have had to leave their jobs and either stopped doing journalism entirely, or who have switched to a freelance career (sometimes combining journalism with other work). This category of people is at once becoming more marginalized and “the new normal” within the occupation: In this paper, we furthermore focus on local (Swedish) journalists and ex-journalists. Based on a set of semi-structured interviews (n = 12) with ex-journalists who share the experience of having lost their permanent, full-time jobs, we use the concept of livelihood as an analytical tool. The concept of livelihood highlights the shift from journalism as a job practiced exclusive of other jobs to an activity conducted alongside other income-generating activities and makes it possible to analyse leaving the occupation from a context that incorporates the whole life situation of the respondents. This also contributes to the current wave of studies of journalism and job loss by adding qualitative data about individual experiences of job loss to the existing quantitative survey evidence.

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  • 22894.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Journalistiken i ett jämförande perspektiv2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 23-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22895.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Rantanen, Terhi
    London School of Economics and Political Science.
    Editorial: Special issue on media in Central and Eastern Europe2013In: Global Media and Communication, ISSN 1742-7665, E-ISSN 1742-7673, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 189-193Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22896. Örtenstrand, A
    et al.
    Winbladh, B
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Waldenström, U
    Early discharge of preterm babies followed by domiciliary nursing care: parents´experiences and breastfeeding2001In: Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:1190-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22897. Öslie, Ingrid Landraff
    et al.
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Möller, Anders
    Struggle and adjustment to an insecure everyday life and an unpredictable life course: an- interview study2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 666-674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22898.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Adolescents views of oral health education. A qualitative study2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22899.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Adolescents' views of oral health education: A qualitative study2005In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 300-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents perceptions and desires with respect to oral health education. Aseries of focus group sessions was conducted with adolescents in schools. The groups comprised an average of 6 individuals,with a total of 34 participants. The main themes of the discussions were the informants perceptions of the oral healtheducation in different settings and under varying circumstances. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzedaccording to the basic principles of Grounded Theory. One of the most important issues appeared to be the dental personnelconsidering the individual as a subject and not as an object. The adolescents in the study were uncertain about their knowledgeof oral health. Often, the participants expressed a wish to be taught more at the dental visit. Information in schools was sparse.The support of parents was acknowledged but little discussed. The methods used in advertisements to describe dentalproducts were met with skepticism. These should not be imitated in oral health education as this might undermine thecredibility of the dental services. Girls were perceived to be more interested in health than boys were. Two core categorieslabeled credibility and confidence, which interacted continually, emerged from the data in the analysis. The resultsindicate that the credibility of the intermediary of the health messages is essential, as is their ability to create confidence. Thus,oral health education among adolescents is more likely to be successful when credibility and confidence are perceived

  • 22900.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    En ojämlik möjlighet. Kartläggning av forsknings- och utvecklingsarbete inom folktandvården: Research and development (R&D) in the Public Dental Services in Sweden - an unequal opportunity2004In: TandläkartidningenArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Continuous research and development (R&D) is essential to ensure quality in dental care. A recent official report in Sweden suggests that the county councils should be obliged to arrange and support R&D activities in dental care. In this paper, a review of the R&D activities within the Public Dental Services (PDS) in the 21 Swedish counties is presented. Official PDS representatives in each county were contacted by telephone in February and March 2003 and asked questions on the following topics: the organisation of R&D activities, the fields prioritised in R&D, courses arranged in research methodology, research competence, economic matters, and personal comments.



    In half of the counties, R&D in the PDS was organised in collaboration with other health services. Few positions in the PDS were in R&D, and those that existed were only part-time posts. Public health matters, prevention, and clinical studies were fields that were commonly prioritised for R&D. Most of the studies published by PDS employees have been performed within specialised dental care.



    Competence and knowledge in how to conduct studies are essential for the quality of R&D. Courses in R&D methodology had been arranged in most counties. The number of employees who held a doctoral degree varied from zero (five counties) to over ten (four counties).

    Pecuniary resources available for R&D differed considerably (from around 55 EUR to a few hundreds EUR per employee in the different counties). Lower revenues from patient fees were regarded to be the major obstacle to establishing and carrying out R&D activities. How this matter was viewed and handled differed greatly between the counties. At the time of this investigation, a topic of interest in several of them was the future R&D organisation, according to the informants.



    It was concluded that the organisation and the preconditions for R&D in the PDS varied greatly between the Swedish counties.

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