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  • 22001.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Industrial applications and properties of oxalate-degrading enzymes2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxalate-degrading enzymes were investigated with focus on potential applications in the pulp and paper industry and in active packaging. Changes introduced to make the pulp and paper industry more environmentally friendly, such as recirculation of process-water streams and elementary chlorine free bleaching of pulp, have led to increasing problems with precipitation of calcium oxalate. The potential of using enzymes for degradation of oxalic acid in industrial bleaching filtrates was explored to find a way to decrease the problem.

    The studies included chemical characterization and enzymatic treatments of 34 filtrates from kraft, mechanical, and sulfite pulping. Eight oxalate-degrading enzymes were included in the experiments. The treatments of the filtrates were affected by substances that inhibit oxalate-degrading enzymes. Multivariate data analysis, analytical treatment of filtrates with ion-exchange resins, and analysis of the effects of separate compounds on the enzyme activity were employed as tools to investigate inhibiting substances and groups of inhibitors. The experiments with ion-exchangers indicated that the inhibitors included anions, cations, as well as uncharged substances. Sulfite (≥1 mM) caused complete or almost complete inhibition of all oxalate-degrading enzymes so far examined, while the effects of chlorine oxyanions differed for the various enzymes investigated. A newly discovered oxalate decarboxylase was chosen for experiments performed directly in a mill producing mechanical pulp. The new enzyme degraded 70% of the oxalic acid in one hour, while the well-characterized oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger degraded <5% of the oxalic acid during the same period of time.

    Oxalate decarboxylase from the white-rot basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor was purified by using chromatographic methods and characterized with gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicate that it is a 69-kDa heavily glycosylated enzyme with optimal activity at pH 2.5.

    Experiments designed to investigate the potential of using oxalate oxidase from barley in active packaging showed that it could be entrapped with retained catalytic activity in a latex-polymer matrix. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that oxalate oxidase can be used in active packaging either as an oxalic acid scavenger or as an oxygen scavenger.

  • 22002.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Johansson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Co-immobilization of oxalate oxidase and catalase in films for scavenging of oxygen or oxalic acid2013In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 72, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxalate oxidase has potential to act as an oxygen scavenger in active packaging to increase the shelf-life of food and beverages, while simultaneously producing the protective packaging gas carbon dioxide. This study shows that oxalate oxidase from barley can be immobilized with retained catalytic activity through entrapment in a latex polymer matrix. Conditions for formation of film containing oxalate oxidase have been evaluated as well as effects of storage and latex on enzyme activity, migration of enzyme in films, and the ability of the latex films to resist higher temperatures. Drying of enzyme-containing latex films at 75 °C prior to conditioning at 30 °C resulted in higher activity than drying solely at 30 °C, or drying at 95 °C or 105 °C followed by conditioning at 30 °C. Storage of films in air at 4 °C for 14 days did not negatively affect the enzymatic activity. Inclusion of catalase in films with oxalate oxidase effectively prevented release of hydrogen peroxide. The results suggest that the immobilized enzyme can successfully be used both as an oxygen scavenger and as an oxalic-acid scavenger.

  • 22003.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Larsson, Simona
    Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Latvia.
    Cassland, Pierre
    Applied Microbiology, Lund University/Lund Institute of Technology.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effects of ionic substances in bleaching filtrates and of lignosulfonates on the activity of oxalate oxidase from barley2011In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 245-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of ionic substances in seven industrial filtrates from kraft pulping, mechanical pulping, and sulfite pulping on the activity of oxalate oxidase from barley were investigated by pre-treatment of the filtrates with ion-exchange resins prior to enzymatic degradation of the oxalic acid in the filtrates. The pre-treatment resulted in increased oxalic acid degradation rates in all filtrates, except for one that was obtained from sulfite pulping. The possibility that lignosulfonates, which were present in the filtrate from sulfite pulping, could affect oxalate oxidase was investigated in a separate set of experiments involving four different preparations of lignosulfonates. At a lignosulfonate concentration of 50 mg/mL and a pH of 3.8, only 2-16% of the activity of oxalate oxidase remained. The results show the effects of anionic and cationic substances in bleaching filtrates on oxalate oxidase and indicate that there is an interaction between the enzyme, which has a positive net charge at pH 3.8, and the polymeric anionic lignosulfonates.

  • 22004.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Latha Gandla, Madhavi
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Hong, Feng
    College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, China.
    Chen, Qi Zhi
    College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, China.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Oxalate decarboxylase of Trametes versicolor: biochemical characterization and performance in bleaching filtrates from the pulp and paper industry2012In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 87, no 11, p. 1600-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) from acid-induced cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was purified and characterized with respect to its biochemical properties and the possibility to utilize the enzyme for treatment of process water with the intention to prevent problems with calcium-oxalate scaling in the pulp and paper industry. RESULTS: Purified T. versicolor ODC was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. As estimated by using SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was 69 kDa, and 60 kDa after deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F. The pH optimum was 2.5 and the temperature optimum was 4045 degrees C. The effects of ten potential inhibitors in industrial filtrates were examined. The enzyme was sensitive to low concentrations (0.1 mmol L-1) of chlorite and sulfite. T. versicolor ODC exhibited activity in 16 filtrates collected from mechanical pulping and kraft pulping. It had higher activity than ODC from Aspergillus niger in all of the filtrates and higher activity than oxalate oxidase from barley in all filtrates except two. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation shows basic biochemical properties of T. versicolor ODC and indicates that the enzyme may be useful for treatment of industrial filtrates under acidic conditions. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 22005.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    The Effects of Oxyanions on the Activity of Oxalate Oxidase2009In: The Open Enzyme Inhibition Journal, ISSN 1874-9402, Vol. 2, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22006.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lyngfelt, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olvegård, Lotta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Elever läser: Del 3 i modulen: Tolka och skriva text2017Other (Other academic)
  • 22007.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lyngfelt, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Elever läser. Del 6 i modulen: Att tolka och skriva text i skolans alla ämnen2015Other (Other academic)
  • 22008.
    Winlund, Anna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olvegård, Lotta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Läskompetens i styrdokument och undervisning: Del 2 i modulen: Att tolka och skriva text i skolans alla ämnen2015Other (Other academic)
  • 22009.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Enhancing Censorship Resistance in the Tor Anonymity Network2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Baksidestext

    The Tor network was originally designed as low-latency anonymity network.However, as the years progressed, Tor earned a reputation as also being a useful tool to circumvent Internet censorship. At times, the network counted 30,000 users only from China. Censors reacted by tightening their grip on the national communication infrastructure. In particular, they developed techniques to prevent people from being able to access the Tor network. This arms race now counts several iterations and no end is in sight.

    This thesis contributes to a censorship-resistant Tor network in two ways. First, it analyses how existing censorship systems work. In particular, the Great Firewall of China is analysed in order to obtain an understanding of its capabilities as well as to explore circumvention opportunities. Second, this thesis proposes practical countermeasures to circumvent Internet censorship. In particular, it presents a novel network protocol which is resistant to the Great Firewall's active probing attacks.

  • 22010.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Measuring and circumventing Internet censorship2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ever increasing amount of governments, organisations, and companies employ Internet censorship in order to filter the free flow of information.  These efforts are supported by an equally increasing number of companies focusing on the development of filtering equipment.

    Only what these entities consider right can pass the filters. This practice constitutes a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and hampers progress.  This thesis contributes novel techniques to measure and to circumvent Internet censorship. In particular, we 1) analyse how the Great Firewall of China is blocking the Tor network by using active probing techniques as well as side channel measurements, we

    2) propose a concept to involve users in the process of censorship analysis, we 3) discuss the aptitude of a globally-deployed network measurement platform for censorship analysis, and we 4) propose a novel circumvention protocol. We attach particular importance to practicality and usability. Most of the techniques proposed in this thesis were implemented and some of them are deployed and used on a daily basis.  We demonstrate that the measurement techniques proposed in this thesis are practical and useful by applying them in order to shed light on previously undocumented cases of Internet censorship. We employed our techniques in three countries and were able to expose previously unknown censorship techniques and cooperation between a corporation and a government for the sake of censorship. We also implemented a circumvention protocol which was subsequently deployed and is used to evade the Great Firewall of China.

  • 22011.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards a Censorship Analyser for Tor2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing censorship incidents targeting popular circumvention tools such as Tor can be a tedious task. Access to censoring networks is typically difficult to obtainand remote analysis is not always possible. Analysis is however feasible if users behind the censoring networks are given the opportunity to help. In this paper, we propose a lightweight censorship analyser for Tor which is meant to be run by volunteering users. The analyser automatically gathers relevant data and the final report is sent back to the Tor developers. Our design builds on existing software and should be easy to bundle and deploy.

  • 22012.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Crandall, Jedidiah R.
    The Great Firewall of China: How it Blocks Tor and Why it is Hard to Pinpoint2012In: Login: The Usenix Magazine, ISSN 1044-6397, E-ISSN 2169-9364, ISSN 1044-6397, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 42-50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22013.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Princeton University.
    Ensafi, Roya
    Princeton University.
    Loesing, Karsten
    The Tor Project.
    Feamster, Nick
    Princeton University.
    Identifying and characterizing Sybils in the Tor network2016In: Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Security Symposium, USENIX - The Advanced Computing Systems Association, 2016, p. 1169-1185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a volunteer-run, distributed anonymity network, Tor is vulnerable to Sybil attacks. Little is known about real-world Sybils in the Tor network, and we lack practical tools and methods to expose Sybil attacks. In this work, we develop sybilhunter, a system for detecting Sybil relays based on their appearance, such as configuration; and behavior, such as uptime sequences. We used sybilhunter’s diverse analysis techniques to analyze nine years of archived Tor network data, providing us with new insights into the operation of real-world attackers. Our findings include diverse Sybils, ranging from botnets, to academic research, and relays that hijacked Bitcoin transactions. Our work shows that existing Sybil defenses do not apply to Tor, it delivers insights into realworld attacks, and provides practical tools to uncover and characterize Sybils, making the network safer for its users.

  • 22014.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Koewer, Richard
    FH Campus Wien, Austria.
    Mulazzani, Martin
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Huber, Markus
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Schrittwieser, Sebastian
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Weippl, Edgar
    SBA Research, Austria.
    Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays2014In: Privacy Enhancing Technologies, Springer, 2014, p. 304-331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tor exit relays are operated by volunteers and together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. By design, these volunteers are able to inspect and modify the anonymized network traffic. In this paper, we seek to expose such malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing two fast and modular exit relay scanners-one for credential sniffing and one for active MitM attacks. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attacks and used them to probe all exit relays over a period of several months. We discovered numerous malicious exit relays engaging in a multitude of different attacks. To reduce the attack surface users are exposed to, we patched Torbutton, an existing browser extension and part of the Tor Browser Bundle, to fetch and compare suspicious X. 509 certificates over independent Tor circuits. Our work makes it possible to continuously and systematically monitor Tor exit relays. We are able to detect and thwart many man-in-the-middle attacks, thereby making the network safer for its users. All our source code is available under a free license.

  • 22015.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    How China Is Blocking Tor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only the free web is victim to China’s excessive censorship, but also the Tor anonymity network: the Great Firewall of China prevents thousands of potential Tor users from accessing the network. In this paper, we investigate how the blocking mechanism is implemented, we conjecture how China’s Tor blocking infrastructure is designed and we propose countermeasures. Our work bolsters the understanding of China’s censorship capabilities and thus paves the way towards more effective evasion techniques.

  • 22016.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    How the Great Firewall of China is Blocking Tor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet censorship in China is not just limited to the web: the Great Firewall of China prevents thousands of potential Tor users from accessing the network. In this paper, we investigate how the blocking mechanism is implemented, we conjecture how China's Tor blocking infrastructure is designed and we propose circumvention techniques. Our work bolsters the understanding of China's censorship capabilities and thus paves the way towards more effective circumvention techniques.

  • 22017.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it iseasy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are runby independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous.

    In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, wemonitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implementedseveral scanning modules for detecting common attacks and used them to probe all exit relays over aperiod of four months. We discovered numerous malicious exit relays engaging in different attacks.To reduce the attack surface users are exposed to, we further discuss the design and implementationof a browser extension patch which fetches and compares suspicious X.509 certificates overindependent Tor circuits.

    Our work makes it possible to continuously monitor Tor exit relays. We are able to detect andthwart many man-in-the-middle attacks which makes the network safer for its users. All our code isavailable under a free license.

  • 22018.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fuss, Juergen
    Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences.
    ScrambleSuit: A Polymorphic Network Protocol to Circumvent Censorship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep packet inspection technology became a cornerstone of Internet censorship by facilitating cheap and effective filtering of what censors consider undesired information. Moreover, filtering is not limited to simple pattern matching but makes use of sophisticated techniques such as active probing and protocol classification to block access to popular circumvention tools such as Tor. In this paper, we propose ScrambleSuit; a thin protocol layer above TCP whose purpose is to obfuscate the transported application data. By using morphing techniques and a secret exchanged out-of-band, we show that ScrambleSuit can defend against active probing and other fingerprinting techniques such as protocol classification and regular expressions. We finally demonstrate that our prototype exhibits little overhead and enables effective and lightweight obfuscation for application layer protocols.

  • 22019.
    Winter, Philipp
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fuss, Juergen
    Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences.
    ScrambleSuit: A Polymorphic Network Protocol to Circumvent Censorship2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep packet inspection technology became a cornerstone of Internet censorship by facilitating cheap and effective filtering of what censors consider undesired information. Moreover, filtering is not limited to simple pattern matching but makes use of sophisticated techniques such as active probing and protocol classification to block access to popular circumvention tools such as Tor.

    In this paper, we propose ScrambleSuit; a thin protocol layer above TCP whose purpose is to obfuscate the transported application data. By using morphing techniques and a secret exchanged out-of-band, we show that ScrambleSuit can defend against active probing and other fingerprinting techniques such as protocol classification and regular expressions.

    We finally demonstrate that our prototype exhibits little overhead and enables effective and lightweight obfuscation for application layer protocols.

  • 22020.
    Winter, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Jung, Linda S.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Kriechbaum, Monika
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Control of the toxic plant Colchicum autumnale in semi- natural grasslands: Effects of cutting treatments on demography and diversity2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 524-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural grasslands are important habitats for the conservation of biodiversity in Europe. High population densities of toxic Colchicum autumnale in these grasslands may cause problems for livestock and the marketing of hay. Consequently, farmers may either intensify grassland management to reduce C. autumnale in the fodder or abandon the land; both practices will lead to a loss of biodiversity. Previous studies suggesting early cutting to control C. autumnale did not consider population dynamics and the effects on plant diversity. We conducted a four-year experiment in six regions within Austria and Germany, applying five cutting treatments in 16 C. autumnale populations to test the effects of cutting date and frequency on C. autumnale and co-occurring vegetation. Demographic data were evaluated with matrix population models, life-table response experiment (LTRE), anova and manova. Vegetation data were analysed with multiresponse permutation procedures (MRPP), anova and manova. Population growth rate was significantly reduced in plots cut in early and late May compared to plots cut in June (control). Plants cut in late April or early May showed the lowest survival probability. Significantly fewer large vegetative plants developed capsules in the following year when cut in early or late May. LTRE analysis showed that differences in the population growth rate between the control and early cut treatments were mainly the result of a reduced survival and growth and an increased retrogression to smaller stages. Multiresponse permutation procedures revealed no differences in vegetation composition between treatments except for one site in 2011. There were no differences in Shannon index, evenness or species turnover rate within any year. Synthesis and applications. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species.

  • 22021. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Transport of invertebrates and detritus from headwaters in Southeast Alaska: implications for upland forest management and downstream salmonid habitats2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22022. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Musslewhite, J.
    Headwaters are source areas of food for downstream, fish-bearing stream food webs2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22023. Wipfli, M.S.
    et al.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Musslewhite, J.
    Gregovich, D.P.
    Fluvial transport of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates from upland, fishless headwaters to downstream, fish-bearing habitats in southeastern Alaska2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22024.
    Wirsén, Erik
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Åkerlund, Simon
    Malmö University.
    Ingvarsdotter, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö University.
    Persson, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Burdens experienced and perceived needs of relatives of persons with SMI: A systematic meta-synthesis.2017In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Close relatives of people with severe mental illness (SMI) experience problems known as family burdens. In addition, they may have their own needs for support, something often overlooked by the healthcare system. Meta-syntheses in this area may help explore the meaning of the experience of living with someone who has a SMI.

    AIM: Our aim was to describe the burdens experienced and needs perceived on a daily basis by relatives to someone who has a SMI.

    METHODS: The databases PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were searched using a systematic search strategy. Studies were screened for relevance and quality was appraised. A meta-synthesis of nine qualitative studies was then conducted.

    RESULTS: The nine studies discerned the following themes. Burden themes; Forced to carry a sometimes unbearable burden; Burdened by own ill-health and disrupted relationships; Distressed and stigmatized by society. Needs themes; strengthening protective factors; Skills and practical support greatly appreciated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The burdens and needs of relatives of persons with SMI strongly influence their lives. They require relief from both practical and emotional burdens. Family interventions and other programs to support relatives should be encouraged with this knowledge in mind.

  • 22025.
    Wismén, May
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems as Boundary Objects: - An Ongoing Study of Changing Knowledge Processes in Health Care2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for an ongoing empirical study. The study deals with knowledge use in a health care context and on how implementing a new computer-ised referral and answer system will change the knowledge processes. The framework is founded on theories and empirical studies from the literature and has a community of practice perspective. The information system is seen as a boundary object, which must be interpreted by different communities. The framework consists of six knowledge resources, which may be iden-tified in the organisation. But the resources are neither static nor independent and they must be studied in current use. Therefore, there is no way to analyse exactly the same knowledge re-sources before and after implementation of the system. Instead, the use of different knowledge resources must be studied

  • 22026.
    Wismén, May
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Knowledge transformation between different working group: a model for description and analysis2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical model for description and analysis of knowledge transformation between groups. The model is constructed from two main theories, Community of Practice and Knowledge Management Episodes. This combination implies that knowledge is seen as a process and in a relational perspective. To show how the model can be used it is applied in a health care context where the daily knowledge integration between a laboratory and its customers is described. The model has been found to be suitable for the description of knowledge management processes and it highlights some possible explanations of problems that exist in the study of the organization. Furthermore, it clearly shows that there is a mutual dependency between information systems and other knowledge resources in an organization

  • 22027.
    Wismén, May
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Kunskapsprocesser inom hälso- och sjukvård - en studie av kunskapsintegrering mellan laboratorium och dess kunder2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård är grundläggande för att patienter ska få säker och bra vård. Laboratorier tillför viktiga pusselbitar för diagnos och behandling, vilket kräver integrering av kunskap mellan laboratorium och dess kunder. I det dagliga arbetet sker denna integrering primärt via ett informationssystem bestående av remisser och svar.



    Detta arbetes syfte är att ur ett relationsperspektiv beskriva, tolka och förklara den kunskapsintegrering som sker mellan olika grupper inom hälso- och sjukvård. En kvalitativ, tolkande fallstudie har genomförts vid ett mikrobiologiskt laboratorium och fyra av dess kunder. Två teoretiska källor communities of practice och kunskapsepisoder har sammanfogats till en övergripande analysmodell, vilken tillsammans med kompletterande teorier har använts i analysen.



    Studien visar hur kunskapsintegrering sker som en del av de dagliga arbetsprocesserna och vilka förutsättningar som bör finnas för att kunskapsintegreringen ska fungera. Studien visar också på problem som kan uppstå när förutsättningarna inte uppfylls. Den kunskap som integreras är en kombination av tyst och explicit samt individuell och organisatorisk kunskap, vilken successivt byggs upp hos såväl individer som grupper. Lyckad kunskapsintegrering bygger på förståelse för varandras perspektiv samt en vilja att förändra existerande kunskap. Hinder är brister eller avsaknande av feedback, intresse och motivation, tid för reflektion samt forum för perspektivskapande.



    May Wismén har sin tjänst vid Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping, är inskriven för forskarstudier vid Karlstads universitet och tillhör forskarskolan Management och IT

  • 22028.
    Wismén, May
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Carlsson, Sven
    A relational perspective on knowledge integration between self-contained work groups: a case study in the health care sector2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main purpose of information systems (IS) is to support intra- and inter-organizational collaboration. From a collaboration perspective, information transfer gets a meaning if the transferred information is converted to knowledge. If we instead of an information perspective take a knowledge perspective on collaboration, stressing knowledge integration, many other factors than the IS itself and information characteristics will be critical. Working routines and the way information is interpreted, both by the sender and the receiver, will be stressed. Research focusing IS-supported collaboration and knowledge management is needed. This paper presents such an empirical study. Focus in the study is on knowledge integration between different self-contained work groups and the study explores how knowledge integration is accomplished and why the integration is not always simple and successful. The empirical context is the Swedish health care and more specifically, the daily knowledge integration between a microbiology laboratory and its customers. Empirical data was collected by interviews and observations, and analysed with help of a theoretical model constructed from two main theories: Community of Practice (CoP) and Knowledge Management Episodes. This model implies that knowledge should be seen as a process and in a relational perspective. The study shows that there is a mutual dependency between the IS and other knowledge resources in the organization. Even if the groups have the same overarching goals, regulations, and the same IS, the different groups create their own working routines, ways of interpreting information, and their own ways to convert information to knowledge. This situational and emergent development of work practice around IS suggests that management of existing IS and the implementation of new IS needs to stronger focus the mutual influence between IS and working activities and that feedback in the integration process is important

  • 22029. Wisur, H.
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Lars-Arne
    Ahlgren, P.
    Selecting a Potential Swedish Fibre Crop1993Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22030. Witell, L.
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, A.
    The effects of different market research techniques on the generation of new product ideas and discovery of expressed and latent needs2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22031.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kundorienterat Förbättringsarbete i en Tjänsteverksamhet - Leder Kundorientering till ökad Kundtillfredsställelse?2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22032.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Strategies to Improve Quality: Product versus Service Organizations2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22033.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Dept Business Adm, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anderson, Laurel
    Arizona State Univ, WP Carey Sch Business, Tempe, AZ USA.;Arizona State Univ, Ctr Serv Leadership, Tempe, AZ USA..
    Brodie, Roderick J.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Business, Mkt, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Colurcio, Maria
    Magna Graecia Univ Catanzaro, Dept Law Hist Econ & Social Sci, Catanzaro, Italy.;Univ Caxias do Sul, Innovat Management, Caxias Do Sul, Brazil..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Oslo, Norway..
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Management, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    NHH Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway..
    Exploring dualities of service innovation: Implications for service research2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 436-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore three paradoxes of service innovation and provide a way forward for fresh thinking on the topic. Design/methodology/approach - Through a conceptual model of service innovation research, the authors challenge the "pro-change" bias and explore what can be learnt from the duality of service innovation. Findings - This paper suggests that research moves beyond a firm perspective to study service innovation on multiple levels of abstraction. A conceptual model based on two dimensions, level (individual, organization and society) and outcome (success, failure), is used to pinpoint and explore three dualities of service innovation: adopt-reject, change-static and good-bad. Originality/value - By challenging the traditional perspective on service innovation, the authors present new avenues for fresh thinking in research on service innovation. In this paper, the authors encourage researchers and managers to learn from failures and to acknowledge the negative effects of service innovation.

  • 22034.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Antoni, M.
    Continuous Improvement in Product Development A Comparison of Three Approaches2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22035.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Antoni, M.
    Dahlgaard, J.
    Continuous Improvement in Product Development: Improvement Programs and Quality Principles2005In: International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, vol. 22, issue 8, pp. 753-768Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22036.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The Role of satisfiers and Dissatisfiers int the Service Encounter2004In: Proceedings of the 7th Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference, Monterrey, Mexico., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22037.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value Creation through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22038.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value Creation through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2006In: Paper presented at the 4th Nordic Workshop on Relationship Dynamics (NoRD2006), October 6-8 2006, Yli-Ii, Finland, Yli-Ii, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22039.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Beckman, Helen
    Value Creation Through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2007In: International Markets and Processes, Merlin Beach Resort , Phuket, Thailand, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22040.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Beckman, H.
    Value Creation Through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22041.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    New Service Development and Innovation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Edvardsson, B., Meiren, T., Schäfer, A. and L. Witell (2010) New Service Development and Innovation, 19th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden

  • 22042.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    New Service Development in Europe Results from an empirical study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Edvardsson, B., Meiren, T., Schäfer, A. and L. Witell (2010) New Service Development in Europe Results from an empirical study, AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, June 17-19, Porto, Portugal

  • 22043.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    The truth of service innovation in manufacturing firms: Same, same, but different2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22044.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts.
    New Service Development in Manufacturing Firms: Similarities and Differences with New Service Development and New Product Development2014In: Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1077-1158, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 35-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms develop and introduce service innovations to achieve a competitive advantage and differentiate their market offerings. The installed base of products becomes a platform for selling services hence improve their corporate revenues. Previous research has supported a number of hypotheses about how new product development (NPD) and new service development (NSD) should be performed – but do these findings for NPD and NSD hold for NSD in manufacturing firms? The hypotheses about NSD in manufacturing firms that were tested in this study concern the role of the NSD strategy, how to use resources, how to organize, and the development process to use. A survey was performed on 785 NSD projects, including both manufacturing and service firms. The paper provides five propositions about NSD in manufacturing firms concerning how to succeed with service innovation.

  • 22045.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ganz, W
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    A Typology-based Analysis of New Service Development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22046.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Elg, M.
    Forsberg, T.
    Bergman, B.
    Continuous Improvement in New Product Development1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22047.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fombelle, Paul
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Wallin-Andreassen, Tor
    Give and thou shall receive: Customer Reciprocity in a Retail Setting2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22048.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fundin, A
    Dynamics of service attributes: A test of Kano´s theory of quality2005In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. vol 16 No. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22049.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fundin, A
    Dynamics of service attributes: A test of Kano´s theory of quality2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22050.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköpings universitet.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    AWAG, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Turku Sch Econ, Turku, Finland.
    Hammedi, Wafa
    Univ Namur, Namur, Belgium.
    Patricio, Lia
    Univ Porto, Fac Engn, Oporto, Portugal.
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
    A bricolage perspective on service innovation2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

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