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  • 21951.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Wickman Chantereau, M.
    Stael von Holstein, K.
    Patients' views on quality of care in England, France, Norway, and Sweden - A theory based assessment2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21952.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, G.
    Wickman Chantereau, M.
    Stael von Holstein, K.
    Patients' views on quality of care: Theory-based assessment. In B. Edvardsson, S.W. Brown, R. Johnston & E.E. Scheving (Eds.), QUIS5: Advancing service quality: A global perspective, 1996 (pp. 164-168)1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21953.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wickman Chantereau, Marie
    Capio, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stael von Holstein, Karin
    Capio, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    International comparisons of patients' views on quality of care2005In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To compare patients’ views on quality of care in different countries using a theory-based instrument, while at the same time controlling for the following potential confounders: type of care system (private vs public), type of care (kind of health problem), gender, age, and subjective wellbeing.

    Design/methodology/approach – Patients capable of communicating in wards (medical and surgical departments) and day surgery departments in England, France, Norway, and Sweden were recruited consecutively, to participate in a programme run by the health-care company Capio. Ward patients: England (n =1,236), France (n =1,051), Norway (n =226), and Sweden (n =428). Day surgery patients: England (n =887), France (n =544), Norway (n =101), and Sweden (n =742). Average response rate across settings: approximately 75 per cent. Patients evaluated the quality of the care they actually received and the subjective importance they ascribed to different aspects of care. The questionnaire “Quality from the patient's perspective” (QPP) was used (modified short version).

    Findings – Cross-national comparisons were made within each of the two care contexts (wards and day surgery) separately for men and women. Quality of care evaluations were adjusted for age and subjective wellbeing. English and French patients scored significantly higher than Norwegian and Swedish on both kinds of ratings (perceived reality and subjective importance), in both kinds of care contexts, and in both sexes.

    Originality/value – Cross-national comparisons of patients’ views on care can give meaningful guidance for practitioners only if they are context-specific and if well-known confounders are controlled for.

  • 21954.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Quality of care from the patient and system perspective2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21955.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Quality of care from the patient and system perspectives2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21956.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Larsson, G
    Birthgiving Women´s feelings and perceptions of quality of intrapartal care: a nationwide Swedish cross-sectional study2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 1168-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim was to explore the relationships between the feelings of women who give birth and several birth-related care conditions, the womens' socio-demographic background, personality and perceptions of the quality of intrapartum care. Background. Childbirth is a highly significant emotional event for women and it is an explicit goal that each woman should have a positive childbirth experience. Design. The nationwide study is cross-sectional and was conducted at Swedish maternity units over two months in 2007. Methods. The study group consisted of 739 women (63% response rate). A dimensionality analysis of six emotion items was performed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Non-parametric tests and generalised linear mixed effects model analyses were used to study relationships and to make subgroup comparisons. Results. In the SEM analysis, a positive and a negative feeling factor were identified. Strong associations between the feeling factors and the womens' perceptions of the quality of care were found, particularly in regard to the so-called identity-oriented approach of the midwives and other health professionals. In addition, a higher intensity of negative feelings was associated with a personality pattern characterised by extraversion, emotional instability and lower degree of conscientiousness, a lower level of education and having had delivery through Caesarean section. Conclusions. The positive and negative feelings of women who give birth strongly covary with the women's perception of the quality of their intrapartum care. This pertains in particular to information issues, the midwives showing commitment, empathy and respect, being present during labour and allowing the women to actively participate as much as they want to. Relevance to clinical practice. Subgroup differences indicate that midwives should pay increased attention to childbearing women who have primary school education only, a lower emotional stability and/or deliver through Caesarean section.

  • 21957.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schmidt, I.
    Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, I.
    Psychotropic Drugs Related to Family Members Perceptions of Quality o Care Among Elderly People Living in Nursing Homes2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21958.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schmidt, I.
    Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, I.
    Psychotropic Drugs Related to Family Members Perceptions of Quality of Care Among Elderly People Living in Nursing Homes2001In: Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2001, 18, 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21959.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, A
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Kvalitet i Psykiatrisk vård: Nytt mätinstrument2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21960.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, G
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Quality in Psychiatric Care: a new measuring instrument in three versions based on patients´own experiences2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21961.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Schröder, A
    Ahlström, G
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Quality in psychiatric care and instrument based on patients own experiences (oral presentation)2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21962.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Starrin, B.
    Larsson, G.
    Larsson, M.
    Quality of care from a patient perspective: A grounded theory study1993In: Scan-dinavian Journal of Caring Scien-ces, 7, 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21963.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Wilde, B.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Patients' views on quality of care: Theory-based assessment. In B. Edvardsson, S.W. Brown, R. Johnston & E.E. Scheving (Eds.), QUIS5: Advancing service quality: A global perspective,1996 (pp. 164-168)1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21964.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    The Impact of Dissolved Matter on Fiberline Processes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of dissolved matter on the performance of four fiberline process stages was investigated: oxygen delignification, hot acid treatment, chlorine dioxide bleaching, and hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction. In particular the impact on delignification due to dissolved lignin was studied.

    The impact of unoxidized and oxidized dissolved matter on lignin and carbohydrate degradation was investigated in a laboratory oxygen delignification stage. It was concluded that the delignification was decreased by the presence of unoxidized dissolved matter but increased in the case of oxidized dissolved matter. Both types of dissolved matter comparably increased the carbohydrate degradation. Thus, the presence of unoxidized dissolved matter impaired the selectivity. In the case of oxidized dissolved matter, the selec­tiv­ity was affected in the same way as when using a higher sodium hydroxide charge.

    The presence of dissolved matter reduced the efficiency of a laboratory hot acid stage, and subsequently further affected the chemical demand in a following chlorine dioxide stage. In a laboratory chlorine dioxide stage, the presence of dissolved matter reduced the delignifica­tion. The additional chemical demand required to compensate for this reduc­tion was proportional to the content of dissolved matter. Moreover, the total chemical demand was found proportional to the total kappa number of the pulp, that is the sum of the fiber and filtrate kappa numbers. Finally, the presence of dissolved matter in a laboratory hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extrac­tion stage reduced both the delignification and the brightness.

    Furthermore, mill studies showed that the content of dissolved lignin varied significantly, and often more than the fiber-bound lignin, in a bleaching stage. For chlorine dioxide stages, it was proposed that the chemical consumption could be reduced by controlling the chemical charge based on the sum of the fiber-bound lignin and the dissolved lignin.

  • 21965.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments AB.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved matter in the oxygen delignification stage2017In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of dissolved matter in the pulp suspension in an oxygen (O-2) delignification stage, consisting mainly of dissolved lignin, is normally considered to negatively affect the delignification rate due to the competing reactions between the fiber bound lignin and the lignin dissolved in the filtrate. Recirculated oxidized filtrate from the post-O-2 washing is usually considered to be less harmful to the delignification efficiency than unoxidized dissolved matter originating from the cooking stage. To develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the dissolved matter's reactions and impact on the O-2 stage performance, laboratory oxygen delignification experiments with varying levels of unoxidized and oxidized dissolved matter were conducted. The results showed that unoxidized dissolved matter had a negative impact on the delignification in the O-2 stage, whereas oxidized dissolved matter actually had a positive effect. The delignification efficiency of the laboratory experiments thus depends on both the amount of dissolved matter and its origin. The pulp viscosity decreased with increasing dissolved matter content irrespective of its origin but at higher COD levels; however, the viscosity drop was larger for the unoxidized dissolved matter. In terms of selectivity, the oxidized filtrate had a similar impact as additional NaOH charge. Both types of filtrates consumed hydroxide and the final pH decreased with increasing dissolved matter content. The final pH was significantly lower in the unoxidized filtrate experiments at higher COD levels, indicating a high reactivity between the unoxidized dissolved matter and the oxygen in the reactor. Based on the results, further understanding is achieved about the relation between pre-O-2 washing performance and process configuration in an actual mill case, as well as the impact of dissolved matter on delignification. The importance of efficient removal of harmful unoxidized dissolved matter is verified, but the results also suggest that the oxidized dissolved matter that is recirculated from post-O-2 washing actually has a significant positive impact on the delignification and is not just a potential problem in case of carryover to the bleach plant. Subsequently, pulp washing efficiency is critical both pre- and post-O-2.

  • 21966.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved organic matter in DO-and ADO-stages in bleaching of birch kraft pulp2019In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 433-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to charge a correct amount of chlorine dioxide in the D-0-stage, a pulp mill needs good control of the bleaching process and good sensors to keep the variability of the bleaching result on an acceptable level. It is also important to include the bleaching agent demand from the dissolved matter in the pulp slurry. If this is done correctly, over- or undercharging of bleaching agents can be reduced, which lead to lower bleaching chemical cost, lower polluting emissions and higher pulp quality. Our previous research has shown that the dissolved organic carryover from the O-2-stage varies significantly when bleaching softwood kraft pulp. The present study investigated the corresponding impact in the case of bleaching of birch pulp. Different mill configurations and process conditions have been simulated in laboratory trials, including proceeding A-stage treatment, different degrees of washing before and between the stages, and a comparison of the effects of recycled and non-recycled wash filtrates. The results have confirmed the significant impact of the dissolved organic matter, and the knowledge which have been generated can be used to understand how measurement and control concepts can be developed to improve the pulp quality control and to decrease production cost.

  • 21967.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved organic matter in hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction stages2019In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that carryover of dissolved organic matter to a following bleaching stage has a significant impact on the reactions in oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide stages. Since hydrogen peroxide is commonly used in the bleach plant in various positions, the present study was conducted to investigate the impact of dissolved matter on the performance of a hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction stage. The results of a study using an OD(EP) bleaching sequence showed that chlorine dioxide filtrates have a negative impact on delignification and brightening. In the case studied, the kappa number after the laboratory (EP)-stage was up to 26% higher and the brightness was up to 10% ISO lower when carryover of dissolved matter from a chlorine dioxide stage was present. Compensating for these reductions by increasing the sodium hydroxide charge improved the brightness significantly less than the delignification.

  • 21968.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments.
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Oxygen delignification: Laboratory evaluation of the impact of dissolved organic matter, sodium car­bonate and sodium thiosulfate2019In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 645-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved matter (DM) in the oxygen delignification (O2Del) stage affects the lignin and carbohydrate degradation. To understand this topic better, laboratory O2Del experiments were conducted with controlled addition of either unoxidized dissolved matter (UnoxDM) originating from the cooking stage or oxidized dissolved matter (OxDM) recycled from the post-O2Del washing. The presence of UnoxDM decreased the delignification, while the presence of OxDM showed the opposite effect, both compared to a well-washed pulp and at the same alkali charge level. However, both types of DM had a negative impact on the carbohydrate degradation. The distribution between these DMs will affect the resulting lignin degradation, because the filtrate accompanying the fibers into the O2Del stage is a mixture of UnoxDM and OxDM. It is proposed that the positive impact on the delignification by OxDM is due to the high carbonate ion concentration in the filtrate. Further, the high content of thiosulfate ions in the UnoxDM was one of the reasons for the lower delignification in its presence.

  • 21969.
    Wilke, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. BTG Instruments AB, Saffle, Sweden..
    Andersson, Niclas
    BTG Instruments AB, R&D & Business Dev, Saffle, Sweden..
    Van Fleet, Rick
    BTG Amer Inc, Fiber Line, Norcross, GA USA..
    Mathur, Akhlesh
    BTG Instruments, BTG Asia Fiber Segment & SEA, Singapore, Singapore..
    Germgard, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Impact of dissolved lignin in oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide stages2016In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While carryover of dissolved lignin between stages in the pulp mill fiber line is a well-known problem, it is still typically seen only as a minor disturbance factor or bias in the control of oxygen (O-2) delignification and bleaching stages. The present study, however, reveals that it plays a larger role than anticipated, and that it should be properly analyzed in order to correctly control the process stages. This is especially important for the O-2 and D-0 stages as the lignin content is still high in these positions. The results of the study show that dissolved lignin carried over between stages may have a significant impact on the bleaching chemical consumption and, indirectly, on the pulp quality. Mill investigations have shown very large variations in the dissolved lignin content in the pulp before the oxygen delignification stage and before the D-0 stage that have significantly influenced the bleaching chemical demand and, subsequently, the degree of delignification. In order to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms of the dissolved lignin's reactions, laboratory O-2 and D-0 experiments with controlled levels of dissolved lignin were conducted. It was anticipated that a better feedforward control could be achieved using an online dissolved lignin measurement, and results from mill trials are presented. Chlorine dioxide laboratory experiments using different levels of carryover (i.e., different dissolved lignin contents) were conducted. It was concluded that the filtrate kappa number provides a relevant measure of the bleach demand due to the dissolved lignin and that, subsequently, the combined fiber and filtrate kappa number provides an appropriate measure for optimum feedforward control of the stages. Mill results support these findings, which show that the chemical consumption is reduced significantly using the total kappa number. The post-D or post-DE kappa number feedback control can most probably be eliminated by using this technology.

  • 21970.
    Wilkins, Karin
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The privatization of development through global communication industries:Living Proof?2013In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development is meant to alleviate problems in the interests of the public good, yet thegrowing dominance of private donors problematizes this conceptualization. Workingthrough a political-economic analysis of development, we see global communications asan industry that channels wealth from citizens into the hands of few corporate moguls,who then have the resources to assert their agendas in a global development context.We begin by conceptualizing development and social change within communicationstudies, paying attention to the privatization of aid within global capitalism. Next,we contextualize our case study, describing the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationand ONE, promoted by Bono, as the funding and management settings of the LivingProof campaign. We analyze the initiative’s construction of development problems,its articulation of how communication is expected to work toward social change, andits conceptualizations of success. The dominant theme of Living Proof program is that“real people” have achieved development success, which can be shared as “proof” withwebsite consumers. We conclude by considering how such a framing serves the agenda of privatized development within a neoliberal project.

  • 21971. Will, Catherine
    et al.
    Crowhurst, Isabel
    Larsson, Ola
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    Kendall, Jeremy
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nordfeldt, Marie
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    The challenges of translation: The Convention and debates on the future of Europe from the perspective of European third sectors2005Report (Other academic)
  • 21972.
    Willassen, Elin
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Blomberg, Ann-Catrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    von Post, Irene
    Åbo Akademi.
    Lindwall, Lillemor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Student nurses* experiences of undignified caring in perioperative practice: Part 22015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 688-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:In recent years, operating theatre nurse students' education focused on ethics, basic valuesand protecting and promoting the patients' dignity in perioperative practice. Health professionals are frequently confronted with ethical issues that can impact on patient's care during surgery.Objective:The objective of this study was to present what operating theatre nursing students perceivedand interpreted as undignified caring in perioperative practice.Research design:The study has a descriptive design with a hermeneutic approach. Data were collectedusing Flanagan's critical incident technique.Participants and research context:Operating theatre nurse students from Sweden and Norwayparticipated and collected data in 2011, after education in ethics and dignity. Data consisting of 47written stories and the text were analysed with hermeneutical text interpretation.Ethical considerations:The study was approved by the Karlstad University's Research Ethics Committee.Findings:The findings show careless behaviour and humiliating actions among health professionals. Healthprofessionals commit careless acts by rendering the patient invisible, ignoring the patient's worry and painand treating the patient as an object. They also humiliate the patient when speaking in negative terms aboutthe patient's body, and certain health professionals blame the patients for the situation they are in. Healthprofessionals lack the willingness and courage to protect the patient's dignity in perioperative practice.Discussion:In the discussion, we have illuminated how professional ethics may be threatened by morepragmatic and utilitarian arguments contained in regulations and transplant act.Conclusion:The findings reveal that patients were exposed to unnecessary suffering; furthermore, theoperating theatre nurse students suffered an inner ethical conflict due to the undignified caring situationsthey had witnessed

  • 21973.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Food Packaging for Sustainable Development2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue.

    This thesis focuses on the functions of packaging that can be used to preserve resources efficiently and reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system. The service perspective is used to increase knowledge about consumer interaction with packages. Fifteen packaging attributes, for example, ‘easy to empty’, ‘hygienic’ and ‘contain the right quantity’, were identified as influencing the amount of food losses at the consumer. The result showed that there are potentials to both increase consumer satisfaction and decrease the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, when new packaging design reduces food losses. A model was developed that calculates the balance of environmental impact between reduction of food losses, and more packaging material. The result showed that it can be environmentally motivated to increase the environmental impact of packaging, if the amount of food losses is reduced. This is especially true for food items with high environmental impact, e.g. meat and dairy products, and for food items that have a high share of loss, e.g. bread.

    I have also explored to what extent packaging can influence food losses in households. The study showed that about 20% to 25% of household food waste was related to packaging. The households noted three packaging attributes as the main causes for food losses; ‘too big packaging’, ‘difficult to empty’ and ‘best-before-date’.

    Finally there is a discussion of packaging research in the context of sustainability principles, and suggestions for further research.

  • 21974.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Global market trends and how packaging can support for reducing food waste2013In: International Research Workshop on Food Waste Prevention. Oslo 19th November 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to feed an increasing world population with good and safe food it is important to reduce the amount of food waste. The global population is expected to grow to 9 billion and over the same period food production will be under threat from climate change, competing land uses, erosion and diminishing supplies of clean water. Packaging plays an important role in containing and protecting the food as it moves from agriculture to households. This work is a summary from an international literature review and interviews from 15 organisations in the Australian food and packaging supply chain. It considers food waste in the supply chain with emphasis on food waste prior to consumption, and also food rescue through charities.

    A number of global trends and there effect on packaging development for reducing food waste was identified and analysed, these include:

    Longer supply chains-With longer supply chains there are increased risks of product damage which make the packaging even more critical. Distribution packaging should provide better protection and shelf life for fresh produce as it moves from the farm to the processor, wholesaler or retailer. This may require the development of tailored solutions for individual products. This also requires more collaboration between manufacturers and retailers to improve the industry’s understanding of food waste in the supply chain. More use of intelligent packaging and data sharing can be useful .

    More on-line shopping- Online expenditure in Australia was estimated to be around $8.4 billion in 2010 and is forecast to reach $26.9 billion by 2016. Online shopping requires more secondary packaging to protect the product during transport from the retail or manufacturer to the household, but it doesn’t need to be ‘shelf ready’ which may save resources. This increases the amount of packaging requiring recycling in the home but there could be some potential benefits for food waste.

    Consumption of meals out of the home- This trend shifts waste away from the home to a restaurant and/or processing facility and may give both pros and cons for reducing food waste and how packaging are recycled.    

    More small households- Product and packaging development need to cater for smaller households. Single and smaller serve products will reduce waste by meeting the needs of single and two person households, however this need to be environmentally analysed in relation to increased amount of packaging. . 

    More convenience- The trend from loose fresh produce to more pre-packed and processed food products has implications for packaging. With a better primary packaging a simpler and less robust secondary packaging may be sufficient. This may require adoption of new packaging materials and technologies, such as modified atmosphere packaging and oxygen scavengers, to extend the shelf life of foods.

    Food recovery for charity- It is important with distribution packaging that supports recovery of surplus and unsaleable fresh produce from farms and redirects it to food rescue organisations. These packaging systems will need to be flexible to accommodate the transport of bulk quantities from farm to food recovery organisations, as well as smaller orders from distribution centres to individual charities. The issue need to be addressed when developing new secondary packaging.

    The packaging itself also needs to be recoverable to minimise overall environmental impacts in the country where it is consumed.  

  • 21975.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Helhetssyn i förpackningsutvecklingen för att minska livsmedelsspill2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad händer med miljöpåverkan om man lyssnar mer på konsumenterna i förpackningsutvecklingen?



    Konsumenten i fokus är en trend som har ökat i betydelses för många verksamheter de senaste åren, detta gäller också för förpackningsindustrin. Vi har undersökt vad som händer med miljöpåverkan om förpackningsutvecklare lyssnar mer till vad konsumenten har för behov när det gäller förpackningars funktion.



    Förpackningar har varit med i miljödebatten sedan början på 1990-talet. Särskilt uppmärksammad har förpackningen varit när den används färdigt och blivit avfall. Myndigheterna styr att mängden material i förpackningar ska minska samt hur förpackningar ska återvinnas. Kunskapen om förpackningens miljöpåverkan har sedan dess ökat eftersom många livscykelanalyser presenterats. Förpackningar står för 5-10% av miljöpåverkan från produkter (Tempelman, Joore et al. 2004). Många av livscykelanalyserna har gjorts på själva förpackningen och inte systemet med produkt/förpackning. Det finns risk att ett sådant arbetssätt leder till subotimering i det större systemet som rör förpackning/produkt (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    Förpackningar används för att skydda varor under lagring och transporter från producent till konsument. Förpackningen spelar också en viktig roll i att skapa varumärken och informera konsumenten (Löfgren 2006). Genom att utgå från vad konsumenten tycker är viktigt och samtidigt undersöka miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan med mat/förpackning så kunde vi se att förpackningar som medför mindre förluster av mat kan förväntas ge nöjdare kunder och mindre miljöpåverkan. Mat och dryck står för 20-30 % av den totala miljöpåverkan i EU (Tukker, Huppes et al. 2005). I en brittisk studie konstaterades att nästan 30 % av maten som bärs hem till hushållen slängs (Ventour 2008). Att så mycket mat slängs bidrar till en onödig och stor miljöpåverkan.



    Om varumärkesägare och förpackningsutvecklare ser mer till hur förpackningen kan förhindra uppkomst av matspill så kan det innebära att nya förpackningslösningar introduceras. Åtgärder i förpackningsutformningen som påverkar spill är till exempel, hur den skyddar, hur lätt den är att tömma, storleken (konsumenten kan köpa den mängd den har behov av), dosering, information om innehåll eller instruktioner kring förvaring. Dessa lösningar kan medföra, nya tekniska lösningar i produktionen av förpackningen, nya material i ytor och ibland ökad mängd förpackningsmaterial. För att minska miljöpåverkan i hela systemet med mat/förpackning finns det utrymme för att till och med öka miljöbelastningen av förpackningar, då nya lösningar leder till minskade förluster av livsmedel (Williams, Wikström et al. 2008).



    När man vill kartlägga miljöpåverkan på förpackningar genom att göra livscykelanalyser bör dessa alltid också omfatta innehållet i förpackningen samt brukarbeteende/behov.

  • 21976.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging and losses of food2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21977.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Packaging Development and Environmental Effects of Food Losses2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-in-focus is a trend that is important for many businesses. We have explored what happens with the environmental impact in the food-packaging systems if packaging developers and brand-owners listen more to what the consumer finds important about packaging. We found that it is possible to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease the environmental impact, especially when the new packaging design reduces food losses

  • 21978.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Annika, Olsson
    Lunds Tekniska högskola.
    Consumer perceptions of sustainable packaging - Limited by lack of knowledge?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This is due to its primary role to protect products. This paper reports on how Swedish consumers perceive and select food packages in general, and how environmental aspects of conventional and organic food packaging are perceived in particular. The study is based on a consumer survey. The findings indicate that contrary to research that emphasizes the protective function of packaging as most important, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to the environmental impact of packaging. This indicates a lack of knowledge among consumers on sustainable packaging.

  • 21979.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Lindh, Helena
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Consumer Perceptions of Food Packaging: Contributing to or Counteracting Envir onmentally Sustainable Development?2016In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has a fundamental role in ensuring safe delivery of goods throughout supply chains to the end consumer in good condition. It also has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This paper explores and provides insights on Swedish consumer perceptions and knowledge of environmental aspects of food packaging and elaborates on how these can contribute to or counteract environmentally sustainable development. A study based on a consumer survey carried out in Sweden is presented. A review of recent packaging research emphasizes the protective function of packaging as its most important contribution to the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Contrary to this, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to their perceptions of the environmental impact of packaging. Paper-based packaging is strongly understood by the surveyed consumers to be environmentally advantageous, whereas plastic and metal are not. This study further indicates that a majority of the Swedish consumers surveyed are aware of their shortcomings in judging the environmental status of food packaging, indicating a need for guidance; otherwise, consumer choices can unintendedly counteract environmentally sustainable intentions

  • 21980.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Förpackad för hållbar framtid2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21981.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Verghese, Karli
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Lockrey, Simon
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Crossin, Enda
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Clune, Stephen
    ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster University, UK.
    Rio, Maud
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The greenhouse gas profile of a “Hungry Planet”; quantifying the impacts of the weekly food purchases including associated packaging and food waste of three families2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have estimated that 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted across the supply chain, while food security emerges as one of the leading challenges facing a growing global population. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can illustrate the environmental implications of food production, consumption and waste. In 2005, Peter Menzel and Faith D’Aluisio presented a photographic study in “Hungry Planet – What the World Eats” documenting what thirty families across twenty-four countries ate during the course of one week. The weekly food purchasing inventories of three of these families have been combined with LCA data to report the greenhouse gas intensity of these food purchases. The greenhouse gas emission profile including those of 128 varieties of fresh food, along with data on packaging material production and household food waste, have been used in the calculations. The paper will present the findings illustrating the contribution each component has: food, packaging and food waste; and will also discuss the implications for food packaging design. 

  • 21982.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

  • 21983.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Environmental impact of packaging and food losses in a life cycle perspective: a comparative analysis of five food items2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmentalimpact from the whole foodpackaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmentalimpactofpackagingin order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmentalimpactofpackagingandfoodlossesand the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmentalimpact, even if there is an increase inimpact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environmentalimpactof the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing foodlosses when packaging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packagingandpackaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 21984.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract

    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development

    By moving from:

    Packaging waste, Production-oriented, Product-oriented (packaging), Selective and Regulations on packaging reduction

    to:

    Food waste, Consumption-oriented, Service-oriented(packaging functions), Comprehensive and

    Regulations on packaging optimization

  • 21985.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential Environmental Gains from Reducing Food Losses Through Development of New Packaging: A Life-Cycle Model2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses are seldom included in life cycle analyses of the food packaging system, nor are they included in the debat on sustainable packaging. The development of packaging that decreases food losses does, however, provide an opportunity to reduce the overall environmental impact. In this paper, we present a model that calculates the environmental impact of the food packaging system as a function of food losses. The model can be used to analyse the potential environmental gains from developing packaging that reduce food losses. The model includes food production and processing, transports, packaging, retailer and consumer issues and waste handling. The results show that it can be environmentally motivated to increase the environmental impact of packaging, if necessary, when new packaging design helps to reduce food losses. However, the waste handling systems of food and packaging are important to consider if packaging are developed in order to reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system

  • 21986.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Olsson, Annika
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Sustainable Packaging Development: One Step FurtherManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21987.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindström, Annika
    RICE, Sweden.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RICE, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Ann
    RICE, Sweden.
    Investigation of consumer attitudes, practices and food waste for three food items, to use as input in new packaging designs that aim to reduce food waste2017In: 28th IAPRI World Symposium on Packaging, 2017, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of measures is required to tackle the global food waste problem. Innovative packaging, which helps to reduce food waste, is one important measure. The data for food waste is often presented in a summarised way. However, different food products are wasted for different reasons. In a Swedish project, actors along the entire value chain collaborated to develop new packaging solutions to reduce food waste of three products: salsa in glass jars, mixed lettuce in plastic packaging and rice pudding in plastic packaging. Waste levels and reasons for waste were examined in waste audits of the businesses, in ethnographic studies and in interviews with consumers at retail stores.

    This study showed that consumers wasted the products to a much higher extent than the waste which occurred during filling, transport and retail. Waste levels among consumers varied from 0-75%, which is notably high, given that consumers tend to underestimate or not admit to wasting food. The mixed lettuce and rice pudding are both intended to be packaged in appropriate serving sizes; however, only 27% of the mixed lettuce and 50% of the rice pudding was consumed in one sitting. Respondents mentioned some material features and several handling functions of packaging, but very few commented on the protection that the packaging provides. Few, if any, expressed any recognition of packaging attributes, which helped to avoid food waste.

    The respondents mentioned that wasting food was a waste of money and that it can have a negative effect on conscience; despite that, respondents also said that they wanted a variety of meals and to not have the same food several days during the same week.

  • 21988.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A life cycle perspective on environmental effects of customer focused packaging development2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of increasing customer satisfaction and reducing the environmental impact from food-packaging systems in alifecycleperspective using results from a study on consumers' demands on packaging based on Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality. It assesses the environmentaleffects of potential improvements in quality attributes. The results show that there are obvious potentials to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease in the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, especially when the packaging design helps to decrease food losses. There were many connections between quality attributes and environmental impacts.

  • 21989.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norway.
    Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 24, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world's limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during seven days and noted in a diary why each item was wasted. Thirty of the families had participated earlier in an environmental project including education in environmental issues of everyday life. About 20-25% of the households' food waste could be related to packaging. Three packaging aspects dominate the packaging related waste: packages that the consumer noted as being too big and packages that were difficult to empty, and wastage because of passed "best before date". The environmentally educated households wasted less, especially of prepared food. They also wasted less food due to passed "best before date". These households were more observant to packaging aspects in relation to food waste. The observations made could be used to learn more about packaging attributes that affect food waste. Although they recognised packaging influence on food waste, these households expressed lower satisfaction with packaging functions and wanted packaging to a lower extent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21990. Williams, R. B. G.
    et al.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Robinson, D. A.
    Measuring rates of downwearing and mapping microtopography:: The use of micro-erosion meters and laser scanners in rock weathering studies2000In: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F. Supplement Band 120. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21991.
    Willman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bjuresater, Kaisa
    Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jan
    Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden.;Sophiahemmet Univ, Dept Hlth Promot Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Japanese Red Cross Inst Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan..
    Newly graduated registered nurses' self-assessed clinical competence and their need for further trainingIn: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore and describe changes in self-assessed clinical competence and the need for further training among newly graduated Registered Nurses during their first 15 months of professional work in acute care hospital settings. Design Quantitative longitudinal design. Methods The 50-item Professional Nurse Self-Assessment Scale of clinical core competencies II was used. A total of 45 newly graduated Registered Nurses answered the questionnaire at four different occasions. Data were collected after 2, 5, 9 and 15 months of working experience. Result The components "ethical decision-making," "cooperation and consultation" and "clinical leadership" were rated highest in clinical competence and lowest in need for further training. The components "professional development" and "critical thinking" were rated lowest in clinical competence and "direct clinical practice" rated highest in need for further training. The clinical competence increased significant between 9-15 months, with the exception of "critical thinking" and need for further training decreased significantly between 9-15 months, with the exception of "critical thinking."

  • 21992.
    Willman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Petzäll, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Research Center, Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland.
    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    The psycho-social dimension of pain and health-related quality of life in the oldest old2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 534-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psycho-social dimension of pain and health-related quality of life in the oldest old Background:  Chronic pain has an impact on the physical and social functioning of older people which in turn may worsen their health-related quality of life. Research with focus on prolonged extensive pain in the most elderly and how pain may interfere with their life situation is scarce. Aims:  The aims were to describe and investigate pain from a multidimensional point of view (duration, location, psycho-social) and health-related quality of life as well as to compare sex and age groups in people aged 80 years and over. Methods:  In this cross-sectional study, a total of 225 of 282 people responded to a questionnaire consisting of two instruments and background questions. The psycho-social dimension of pain was measured using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory-Swedish language version (MPI-S) with five scales: Pain Severity, Interference, Life Control, Affective Distress and Social Support. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Results:  Median duration of pain was 9.0 years, and the mean number of pain locations was 2.04. The MPI-S scale Interference with a negative orientation had the highest mean score, while the mean score for Social Support was the highest for the scales with a positive orientation. The duration of pain was significantly greater for women, and those aged 80-85 years had higher pain severity than those aged >86. Participants with a lower health-related quality of life experienced significantly more severe pain, were more troubled with pain and had less control of their life. Conclusions:  Older people with prolonged pain suffered from a low health-related quality of life. Pain interfered with their lives and contributed to diminished control in their daily lives. Nurses are essential for the identification and prevention of pain and should be aware of how pain affects older people's physical, mental and social health.

  • 21993. Wilson, David
    Decoupling basis weight measurements in paper manufacture2001Report (Other academic)
  • 21994. Wilson, David
    Experiences building and validating a large-scale dynamic paper machine model2000Report (Other academic)
  • 21995. Wilson, David
    Experiences of large-scale board machine modelling2001Report (Other academic)
  • 21996. Wilson, David
    Large scale dynamic paper machine models2001Report (Other academic)
  • 21997. Wilson, David
    Model-assisted basis weight control of a board machine2000Report (Other academic)
  • 21998. Wilson, David
    Optimal control teaching using Matlab: Have we reached the optimum yet?2001Report (Other academic)
  • 21999. Wilson, David
    Organic matter inside and outside of chips during Kraft cooking2001In: Paperi Ja Puu, Vol 83, No.7, Nov. 2001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22000.
    Windfäll, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Some Problems in Kinetic Theory and Applications2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers. the first is devoted to discrete velocity models, the second to hydrodynamic equation beyond Navier-Stokes level, the third to a multi-linear Maxwell model for economic or social dynamics and the fourth is devoted to a function related to the Riemann zeta-function.

    In Paper 1, we consider the general problem of construction and classification of normal, i.e. without spurious invariants, discrete velocity models (DVM) of the classical Boltzman equation. We explain in detail how this problem can be solved and present a complete classification of normal plane DVMs with relatively small number n of velocities (n≤10). Some results for models with larger number of velocities are also presented.

    In Paper 2, we discuss hydrodynamics at the Burnett level. Since the Burnett equations are ill-posed, we describe how to make a regularization of these. We derive the well-posed generalized Burnett equations (GBEs) and discuss briefly an optimal choice of free parameters and consider a specific version of these equations. Finally we prove linear stability for GBE and present some numerical result on the sound propagationbased on GBEs.

    In Paper 3, we study a Maxwell kinetic model of socio-economic behavior. The model can predict a time dependent distribution of wealth among the participants in economic games with an arbitrary, but sufficiently large, number of players. The model depends on three different positive parameters {γ,q,s} where s and q are fixed by market conditions and γ is a control parameter. In particular, we investigate the efficiency of control. Some exact solutions and numerical examples are presented.

    In Paper 4, we study a special function u(s,x), closely connected to the Riemann zeta-function ζ(s), where s is a complex number. We study in detail the properties of u(s,x) and in particular the location of its zeros s(x), for various x≥0. For x=0 the zeros s(0) coincide with non-trivial zeros of ζ(s). We perform a detailed numerical study of trajectories of various zeros s(x) of u(s,x).

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