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  • 201.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Thörne, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Epigenetic literacy and the implementation of epigenetics in school biology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to define what epigenetic literacy should be, and further investigate how it can be implemented in school biology. Epigenetics is the understanding of how the environment interplays with genes, and thus how the environment can affect human characteristics and behaviour. ‘Epi’ derives from the Greek word for ‘over’ and ‘above’ and the word ‘epigenetics’ refers to the mechanisms acting ‘above’ the sequence of the DNA base-pairs. Epigenetics has revolutionized biological theory since it explains how our life style, including factors such as exercise, stress and nutrition, influences our genes. Hence, everyday lifestyle decisions can materialistically explain cell changes and give information about the future health of, for example, students. Health issues are highly profiled in media and society today. However, epigenetics is not yet included in the biology curricula in Sweden or many other countries. Therefore, this study aims to identify what should be taught in school biology about epigenetics, and investigate how it can be integrated in genetics education.

    The study includes two ongoing sub-studies: a Delphi study and a Design study we investigate what epigenetic processes and conceptions a citizen needs to know to be able to make relevant decisions concerning both personal and social issues related to epigenetics. In the design study we develop, implement and evaluate a teaching module based on the findings from the Delphi study. Twelve in-service biology teachers at lower and upper secondary schools will take part in this study.

    In the Delphi study we identified three main areas of epigenetic literacy regarding 1) Epigenetic content knowledge, including core ideas of mechanisms, chromatin, cell differentiation, cell memory, enzymatic control, life history, reversibility and risk; 2) Epigenetic and society, including core ideas of epigenetics related to its influence on lifestyle, diseases, pregnancy, ethics, manipulation of organisms, policy, forensics, policy and crimes; 3) Organization of teaching epigenetics, an area in which most experts recommend that epigenetics should mainly be integrated with the genetic units, but also with other biology topics such as evolution, ecology and health education. The Delphi study show that epigenetics is considered a controversial topic from a scientific perspective because the view of epigenetics as a paradigm shift or not differs among the experts. Therefore, many experts recommended that epigenetics should be taught from a nature of science perspective. At the ERIDOB conference results relating to the design study will also be presented.

  • 202.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Thörne, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Recent Trends in Genetics Education Research2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    An Evaluation-study of the ESD-implementation in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    An investigation of ESD-implementation in Swedish schools by assessing students’ Sustainability Consciousness2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Investigating the effect of ESD-implementation in the Swedish school system by assessingstudents’ sustainability consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The effect of ESD-implementation in the Swedish school system on students’ sustainability consciousness2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Uitto, Anna
    Saloranta, Seppo
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    van Petegem, Peter
    Goldman, Daphe
    An investigation of ESD-implementation in Swedish schools by assessing students’ sustainability consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet.
    On the issue of‘ Research in 'Didactics of Biology’2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet.
    On the issue of ’research in didactics of biology’: Definitions and demarcations2016In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference of European Researchers in Didactics of Biology / [ed] T. Tal, A. Yarden, Haifa, Israel: Technion Israel Institute of Technology and The Weitzmann Institute of Science , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet.
    On the issue of’research in didactics of biology’: Definitions and demarcations2016In: The future of biology education research: A selection of papers presented at the 10thconference of European Researchers in Didactics of Biology / [ed] Tali Tal, Anat Yarden, Haifa, Israel: The Technion, Israel Institute of Technology and The Weitzmann Institute of Science , 2016, 1, p. 155-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Per, Sund
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Stockholms universitet.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    How to teach sustainability within secondary biology education?: A study on teachers’ ideas on powerful knowledge2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Smith, Mike
    Mendel and Mendelian Genetics in School Biology2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Smith, Mike, U.
    Mercer University School of medicine.
    Mendel in the classroom: Historical controversies & modern use2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Smith, Mike, U.
    Mercer University School of Medicine.
    Twenty-First-Century Century Genetics and Genomics: Contributions of HPS Informed Research and Pedagogy2014In: International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching / [ed] Matthews, M.R., Dordrecht: Springer, 2014, 1, p. 423-467Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Clusters of concepts in molecular genetics: a study of Swedish upper secondary science students understanding2013In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept maps were constructed using the interview transcripts, and analysed. The most central concept was DNA, which served as a link between the concepts of genes and proteins. Students spontaneously introduced concepts from classical genetics to explain molecular genetics. The concept maps generated from the different group interviews were similar in that various concepts consistently appeared within specific subgroups of interconnected concepts, ie clusters. Five main clusters were identified. The students were better able to relate between concepts within a cluster than between concepts in different clusters. The clusters can be seen as representations of the students’ knowledge structures, and could be used as starting points in teaching genetics.

    We recommend that courses in genetics should begin by focusing on students’ existing connections between concepts from different clusters and then point out concepts that feature in two or more clusters such as DNA, gene, and protein.

  • 216.
    Giller, Paul
    et al.
    Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Cork, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Cork, Ireland..
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The relationship between individual habitat use and diet in brown trout2015In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonids exhibit considerable variation within and between individuals in growth, diet, foraging strategy and habitat use, but little is known about how these characteristics covary. Previous work has shown that habitat use strongly influences growth rates in brown trout (Salmo trutta). We examined individual variation in diet of PIT-tagged Salmo trutta in three stream enclosures in relation to individual habitat use, size, sex and growth. Each enclosure consisted of a fine substratum pool and a coarse substratum riffle. By placing antennae between these habitats, we continuously monitored habitat use under field conditions. Fish were recaptured four times over the 2-month study period, and diet, which was examined through stomach flushing, was related to habitat use over the previous 48h. Individual fish growth was also measured. Based on habitat use, trout were classified as either movers or stayers, with stayers being of two types, those using only pools and those using only riffles and movers using and swimming between pools and riffles. The stayers in pools took more terrestrial prey than the stayers in riffles, whereas the latter fed more on aquatic invertebrates such as the crustacean Gammarus pulex, the plecopteran Leuctra and cased caddis larvae. Movers had diets intermediate between the stayers in pools and the stayers in riffles. Results of canonical correspondence analysis showed that variation in diet amongst individual fish over the study period was significantly influenced by enclosure, growth and % time spent in the pool during the day. Graphical models of diet analysis showed that population and mean individual prey diversity tended to differ amongst enclosures and suggested that stayers in pools consumed a greater prey diversity, whereas stayers in riffles consumed more prey. Discriminant analysis of diets revealed significant discrimination by habitat and sex on two of the four sampling occasions, based on daytime habitat use, but only on one date based on night-time habitat use. Stoneflies and terrestrial prey contributed most to the separation.

  • 217.
    Gordon, T. A. C.
    et al.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Harding, H. R.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, U.K..
    Clever, F. K.
    School of Science and the Environment, John Dalton Building, Manchester Metropolitan University, U.K..
    Davidson, I. K.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Davison, W.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Montgomery, D. W.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Weatherhead, R. C.
    Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, U.K..
    Windsor, F. M.
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, U.K..
    Armstrong, J. D.
    Marine Scotland Science, Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory, U.K..
    Bardonnet, A.
    ECOBIOP, UMR 1224, INRA, Univ. Pau & Pays Adour, France.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Britton, J. R.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, U.K..
    Cote, I. M.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    D'agostino, D.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, U.K..
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Harborne, A. R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, U.S.A..
    Kahilainen, K. K.
    Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Metcalfe, N. B.
    Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, MVLS, University of Glasgow, U.K..
    Mills, S. C.
    CRIOBE, EPHE PSL Research University, French Polynesia Laboratoire d'Excellence “CORAIL”, France.
    Milner, N. J.
    APEM Ltd, School of Biological Sciences, U.K..
    Mittermayer, F. H.
    Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Germany.
    Montorio, L.
    ESE, Ecology and Ecosystem Health, Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Nedelec, S. L.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Prokkola, J. M.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Rutterford, L. A.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Salvanes, A. G. V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Simpson, S. D.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Vainikka, A.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Pinnegar, J. K.
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, U.K..
    Santos, E. M.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations2018In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 804-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.

  • 218.
    Gosselin, Marie-Pierre
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Petts, G. E.
    Univ Westminster, London W1R 8AL, England..
    Maddock, I. P.
    Univ Worcester, Inst Sci & Environm, Henwick Grove WR2 6AJ, Worcs, England..
    Mesohabitat use by bullhead (Cottus gobio)2010In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 652, no 1, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat composition and connectivity within a stream vary with changing flows but the influence of changing flow on habitat use by fish is not well understood. Meso- and microhabitat surveys were used to investigate habitat use by bullhead (Cottus gobio Linnaeus) in response to discharge variation in a small tributary of the Upper Severn, England. Mesohabitat mapping surveys were carried out over a range of summer flows (0.016-0.216 m(3) s(-1)) and were coupled with direct underwater observations (snorkelling) of fish location. Five mesohabitat types-glides, runs, riffles, chutes and pools-were present in the reach at all flows surveyed and 'backwaters' were found at three flows. The macro-morphology of the reach comprised six riffle-pool sequences divided into 27 mesohabitats with the maximum diversity (23 mesohabitats) at intermediate flows (Q (43)) and only 15 mesohabitats at Q (95). Despite low numbers of fish (N = 78), bullhead displayed a strong association (51% of the fish) with glides-relatively deep habitats having high rates of velocity increase with flow. However, 54% of the fish were observed in two large, persistent mesohabitats, a glide (34%) and a pool (20%), both located below a faster flowing mesohabitat. Habitat use curves based upon micro-habitat data showed bullhead favoured low velocities (< 0.30 m s(-1)), depths less than 0.30 m and a cobble substratum. This study illustrates the value of cross-scale investigations in linking fish ecology, flow and physical habitat variability and suggests mesohabitat size, persistence and arrangement may influence fish distribution.

  • 219.
    Grace, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    JBE and ERIDOB: working together to support biology education research2018In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are delighted that this issue of JBE includes three papers from the most recent conference of the European Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB), held at Karlstad University, Sweden. There were 129 presentations given at the conference by 165 participants representing 24 countries.

    ERIDOB was established in 1996 and holds an international conference every two years, bringing together people with an interest in biology education research from Europe and across the world. We have so far held conferences in nine different countries. ERIDOB aims to share current research, develop a greater awareness of the diversity of research traditions between countries, and provide a welcoming atmosphere for early career researchers to discuss issues in biology education research with more experienced colleagues. There is no other international conference like it anywhere in the world, and just as ERIDOB is unique in this way, we also recognise the JBE’s unique position in focusing on international research in biology education, so it makes sense that they are both working in a spirit of positive collaboration.

    These papers give an indication of the breadth of presentations at ERIDOB conferences and the diverse interests of its participants. In their paper ‘Why do parrots talk?’ co-investigation as a model for promoting family learning through conversation in a natural history gallery, Emily Harris and Mark Winterbottom from the UK analyse the learning taking place within family groups during a visit to a natural history museum. They identify a range of approaches for building meaning within the families, and discuss how simple, cost-effective learning strategies could be used to enhance family learning by encouraging dialogue and co-investigatory behaviours.

    Butterflies & wild bees: biology teachers’ PCK development through citizen science by Martin Scheuch and colleagues from Austria, explores the development of biology teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) when supporting students taking part in a citizen science project. It shows the effectiveness of citizen science in engaging teachers and students in scientific inquiry, improving the integration of science education and environmental education, and gaining a sense of place. It proposes strategies for improving citizen science in the context of learning biology in schools.

    François Lombard and colleagues from Switzerland describe A method to reveal fine-grained and diverse conceptual progressions during learning. Their paper on conceptual progression among high school biology students identifies ‘slow spots’ in learners’ progression and reveals some non-linear and often surprising conceptual pathways. The authors challenge traditional pedagogical approaches which aim to organise conceptual progression in a rigid, predetermined sequence.

    In addition to this issue of JBE, a book with 23 full research papers and 8 position papers relating to the future of biology education research, from the ERIDOB 2016 conference will be published during spring 2018.

    This year’s ERIDOB conference is at Zaragoza University in Spain on 2–6 July. Details can be found at: https://eventos.unizar.es/8746/section/7332/twelfth-conference-of-european-researchers-in-didactics-of-biology-eridob-2018.html

  • 220.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    A Nordic Perspective on Data Availability for Quantification of Losses due to Natural Hazards2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural hazards cause enormous amounts of damage worldwide every year. Since 1994 more than 1.35 billion people have lost their lives and more than 116 million homes have been damaged. Understanding of disaster risk implies knowledge about vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Quantitative damage assessments are a fundamental part of disaster risk management. There are, however, substantial challenges when quantifying damage which depends on the diversity of hazards and the fact that one hazardous event can negatively impact a society in multiple ways. The overall aim of the thesis is to analyze the relationship between climate-related natural hazards and subsequent damage for the purpose of improving the prerequisite for quantitative risk assessments in the future. The thesis concentrates on two specific types of consequences due to two types of hazards, 1) damage to buildings caused by lake floods, and 2) loss of lives caused by quick clay landslides.  Several causal relationships were established between risk factors and the extent of damages. Lake water levels increased the probability of structural building damage. Private damage reducing measures decreased the probability of structural building damage. Extent of damage decreased with distance to waterfront but increased with longer flood duration while prewar houses suffered lower flood damage compared to others. Concerning landslides, the number of fatalities increased when the number of humans in the exposed population increased. The main challenges to further damage estimation are data scarcity, insufficient detail level and the fact that the data are rarely systematically collected for scientific purposes. More efforts are needed to create structured, homogeneous and detailed damage databases with corresponding risk factors in order to further develop quantitative damage assessment of natural hazards in a Nordic perspective.

  • 221.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Risk assessment of natural hazards: Data availability and applicability for loss quantification2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative risk assessments are a fundamental part of economic analysis and natural hazard risk management models. It increases the objectivity and the transparency of risk assessments and guides policymakers in making efficient decisions when spending public resources on risk reduction. Managing hazard risks calls for an understanding of the relationships between hazard exposure and vulnerability of humans and assets.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and estimate causal relationships between hazards, exposure and vulnerability, and to evaluate the applicability of systematically collected data sets to produce reliable and generalizable quantitative information for decision support.

     

    Several causal relationships have been established. For example, the extent of lake flood damage to residential buildings depends on the duration of floods, distance to waterfront, the age of the house and in some cases the water level. Results also show that homeowners private initiative to reduce risk, prior to or during a flood, reduced their probability of suffering building damage with as much as 40 percent. Further, a causal relationship has been established between the number of people exposed to quick clay landslides and landslide fatalities.

     

    Even though several relationships were identified between flood exposure and vulnerability, the effects can only explain small parts of the total variation in damages, especially at object level. The availability of damage data in Sweden is generally low. The most comprehensive damage data sets in Sweden are held by private insurance companies and are not publicly available. Data scarcity is a barrier to quantitative natural hazard risk assessment in Sweden. More efforts should therefore be made to collect data systematically for modelling and validating standardized approaches to quantitative damage estimation.

  • 222.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Damage assessment of lake floods: Insured damage to private property during two lake floods in Sweden 2000/20012014In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 10, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses empirical data on the direct damage impact of lake floods using insurance claims for 195 private buildings. A relationship between lake water levels and insurance payments is established, but the estimated economic effects are small. Building damage also occurs in fringe areas that are not reached by surface water, which indicates a complex interplay between several factors influencing the degree of damage. Large lake floods occur over an extended time span (months). Their duration, as well as possible wind effects, should be taken into account in flood risk assessment. The slow onset of lake floods facilitates implementation of private damage-reducing measures in addition to public mitigation efforts. Private damage-reducing measures decrease the risk of structural damage to buildings, easing recovery for homeowners and society as a whole. Insurance companies can gain from investing in public flood awareness programmes and by providing information to their insurance holders on how to reduce property vulnerability in emergency situations.

  • 223.
    Graversgaard, Morten
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Smith, Laurence
    SOAS University of London, UK.
    Gertz, Flemming
    SEGES, Landbrug & Fødevarer F.M.B.A., Denmark.
    Højberg, Anker Lajer
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Langford, John
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Martinez, Grit
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    Mostert, Erik
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Ptak, Emilia
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Peterson, Heidi
    University of Minnesota, MN, USA; International Plant Nutrition Institute, MN, USA.
    Stelljes, Nico
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    van den Brink, Cors
    Royal Haskoning DHV, The Netherlands; Groningen University, The Netherlands.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Opportunities and barriers for water co-governance: A critical analysis of seven cases of diffuse water pollution from agriculture in Europe, Australia and North America2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) and its governance has received increased attention as a policy concern across the globe. Mitigation of DWPA is a complex problem that requires a mix of policy instruments and a multi-agency, broad societal response. In this paper, opportunities and barriers for developing co-governance, defined as collaborative societal involvement in the functions of government, and its suitability for mitigation of DWPA are reviewed using seven case studies in Europe (Poland, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands and UK), Australia (Murray-Darling Basin) and North America (State of Minnesota). An analytical framework for assessing opportunities and barriers of co-governance was developed and applied in this review. Results indicated that five key issues constitute both opportunities and barriers, and include: (i) pressure for change; (ii) connected governance structures and allocation of resources and funding; (iii) leadership and establishment of partnerships through capacity building; (iv) use and co-production of knowledge; and (v) time commitment to develop water co-governance

  • 224.
    Gray, Steven
    et al.
    Michigan State Univ USA.
    Voinov, Alexey
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Paolisso, Michael
    Univ Maryland, USA.
    Jordan, Rebecca
    Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    BenDor, Todd
    Univ N Carolina, USA.
    Bommel, Pierre
    CIRAD, Green Res Unit, Frankrike, Univ Costa Rica.
    Glynn, Pierre
    US Geol Survey, 432 Natl Ctr, Reston, VA 20191 USA.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, USA.
    Introne, Josh
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Kolagani, Nagesh
    Indian Inst Informat Technol IIIT Chittoor, Sri City, India.
    Laursen, Bethany
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Prell, Christina
    Univ Maryland, USA.
    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Singer, Alison
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Sterling, Eleanor
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Ctr Biodivers & Conservat, 200 Cent Pk West, New Yor.
    Zellner, Moira
    Univ Illinois, USA.
    Purpose, processes, partnerships, and products: four Ps to advance participatory socio-environmental modeling2018In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 46-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four-dimensional framework (4P) that includes reporting on dimensions of (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human-environment interactions and the consequences of ecological changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of ecological policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM.

  • 225.
    Grice, Marie
    et al.
    Uddevalla kommun.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Grantz, Helene
    Uddevalla kommun, Grundskolans utvecklingsenhet.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kompetenser för lärare inom utbildning förhållbar utveckling – konstruktionen av ett enkätinstrument2018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 262-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Empiriska studier om lärares kompetens för undervisning inom utbildning för hållbar utveckling (UHU) är efterfrågade, men få forskningsinstrument finns tillgängliga. Studiens syfte är att ta fram ett enkätinstrument som kan beskriva lärares kompetens att implementera UHU. Ett andra syfte är att undersöka samband mellan UHU-kompetens och bakgrundsvariablerna: kön, ålder, undervisningsämne och antal år i yrket. I studien undersöks gymnasielärares (n=183) förhållningssätt till undervisning om UHU på en skola med ett uttalat UHU-arbete där förhållningssätt ses som ett uttryck för lärares UHU-kompetens. Utvecklingen av enkätinstrumentet baseras på det internationellt vedertagna OECD-ramverket DeSeCo:s (Definition and Selection of Competencies) definition av kompetensbegreppet. Explorativ faktoranalys identifierade fyra dimensioner av UHU-kompetens: didaktik, motivation, kapacitet och hinder. Inga korrelationer hittades mellan dimensionerna och bakgrundsvariablerna, vilket kan bero på en gemensam skolkultur. I framtida studier behöver instrumentets validitet för lärare som inte arbetat med UHU studeras.

  • 226.
    Grip, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Metaanalys av förslag på åtgärder i kommunala olycksundersökningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper carry out a qualitative meta-analysis of 112 “proposals for action” identified in 30 of the approximately 630 accident investigations that are published on the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) website. Accident investigations have been carried out at the discretion of each municipality and then sent to the MSB, which in turn, after a secrecy review and an ethical review, publishes most of the investigations on the web page Kommunala olycksundersökningar. The accident investigations are split into a number of different categories by type of event and the categories analysed in this paper are “Automatic alarm - not fire” and “Fire - not in building”.The process of learning from accidents can be illustrated using the CHAIN model (Reporting - selection - Investigation - spread - implementation). This model attempts to show how the process of learning from accidents step by step and point out that every step must be followed and implemented for a lesson to be learned - from event to implemented lesson learned. Previous studies however have found that the steps in the CHAIN model are not followed from the beginning to the end in terms of learning from municipal accident investigations. A first problem is that some proposals listed can be unclearly formulated in terms of who is supposed to carry out the proposal, but above all, there are weaknesses in distribution and thus also the implementation of the proposals.Aim and method This paper seeks to compile, analyse and present the proposals for action contained in the selected accident investigations. The method used is a qualitative meta-analysis understood here as an "analysis of analyses" performed with the qualitative method content analysis, which may also contain quantitative elements.Findings Almost all of the proposals set out are alone in its kind. There is just two proposals contained more than once. Proposals for measures can be further divided into categories by thought, or stated, receivers and for similarities between the proposals. More than half of all proposals are targeted to Rescue services own work, either regarding the intervention itself, organizational or other planning or collaboration with other agencies or stakeholders. One group is aimed towards the operator and propose improvements in various parts of their systematic fire prevention (SBA). Two smaller groups of proposals suggests improvements for handling errors and to do changes in the products and that this information should be communicated to operators/retailers or producer. Some proposals do not fall within any of the other categories.It noted that, in principle, all suggestions are workable and implementable and that these proposals can be generalized beyond its original context into a larger one. And that this kind of qualitative meta-analysis can be a part of the CHAIN model's implementation.

  • 227.
    Gunnholt, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Facebook as a communication tool in theaftermath of a crisis: A case study of the wildfire in Vastmanland Sweden 20142016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research question was set to determine the use of the Facebookgroup Skogsbranden Vastmanland after the wildre in Vastmanland.The results can be viewed in the article Facebook as a communicationtool in the aftermath of a crisis. The aim of this disposition is to connectthe results presented in the article with the theoretical standpointtaken in this study. The Grounded Theory framework proved to be auseful standpoint throughout the thematic analysis. Uses and Grati-cations theory provided a platform to understand the public's choiceof social media and the relation to the activities within the Facebookgroup Skogsbranden Vastmanland. The theory of social amplicationgave guidance on how to reect over public understanding of risk andits implications on how and why risks are communicated in dierentways and put into dierent contexts.

  • 228.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Juvenila ålars preferenser gällande substrattyp i ramper: En studie om vilken typ av substrat i ramper som bäst hjälper den Europeiska ålen (Anguilla anguilla) förbi vattenkraftverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1970s, eel stocks have declined, and in the recent decades people have been trying to find a solution to this problem. An increased natural recruitment could help the eels to recover. Each year a large quantity of juvenile eels get stuck at hydroelectric plants. To help the eels pass by these plants, ramps can be installed, which help the eels to pass the dams. The purpose of the study was to find out what type of substrate in ramps at these hydropower plants that juvenile eels prefer. The study was conducted in two outdoor hatchery ponds where six ramps had been installed. The main study consisted of a selection test where juvenile eels had to choose between three different substrates. It was also recorded if there were some juveniles who chose to remain, in order to test if there was a significant difference between imported and wild eels when it comes to individuals that have not selected any of the ramps. A total of 500 juveniles (Wild N = 235, Imported N = 265) were included in the study. The juvenile eels were placed in net enclosures beneath the ramps, and had to choose one of the substrates and climb the ramp, or else remain in the net enclosure. The three substrates tested were plastic chain, Fish Pass ™ rigid brush mixed green (Fish Pass™) and Diadrain 25H (D-25). I found that both the wild and imported eels preferred Fish Pass™ and D-25 instead of the plastic chain. There was no significant difference between Fish Pass™ and D-25. It was also found that significantly more wild-caught than imported eels chose to stay in the enclosure instead of climbing up a ramp. The results from this study indicate that we can increase the number of juvenile eels that successfully pass by hydroelectric plants. If we place ramps covered with either Fish Pass™ or D-25 at the hydropower plants, we can help the eel’s natural recruitment.

  • 229.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitat compensation in nature-like fishways: Effects on benthos and fish2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of nature-like fishways has become an increasingly common measure to restore longitudinal connectivity in streams and rivers affected by hydroelectric development. These fishways also have the potential to function as habitat compensation measures when running waters have been degraded or lost. The habitat potential has however often been overlooked, and therefore the aim of this thesis was to examine the potential of nature-like fishways for habitat compensation, with special focus on the effect of added habitat heterogeneity.

    This thesis examines the effects of habitat diversity on the macroinvertebrate family composition and functional organization in a nature-like, biocanal-type fishway. The biocanal contained four habitat types; riffle, pool, braided channel and floodplain. The effects of habitat diversity and large woody debris on brown trout habitat choice was also investigated in the biocanal. In addition, and prior to introduction of the threatened freshwater pearl mussel into the biocanal, the suitability of different brown trout strains as hosts for the mussel was examined.

    The results show that the habitat heterogeneity in the biocanal contributed to an increased macroinvertebrate family diversity. The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community suggests that it was a heterotrophic system and more functionally similar to the main river than to the small streams that it was created to resemble. Brown trout habitat choice studies showed that high densities of large woody debris increase the probability of fish remaining at the site of release. Testing of different brown trout strains as host for the freshwater pearl mussel revealed that both wild and hatchery-reared brown trout strains were suitable hosts. In summary, the results indicate that it is possible to create a fish passage with added value through its high habitat function and that nature-like fishways can be designed to reach multiple species restoration goals.

  • 230.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jostein, Skurdal
    Stiftelsen Lillehammer museum.
    Vezza, Paolo
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Functional organization and colonization of macroinvertebrates in a nature-like fishway with added habitat heterogeneityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Invertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway in Eldforsen, Sweden; the effect of habitat design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A test for suitable fish hosts for the threatened freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) prior to reintroductionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brown trout habitat choice: relative importance of woody debris and river morphology in nature-like fishwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of adding habitat heterogeneity2013In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecosystem Restoration, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 61, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing both fish passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To date, however, the potential for habitat rehabilitation of nature-like fishways has not been fully realized. To develop the concept of how to design a nature-like fishway, a 500-m long nature-like fishway, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types: riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands), each replicated three times. The riffle sections were considered controls for typical Swedish nature-like fishways. Thus the biocanal had a more varied in-stream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition of the more diverse habitat types in the biocanal to the riffle habitats. We also made comparisons between the biocanal and six natural reference streams in the area. After two years, 63% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage along the biocanal. In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 235.
    Gustavsson, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Påverkan av habitatkomplexitet och infektionsgrad av flodpärlmusslans larver på öringinteraktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many species are today threatened by extinction. In streams and rivers, the historical clearing of obstacles in favour of transportation of floating timber has led to a decrease in the important habitat complexity. The larvae of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaitifera margaritifera) lives as a parasite on the gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta)wich effects the host negatively. In this study the effects of the activity, the amount of prey captured and the amount of initiated interaction with other trouts in different habitat complexity and different grade of infection from glochidia was investigated. The behaviour of brown trout was studies in the laboratory at Karlstads university in 2015. Analyses from data collected in laboratory studies at Karlstad University showed that there was no significant difference in activity or the amount of food captured between fish in complex and homogeneous habitats with high or low infection. In the case of initiated interactions there was a significantly higher rate of initiated interactions in homogeneous habitats than in complex habitats. The understanding of how the host is affected by parasites and even a changing habitat is important to be able to protect sensitive species with a parasitic lifecycle. 

  • 236.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effekter av stötdämpande golv som fallskadepreventiv åtgärd för äldre på särskilt boende2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fall-injuries pose a considerable public health problem in the globally growing elderly population. Reducing energy in order to prevent injuries has been successfully applied in many injury prevention fields, though less so within fall injury prevention. Compliant flooring has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate the primary injury reducing effect of complaint flooring, as well as secondary effects such as the influence on fall frequency, work environment for the staff and living conditions for the elderly in residential care.

    Falls, and the injury outcome, were registered at a residential care facility in Sweden in which some areas had compliant flooring and other areas had PVC flooring. In two quantitative studies, the difference in the outcomes of falls was studied as well as the effect on the risk of falls depending upon the flooring surface in which the event occurred. In addition, in two qualitative studies, the staff and residents were interviewed on their views on fall prevention and compliant flooring. 

    The results indicate that although the evidence is not fully conclusive, compliant flooring seems to reduce the risk of fall-injuries by over 50% without increasing the risk of falls. Results from the interviews showed that staff appreciated the compliant flooring in that it defused the falls as well as leading to greatly improved acoustics. However, there were also some challenges associated with the compliant flooring, especially the maneuvering of heavy equipment. The elderly also appreciated the intervention, even though the general interest for fall prevention was minimal.

    The results from this thesis indicates that for a frail elderly population, compliant flooring has the potential to be an effective injury prevention measure, without increasing the risk of falls. Furthermore, the results show that with some adjustments, it could also work well from the perspective of residents and staff.

  • 237.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluating Compliant Flooring As A Fall Injury Reducing Measure In A Residential Care Setting2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. A225-A226, article id PW 2708Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Preventing fall injuries among elderly in residential care facilities with impact absorbing flooring2017In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 23, p. A40-A40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Investigating the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents: initial results2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 320-32-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Fall-related injuries affect the lives of elderly to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental study investigates the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents.

    METHODS:The intervention site is a nursing home in Sweden where impact absorbing flooring was installed in parts of one of six wards (six out of 10 apartments (excluding bathrooms), the communal dining-room and parts of the corridor). The impact absorbing flooring is a 12 mm thick closed cell flexible polyurethane/polyurea composite tile (500×500 mm) with an exterior surface of polyurethane/polyurea. A generalised linear model (log-binomial) was used to calculate the RR of injury from falls on impact absorbing flooring compared to falls on regular flooring, adjusted for age, body mass index, visual and cognitive impairments.

    RESULTS:During the study period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2014), 254 falls occurred on regular flooring and 77 falls on impact absorbing flooring. The injury/fall rate was 30.3% for falls on regular flooring and 16.9% for falls on impact absorbing flooring. Adjusted for covariates, the impact absorbing flooring significantly reduced the RR of injury in the event of a fall by 59% (RR 0.41 (95% Cl 0.20 to 0.80)).

    CONCLUSIONS:This is, to our knowledge, the first study evaluating the injury-reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring in a nursing home showing statistically significant effect. The results from this study are promising, indicating the considerable potential of impact absorbing flooring as a fall-related injury intervention among frail elderly.

  • 240.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    A quasi-experimental evaluation of compliant flooring in a residential care setting2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201290Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Fall injuries affect the lives of older people to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental observational study investigates the potential fall injury reducing effect of a compliant flooring in a residential care setting.

    Methods

    The allocation of the compliant flooring was non-random. Data on fall-events and individual characteristics were collected in a residential care unit during a period of 68 months. The primary outcome was the fall injury rate per fall, and a logistic regression analysis was used to test for the effect of complaint flooring. Falls per 1000 bed days was the secondary outcome, used to measure the difference in fall risk on compliant flooring versus regular flooring.

    Results

    The event dataset is an unbalanced panel with repeated observations on 114 individuals, with 70% women. The mean age was 84.9 years of age, the average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.7, and there was a mean of 6.57 (SD: 15.28) falls per individual. The unadjusted effect estimate showed a non-significant relative risk injury reduction of 29% per fall (RR 0.71 [95% CI: 0.46–1.09]) compared to regular flooring. Re-estimating, excluding identified outliers, showed an injury risk reduction of 63% (RR 0.37 [95% CI: 0.25–0.54]). Falls per 1000 bed days showed that individuals living in apartments with compliant flooring had a fall rate of 5.3 per 1000 bed days compared to a fall rate of 8.4 per 1000 bed days among individuals living in regular apartments. This corresponds to an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.63 (95% exact Poisson CI: 0.50–0.80).

    Conclusion

    The results of this non-randomized study indicate that compliant flooring has the potential to reduce the risk of fall injury without increasing the fall risk among older people in a Swedish residential care setting.

  • 241.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    There is more to Life than Risk Avoidance: Elderly Peoples Perspectives of Falls and Compliant Flooring2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 1479586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especiallydifficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring has beenproposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding theimplementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to explore thefrail elderly person's view on falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general andspecifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure. Methods. In this qualitative study, we used the grounded theory method and conductedin depths interviews with eight elderly people in residential care.Results. The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing theconsequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results is was clearthat There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, thereforeforming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common andnormal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted toprevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everydaylife. They embraced the idea of an injury reducing compliant flooring, but their maininterests lie elsewhere.Conclusions. The results in this paper propose explanations on the obstacles ofimplementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings cangive us insights as to why interest, compliance for active fall prevention measures arelow, and on various factors that have to be taken under consideration in the process ofconstructing prevention. Compliant flooring is a passive fall injury prevention measurethat does not require the target group to make active decisions, adapt or activelyparticipate in the program. Therefore, we conclude that complaint flooring, from theperspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.

  • 242.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Fallskador bland äldre: steg för steg2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik / [ed] Ragnar Andersson, Per Nilsen, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, p. 179-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rahm, GullBritt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of Impact-Absorbing Flooring in Residential Care from the Perspectives of Enrolled Nurses2017In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls are a daily occurrence in nursing homes and few interventions for reducing fall-related injuries have proven to be effective. Impact absorbing flooring (IAF) in residential care has shown promising results in reducing fail-injuries and in the process of developing and implementing IAF all aspects are valuable to explore. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study is to describe the enrolled nurses (ENs) experiences of IAF. We carried out focus group interviews with ENs and used content analysis to process the data. The ENs experienced both negative and positive aspects with the IAF. Importantly, the ENs perceived the IAF as effective in preventing fall-injuries. They also appreciated the improvements in acoustics. Negative aspects were that the flooring initially was challenging to walk on and that it made it harder to maneuver heavy equipment. A significant and transferable finding in this study was the importance of the ENs' perceived difficulty in preventing fall-injuries amongst elderly people living in nursing homes. This seemed to be a driving force to accept the intervention. Although IAF affects the working conditions in a nursing home, ENs are willing to accept these issues given the perceived effectiveness of the intervention.

  • 244.
    Gårdmark, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för klimatanpassning: En jämförande fallstudie av Göteborgs Stad och Ale kommun2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is a fact and the climate in Sweden is becoming warmer and wetter. With increased precipitation and a rising sea level follows an enhanced flood risk. Our society must adapt to climate change and the municipalities play an important role in this effort. Climate change adaptation is characterized by uncertainty and involves many actors at different levels. The capacity of the municipalities to handle complex issues such as climate change adaptation must be enhanced. From a perspective of risk governance and institutional capacity, this thesis studies how climate change adaptation has developed in the City of Gothenburg and the municipality of Ale; two cities facing increased flood risks. Based on a study of the literature and interviews, the thesis identifies and systematizes different factors that either hinder or enable climate change adaptation. The thesis discusses how climate change adaptation in a small municipality such as Ale differs from the work in a big municipality such as Gothenburg, the impact of the expansion of the Gothenburg region on climate change adaptation and the need for a clear division of responsibility. The thesis concludes that climate change adaptation has progressed more in Gothenburg than in Ale and presents some factors that could explain why. At the same time, the thesis stresses a couple of factors shared by Gothenburg and Ale.

  • 245.
    Göthlin, Barbro
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Uppdatering av gatunamn till NVDB i Örebro kommun: Undersökning av det interna flödet samt ajourhållning år 2011-20132015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 246.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Urban Ecosystem Services with Sentinel 2-A MSI data2017Other (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contribution of fused Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data to the City Biodiversity Index (CBI)2015Other (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sentinel-1A SAR and sentinel-2A MSI data fusion for urban ecosystem service mapping2017In: Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, ISSN 2352-9385, Vol. 8, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two main objectives of this study are to evaluate the potential use and synergetic effects of ESA Sentinel-1A C-band SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for classification and mapping of ecologically important urban and peri-urban space and to introduce spatial characteristics into ecosystem service analyses based on remotely sensed data. Image resolutions between 5 m and 20 m provided by the Sentinel satellites introduce a new relevant spatial scale in-between high and medium resolution data at which not only urban areas but also their important hinterlands can be effectively and efficiently mapped. Sentinel-1/2 data fusion facilitates both the capture of ecologically relevant details while at the same time also enabling large-scale urban analyses that draw surrounding regions into consideration. The combined use of Sentinel-1A SAR in Interferometric Wide Swath mode and simulated Sentinel-2A MSI (APEX) data is being evaluated in a classification of the Zürich metropolitan area, Switzerland. The SAR image was terrain-corrected, speckle-filtered and co-registered to the simulated Sentinel-2 image. After radiometric and spatial resampling, the fused image stack was segmented and classified by SVM. After post-classification, landscape elements were investigated in terms of spatial characteristics and topological relations that are believed to influence ecosystem service supply and demand, i.e. area, contiguity, perimeter-toarearatio and distance. Based on the classification results, ecosystem service supplies and demands accounting for spatial and topological patch characteristics were attributed to 14 land cover classes. The quantification of supply and demand values resulted in a positive ecosystem service budget for Zürich. The spatially adjusted service budgets and the original budgets are similar from a landscape perspective but deviate up to 50% on thepatch level. The introduction of spatial and topological patch characteristics gives a more accurate impression of ecosystem service supply and demands and their distributions, thus enabling more detailed analyses in complexurban surroundings. The method and underlying data are considered suitable for urban land cover and ecosystem service mapping and the introduction of spatial aspects into relative ecosystem service valuation concepts is believed to add another important aspect in currently existing approaches.

  • 249.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts: A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai2015In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 38, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai andStockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated fromsupport vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix fea-tures. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configurationand to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbaniza-tion is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified byecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of croplandin both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120%in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover changewas a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results,it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high densitybuilt-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low densitybuilt-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted inecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to thedecrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very lit-tle. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2and 100 km2in Stockholm. The developed methodologyis considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitativelyevaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions inurban and regional planning.

  • 250.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower dams represent one of the major threats to river ecosystems today. The dams block migratory routes in many rivers, which is problematic for migratory fish species. Trap-and-transport may be an alternative to fish passage solutions, as a strategy to compensate for lost river connectivity. Stocking of hatchery fish is another mitigating measure often used to compensate for reduced yields in fisheries, but also as supportive breeders in declining populations.

     

    In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I also studied the function and success of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and if there are any effects of migratory timing on migratory success. Further, I evaluated upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout at fishways in rivers Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway. The goal was to determine if prior fishway experience had an effect on passage success. I identified three problems associated with the current river management, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction. Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling and brown trout. I found no evidence of Atlantic salmon affecting grayling or brown trout. Instead, Atlantic salmon were dominated by the other two species, which indicates that reintroduction of salmon may not be successful, especially if habitat diversity is constrained.

     

    Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of their ecology and life-histories. In the regulated river Klarälven, populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon and migratory brown trout have declined due to river exploitation. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments.

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