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  • 201.
    Hedqvist, Emanuel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    DRÖMMEN OM ETT ENAT NORDEN: Fyra centrala nordiska aktörer om utvecklingen och omfattningen av det nordiska samarbetet2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: DREAMING OF A UNITED ‘NORDEN’ (The North)

    – Four central Nordic actors about the progress and extent of Nordic cooperation

    The Nordic cooperation are often spoken as in terms of a peaceful international cooperation that is built upon a wide range of similarities among its members, such as a common culture, language similarities and a related kind of political system etc. But in spite of the fact that these so called propitious factors are present, many of the attempts that has been made trying to bring the states of the North (Norden) closer together has turned out unsuccessfully. Therefore no far-reaching Nordic cooperation has come to be implemented. The aim of this essay is to find out what the main reasons could be why this has been the case.

    I have chosen to take a closer look at the motives given by the former Nordic Prime ministers Tage Erlander (Sweden), Karl August Fagerholm (Finland), Einar Gerardsen (Norway) and Mauno Koivisto (Finland). To find out their thoughts on this subject I have studied their (political) memoirs. The reason I have chosen these actors is because they have been personally involved in the attempts to deepen the Nordic cooperation, for example in such fields as economics and military defence. When trying to find out what can explain the extent of the Nordic cooperation I’m also interested in finding out if there is a certain kind of motives that are more dominant then others. Is it common culture, interests or leadership which is the most dominant category of motives? These three mentioned categories are taken from arguments given by different schools of international relations theories such as realism, liberalism etc.

    After analysing the memoirs I have been able to come to the conclusion that it according to Erlander, Fagerholm, Gerhardsen and Koivosto are motives concerning interests that have been the most determining factor when talking about motives that can explain the extent of the Nordic cooperation. Further we can conclude that these interests have been of both domestic as well as of international nature. But it also seems like we can’t ignore the case specific conditions when we’re trying to understand international relations, such as the Nordic cooperation.

  • 202.
    Hedström, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Ett steg framåt och två bakåt?: One step forward and two backwards? - A case study of changes within public administration2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a case study of changes within public administration. The purpose is to describe and discuss changes inspired by New Public Management within public administration. These changes will also be studied a bit further in order to find out whether they have been effected by any form of path dependency.

    In order to fulfil the purpose of the thesis I intend to formulate my main question as follows:

    • Does path dependency effect the possibility for changes within public administration?

    To be able to answer my main question and fulfil the purpose of the thesis I have chosen to study the county planning commission in Trollhättan. Here I have selected a few changes concerning the possibility to handle various permissions in an efficient way. To examine whether these changes have been effected by any path dependency, a number of interviews were undertaken with representatives from the administration of my case.

    After analysing these interviews the answer to my main question is, yes. The change process has all together been effected by path dependency, which has delayed the implementation and in some sense also worsened the possibility of in an effective way handling various permissions in the county commission.

  • 203.
    Heidgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Ramstedt, Robert
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hemvärnssoldat i elden!: En kvalitativ studie om hur hemvärnssoldaten påverkas av sitt deltagande i de omfattande skogsbränderna2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur Hemvärnets personal påverkas av sitt deltagande i de stora stödinsatserna, särskilt vid de stora skogsbränderna 2014 och 2018. Det vill säga hur dessa soldater upplevt sitt deltagande i insatserna samt vilka erfarenheter de har dragit. En upplevelse som påverkat dem både som privatperson och soldat, men som även också fått andra konsekvenser i olika omfattning. Som person har de utvecklats under insatsen bland annat genom insikten om att kunna hjälpa till och göra nytta för andra. Som soldat har de istället fått färdigheter och kunskaper som de kunnat medföra till sitt krigsförband. Undersökningen syftade till att belysa ett växande samhällsproblem med ökade risker för stora skogsbränder, utifrån Försvarsmakten och närmare bestämt Hemvärnets perspektiv. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av en kvalitativ beskrivande analys efter intervjuer av hemvärnssoldater som deltagit i bränderna, antingen 2014 eller 2018. Resultatet visade på en mängd olika faktorer som främst Försvarsmakten kan ta i beaktande, men som på sikt även kan påverka politisk nivå i kommande utredningar. Avgörande faktorer som spelar in är bland annat det frivilliga deltagande och när detta deltagande är praktiskt möjligt. Men även hur familjens betydelse och individernas övriga sysselsättning påverkar möjligheten till deltagandet.

  • 204.
    Hellström, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Kommunala arbetsmarknadsinsatser utifrån Governance: Går det att få ihop decentralisering och standardisering?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Labour market policies in Sweden is a state responsibility. Even though the municipalitieshave created their own units for labour market issues. This has resulted in parallel systems,and the distribution of responsibility is in many ways unclear. Several studies within the topichave observed that the effects of the activation programs disposed by the municipalities aredifficult to study, dependent there is not enough comparable data. Therefore statistics is nowcollected by Sveriges kommuner och Landsting.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to examine if the statistics that are available today can be used tomeasure the effects of labour market actions.

    Method

    The study is based on the theory about Governance as decentralization. The hypothesis is thatthe amount of money that the municipalities spend on labour market cations should affect theeffect. With effect means, in this study, that the participants reach work or studies. The studyis made on two Swedish municipalities, Robertsfors and Ljusnarsberg. Those municipalitiesare selected therefor they are the municipalities in Sweden that 2015 spent most and lessmoney on labour market actions. In an attempt to try if the statistics that are available todaycan be used, the study is using a quantitative method. Interviews with representatives from themunicipalities have also been made in order to explain choices in submitting of the statistics.

    Results

    The results show that the statistics that are available not can be held for true. Both from thecalculation example as from the interviews that is clear there are uncertainties with thestatistics. From the theory of Governance, this study comes to the conclusion thatdecentralization and standardization are extremes.

  • 205.
    Henningsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Hur den svenska innovationspolitiken framställer och bemöter globalisering2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is a diffuse term, which is why it’s interpreted very differently.  The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the Swedish innovation policy portrays globalization and what consequences this imposes. How countries’ politics are run depends on their views on globalization.

    This study involves an ideal type analysis. The chosen ideal types represent three different perspectives on globalization. The three ideal types I have chosen are the neo-liberals, the reformists and the dissidents. In order to answer this study’s questions, I’ve chosen three documents to analyze. These documents concern the governments’ current view on growth strategies since innovation constitutes an important part. Innovation has now become Sweden’s response to globalization. The three chosen documents are: Den nationella innovationsstrategin (2012), En nationell strateg strategi för regional tillväxt och attraktionskraft 2014-2020 samt Svenska framtidsutmaningar – slutrapport från regeringens framtidskommission (2013).

    The conclusions of this study suggest that the Swedish innovation policy portrays globalization from a neo-liberalism perspective. This means that Sweden has a very positive view on globalization. The Swedish government sees great opportunities in this matter since globalization is something they want to invest in. By supporting innovation, education, attractive environments that allow companies to establish themselves and collaboration on both a local and a global scale, the Swedish government suggests that Sweden is prepared to confront the future challenges they are facing.

  • 206.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    I tsunamins kölvatten: En jämförande studie av krisberedskap i Sverige och i Storbritannien2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
  • 207.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Olik retorik i politik?: En jämförande studie av skillnader i kommunpolitikers och riksdagspolitikers sätt att använda språket.2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine if there is any difference in the style of conversation between a municipal politician and a politician in parliament? In order to answer this question I have created two sub-questions that are more precise. The first question is: Are the municipal politicians more open to cooperate with politicians from other parties than the politicians from parliament? And the second question is: Is the rhetoric between the politicians in parliament different than the rhetoric between the municipal politicians?

    My study is a comparative case study with two different groups of politicians. With the help of a survey I have tried to examine if there are differences in the use of language in the daily work for the politicians. The two groups that have been answering this survey is the municipal executive board in Karlstad and the parliamentary committee of Environment and Agriculture. My thesis is that the municipals have to be more open to collaborate with other politicians’ indifference of political belongings because they are working close to the citizens and for what is best for their city.

    The answer to my first question is that municipal politicians are more open to collaborate with politicians from other political parties. The difference between answers from my two groups shows this fact. The answers from question four from my survey gives me this result. Also the answer from the third question in the survey gives me a hint of this fact.

    The answer to my second question is that there exist some differences in the use of rhetoric between the two groups. Three out of eight municipal politicians meant that they often where exposed to persuasions attempt and only one out of eleven politicians from parliament answered that this was a common element in the parliamentary committee.

  • 208. Hesselius, Eric
    Medborgarförslag: En studie av demokratiska innovationer i Kristinehamns kommun2013Studentarbete andra termin, 12 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 209.
    Hirst, Clarissa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om regional utveckling.
    On the Margins of a EU-Dominated Space: Three Approaches to Russia's Identity in the Baltic Sea Region2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Region was the focal point of enormous geopolitical change in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Previously, the Soviet Union maintained a strong presence along the Baltic Sea coastline but as a result of its collapse, Germany’s reunification and successive European Union (EU) enlargements, the Baltic Sea Region is now an EU-dominated space. Regions of the Russian Federation now find themselves on the periphery. This paper hopes to offer insight into how we can understand Russia in the Baltic Sea Region today and serves as a starting point for empirical research into how Russia’s Baltic Sea identity is constituted in national and EU foreign policy.

     

    The paper is a critical review of the International Relations (IR) scholarship that has addressed Russia’s post-Cold War identity in the Baltic Sea Region. In particular, it addresses the following questions: what tensions and debates exist between different analytical approaches? How can this scholarship help us to understand Russia’s identity in the Baltic Sea Region at the present time? What significance do the discourses of ‘othering’ in the scholarship have for identity-building and inter-regional cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

     

    Constructivist and poststructuralist analyses dominated IR discussions on Russia in the Baltic Sea Region in the late 1990s and 2000s (see, for example: Joenniemi et al, 1997; Jæger, 2000; Joenniemi, 2000; Browning, 2001, 2003; Moisio, 2003; Aalto et al, 2003; Tassinari, 2003; Jakobsen-Obolenski, 2005). They critiqued the persisting Cold War dichotomy of East/West and offered solutions as to how this dichotomy could be overcome through emerging inclusive frameworks such as the Council of the Baltic Sea States and the EU’s Northern Dimension. Yet despite expressing optimism for inclusion in the future, these works continued to consider Russian regions as marginalised and not fully included in the region.

     

    Other perspectives have acknowledged the ability of Russian regions in the Baltic Sea Region to influence Russian and EU policy by considering the benefits of paradiplomacy for overcoming divisive politics (Joenniemi & Sergunin, 2014) or conceptualising the Kaliningrad Oblast as a marginal space that can exercise agency by simultaneously upholding and evading modernist understandings of territory (Browning & Joenniemi, 2004). Postcolonial perspectives potray Russia as an occupant of the ’middle ground’ between the civilised centre and the Orientalised periphery (Morozov, 2013). Such approaches suggest that Russian regions can potentially play an active role in identity politics instead of simply being relegated to the role of ’Other’. Yet such an active role for Russian regions remains largely in the realm of possibility rather than reality for these scholars.

     

    This paper considers the implications of IR discourses of ‘othering’ for identity-building and inter-regional cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region and consider whether the epistemic community has in fact reinscribed the exclusionary dynamics that it has sought to overcome. 

  • 210.
    Holmberg, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Ideologiska skillnader mellan socialdemokraterna och moderaterna: En idéanalys av olika politiska sakfrågor2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Essay in political science, C-level by Cecilia Holmberg

    Spring semester 2006, Tutor: Arne Larsson

    - Ideological similarities between the Swedish Socialdemocratic and the Swedish conservative party

    - An idealanalysis of different political issues

    The purpose of this essay is to examine wheater the political ideologies have lost their importance in the Swedish political system. The study will focus on the ideological similarities or differences between the two largest parties in Sweden, the socialdemocratic and the conservative party. Therefore, the main research question is:

     Are there any ideological similarities or differences between the socialdemocratic and the conservative party?

    To be able to answer this question, I have used Herbert Tingsten’s idealanalysis. This type of analysis examines how someone, in this case a political party, describes reality. The analysis also examines what the different parties’ values and goals are and what actions they recommend to achieve that particular value and goal. This will grant a good perspective of the two parties opinons in different issues.

    The reason why I have choosen different issues instead of different programs, are that the issues are more concrete and therefore easier to examine. They are also recommended by Tingsten, he means that the parties have the same values and goals, there are only in the actions that there is a difference between the parties. These differences are easier differentiated when the actions are studied in the issues. The issues that this essay is going to explore are labour-market, education, treatment and criminality.

    The conclusion of this essay is that there are ideological similarities between the socialdemocratic and the conservative party in these issues. It seems that both the socialdemocratic and the conservative party have similar goals and values. However, they recommend different actions to acchieve these goals and values.

  • 211.
    Holmberg, Tobias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Frankrike och opinionen mot EU: En fallstudie om opinionen mot EU i Frankrike mellan 2016-20182019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine if the existing theories within the field of Euroscepticism is sufficient to help us reach a deeper understanding of the changes in party positions and the publics opinion towards the EU and European integration in France between 2016 and 2018. To reach a deeper understanding of the case and the existing theories two research questions have been designed. One that seeks to examine on how we can understand the changes in voter opinion towards the EU. The other one seeks to examine how we can understand how the parties En Marche! and Front National has acted from 2016 to 2018.

    The method used in this study is a theory-consuming case study. Five theories where generated from the existing body of literature where crucial elements from seven different articles where derived to build a theoretical framework that examines different aspects of the voter vs. party dynamic. Most of the theories where applicable to the case at some point within the examined timeframe and helped us reach a deeper understanding of the case. Although one of the theories stood out and helped us reach a deeper understanding of the case during the entire period. That was the theory regarding that the French publics opinion about the EU seems to have been affected by a wider information-environment more than anything else. Although further research focused on that theory would be necessary to substantiate the findings in this thesis.

  • 212.
    Hudson, Christine
    et al.
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Kvinnor och män i den regionala utvecklingen2012Ingår i: Ett delat Norrland - på väg mot regioner? / [ed] Anders Lidström, Umeå: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2012, s. 185-193Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 213.
    Hudson, Christine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnblom, MalinUmeå universitet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).Teghtsoonian, KatherineUniversity of Victoria, Canada.
    Gender, governance and feminist post-structuralist analysis: Missing in action?2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume presents critical scholarship analysing governance practices in diverse jurisdictions in Europe and North America, at multiple scales, and in relation to several different arenas of policy and practice. The contributors address shortcomings in the mainstream literature on governance within the discipline of political science.

    The volume as a whole is marked by geographical and topical diversity. However, what the individual chapters have in common is that each considers whether and how gender, racialized identity, and/or other axes of marginalization are visible within the conceptualizations and/or practices of governance under discussion.

    Drawing together insights and conceptual tools from both feminist and post-structuralist frameworks in analysing governance practices, this volume will be of great interest to scholars and graduates who engage with feminist and/or post-structural analysis of policy and governance. It will also be of use to critical policy scholars in anthropology, geography, sociology, and women's studies.

  • 214.
    Hultqvist, Jacob
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Om tillsättning av regering2019Studentarbete andra termin, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANDRAG B-uppsats i statsvetenskap av Jacob Hultqvist vt -19. Handledare: Johanna Tangnäs. ”Om tillsättning av regering”

    Syftet med denna studie är att närmare undersöka motiven till de nuvarande reglerna för regeringsbildningen samt att undersöka vilka alternativ som har föreslagits och varför dessa inte har genomförts. De 2 forskningsfrågor som ligger till underlag för studien är följande: 1.) Hur motiveras grundlagsreglerna för regeringsbildandet?

    2.) Vilka alternativ diskuterades och varför genomfördes de ej? Metoden som används är en idé- och ideologianalys. Det material jag har valt att avgränsa mig till är hämtat från diverse SoU:er samt propositioner.

    Mina slutsatser är att regleringen kring utseendet av statminister är en form av negativ parlamentarism samt att det var därför att stadfästa Sveriges styrelseskick till parlamentarism som gjorde att talmannen istället för kungen fick rollen att förhandla fram en statsministerkandidat. Jag har även kommit fram till att det fanns starka förespråkare som talade för positiv parlamentarism, men att detta ansågs utgöra regeringsbildningsprocessen svårare än nödvändigt.

  • 215.
    Hydén, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Democracy and Political Participation Across Borders: A Minor Field Study Concerning Migrant Transnationalism and the Nepali Diaspora in Varanasi, India2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this field study is to acquire a greater knowledge and understanding of the Nepali diaspora in Varanasi, India concerning their views of and participation in the political situation in Nepal. In this way the study aims to contribute to the research field of migrant transnationalism. Nepal is currently facing a democratization process after years of civil war and political conflict. The harsh situation is one of the reasons the country has seen a grand emigration movement, especially to the neighbor in the south – India. It is of interest to investigate whether theories concerning migrants‟ political participation in homeland politics, called migrant transnationalism, can contribute with understanding for the Nepali diaspora. The general research question for the thesis is: How does the Nepalese diaspora in Varanasi perceive and engage for the democratization process currently taking place in Nepal relating to research within the field of migrant transnationalism?

    The study constitutes a descriptive case study with interviews as method for collection of data. Previous research from the fields of political science and sociology is used to outline the theoretical framework. The study is demarcated to investigate the views and political participation of Nepalese people in Varanasi in India. The theoretical framework concerning migrant transnationalism is also demarcated to specific fields and themes in order to analyze the data constructively.

    The study finds that the Nepali diaspora in Varanasi has a strong support for democracy and believes it can contribute to democracy and change in Nepal. The diaspora has strong social and political ties to Nepal through news, family ties, remittances and being able to keep their Nepali identity. The study also finds that the Nepalese migrants in general are engaging in migrant transnational political participation through for example political meetings.

  • 216.
    Händelsten, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    McGuinness, Nicholas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Ungas attityer till statlig plikt: En studie om motivation för att söka sig till eller avstå från värnplikt i ettpostmodernt samhälle.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera av de funktioner som vi i allmänhet anser vara nödvändiga för att ha ett fungerandesamhälle lider idag av rekryteringsproblem. I media rapporteras det om underskott av såvällärare som sjukvårdspersonal men även Försvarsmakten har problem med att fyllakrigsorganisation. Det är därför intressant att undersöka om det finns ett intresse blandungdomar att söka sig till det som vi kallar “Kallyrken” och vilka motiv och attityder somungdomar har till dessa. Vår undersökning fokuserar på värnplikten och syftar till attidentifiera vilka drivkrafter ungdomar har för att genomföra eller avstå från den.Vårt teoretiska ramverk utgår från Fabrizio Battistellis motivationstypologi som beskriverdrivkrafter som endera paleomoderna, moderna eller postmoderna. Han menar att strömningari samhället påverkar våra motiv och att vi i dagens postmoderna samhälle snarare drivs avviljan att finna sig själv och söka äventyr än av patriotism och ekonomiska fördelar. Vi hardärutöver utvecklat vårt ramverk med delar ur careershipsteorin i syfte förstå vilkabakgrundsfaktorer som kan ha påverkat ungdomars motiv.Våra data har samlats in genom att intervjua tio ungdomar, fem som genomför sin värnpliktoch fem som går sista året på gymnasiet. I vår undersökning har vi kommit fram till att deundersökta ungdomarna i huvudsak har en positiv inställning till värnplikten och att de serfördelar med att genomföra den. Postmoderna drivkrafter är i huvudsak dominerade men vinoterar även en något högre frekvens av paleomoderna drivkrafter, såsom skyddet avnationen, jämfört med Battistellis tidigare forskning. En av de faktorer som de undersöktaungdomarna lyfter fram som mest betydelsefullt inför mönstring och värnplikt är tillgångentill trovärdig information. Den bild som förmedlas på sociala medier bidrar till ett ökatintresse, men den behöver kompletteras med information som ökar förståelsen för varför detär viktigt att alla är med och bidrar. Samtliga undersökta rekryter meddelar att värnplikten harvarit en positiv upplevelse och kan tänka sig en framtid i Försvarsmakten på något sätt.Studenter är inte heller främmande för ett engagemang i Försvarsmakten utan ser det som enframtida möjlighet.

  • 217.
    Högå, Beatrice
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Spelar geografi roll?: En studie av Bolognaprocessen ur ett policy transferperspektiv2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Does Geography Matter? A Study of the Bologna Process from a Policy Transfer Perspective.

    Essay in Political Science (D-level) at Karlstad’s University by Beatrice Högå, Spring 2007

    Tutor: Susan Marton

    The purpose of this essay is to generally see how theories of policy transfer can help us to better understand the process through which the Bologna Process is being spread throughout Europe, and to specially see if geographic placement, i.e. in the heart of Europe, plays a role in how well and how fast the Bologna Process is implemented.

    To be able to answer the purpose, I have used Evans and Davies theoretical model on policy transfer network to describe the Bologna Process. Furthermore, Sweden and France are the countries being examined when they differ on the independent variable. From there, I have applied an analytical tool, namely process tracing, to examine whether there are differences in the two countries’ work with the implementation of the Bologna Process.

    I have designed six specific research questions:

    Have France performed more extensive work than Sweden when it comes to implement the two-cycle system?

    Have France performed this work earlier?

    Have France performed more extensive work than Sweden when it comes to recognize awards and periods of study?

    Have France performed this work earlier?

    Have France performed more extensive work than Sweden when it comes to quality assurance?

    Have France performed this work earlier?

    After applying the analytical tool to be able to answers these research questions, the answer to the general question Does geographic placement, i.e. in the heart of Europe, play a role in how well and how fast the Bologna Process is implemented? is negative. In this case, there are no unambiguous results to support that idea.

  • 218.
    Ilberg, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Medborgarnas tillgång till kommunala arkiv: En studie av fem kommuners arkivreglemente utifrån arkivlagen2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    A vital part of democracy is the possibility to study decisions made by the democratically elected representatives. If this is not possible, one would have to argue that it’s not a democracy. One of the most influential researchers in this field is Robert Dahl. And one of his strong points is that if the citizens can’t study decision made by the government, how are you going to avoid abuse of the public powers? With this in mind the study was created, consisting of five medium sized Swedish municipalities (with a population between 80 000-120 000) archival regulations with a special focus on one of the municipalities, Karlstad. The object was to see if the archival regulation was updated to the Swedish archival regulation.

    Research questions

    1. Is the archival regulation based on the Swedish archival law from 1991 and was the archival regulation altered within the stipulated time frame?

    2. Is the archival regulation based on the normal regulation (Normalreglementet)?

    3. Does the archival regulation speak of the

    4. Is there a discussion about why parts of the material needs to be destroyed (gallrat)

    5. Which part of the municipality is the archival authority?

    6. Is there s knowledge about the necessity of a plan concerning document handling?

    The study showed that out the five studied municipalities four of them had an archival regulation based on the archival law. The fifth, Borås, had an older archival regulation.

  • 219.
    Issa, Chiar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Personvalreformen: Deltagande och representativitet2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 220.
    Jacob, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Agonismens död?: En undersökning av Socialdemokraternas och Moderaternas ideologi.2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to find out if the political parties have embraced each other's ideologies.

    The comprehensive question of the essay is: Have the Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party ideologies viewpoint on man and society changed? Have their economic ideals changed?

    This essay will use a qualitative ideal type study on the political parties program from 1990, 2001 and 2013.

    The result of this essay shows that while both parties have approached liberalism, only the Moderate Party have kept their ideological view through the years in the study. While the Social Democratic Party still hold democratic socialism viewpoint on society and the states relationship with the market. They have adopted a liberal viewpoint on man. Antagonism is still pertinent between the two political parties.

  • 221.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norweigan Social Reserach, Oslo, Norway.
    Blom, Sven
    Statistics Norway.
    Did the 2011 terror attacks in Norway change citizens’ attitudes towards immigrants?2014Ingår i: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 475-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 222.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Kumlin, Staffan
    University of Gothenburg; Norway.
    Election campaign agendas, government partisanship, and the welfare state2017Ingår i: European Political Science Review, ISSN 1755-7739, E-ISSN 1755-7747, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 183-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although theoretically contentious, most empirical studies contend that electoral-political factors structure the welfare state. In practice, most studies concentrate on ‘government partisanship’, that is the ideological character of the government. We agree that politics matters but also seek to expand our understanding of what ‘politics’ should be taken to mean. Drawing on recent comparative research on agenda-setting, we study the impact of whether welfare state issues were broadly salient in the public sphere during the election campaign that produced the government. We formulate hypotheses about how such systemic campaign salience and government partisanship (separately and interactively) affect welfare generosity. We also consider how such effects might have changed, taking into account challenges to standard assumptions of representative democracy coming from the ‘new politics of the welfare state’ framework. We combine well-known, but updated, data on welfare state generosity and government partisanship, with original contextual data on campaign salience from 16 West European countries for the years 1980–2008. We find that campaigns matter but also that their impact has changed. During the first half of the examined period (the 1980s and early 1990s), it mainly served to facilitate government partisanship effects on the welfare state. More recently, big-time campaign attention to welfare state issues results in some retrenchment (almost) regardless of who forms the postelection government. This raises concerns about the democratic status of the politics of welfare state reform in Europe.

  • 223.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Measuring Productive Performance Using Binary And Ordinal Output Variables: The Case of the Swedish Fire and Rescue Services2019Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 907-917Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire protection is an example of a complex production process. This study measures efficiency by constructing binary and ordinal output variables from information on residential fires in Sweden about how a fire spreads from when the fire and rescue brigade arrives to when a fire is suppressed. The motivations behind this study are that there are only a few studies trying to estimate production efficiency for fire and rescue services, that data on a more detailed level is interesting for some public services, and there is a need to be able to measure efficiency differences even if only a binary or ordinal output variable is available. Using a logit random parameter model, the random effects are interpreted as efficiency differences. The conclusions are that fire and rescue services with a more flexible fire organisation with first response persons, working in collaboration with other municipalities and with larger populations are more efficient.

  • 224.
    Jansson, Tobias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik.
    Kunskap och prov2009Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 225.
    Javanmiri, Farhan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Finns ingen mening med att ha meningsskiljaktigheter, när man kan vara vänner: : En kvalitativundersökning av Socialdemokraternas och Moderaternas ideologier2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the Social Democrat party’s and Moderat Party’s ideology. The purpose of this essay has been to investigate the ideological approach of Social Democrats and Moderats. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, ideological similarities between the parties have been distinguished. In order to complete the study, the Social Democrats party programs from 2001 and 2013 and the Moderat party programs from 2001 and 2011 have been used. 

    In order to answer the purpose of the study has theoretical approach been used. In addition, the study uses the ideologies of the parties as well as an explanatory theory that is catch all-parties which is used to understand the party’s behavior. The ideologies that been used by the study are the ideology of Social Democrats, which represents socialism and reformist socialism and the Moderats which constitute Conservatism, Liberalism and Neoliberalism. 

    In order to complete the essay, qualitative methodology with an idea and ideology analysis has been applied. However, in order to distinguish ideological similarities between the parties, the study has used dimensions which means that ideologies have been operationalized. They constitute human perception, the view of the state and the view of economics. In order to study the ideologies of the parties, the study has focused on these three areas to map ideological similarities. 

    The result of the study shows that the views of social democrats and moderators are different from each other in the first dimension, which is human perception and it does not change during the period of time the study has focused on. In the second dimension, the political parties’ have different view in their party programs from 2001. However, there are similarities between the parties because the Moderates change positions in their party program 2011 while the Social Democrats hold on to the same attitude in 2013 as they had in 2001. In the final dimension, there will be different results, because the Social Democrats and the Moderates have the same views in the view of economics in 2001 and 2013. Why the parties change their mind in one of the dimensions, have been able to understand by the Catch all-party theory, which means that the parties act strategically to reach as many select groups as possible to win elections. By tapping down its ideology, the parties reach a wider electoral group, both ideological and non-ideological voters.

  • 226.
    Jeppsson, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Klimatfrågan -från en kritisk händelse till en politisk modefråga?2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Few issues have been exposed in media recently as much as the climate change issue. Afterthe documentary film “An Inconvenient Thruth” presented by Al Gore was released in 2006,most of the world saw a lot of attention directed towards global warming. This was a turningpoint that is refered to in this dissertation an history-graded critical event, which is assumed tohave a significant impact on peoples lives.The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether or not political parties in Swedenresponded to this critical event in the way that they, in their party programmes, haveformulated policies related to climate change. Alternatively if media produces an image ofpolitical activity which does not comport with the forming of actual political standpoints. Themain objective is to determine whether the climate change issue constitutes a political trendissue in Sweden or not.The theories used in this dissertation are demand attributes by Gunnar Sjöblom that explainswhich characteristics within a voter demand a party must deal with, and the Filipp’spsychological theory about critical events.The conclusion of this dissertation is that the development of the climate change issue in theparty programmes in Sweden do not respond to the critical event of 2006. The climatepolicies were rather developed several years before the critical event took place, which leavesthe conclusion that Swedish political parties preceded media in addressing this issue.

  • 227.
    Jesslén, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Är vi borgare?: En ideologianalys av Alliansens valmanifest 2006-2010 och 2014-20182015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to find out if Alliansen has lost their Bourgeoisie collective identity. The comprehensive questions of this essay are:

    • Does liberalism or conservatism dominate the manifesto of Alliansen from 2006-2010 compared to the manifesto 2014-2018?
    • Have Alliansen changed their ideological views to the centre of the political spectrum in their manifesto from 2006-2010 compared to the manifesto 2014-2018?

     

    The method used in this essay is a qualitative dimensional study. The results of the essay show that conservatism dominates both manifestos of Alliansen and show that the ideological view of Alliansen has not changed. Alliansens view of human beings in their manifesto from 2006-2010 is pessimistic and so is Alliansens manifesto from 2014-2018 and therefore closer to the conservative ideology than the ideology of liberalism. Alliansens view of society is collectivistic in both the manifesto 2006-2010 and the manifesto 2014-2018 and therefore also closer to the conservative ideology than the ideology of liberalism.

  • 228.
    Johanna, Persson
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jämställdhetspolitik på regional nivå: En jämförande studie av jämställdhetspolitiken i Region Värmland, Region Halland och Västra Götalandsregionen2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with three different regions’ gender policy in relation to regional growth. According to previous research, there is a liaison between gender equality and economic growth.

    Because Sweden’s regions are facing a possible upcoming merger, I have chosen to study Region Halland’s, Region Värmland’s and the Västra Götalandsregion’s gender policies, to be able to see if there is some clear differences or similarities between the three regions gender policies. The reason for this is because these three regions are eventually about to become one new and bigger region together. If there are clear differences between the regions gender policies, it might cause problems for the future collaboration between the regions and therefore also for the region’s growth.

    The analysis of the study is done by a qualitative analysis of the content of three different plans of action for equal regional growth, one for each region. To do the analysis, I’m using two theories about gender systems by Yvonne Hirdman and Joan Acker. I’m also using an idea about gender mainstreaming as a political strategy.

    The analysis shows that there are many similarities between the region’s gender policies. All the regions’ gender policies are based on the same national gender equality political goals which can be seen as a good basis for a future cooperation, but there are also some clear differences that can create problems when the regions have different focuses and priorities in the gender policy if they are about to have a successful cooperation. 

  • 229.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Denk, Thomas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Institutionalisation of risk and safety management at the local governmental level in Sweden2009Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 687-708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is the need for empirical knowledge about organizational configuration for societal risk and safety management activities ina modern welfare society. In this paper, we use Sweden as an empirical frame to analyze the administrative management structure at the local governmental level.The analysis is based on statistical analysis of information from a web-survey with administrative chief/head officials (n51283) with responsibilities for different municipal functions and sectors. The sample represented 25% of the Swedish municipalities (n5290) and the response rate was approximately 60% (n5766).The responses to two sets of questions (25 and 45 questions) are used for statistical analyses of management structures and task distribution within themunicipal organizations. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax and Kaisers Normalization was applied as a structure detection method. The resultsindicate a clear and uniform way to institutionalize societal risk and safety management at the local level. Furthermore, the management course of action is found to have different types of value characters. The implications that arise from the patterns identified in this study are considered to be of general relevance and topicality for research and practice in this area

  • 230.
    Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Stjernström, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Thörnqvist, Margaretha
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Medborgardialog: Att organisera medborgardeltagande i prioriteringsprocessen2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Vi har inspirerats av en föreläsning av Jennifer Gibson från University of Toronto. I denna presenterades hur man förankrat beslut kring prioriteringar hos medborgarna, och hur man därigenom undvikit kraftiga negativa reaktioner. Det etiska ramverket byggde på den deliberativa demokratiteorin. Erfarenheterna av processen visade att det fanns möjlighet att få acceptans och legitimitet bland medbor-garna för svåra prioriteringar, så kallade wicked-issues.

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att ta reda på om och hur deliberativa metoder är ett sätt att hantera wicked-issues. Den övergripande frågeställningen är: Vilka kännetecken bör en medborgardialog ha för att vara framgångsrik? För att få svar på frågeställningarna undersöktes följande fall som vi valt ut som star cases: Barcelona, Lewisham, Toronto, Norrbottens läns landsting och Landstinget i Östergötland. Vi beskriver även andra praktiska exempel som får utgöra ytterligare erfarenhetsbas i studien.

    I arbetet med att identifiera viktiga framgångsfaktorer har vi använt oss av fem forskare inom deliberativ demokratiteori; Habermas, Räftegård, Fishkin, Dryzek och Dahl. Med utgångspunkt i deras teorier har vi tagit fram en analysmodell som innehåller fyra huvudområden; kontext, arrangemang, dialog och effektivitet. Dessa fyra områden innehåller i sin tur ett antal egenskaper. Analysmodellen har använts i en jämförande analys av de valda casen.

    Vårt resultat visar att nödvändiga kännetecken för att medborgardialogen ska vara framgångsrik är:

    • Syftet är att samla synpunkter och att diskutera.

    • Wicked-issues finns i kontexten.

    • Besluten fattas i ordinarie beslutsinstans

    • Medborgardialogen genomförs som öppna offentliga möten, dialoger till riktade grupper och dialog via informationsteknologi

    • Öppet för alla och till berörda av frågeställningen

    • Tidigt genomförd i processen

    • Systematiken är delvis utvecklad

    • Underlag för beslut om prioriteringar

    • Dialogen är öppen, jämlik, ansvarig och dialogisk

    • Dialogen är delvis kunskaps- och erfarenhetsbaserad

    Inte nödvändiga kännetecken är:

    • Lagstiftning

    • Parallell intern dialog i organisationen

  • 231. Johansson, Hanna
    Karaktäriseringar av Sverigedemokraterna: En kvalitativ idéanalys om främlingsfientlighet hos Sverigedemokraterna2019Studentarbete andra termin, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om det finns likheter mellan Sverigedemokraternas politik och idealtypen främlingsfientlighet. Partiets principprogram och partiledardebatter där Jimmie Åkesson representerar partiet är de primära källorna. Materialet är hämtat ifrån de material och underlag Sverigedemokraterna gick till val på 2018. För att nå svar på forskningsfrågan används en kvalitativ idéanalys med idealtyp som analysverktyg. Forskningsfrågorna som formulerats utifrån detta är;

    • Finner vi främlingsfientliga uttalanden i Sverigedemokraternas partiprogram respektive i uttalanden från debatter?

    Resultatet av denna studie påvisar att det finns likheter i den idealtyp och Sverigedemokraternas material inför valet 2018. Materialet har krävt viss form av tolkning och därmed är analysen inte objektiv.

  • 232.
    Johansson, Linnéa
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hur problematiseras mäns våld mot kvinnor?: En WPR-analys av Regeringens nationella strategi2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an essay that through an WPR- analysis examines how men´s violence against women is problemaised in political discourse by studying the government´s strategy with it´s actions and efforts. Assupmtions and background knowledge is discussed in this essay and is a part of the methodological approach ”What´s the problem represented to be?” by Carol Bacchi. Through this approach it is possible to look beyond the problem and see what´s underlying.    The political document ”A national strategy to prevent and combat men´s violence against women” is used during the process and shows both assupmtions, background knowledge and petitions. Because and due to that the government saying it to be a feminist government a link is also made to feminist political theory. The result of the study is that the national strategi contains several problem presentations and that the strategi shows a feminist approach regarding gender and power relations. 

  • 233.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute. Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals. In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.

  • 234.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Statsrådens inflytande över myndigheterna.: Vilken påverkan har arbetsmarknadsministern över Arbetsförmedlingens regleringsbrev?2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how the state council of government affects the public services’ letters of regulation that its members sign. A lot speaks against such an impact exists because Sweden has a tradition of independent authorities, when ministerial rule is prohibited by the Constitution. The state council does not make decisions about its particular departments without joint decisions by the government, the position of the council itself is therefore weak. The material is based upon the state Employment Agency’s letters of regulation in concern to five policy areas, investigated from 2006 to 2014. What is being studied is if there is a political influence over the content of the Employment Agency’s letter of regulation, and how it is provided. There are two research questions: 1) How the Swedish Employment Agency’s letters of regulation are affected when a new cabinet is inaugurated? 2) Does the government affect the level of details control by the letters of regulation? Great importance has been given to finding an authority where the possibilities for political influence are as large as possible. It is therefore likely that impact of other government councils on the regulatory letters they sign is lower than the one investigated here. The method used is qualitative text analysis. The results show that Employment Agency’s letters of regulation become increasingly detailed over time. At the same time, requirements for reporting are increased. The changes partially depend on the government council, which is holding the office. A particular council may thus affect the regulatory letters, but the impact is relatively weak in comparison to other factors.

  • 235.
    Johansson, Rebecka
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Internally displaced persons remaining in camps: A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Internally displaced persons remaining in camps

    - who are they, why do they stay?

    A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka

    Essay in Political Science C, by Rebecka Johansson, fall 2004

    This essay is a case study of internally displaced persons in camps in the district of Vavunyia in northern Sri Lanka. The main question was; Why do some internally displaced persons remain in camps when many displaced people already have settled elsewhere? The aim of this study was to examine why some people stay in camps even after a ceasefire agreement has been signed and though many people already have settled. The literature on solutions of conflict-induced displacement is not conceptually rich or theoretically exact. Therefore this study also tried to make a model for analysing why some individuals remain in camps. The model is based on the political scientist Robert Dahl theories on “political resources”. The concept used in this essay is “personal resources”. The personal resources examined were social situations and land and property ownerships and political and legal rights. The study assumes from the hypothesis that the remaining people in camps lack these personal resources which are of importance for their ability and motivation to settle outside the camps. The personal resources have been divided into structural and agential factors.

    The result of this study suggests that the given hypothesis was right; the remaining displaced persons lack most of the examined personal resources. Their social situation was characterised by low status, small social network in the place they fled from, low education and unskilled work. A majority of the displaced who remained in the camps were landless. Until recently their legal right to choose settlement was restricted. The only personal resource that the majority of the displaced possessed was the political right to vote. The lack of personal resources affects both the displaced persons’ ability and motivation to find a durable solution.

    Worthy to note is that it is impossible to draw clear distinctions between what is to be seen as agential and structural factors. Landlessness which in the introduction was categorised as a structural factor was proved to also constitute an agential factor as it affects people’s motivation to return.

    The study shows that the circumstances surrounding internally displaced persons are complex and constitute many obstacles to their possibility to find permanent settlements. The most obvious factors, like not having any place to return to and deprivation of the legal rights of choice of settlement, can be the most important explanations.

  • 236.
    Johansson, Rebecka
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Matchmaking på organisatorisk nivå: – om samverkan mellan kommunala introduktionsenheter och frivilligorganisationer2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Matchmaking on an organisational level

    – about co-operation between municipal introduction-units and voluntary organisations

    Essay in Political Science D, by Rebecka Johansson, spring 2006

    The aim of this study is to examine co-operation between municipal introduction-units, which work to integrate newly arrived immigrants and refuges, and voluntary organisations in Sweden. The essay is a comparative case study which examines three local authorities and the main questions are;

    - Do voluntary organisations constitute a functioning co-operation partner to the municipal introduction-units? Are there conditions for future co-operation?

    The answer to the questions is that there are no, or rarely any, co-operation between voluntary organisations and municipal introduction-units. It is difficult to judge whether there are conditions for future co-operation. The theory used is interorganisational theory and it’s thesis on resource-dependency. According to the theory organisations need to have some kind of dependency towards the other organisations to be interested in co-operation. This study shows that the local authorities are more eager to co-operate than the voluntary organisations. Both types of organisations can see benefits with co-operation, but the voluntary organisations also see costs. The main problem for the voluntary organisations is lack of resources, both economic and personnel. Many organisations have too few volunteers. Both the local authorities and the voluntary organisations see the role of the voluntary organisations as being a complement to the local authorities. The local authorities are only willing to compensate the voluntary organisations economically for smaller costs in an eventual co-operation. In other fields such as healthcare the role of voluntary organisations has developed from being a voice to delivering services on payment from the public sector. The integration field has not reached this point, and many voluntary organisations are critical towards such a development as they fear losing their autonomy in a too close co-operation with the local authority. The local authorities want to co-operate, but they still want to be in charge of the introduction program.

  • 237.
    Johansson, Theresia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Fattig och förtryckt?: En diskursanalytisk studie av svensk biståndspolitik utifrån ett postkolonialt perspektiv2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 238.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT.
    Räftegård, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Avesta Sandvik Tube AB och Nykroppa Bruk AB1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 239.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT.
    Räftegård, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Dialogkonferens III, Avesta Sandvik Tube AB, Storfors, 4 maj 19921992Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 240.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT.
    Räftegård, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Rapport från dialogkonferens II. Avesta Sandvik Tube AB, Storfors den 30 oktober 19901990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 241. Johnson, Debra
    et al.
    Miles, Lee
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Eastern Europe: Challenges and Business Opportunities1995Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This short book evaluates the contemporary changes affecting Eastern Europe since 1989 and the role of the European Union in harnassing future political, economic and business opportunities

  • 242.
    Johnsson, Frida
    Karlstads universitet.
    Demokrati: En studie om demokratiindex och dess eventuella begränsningar2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    This essay is about democracy and how a democracy index can be used as a tool to illustratethe gap between reality and ideal. The purpose of this study can be expressed by two researchquestions: Does the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) democracy index illustrate thedistance between reality and the ideal of democracy presented by Dahl? and Can the EIU'sdemocracy index be modified by a) internal adjustments and b) using the variables includedin World Economic Forum’s (WEF) equality index?

    By using a combination of theories (Dahl’s theory of democracy, Rawls theory of justice andchosen theories critical to liberal democracy) as an analytical framework the following twoquestions have been answered:1) Which of the variables included in the EIU's democracy index have the potential to capturethe level of political equality?2) Which of the variables included in the WEF’s equality index have the potential to capturethe degree of political equality?

    By using a quantitative method the study’s third and last question has been answered:3) How strong is the rank correlation between the EIU’s democracy index and the WEF’sequality index, that is; how strong is the rank correlation coefficient (rho)?

    The data presented by the WEF’s equality index indicate that women are systematicallydiscriminated against as a group. From a democratic perspective the EIU may need tomeasure inequalities at a group level in order to capture the lack of political equality betweenindividuals. By reformulating some of the EIU’s variables, by revising the EIU’s point systemand by using the variables included in the WEF's equality index to extend EIU’s democracyindex, the chances of capturing the gap between reality and the ideal of democracy presentedby Dahl would likely increase.

  • 243.
    Johnsson, Frida
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    The Interface Between Social Entrepreneurship and Governance: A qualitative case study including eight social entrepreneurs operating within regions of India2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Instead of asking why governments in developing countries are not doing what (Western) governments can (or at least in the past could) be expected to do we may need to ask the questions of how governance empirically is provided and by whom. While the involvement of non-public actors within processes of governance is far from new, the increased interest in social entrepreneurship, both as a practice and scholarly, is. The aim of the present study has been to explore and describe the interface between social entrepreneurship and governance within regions of India.

    The study has been inspired by a case study research design, including a set of qualitative methods: A generated sampling frame has facilitated the selection of analytical units; The collection of data has been conducted by semi-structured interviews; The data has been analyzed by a comparative approach. Based on a broad analytical governance framework provided by Kooiman et al (2005a) three research questions have guided the analysis:

    1. What arguments are provided by the examined social entrepreneurs for their intentional action?

    2. May action taken by the social entrepreneurs in this study be understood as an expression of hierarchical governance, self-governance and/or co-governance, and if so, how?

    3. How may action taken by the social entrepreneurs in this study be related to first-order governance (day-to-day problem-solving and opportunity creation), second-order governance (institutions) and/or third-order governance (principles)?

    The result of the study reveals how the action taken by the studied social entrepreneurs interface with several aspects of governance. The arguments presented for intentional action, related to the provision of collective goods to marginalized citizens, may be understood in relation to two themes: perceived government failures (as well as failures by traditional NGOs) and the self-perception of being “value-driven”. The data reveals strands of hierarchical-, self- and co-governance. The studied social entrepreneurs are understood to contribute to first-order governance. Their action is further suggested to be challenging existing institutions in the long-run and perhaps also dominating principles guiding the “governance of governance”.

  • 244.
    Johnsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Joakim
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Hot, löften och alliansfrihet: En fallstudie av den svenska alliansfriheten 2008-20172018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka den svenska utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiken i skenet av ett allt mer spänt omvärldsläge. Vi vill undersöka de bakomliggande faktorerna till den svenska alliansfria hållningen i perioden 2008-2017, där Sverige ingår militära samarbeten och gör tydliga solidaritetsförklaringar men samtidigt stint håller fast vid alliansfriheten. Vilket ger två forskningsfrågor.

    Hur har svensk syn på militära samarbeten och allianser i utrikes- och säkerhetspolitiken utvecklats i perioden 2008-2017? och

    Hur förklaras å ena sidan Sveriges officiella och strikta militära alliansfrihet samt å andra sidan Sveriges ökade militära samarbeten?

    För att finna svar på forskningsfrågorna har vi genomfört en enfallsstudie där fallet utgörs av allianspolitik och analysenheten är Sverige. Undersökning är gjord i två steg med beskrivande analys av det empiriska underlaget och en förklarande analys som är hypotesprövande. De hypoteser som prövas är två realistiska hypoteser ur teorier kring makt- och hotbalansering samt en socialpsykologisk hypotes ur teori kring perceptioner. Undersökningsmaterielat är avgränsat till utrikesdeklarationer samt debattartiklar, tal, uttalanden och pressmedelande från sittande regerings stats- utrikes- och försvarsminister i perioden 2008-2017. I undersökningen har vi kommit fram till att farhågan att tappa sin handlingsfrihet och sin oberoende röst i världen gör att Sverige gärna ingår militära samarbeten, men fortsätter kalla sig alliansfria. 

  • 245. Jonsson, Henric
    Sveriges export av krigsmateriel2019Studentarbete övrigt, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 246.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Värmländska kommuner globala aktörer?: En jämförande studie av fyra värmländska kommuner2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is mostly based on previous research, which includes Sub-national actor’s attitudes and regional action towards the European Union. The purpose of the study is to investigate if four Swedish municipalities in Värmland operate internationally towards the European Union and deepen an understanding of their actions. The main research question is:

     

    - How can we increase our understanding of municipal action against the European Union?

     

    The research questions of this study are answered through qualitative method and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Eight key informants in position either as politicians or official workers were selected for interviews whose position is either politicians or official workers. The results were then analysed based on theories such as Fusion and regional action. The study shows that the four Swedish municipalities in Sweden operate internationally in varied form. The actions of smaller municipalities seem to be dictated to large extend by the available resources. 

  • 247.
    Jonströmer, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Den bortglömda arbetslösheten?: En undersökning av hur socialdemokraterna beskriver sin ekonomiska politik under 1970-, 80- och 90-talet2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The economic policy of the Swedish Social Democrats has undergone major changes during the last thirty years. From using a so-called Keynesian policy to promote full employment in the economy, the Social Democrats have switched to a more monetaristic policy to promote low inflation instead. What I intend to do with this study is to see if the policy change also can be noticed in how the party describe their own policy. Have the Social Democrats been open and transparent with their change in priorities, or have they tried to hide this in their rhetoric?

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine if one can notice a change from a Keynesian to a monetaristic policy in the Social Democrat’s descriptions of their economic policy. The main research question, which I intend to answer, is: "Is it possible to notice a change from a Keynesian to monetaristic policy in the Social Democrat’s descriptions of their economic policy?"

    I have chosen to study the descriptions found in the financial forecasts, presented by the Social Democrats during their time in government rule between 1970 and 1999. The research method I use is the qualitative text analysis.

    After analyzing the descriptions found in the financial forecasts I present an answer to the main research question: Yes, it is partly possible to notice a change from a Keynesian to monetaristic policy in the Social Democrat’s descriptions of their economic policy.

    I only say partly possible because it is possible to notice the policy change that took place between the 1970s and 1980s, when low inflation was given the same priority as low unemployment. Whereas it is not possible to notice the change that took place between the 1980s and 1990s, when low inflation was given the highest priority, above low unemployment.

  • 248.
    Josefine, Bjurnemark
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Centerpartiet och perspektivskifte: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av Centerpartiets valmanifest utifrån Goodharts teori om anywhere och somewhere2019Studentarbete andra termin, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammandrag

     

    Enligt Goodharts teori så ligger ett perspektivskifte från somewhere till anywhere bakom den växande populismen som är kritisk till den senaste tidens globalisering och migration. Uppsatsen ämnar att undersöka hur de olika perspektiven kommer till uttryck och om ett perspektivskifte har skett för Centerpartiet. Partiet bör utifrån Goodharts teori ha starka kopplingar till somewhereperspektivet på grund av sin början som ett landsbygdsparti, och borde därmed visa ett tydligt perspektivskifte utifrån teorin. För att undersöka detta valdes valmanifest från 2002 och 2018 ut och analyserades genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I Centerpartiets valmanifest hittades uttryck för anywhere- och somewhereperspektiv men inget tydligt perspektivskifte, istället hittades starka kopplingar till ett anywhereperspektiv i båda valmanifesten. 

  • 249. Junedahl, Inga-Lill
    Region Värmland: En studie av samsynen inom organisationen2013Studentarbete andra terminStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 250.
    Karemi, Rejab
    Karlstads universitet.
    Alternativ för Sverige (AfS): En idéanalys om likheterna mellan fascismen och AfS sakpolitik2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Right-wing nationalist parties are growing throughout the world. The French Front National, Hungarian Jobbik, Austrian FPÖ, Danish Folkeparti (People Party), Swedish Sverigedemokraterna (Sweden Democrats), and other nationalist parties set their stake in the ground and claim a new political agenda that is either populist or extreme and Fascist. A fledgling of Sweden Democrats is Alternativ för Sverige (Alternative for Sweden – AfS). The party aspires to enter the Swedish Parliament, and it disseminates opinions that seem to go in line with Fascist ideology. To get a better understanding of this newborn and growing political party, this study compared AfS’ ideology, as expressed through their policies, with the fascism ideology by carrying out a content analysis. The results showed that AfS’ policy is rather similar to Fascism, in terms of being ultra-nationalistic, elitistic, spiritualistic, corporativistic, and authoritarian. AfS diverged from the Fascism ideology on a few minor points only, primarily by accepting private ownership and state-independent enterprises. However, AfS may be hiding an agenda that is entirely Fascist. 

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