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  • 22101.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Helhetssyn i förpackningsutvecklingen för att minska livsmedelsspill2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad händer med miljöpåverkan om man lyssnar mer på konsumenterna i förpackningsutvecklingen?



    Konsumenten i fokus är en trend som har ökat i betydelses för många verksamheter de senaste åren, detta gäller också för förpackningsindustrin. Vi har undersökt vad som händer med miljöpåverkan om förpackningsutvecklare lyssnar mer till vad konsumenten har för behov när det gäller förpackningars funktion.



    Förpackningar har varit med i miljödebatten sedan början på 1990-talet. Särskilt uppmärksammad har förpackningen varit när den används färdigt och blivit avfall. Myndigheterna styr att mängden material i förpackningar ska minska samt hur förpackningar ska återvinnas. Kunskapen om förpackningens miljöpåverkan har sedan dess ökat eftersom många livscykelanalyser presenterats. Förpackningar står för 5-10% av miljöpåverkan från produkter (Tempelman, Joore et al. 2004). Många av livscykelanalyserna har gjorts på själva förpackningen och inte systemet med produkt/förpackning. Det finns risk att ett sådant arbetssätt leder till subotimering i det större systemet som rör förpackning/produkt (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    Förpackningar används för att skydda varor under lagring och transporter från producent till konsument. Förpackningen spelar också en viktig roll i att skapa varumärken och informera konsumenten (Löfgren 2006). Genom att utgå från vad konsumenten tycker är viktigt och samtidigt undersöka miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan med mat/förpackning så kunde vi se att förpackningar som medför mindre förluster av mat kan förväntas ge nöjdare kunder och mindre miljöpåverkan. Mat och dryck står för 20-30 % av den totala miljöpåverkan i EU (Tukker, Huppes et al. 2005). I en brittisk studie konstaterades att nästan 30 % av maten som bärs hem till hushållen slängs (Ventour 2008). Att så mycket mat slängs bidrar till en onödig och stor miljöpåverkan.



    Om varumärkesägare och förpackningsutvecklare ser mer till hur förpackningen kan förhindra uppkomst av matspill så kan det innebära att nya förpackningslösningar introduceras. Åtgärder i förpackningsutformningen som påverkar spill är till exempel, hur den skyddar, hur lätt den är att tömma, storleken (konsumenten kan köpa den mängd den har behov av), dosering, information om innehåll eller instruktioner kring förvaring. Dessa lösningar kan medföra, nya tekniska lösningar i produktionen av förpackningen, nya material i ytor och ibland ökad mängd förpackningsmaterial. För att minska miljöpåverkan i hela systemet med mat/förpackning finns det utrymme för att till och med öka miljöbelastningen av förpackningar, då nya lösningar leder till minskade förluster av livsmedel (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    När man vill kartlägga miljöpåverkan på förpackningar genom att göra livscykelanalyser bör dessa alltid också omfatta innehållet i förpackningen samt brukarbeteende/behov.

  • 22102.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging and losses of food2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22103.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging Development and Environmental Effects of Food Losses2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-in-focus is a trend that is important for many businesses. We have explored what happens with the environmental impact in the food-packaging systems if packaging developers and brand-owners listen more to what the consumer finds important about packaging. We found that it is possible to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease the environmental impact, especially when the new packaging design reduces food losses

  • 22104.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Annika, Olsson
    Lunds Tekniska högskola.
    Consumer perceptions of sustainable packaging - Limited by lack of knowledge?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This is due to its primary role to protect products. This paper reports on how Swedish consumers perceive and select food packages in general, and how environmental aspects of conventional and organic food packaging are perceived in particular. The study is based on a consumer survey. The findings indicate that contrary to research that emphasizes the protective function of packaging as most important, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to the environmental impact of packaging. This indicates a lack of knowledge among consumers on sustainable packaging.

  • 22105.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Consumer Perceptions of Food Packaging: Contributing to or Counteracting Envir onmentally Sustainable Development?2016In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has a fundamental role in ensuring safe delivery of goods throughout supply chains to the end consumer in good condition. It also has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This paper explores and provides insights on Swedish consumer perceptions and knowledge of environmental aspects of food packaging and elaborates on how these can contribute to or counteract environmentally sustainable development. A study based on a consumer survey carried out in Sweden is presented. A review of recent packaging research emphasizes the protective function of packaging as its most important contribution to the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Contrary to this, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to their perceptions of the environmental impact of packaging. Paper-based packaging is strongly understood by the surveyed consumers to be environmentally advantageous, whereas plastic and metal are not. This study further indicates that a majority of the Swedish consumers surveyed are aware of their shortcomings in judging the environmental status of food packaging, indicating a need for guidance; otherwise, consumer choices can unintendedly counteract environmentally sustainable intentions

  • 22106.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Förpackad för hållbar framtid2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22107.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Verghese, Karli
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Lockrey, Simon
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Crossin, Enda
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Clune, Stephen
    ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster University, UK.
    Rio, Maud
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The greenhouse gas profile of a “Hungry Planet”; quantifying the impacts of the weekly food purchases including associated packaging and food waste of three families2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have estimated that 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted across the supply chain, while food security emerges as one of the leading challenges facing a growing global population. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can illustrate the environmental implications of food production, consumption and waste. In 2005, Peter Menzel and Faith D’Aluisio presented a photographic study in “Hungry Planet – What the World Eats” documenting what thirty families across twenty-four countries ate during the course of one week. The weekly food purchasing inventories of three of these families have been combined with LCA data to report the greenhouse gas intensity of these food purchases. The greenhouse gas emission profile including those of 128 varieties of fresh food, along with data on packaging material production and household food waste, have been used in the calculations. The paper will present the findings illustrating the contribution each component has: food, packaging and food waste; and will also discuss the implications for food packaging design. 

  • 22108.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

  • 22109.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Environmental impact of packaging and food losses in a life cycle perspective: a comparative analysis of five food items2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmentalimpact from the whole foodpackaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmentalimpactofpackagingin order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmentalimpactofpackagingandfoodlossesand the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmentalimpact, even if there is an increase inimpact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environmentalimpactof the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing foodlosses when packaging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packagingandpackaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 22110.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract

    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development

    By moving from:

    Packaging waste, Production-oriented, Product-oriented (packaging), Selective and Regulations on packaging reduction

    to:

    Food waste, Consumption-oriented, Service-oriented(packaging functions), Comprehensive and

    Regulations on packaging optimization

  • 22111.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential Environmental Gains from Reducing Food Losses Through Development of New Packaging: A Life-Cycle Model2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses are seldom included in life cycle analyses of the food packaging system, nor are they included in the debat on sustainable packaging. The development of packaging that decreases food losses does, however, provide an opportunity to reduce the overall environmental impact. In this paper, we present a model that calculates the environmental impact of the food packaging system as a function of food losses. The model can be used to analyse the potential environmental gains from developing packaging that reduce food losses. The model includes food production and processing, transports, packaging, retailer and consumer issues and waste handling. The results show that it can be environmentally motivated to increase the environmental impact of packaging, if necessary, when new packaging design helps to reduce food losses. However, the waste handling systems of food and packaging are important to consider if packaging are developed in order to reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system

  • 22112.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Olsson, Annika
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Sustainable Packaging Development: One Step FurtherManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22113.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindström, Annika
    RICE, Sweden.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RICE, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Ann
    RICE, Sweden.
    Investigation of consumer attitudes, practices and food waste for three food items, to use as input in new packaging designs that aim to reduce food waste2017In: 28th IAPRI World Symposium on Packaging, 2017, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of measures is required to tackle the global food waste problem. Innovative packaging, which helps to reduce food waste, is one important measure. The data for food waste is often presented in a summarised way. However, different food products are wasted for different reasons. In a Swedish project, actors along the entire value chain collaborated to develop new packaging solutions to reduce food waste of three products: salsa in glass jars, mixed lettuce in plastic packaging and rice pudding in plastic packaging. Waste levels and reasons for waste were examined in waste audits of the businesses, in ethnographic studies and in interviews with consumers at retail stores.

    This study showed that consumers wasted the products to a much higher extent than the waste which occurred during filling, transport and retail. Waste levels among consumers varied from 0-75%, which is notably high, given that consumers tend to underestimate or not admit to wasting food. The mixed lettuce and rice pudding are both intended to be packaged in appropriate serving sizes; however, only 27% of the mixed lettuce and 50% of the rice pudding was consumed in one sitting. Respondents mentioned some material features and several handling functions of packaging, but very few commented on the protection that the packaging provides. Few, if any, expressed any recognition of packaging attributes, which helped to avoid food waste.

    The respondents mentioned that wasting food was a waste of money and that it can have a negative effect on conscience; despite that, respondents also said that they wanted a variety of meals and to not have the same food several days during the same week.

  • 22114.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A life cycle perspective on environmental effects of customer focused packaging development2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of increasing customer satisfaction and reducing the environmental impact from food-packaging systems in alifecycleperspective using results from a study on consumers' demands on packaging based on Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality. It assesses the environmentaleffects of potential improvements in quality attributes. The results show that there are obvious potentials to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease in the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, especially when the packaging design helps to decrease food losses. There were many connections between quality attributes and environmental impacts.

  • 22115.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norway.
    Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 24, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world's limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during seven days and noted in a diary why each item was wasted. Thirty of the families had participated earlier in an environmental project including education in environmental issues of everyday life. About 20-25% of the households' food waste could be related to packaging. Three packaging aspects dominate the packaging related waste: packages that the consumer noted as being too big and packages that were difficult to empty, and wastage because of passed "best before date". The environmentally educated households wasted less, especially of prepared food. They also wasted less food due to passed "best before date". These households were more observant to packaging aspects in relation to food waste. The observations made could be used to learn more about packaging attributes that affect food waste. Although they recognised packaging influence on food waste, these households expressed lower satisfaction with packaging functions and wanted packaging to a lower extent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22116. Williams, R. B. G.
    et al.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Robinson, D. A.
    Measuring rates of downwearing and mapping microtopography:: The use of micro-erosion meters and laser scanners in rock weathering studies2000In: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F. Supplement Band 120. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22117.
    Willman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bjuresäter, Kaisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden.;Sophiahemmet Univ, Dept Hlth Promot Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Japanese Red Cross Inst Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan..
    Newly graduated registered nurses' self-assessed clinical competence and their need for further training2020In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore and describe changes in self-assessed clinical competence and the need for further training among newly graduated Registered Nurses during their first 15 months of professional work in acute care hospital settings. Design Quantitative longitudinal design. Methods The 50-item Professional Nurse Self-Assessment Scale of clinical core competencies II was used. A total of 45 newly graduated Registered Nurses answered the questionnaire at four different occasions. Data were collected after 2, 5, 9 and 15 months of working experience. Result The components "ethical decision-making," "cooperation and consultation" and "clinical leadership" were rated highest in clinical competence and lowest in need for further training. The components "professional development" and "critical thinking" were rated lowest in clinical competence and "direct clinical practice" rated highest in need for further training. The clinical competence increased significant between 9-15 months, with the exception of "critical thinking" and need for further training decreased significantly between 9-15 months, with the exception of "critical thinking."

  • 22118.
    Willman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Petzäll, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Research Center, Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland.
    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    The psycho-social dimension of pain and health-related quality of life in the oldest old2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 534-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psycho-social dimension of pain and health-related quality of life in the oldest old Background:  Chronic pain has an impact on the physical and social functioning of older people which in turn may worsen their health-related quality of life. Research with focus on prolonged extensive pain in the most elderly and how pain may interfere with their life situation is scarce. Aims:  The aims were to describe and investigate pain from a multidimensional point of view (duration, location, psycho-social) and health-related quality of life as well as to compare sex and age groups in people aged 80 years and over. Methods:  In this cross-sectional study, a total of 225 of 282 people responded to a questionnaire consisting of two instruments and background questions. The psycho-social dimension of pain was measured using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory-Swedish language version (MPI-S) with five scales: Pain Severity, Interference, Life Control, Affective Distress and Social Support. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Results:  Median duration of pain was 9.0 years, and the mean number of pain locations was 2.04. The MPI-S scale Interference with a negative orientation had the highest mean score, while the mean score for Social Support was the highest for the scales with a positive orientation. The duration of pain was significantly greater for women, and those aged 80-85 years had higher pain severity than those aged >86. Participants with a lower health-related quality of life experienced significantly more severe pain, were more troubled with pain and had less control of their life. Conclusions:  Older people with prolonged pain suffered from a low health-related quality of life. Pain interfered with their lives and contributed to diminished control in their daily lives. Nurses are essential for the identification and prevention of pain and should be aware of how pain affects older people's physical, mental and social health.

  • 22119. Wilson, David
    Decoupling basis weight measurements in paper manufacture2001Report (Other academic)
  • 22120. Wilson, David
    Experiences building and validating a large-scale dynamic paper machine model2000Report (Other academic)
  • 22121. Wilson, David
    Experiences of large-scale board machine modelling2001Report (Other academic)
  • 22122. Wilson, David
    Large scale dynamic paper machine models2001Report (Other academic)
  • 22123. Wilson, David
    Model-assisted basis weight control of a board machine2000Report (Other academic)
  • 22124. Wilson, David
    Optimal control teaching using Matlab: Have we reached the optimum yet?2001Report (Other academic)
  • 22125. Wilson, David
    Organic matter inside and outside of chips during Kraft cooking2001In: Paperi Ja Puu, Vol 83, No.7, Nov. 2001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22126.
    Windfäll, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Some Problems in Kinetic Theory and Applications2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers. the first is devoted to discrete velocity models, the second to hydrodynamic equation beyond Navier-Stokes level, the third to a multi-linear Maxwell model for economic or social dynamics and the fourth is devoted to a function related to the Riemann zeta-function.

    In Paper 1, we consider the general problem of construction and classification of normal, i.e. without spurious invariants, discrete velocity models (DVM) of the classical Boltzman equation. We explain in detail how this problem can be solved and present a complete classification of normal plane DVMs with relatively small number n of velocities (n≤10). Some results for models with larger number of velocities are also presented.

    In Paper 2, we discuss hydrodynamics at the Burnett level. Since the Burnett equations are ill-posed, we describe how to make a regularization of these. We derive the well-posed generalized Burnett equations (GBEs) and discuss briefly an optimal choice of free parameters and consider a specific version of these equations. Finally we prove linear stability for GBE and present some numerical result on the sound propagationbased on GBEs.

    In Paper 3, we study a Maxwell kinetic model of socio-economic behavior. The model can predict a time dependent distribution of wealth among the participants in economic games with an arbitrary, but sufficiently large, number of players. The model depends on three different positive parameters {γ,q,s} where s and q are fixed by market conditions and γ is a control parameter. In particular, we investigate the efficiency of control. Some exact solutions and numerical examples are presented.

    In Paper 4, we study a special function u(s,x), closely connected to the Riemann zeta-function ζ(s), where s is a complex number. We study in detail the properties of u(s,x) and in particular the location of its zeros s(x), for various x≥0. For x=0 the zeros s(0) coincide with non-trivial zeros of ζ(s). We perform a detailed numerical study of trajectories of various zeros s(x) of u(s,x).

  • 22127.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Industrial applications and properties of oxalate-degrading enzymes2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxalate-degrading enzymes were investigated with focus on potential applications in the pulp and paper industry and in active packaging. Changes introduced to make the pulp and paper industry more environmentally friendly, such as recirculation of process-water streams and elementary chlorine free bleaching of pulp, have led to increasing problems with precipitation of calcium oxalate. The potential of using enzymes for degradation of oxalic acid in industrial bleaching filtrates was explored to find a way to decrease the problem.

    The studies included chemical characterization and enzymatic treatments of 34 filtrates from kraft, mechanical, and sulfite pulping. Eight oxalate-degrading enzymes were included in the experiments. The treatments of the filtrates were affected by substances that inhibit oxalate-degrading enzymes. Multivariate data analysis, analytical treatment of filtrates with ion-exchange resins, and analysis of the effects of separate compounds on the enzyme activity were employed as tools to investigate inhibiting substances and groups of inhibitors. The experiments with ion-exchangers indicated that the inhibitors included anions, cations, as well as uncharged substances. Sulfite (≥1 mM) caused complete or almost complete inhibition of all oxalate-degrading enzymes so far examined, while the effects of chlorine oxyanions differed for the various enzymes investigated. A newly discovered oxalate decarboxylase was chosen for experiments performed directly in a mill producing mechanical pulp. The new enzyme degraded 70% of the oxalic acid in one hour, while the well-characterized oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger degraded <5% of the oxalic acid during the same period of time.

    Oxalate decarboxylase from the white-rot basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor was purified by using chromatographic methods and characterized with gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicate that it is a 69-kDa heavily glycosylated enzyme with optimal activity at pH 2.5.

    Experiments designed to investigate the potential of using oxalate oxidase from barley in active packaging showed that it could be entrapped with retained catalytic activity in a latex-polymer matrix. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that oxalate oxidase can be used in active packaging either as an oxalic acid scavenger or as an oxygen scavenger.

  • 22128.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Johansson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Co-immobilization of oxalate oxidase and catalase in films for scavenging of oxygen or oxalic acid2013In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 72, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxalate oxidase has potential to act as an oxygen scavenger in active packaging to increase the shelf-life of food and beverages, while simultaneously producing the protective packaging gas carbon dioxide. This study shows that oxalate oxidase from barley can be immobilized with retained catalytic activity through entrapment in a latex polymer matrix. Conditions for formation of film containing oxalate oxidase have been evaluated as well as effects of storage and latex on enzyme activity, migration of enzyme in films, and the ability of the latex films to resist higher temperatures. Drying of enzyme-containing latex films at 75 °C prior to conditioning at 30 °C resulted in higher activity than drying solely at 30 °C, or drying at 95 °C or 105 °C followed by conditioning at 30 °C. Storage of films in air at 4 °C for 14 days did not negatively affect the enzymatic activity. Inclusion of catalase in films with oxalate oxidase effectively prevented release of hydrogen peroxide. The results suggest that the immobilized enzyme can successfully be used both as an oxygen scavenger and as an oxalic-acid scavenger.

  • 22129.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Larsson, Simona
    Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Latvia.
    Cassland, Pierre
    Applied Microbiology, Lund University/Lund Institute of Technology.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effects of ionic substances in bleaching filtrates and of lignosulfonates on the activity of oxalate oxidase from barley2011In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 245-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of ionic substances in seven industrial filtrates from kraft pulping, mechanical pulping, and sulfite pulping on the activity of oxalate oxidase from barley were investigated by pre-treatment of the filtrates with ion-exchange resins prior to enzymatic degradation of the oxalic acid in the filtrates. The pre-treatment resulted in increased oxalic acid degradation rates in all filtrates, except for one that was obtained from sulfite pulping. The possibility that lignosulfonates, which were present in the filtrate from sulfite pulping, could affect oxalate oxidase was investigated in a separate set of experiments involving four different preparations of lignosulfonates. At a lignosulfonate concentration of 50 mg/mL and a pH of 3.8, only 2-16% of the activity of oxalate oxidase remained. The results show the effects of anionic and cationic substances in bleaching filtrates on oxalate oxidase and indicate that there is an interaction between the enzyme, which has a positive net charge at pH 3.8, and the polymeric anionic lignosulfonates.

  • 22130.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Latha Gandla, Madhavi
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Hong, Feng
    College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, China.
    Chen, Qi Zhi
    College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, China.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Oxalate decarboxylase of Trametes versicolor: biochemical characterization and performance in bleaching filtrates from the pulp and paper industry2012In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 87, no 11, p. 1600-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) from acid-induced cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was purified and characterized with respect to its biochemical properties and the possibility to utilize the enzyme for treatment of process water with the intention to prevent problems with calcium-oxalate scaling in the pulp and paper industry. RESULTS: Purified T. versicolor ODC was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. As estimated by using SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was 69 kDa, and 60 kDa after deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F. The pH optimum was 2.5 and the temperature optimum was 4045 degrees C. The effects of ten potential inhibitors in industrial filtrates were examined. The enzyme was sensitive to low concentrations (0.1 mmol L-1) of chlorite and sulfite. T. versicolor ODC exhibited activity in 16 filtrates collected from mechanical pulping and kraft pulping. It had higher activity than ODC from Aspergillus niger in all of the filtrates and higher activity than oxalate oxidase from barley in all filtrates except two. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation shows basic biochemical properties of T. versicolor ODC and indicates that the enzyme may be useful for treatment of industrial filtrates under acidic conditions. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 22131.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    The Effects of Oxyanions on the Activity of Oxalate Oxidase2009In: The Open Enzyme Inhibition Journal, ISSN 1874-9402, Vol. 2, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22132.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lyngfelt, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olvegård, Lotta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Elever läser: Del 3 i modulen: Tolka och skriva text2017Other (Other academic)
  • 22133.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lyngfelt, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Elever läser. Del 6 i modulen: Att tolka och skriva text i skolans alla ämnen2015Other (Other academic)
  • 22134.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olvegård, Lotta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Läskompetens i styrdokument och undervisning: Del 2 i modulen: Att tolka och skriva text i skolans alla ämnen2015Other (Other academic)
  • 22135.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Enhancing Censorship Resistance in the Tor Anonymity Network2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Baksidestext

    The Tor network was originally designed as low-latency anonymity network.However, as the years progressed, Tor earned a reputation as also being a useful tool to circumvent Internet censorship. At times, the network counted 30,000 users only from China. Censors reacted by tightening their grip on the national communication infrastructure. In particular, they developed techniques to prevent people from being able to access the Tor network. This arms race now counts several iterations and no end is in sight.

    This thesis contributes to a censorship-resistant Tor network in two ways. First, it analyses how existing censorship systems work. In particular, the Great Firewall of China is analysed in order to obtain an understanding of its capabilities as well as to explore circumvention opportunities. Second, this thesis proposes practical countermeasures to circumvent Internet censorship. In particular, it presents a novel network protocol which is resistant to the Great Firewall's active probing attacks.

  • 22136.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Measuring and circumventing Internet censorship2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ever increasing amount of governments, organisations, and companies employ Internet censorship in order to filter the free flow of information.  These efforts are supported by an equally increasing number of companies focusing on the development of filtering equipment.

    Only what these entities consider right can pass the filters. This practice constitutes a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and hampers progress.  This thesis contributes novel techniques to measure and to circumvent Internet censorship. In particular, we 1) analyse how the Great Firewall of China is blocking the Tor network by using active probing techniques as well as side channel measurements, we

    2) propose a concept to involve users in the process of censorship analysis, we 3) discuss the aptitude of a globally-deployed network measurement platform for censorship analysis, and we 4) propose a novel circumvention protocol. We attach particular importance to practicality and usability. Most of the techniques proposed in this thesis were implemented and some of them are deployed and used on a daily basis.  We demonstrate that the measurement techniques proposed in this thesis are practical and useful by applying them in order to shed light on previously undocumented cases of Internet censorship. We employed our techniques in three countries and were able to expose previously unknown censorship techniques and cooperation between a corporation and a government for the sake of censorship. We also implemented a circumvention protocol which was subsequently deployed and is used to evade the Great Firewall of China.

  • 22137.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards a Censorship Analyser for Tor2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing censorship incidents targeting popular circumvention tools such as Tor can be a tedious task. Access to censoring networks is typically difficult to obtainand remote analysis is not always possible. Analysis is however feasible if users behind the censoring networks are given the opportunity to help. In this paper, we propose a lightweight censorship analyser for Tor which is meant to be run by volunteering users. The analyser automatically gathers relevant data and the final report is sent back to the Tor developers. Our design builds on existing software and should be easy to bundle and deploy.

  • 22138.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Crandall, Jedidiah R.
    The Great Firewall of China: How it Blocks Tor and Why it is Hard to Pinpoint2012In: Login: The Usenix Magazine, ISSN 1044-6397, E-ISSN 2169-9364, ISSN 1044-6397, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 42-50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22139.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Princeton University.
    Ensafi, Roya
    Princeton University.
    Loesing, Karsten
    The Tor Project.
    Feamster, Nick
    Princeton University.
    Identifying and characterizing Sybils in the Tor network2016In: Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Security Symposium, USENIX - The Advanced Computing Systems Association, 2016, p. 1169-1185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a volunteer-run, distributed anonymity network, Tor is vulnerable to Sybil attacks. Little is known about real-world Sybils in the Tor network, and we lack practical tools and methods to expose Sybil attacks. In this work, we develop sybilhunter, a system for detecting Sybil relays based on their appearance, such as configuration; and behavior, such as uptime sequences. We used sybilhunter’s diverse analysis techniques to analyze nine years of archived Tor network data, providing us with new insights into the operation of real-world attackers. Our findings include diverse Sybils, ranging from botnets, to academic research, and relays that hijacked Bitcoin transactions. Our work shows that existing Sybil defenses do not apply to Tor, it delivers insights into realworld attacks, and provides practical tools to uncover and characterize Sybils, making the network safer for its users.

  • 22140.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Koewer, Richard
    FH Campus Wien, Austria.
    Mulazzani, Martin
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Huber, Markus
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Schrittwieser, Sebastian
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Weippl, Edgar
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays2014In: Privacy Enhancing Technologies, Springer, 2014, p. 304-331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tor exit relays are operated by volunteers and together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. By design, these volunteers are able to inspect and modify the anonymized network traffic. In this paper, we seek to expose such malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing two fast and modular exit relay scanners-one for credential sniffing and one for active MitM attacks. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attacks and used them to probe all exit relays over a period of several months. We discovered numerous malicious exit relays engaging in a multitude of different attacks. To reduce the attack surface users are exposed to, we patched Torbutton, an existing browser extension and part of the Tor Browser Bundle, to fetch and compare suspicious X. 509 certificates over independent Tor circuits. Our work makes it possible to continuously and systematically monitor Tor exit relays. We are able to detect and thwart many man-in-the-middle attacks, thereby making the network safer for its users. All our source code is available under a free license.

  • 22141.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    How China Is Blocking Tor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only the free web is victim to China’s excessive censorship, but also the Tor anonymity network: the Great Firewall of China prevents thousands of potential Tor users from accessing the network. In this paper, we investigate how the blocking mechanism is implemented, we conjecture how China’s Tor blocking infrastructure is designed and we propose countermeasures. Our work bolsters the understanding of China’s censorship capabilities and thus paves the way towards more effective evasion techniques.

  • 22142.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    How the Great Firewall of China is Blocking Tor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet censorship in China is not just limited to the web: the Great Firewall of China prevents thousands of potential Tor users from accessing the network. In this paper, we investigate how the blocking mechanism is implemented, we conjecture how China's Tor blocking infrastructure is designed and we propose circumvention techniques. Our work bolsters the understanding of China's censorship capabilities and thus paves the way towards more effective circumvention techniques.

  • 22143.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it iseasy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are runby independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous.

    In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, wemonitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implementedseveral scanning modules for detecting common attacks and used them to probe all exit relays over aperiod of four months. We discovered numerous malicious exit relays engaging in different attacks.To reduce the attack surface users are exposed to, we further discuss the design and implementationof a browser extension patch which fetches and compares suspicious X.509 certificates overindependent Tor circuits.

    Our work makes it possible to continuously monitor Tor exit relays. We are able to detect andthwart many man-in-the-middle attacks which makes the network safer for its users. All our code isavailable under a free license.

  • 22144.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fuss, Juergen
    Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences.
    ScrambleSuit: A Polymorphic Network Protocol to Circumvent Censorship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep packet inspection technology became a cornerstone of Internet censorship by facilitating cheap and effective filtering of what censors consider undesired information. Moreover, filtering is not limited to simple pattern matching but makes use of sophisticated techniques such as active probing and protocol classification to block access to popular circumvention tools such as Tor. In this paper, we propose ScrambleSuit; a thin protocol layer above TCP whose purpose is to obfuscate the transported application data. By using morphing techniques and a secret exchanged out-of-band, we show that ScrambleSuit can defend against active probing and other fingerprinting techniques such as protocol classification and regular expressions. We finally demonstrate that our prototype exhibits little overhead and enables effective and lightweight obfuscation for application layer protocols.

  • 22145.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fuss, Juergen
    Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences.
    ScrambleSuit: A Polymorphic Network Protocol to Circumvent Censorship2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep packet inspection technology became a cornerstone of Internet censorship by facilitating cheap and effective filtering of what censors consider undesired information. Moreover, filtering is not limited to simple pattern matching but makes use of sophisticated techniques such as active probing and protocol classification to block access to popular circumvention tools such as Tor.

    In this paper, we propose ScrambleSuit; a thin protocol layer above TCP whose purpose is to obfuscate the transported application data. By using morphing techniques and a secret exchanged out-of-band, we show that ScrambleSuit can defend against active probing and other fingerprinting techniques such as protocol classification and regular expressions.

    We finally demonstrate that our prototype exhibits little overhead and enables effective and lightweight obfuscation for application layer protocols.

  • 22146.
    Winter, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Jung, Linda S.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Kriechbaum, Monika
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Control of the toxic plant Colchicum autumnale in semi- natural grasslands: Effects of cutting treatments on demography and diversity2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 524-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural grasslands are important habitats for the conservation of biodiversity in Europe. High population densities of toxic Colchicum autumnale in these grasslands may cause problems for livestock and the marketing of hay. Consequently, farmers may either intensify grassland management to reduce C. autumnale in the fodder or abandon the land; both practices will lead to a loss of biodiversity. Previous studies suggesting early cutting to control C. autumnale did not consider population dynamics and the effects on plant diversity. We conducted a four-year experiment in six regions within Austria and Germany, applying five cutting treatments in 16 C. autumnale populations to test the effects of cutting date and frequency on C. autumnale and co-occurring vegetation. Demographic data were evaluated with matrix population models, life-table response experiment (LTRE), anova and manova. Vegetation data were analysed with multiresponse permutation procedures (MRPP), anova and manova. Population growth rate was significantly reduced in plots cut in early and late May compared to plots cut in June (control). Plants cut in late April or early May showed the lowest survival probability. Significantly fewer large vegetative plants developed capsules in the following year when cut in early or late May. LTRE analysis showed that differences in the population growth rate between the control and early cut treatments were mainly the result of a reduced survival and growth and an increased retrogression to smaller stages. Multiresponse permutation procedures revealed no differences in vegetation composition between treatments except for one site in 2011. There were no differences in Shannon index, evenness or species turnover rate within any year. Synthesis and applications. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species.

  • 22147. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Transport of invertebrates and detritus from headwaters in Southeast Alaska: implications for upland forest management and downstream salmonid habitats2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22148. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Musslewhite, J.
    Headwaters are source areas of food for downstream, fish-bearing stream food webs2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22149. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Musslewhite, J.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Fluvial transport of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates from upland, fishless headwaters to downstream, fish-bearing habitats in southeastern Alaska2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22150.
    Wirsén, Erik
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Åkerlund, Simon
    Malmö University.
    Ingvarsdotter, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö University.
    Persson, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Burdens experienced and perceived needs of relatives of persons with SMI: A systematic meta-synthesis.2017In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Close relatives of people with severe mental illness (SMI) experience problems known as family burdens. In addition, they may have their own needs for support, something often overlooked by the healthcare system. Meta-syntheses in this area may help explore the meaning of the experience of living with someone who has a SMI.

    AIM: Our aim was to describe the burdens experienced and needs perceived on a daily basis by relatives to someone who has a SMI.

    METHODS: The databases PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were searched using a systematic search strategy. Studies were screened for relevance and quality was appraised. A meta-synthesis of nine qualitative studies was then conducted.

    RESULTS: The nine studies discerned the following themes. Burden themes; Forced to carry a sometimes unbearable burden; Burdened by own ill-health and disrupted relationships; Distressed and stigmatized by society. Needs themes; strengthening protective factors; Skills and practical support greatly appreciated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The burdens and needs of relatives of persons with SMI strongly influence their lives. They require relief from both practical and emotional burdens. Family interventions and other programs to support relatives should be encouraged with this knowledge in mind.

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