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  • 201.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Enhanced independence and quality of life through treatment with flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique of a patient with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome: a case report2009In: Cases Journal, ISSN 1757-1626, Vol. 2, no 6979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The objective of this qualitative case report was to describe experiences of flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique from the perspective of a woman with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aspergers syndrome and experiences of depression and distress.

    Case presentationThe respondent is a 36-year-old woman from Sweden, assessed and diagnosed by a neuropsychological multi-professional team in 2006. The 19-session flotation series prolonged during almost one year.

    Conclusion

    The positive development of arousal control, activity regulation, sensory integration and interpretation, cognitive functioning and emotional maturity created experiences of personal independence and quality of life. Flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique was experienced as a meaningful treatment. Additional studies of treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid disorders in adults using the flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique are strongly encouraged.

  • 202.
    Edlund, Sara M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Carlsson, Maria L.
    Örebro universitet.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet.
    Fruzzetti, Alan E.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    I see you're in pain: The effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Edlund, Sara M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Carlsson, Maria L.
    Örebro University.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet.
    Fruzzetti, Alan E.
    University of Nevada, USA.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    I see you're in pain: the effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 6, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Chronic pain not only affects the person in pain, but can also have a negative impact on relationships with loved ones. Research shows that chronic pain is associated with difficulties in marital relationships, which in turn is related to a variety of negative outcomes such as psychological distress and conflict within the family. This suggests that couples where chronic physical pain is present also struggle with emotional pain and relationship problems, and thus targeting relationship skills and interpersonal functioning might be helpful for these couples. Although studies in this area are promising, their numbers are few. In the present study, validation as a way of communicating is suggested for handling emotional expression in interpersonal interactions. Validation communicates understanding and acceptance of the other person's experience, and it has been shown to have a down-regulating effect on negative emotions. It has previously been demonstrated to be important for these couples. However, the feasibility and effects of increasing partner validation in these couples are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if a brief training session in validation for spouses would result in more validating and fewer invalidating responses towards their partners with pain, and to investigate if changes in these behavioural responses were associated with changes in emotion and pain level in the partner with pain.

    Methods

    Participants were 20 couples where at least one partner reported chronic pain. The study employed a within-groups design in which spouses of people with pain received validation training (without their partner's knowledge), and their validating and invalidating responses were rated pre- and post-intervention using a reliable observational scale. Also, positive and negative affect and subjective pain level in the persons with pain were rated pre- and post-intervention.

    Results

    Results showed that the validation training was associated with increased validating and decreased invalidating responses in the partners. Their spouses with chronic pain reported a decrease in negative affect from pre- to post-training.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the partner or closest family member, after brief validation training, increased validating responses and decreased invalidating responses towards the person with pain, which had an immediate positive impact on emotions in the other person.

    Implications

    This study suggests that using validation in interpersonal interactions is a promising tool for couples where chronic pain is present.

  • 204.
    Eduard, Liv
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Dagens mödrars syn på amning.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under många år kämpade kvinnor i Sverige för ett mera amningsfrämjande samhälle och man ville gå ifrån idén om att amma på särskilda tider. Idag framförs kritik mot att kravet på amning är ensidigt ifrån Barnavårdscentralen. Syftet med den här studien har varit att få en bild av hur dagens mödrar ser på amning. Studien har utförts med kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer med tio kvinnor. Resultatet visar att kvinnorna är beroende av omgivningens stöd men när det handlar om mötet med barnsjuksköterskan så är ett samtal där båda är delaktiga att föredra mer än att barnsjuksköterskan enbart ska agera som en expert.

  • 205. Edvardsson, B.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, A.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, P.
    Matthing, J.
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006Book (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The service excellence and innovation model: lessons from IKEA and other service frontiers2011In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 535-551Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Critical Incidents: A study of Göteborg´s municipal bus service1996Report (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kollektivtrafik i ett tjänsteperspektiv - studier av kundklagomål och kundmissnöje1996Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 209.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kritiska händelser. En studie inom Göteborgsregionens Lokaltrafik AB1996Report (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Emotions and Stability in Telecom-customer Relationships2009In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Quality Grounded in Customer Experiences, Affect and Relationships2007In: Service Excellence als Impulsgeber, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Introduction2006In: Involving Customers in New Service Development, Imperial College Press, 2006, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006Book (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Innovation and Customer Co-development2010In: The Handbook of Service Science: a research perspective / [ed] Maglio, Paul P.; Kieliszewski, Cheryl A.; Spohrer, James C. (Eds.), New York, USA: Springer , 2010, p. 561-578Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Edvardsson, Martina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Arbetsmotivation: En studie om arbetssituation och motivation hos de anställda på en livsmedelskedja i Värmland2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 216.
    Einevåg, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Vuxen anknytning som en prediktor för positiv och negativ affekt: En kvantitativ studie om vuxen anknytning och affekt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie genomfördes med syftet att undersöka eventuella samband mellan anknytningsmönster och affekt, samt undersöka hur mycket av variansen i positiv och negativ affekt som förklaras utifrån undvikande och ångestladdad anknytningsmönster. Populationen som undersöktes var studenter på olika universitet och högskolor i Sverige och totalt deltog 151 respondenter i studien.  En enkät skapades i Survey and Report och skickades sedan ut till olika studentforum på Facebook. Studenternas anknytningsmönster mättes genom instrumentet Experience in close relationships (ECR-R) och affekt mättes genom skalan Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS). Resultatet påvisade att det fanns negativ samband mellan positiv affekt, undvikande och ångestladdad anknytningsmönster. Resultatet påvisade också ett positivt samband mellan negativ affekt, undvikande och ångestladdat anknytningsmönster. Två stycken multipla regressionsanalyser genomfördes därefter med positiv och negativ affekt som beroende variabler och med undvikande och ångestladdat anknytningsmönster som prediktorvariabler. Resultatet påvisade att undvikande anknytning är en prediktor för positiv affekt och ångestladdad anknytning är en prediktor för negativ affekt. Därav kunde slutsatsen dras att studenters upplevelse av positiv och negativ affekt till viss del förklaras utav anknytningsmönstret.

  • 217.
    Ek, Daisy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Studenters fluens av kreativa idéer i relation till self-efficacy, rädsla för bedömning och personlighetsdrag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avsåg att undersöka om eventuella skillnader fanns i fluens i kreativa idéer mellan låg eller hög creative self-efficacy och låg eller hög rädsla för bedömning samt om det fanns något samband med fluens mellan creative self-efficacy, rädsla för bedömning och de olika personlighetsdragen, bigfive. Tidigare forskning har visat att kreativitet kan skilja sig beroende på vilken personlighetstyp man har, och att faktorerna self-efficacy och rädsla för bedömning påverkar kreativiteten. Undersökningen visade ingen skillnad mellan fluens och rädsla för bedömning. Däremot visade resultaten en signifikant skillnad i fluens mellan låg och hög self-efficacy. Ingen signifikans påvisades vid en korrelation mellan de olika personlighetsdragen och rädsla för bedömning med fluens. Vidare visade resultaten på en korrelation mellan fluens och creative self-efficacy. Slutsatsen är att creative self-efficacy har betydelse för kreativiteten genom att de personer med hög creative self-efficacy också är mer kreativa än de med låg. Kreativiteten påverkades inte av rädsla för bedömning. De olika personlighetsdragen och dess egenskaper hade ingen inverkan på hur kreativa personerna var. 

  • 218.
    Ek, Hans
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Psychological Factors Behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study2013In: Child & family behavior therapy (Print), ISSN 0731-7107, E-ISSN 1545-228X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 228-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal, truancy, and school phobia. The investigation was carried out in the form of a systematic review of the relevant research literature. Research shows that approximately 90% of all young people who refuse to go to school have some form of psychiatric diagnosis.

  • 219.
    Eklöf, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Blir vi mer aggressiva av att spela våldsamma pc/tv-spel?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey was carried out to investigate the connection between playing violent PC / video games and aggression. The sample consisted of respondents available on Facebook and Gamereactor's Facebook page where the survey was divided. 123 people participated in the survey, of which 85 men and 38 women. To explore participants' gaming habits they were asked how often they play the PC / video games and violent game and how funny they thought that violent PC / TV game was. Bus-Perry-Questionnaire where used to measure participants' aggressiveness which measures aggression and four subscales of aggression (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility). Spearman's correlation test was used to examine the relationship between the variables to see if the gaming habits of violent games gave higher scores on aggression or any of the four sub-scales. The results showed no significant correlation between playing violent PC / video games often and any type of aggression. Correlation existed between thinking it is fun to play violent PC / video games and verbal aggression and physical aggression. The Mann Whitney U test showed differences between men and women when it came to gaming and aggression. Men played violent PC / video games more often, thought violent PC / video games were more fun, were more physically aggressive, and women were angrier. Spearman's rank correlation showed a negative correlation between age and playing violent PC / video games frequently. Those who were younger did not consider violent games as more fun than other games. The correlation showed no significant relationship between age and aggression. It appeared, therefore, that those who were younger were more aggressive. The conclusion is that those who enjoy playing violent PC / video games tend to be more verbal aggressive and physical aggressive. Regarding the question about playing violent games often is it unclear whether the playing time affects the aggression of a person and more research is needed on the topic.

  • 220.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Do athletes have more of a cognitive profile with ADHD criteria than non-athletes?: Advantages and disadvantages in sports and schoolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research was to increase the understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a cognitive behavioral perspective. The investigation was made to examine the effect of modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using visualization. Basing our research on Salkovskis’ cognitive model of OCD,  the  aim was to investigate whether obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with ASD differs from OCD in patients with OCD alone, and to identify cognitive differences between individuals with a combination of ASD and OCD and a non-clinical control group. Further, to investigate the possibility that the criteria for ADHD, as given on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), are overrepresented in sports athletes compared to non-athletes, and that these criteria may be an advantage for athletes’ achievement rather than causing problems for these individuals. 

    In Study I, therapy was given with modified CBT including visualization.  Results showed that modified CBT, resulted in significant reduction in anxiety levels, and behavioral changes in the target behaviors.

    In Study II, three groups, individuals with ASD and OCD, individuals with only OCD, and non-clinical controls, were compared. Results showed a significant difference between participants with both ASD and OCD and participants with OCD only.

    In Study III, the interest was to examining whether athletes, compared to non-athletes, have more ADHD-like symptoms in the two settings i.e. in school and leisure time/ sport activity and whether the cognitive profile that includes these criteria could be of advantage to their sport performance. The results showed significant differences between the groups and within the athlete’s group, in school and in leisure time/the sports activity, concerning ASRS scores.

    One general conclusion from these investigations is that the cognitive profiles of ASD and ADHD need to be recognized and taken into consideration early in the daily life both at home and in school, to reduce the risk of comorbidity.

  • 222.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The Cognitive Profile of Persons with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder2018In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 14, p. 304-311, article id CPEMH-14-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). But to what extent can obsessional symptoms in individuals with ASD be considered “genuinely” comorbid OCD – or are there other mechanisms that are related to ASD? Which mechanisms in OCD with and without ASD share common features? People with ASD have a cognitive profile characterized by “mindblindness”; the antecedent is often referred to in terms of not knowing how to perform or behave and this is the cause of discomfort. This raises the question whether individuals with ASD and comorbid OCD share the same cognitive elements of responsibility interpretation and the same fear of causing harm as individuals who merely have OCD.

    Objective: The aim of the present study is therefore to evaluate the extent of responsibility interpretation in individuals with OCD alone compared with people experiencing OCD in the context of ASD.

    Methods: Two instruments, the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS) and the Responsibility Interpretations Questionnaire (RIQ), were administered to three groups of participants: (i) individuals diagnosed with OCD (n = 32); (ii) individuals with ASD and OCD (n = 19); and (iii) non-clinical control participants (n = 23).

    Results: Results indicate significant differences in all measures of responsibility belief (interpretation of obsession and assumption of responsibility) between the OCD-only group and the two other groups.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that OCD in people with ASD is not as “genuine” as in people with only OCD, according to cognitive behavioral theory of OCD.

  • 223.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior: A quasi-experimental open pilot study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Chefers förmåga att hantera emotioner i samband med en gisslantagning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of the key aspects of emotion management during the hostage-taking and how managers handled their own and others' emotions through this event. The empirical data consisted of fourteen interviews with leaders in various positions and with separated organizational affiliations in various crisis management organizations. These kinds of organizations are intended to deal with crises that arise in society. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The results showed that when agents in a crisis management organization meet an antagonistic stressor (caused by man) two types of emotional norms are of importance. These two norms were called “emotional ruled system”. They are normally latent embedded in the everyday interactions but in acute, potentially dangerous situations they will be observed by framing the leaders' emotion handling. The first embedded norm could be explained as "focus on task and do not let emotions interfere". The second norm begins to operate simultaneously, and can be summarized as “provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security”. The emotional ruled system has a long history in organizational culture and is passed on through social processes. The result can be assumed to be characteristic for professionals who handle demanding tasks. It would therefore be interesting to report the study in educational contexts for these professionals.

  • 225.
    Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Department of Women's and Children's Health and Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Parents' Self-Reported Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Humiliating Upbringing Practices in Finland and Sweden: A Comparative Study2017In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Finland were the first countries to ban corporal punishment 30years ago. Since then, the prevalence of attitudes supporting the use of corporal punishment and the practice itself have decreased. This study examines the current frequencies of corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices in Finnish and Swedish families. The analysis is based on survey data among 3170 Finnish and 1358 Swedish parents with children from newborn to 12years of age. Data were analysed using univariate tests (chi-square) and logistic regression. According to the analysis, a larger proportion of Finnish parents, and especially mothers, use humiliating upbringing practices compared to Swedish parents. This difference is not found with regard to corporal punishment. A larger proportion of Finnish parents push their children compared to Swedish parents, while a larger proportion of Swedish parents shake their children. In both countries, corporal punishment is more frequently used by fathers, boys are more often victimised than girls, toddlers are more often exposed to corporal punishment and school-age children are more often subjected to psychologically abusive practices. Corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices are strongly correlated in both countries. The differences found between countries were not explained by socio-demographic factors.

  • 226.
    Emanuelsson, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Problemlösning i datorstödd arbetsmiljö: Påverkas kreativiteten av belastning på procedurminnet?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Emelie, Alltorp
    Karlstad University.
    Religion och ateism i förhållande till livstillfredsställelse och coping: Skiljer sig copingmekanismer och livstillfredsställelse åt mellan religiösa och icke-religiösa? En kvantitativ studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of coping and the level of life satisfaction between religious people and those who consider themselves non-believers. To test the differences atheists, two sets of data from 30 religious and 103 atheists were used. The instrument REI was created to measure the degree of belief or non-belief in order to compare the results against the belief that the participants themselves had stated. A MannWhitney U test confirmed that there is no significant difference between participants' self-assessment of belief and the results from REI. Results from independent t-tests on the life satisfaction show that the religious and the atheists do not significantly differ. Significant differences were however found in independent t-test for emotion-based, problem-based and dysfunctional coping. The religious and atheist groups differed the most on the emotion-based coping with the highest effect size of Cohen's d (d = 1.39) in comparison with the effect size of problem-based and dysfunctional coping.

  • 228.
    Emilia, Arnli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse: En enkätundersökning om samband mellan mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse hos grundskolelärare i Sverige2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker eventuellt samband mellan mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse med en socialkognitiv och arbets- och organisationspsykologisk utgångspunkt. Datainsamlingsmetoden utfördes genom en enkätundersökning och ett klusterurval användes för val av deltagare. Spearmans korrelationskoefficient användes för att prova samband. Resultatet visade på ett starkt positivt samband, men vilken riktning detta samband går är ej fastställt. Utifrån behandlad teori tyder sambandet på att ett mer dynamiskt mindset kan bidra till en högre arbetstillfredsställelse.

  • 229.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Lajksjo, Örjan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    One cristis after another: Municipal experiences of severe storm in the shadow of the tsunami2009In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical understanding of experiences of crisis management among municipal leaders Design/methodology/approach - A total of 16 chief officers and three politicians from three different municipalities were Interviewed concerning experiences of dealing with it severe storm Data were analyzed by a grounded theory approach Findings - Data analysis generated model Central to the model is all evaluation sphere, which reflects tension between everyday circumstances and crisis needs, between assessments of legislation and practices its it support or hindrance. and assessments of human vulnerability versus coping resources Manager characteristics, the societal context within which the event occurred, and crisis characteristics all Influence this evaluation sphere Particular stressors include the fact that the leaders themselves were personally affected by the storm, the difficult decisions and assessments that had to be made, the uncertainty of the situation and the timing, soon after the tsunami Crisis management, decisions and actions can be seen its formed from the evaluation sphere and the Influencing factors Research limitations/implications - The paper has a small sample and limited representativeness Generalizability of the model should be tested in other crisis events Practical implication - The model call be used its a tool to design exercises and its it guideline for authorities, in providing preparedness and crisis support Originality/value - The paper provides, a theoretical model highlighting the complex evaluations underlying managers' decisions and actions lit real-life situations

  • 230.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Lajksjo, Örjan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Why Worry?: Motivation for Crisis Preparedness Work among Municipal Leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 231.
    Englund, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nygren, Anna-Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fysisk aktivitet som en naturlig del av vardagen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study is to gain a better and deeper understanding of the predictors of long-term physical activity and exercise. There are too many people today in the community who do not exercise enough. Physical inactivity creates serious health issues, and is of importance in dealing with these issues. This study takes a positive viewpoint and tries to find out what actually motivates people who exercise to maintain their activities. Nine semi-structured interviews were carried out on women 21-38 years of age who engaged in some sort of daily physical activity and exercised at least twice a week for a period of six months or more.

    Using thematic analysis, the following eleven themes were identified: increased en-ergy and strength, better mood, important to prioritize time alone, willingness of change and adaptability, strengthened self-esteem and self-confidence, ambition and willingness of target achievement, social support, early interest and support, interest, health-consciousness, unsat-isfied needs. The conclusion drawn from this study is that there was a strong need among the study participants to engage in exercise. It was also shown that the participants anticipated the importance of time alone with themselves. They got that time through physical activity. Yet another important aspect was that all participants already had a significant interest in sports since their childhood. This early interest could have affected their current exercise be-haviour.

    Keywords: long term physical activity, motivation, predictors, well-being

  • 232.
    Englund, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Dyslektikers upplevelser i vardagen: En fenomenologisk studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva dyslektiker upplevelser vardagen då tidigare studier till största del har varit av en kvantitativ karaktär eller inte täckt av vardagsperspektivet. Detta för att ge en ökad kunskap och förstålese som sedan kan hjälpa dyslektiker, anhöriga och samhället i stort. För att uppfylla syftet valdes en kvalitativ metod utifrån ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv där data samlades in genom intervjuer och analyserades med hjälp av Interpretative Phenomenological Anaysis (IPA).

    Undersökningen bestod av fem stycken kvinnor i åldrarna 20-30 år som själva har blivit diagnostiserade med dyslexi där sysselsättning varierade mellan arbetssökande, studerande och fast anställda.

    Studiens analys resulterade i fyra teman: hantering av tillvaron, personliga behov, orättvisa och tillhörighet. Detta diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning och teorier så som till exempel utvecklingspsykologins betydelse på individen, självkänsla, kognitiva förmågor och copingstrategier.

  • 233.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Arnberg, Filip K
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Survivors’ experiences of journalists and media exposure: A retrospective qualitative study 15 years after a ferry disaster2018In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 573-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The media is an important part of disaster management, yet little is understood about their interplay with the disaster survivors. The purpose of this paper is to examine disaster survivors' long-term retrospective views of their experiences with journalists and the media coverage.Design/methodology/approachIn total, 22 Swedish adult survivors (of 49 eligible) from a ferry disaster in the Baltic Sea, in which only 137 of the 989 people onboard survived, were interviewed after 15 years about their experiences of meeting journalists in the immediate aftermath and the media coverage in a long-term perspective. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings

    Survivors from the Estonia ferry disaster described a wide array of experiences from their contacts with the disaster journalists and being exposed in the media. From their experiences, four categories were extracted. The categories were common for both their media contacts and their media exposure: strain, support, rationality and evasion. The survivors' experiences were both negative and positive.

    Research limitations/implications

    These accounts of disaster survivors' experiences from an event 15 years ago provide an interesting comparison for future studies of contemporary disasters.

    Originality/value

    This study provides important perspectives on the role of disaster coverage in the media and documents how disaster survivors retrospect on the media as both a burden and a resource.

  • 234.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Finns det ett samband mellan unga vuxnas självkänsla, optimism och livstillfredsställelse?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a quantitative survey in which participants had to answer a questionnaire about how they feel about their situation in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a connection between young adults, self-esteem, optimism and satisfaction with life. The sample consisted of a sample availability. The participants eventually became a total of 106. The variable of gender were evenly divided. The women had an average age of 26.1 years and the men had an average age of 25.2 years.

    The statistical analysis was done with parametric tests, Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient and regression analysis. The study found a significant positive correlation between optimism and life satisfaction. Since there was also a positive correlation between optimism and self-esteem,

    the condition to perform a multiple regression analysis broke. A simple regression analysis were done, where the predictor variable, self- esteem, stood against the dependent variable, life satisfaction, which demonstrated significant results. The result shows that this study can be supported in other research also emphasizes that self-esteem and life satisfaction are related.

  • 235.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Motivationsklimatets betydelse vid undervisning av lagbollsport2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Team ball games in physical education have been criticized for resembling association’s ego-oriented way of conducting it. Something I noticed when I did my PE internship was that many students were not involved in class when team ball game was exercised. Can you as a PE teacher by influencing the motivational climate get most of the students to experience more enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things in team ball games?

    Aim: The aim of the field experiment is to create two different motivational climates, task-oriented / ego-oriented, and conduct them to four PE lessons in football (European).This to demonstrate any advantages or disadvantages between the two motivational climates by using the results of students' experiences in enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things.

    Method: The study used a quantitative method in the form of questionnaires. A total of 45 grade 7 students participated in the study.

     Result: The results showed that students experienced both experimental situations task-oriented and no major differences were noticed regarding to enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things. Overall, both genders correlated stronger against all background variables (enjoyment, participation, variety, time to learn new things) in an experienced task-oriented motivational climate compared to an experienced ego-oriented. In gender comparison you can find strong correlations that especially girls who have experienced the motivational climate ego-oriented felt less enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things compared to boys.

    Discussion:

    PE lessons are different compared to association’s sports in overall when it includes girls and boys playing sports together. This is an important part of education in social and life-long skills of cooperation and physical activity. As a task-orientated motivational climate proves to be more effective in learning strategies and the belief that physical education is to develop social and life-long skills every PE teacher should be aware of  the consequences both motivational climates (task-orientate/ego-orientated) influences a group. 

     

  • 236. Eriksson, Emil
    et al.
    Granängen, Henrik
    Transformativa upplevelser av psykedeliska substanser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 237.
    Eriksson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Stress och högkänslighet hos studenter: En jämförande studie mellan kvinnor och män2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate high sensitivity and stress among students. The method was a quantitative comparative study between groups (women and men). The survey was conducted through an electronic questionnaire. The selection was an opportunity sample of women and men who studied at a university and was between the ages of 19-56, a total of 122 participants 31 men and 91 women. The participants answered a questionnaire that consisted of background questions and instruments to measure stress and high sensitivity. The results showed that high sensitivity and stress was underestimated highest among women. The conclusion is that women and men differ in high sensitivity and stress, and that stress and high sensitivity correlate.

  • 238.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias2015In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, no 12, p. 1939-1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of estimated time to arrival was provided. In an active driving task, an alternative meter indicating the inverted speed was used to debias judgements. The simulated task was to first drive a distance at a given speed, and then drive the same distance again at the speed the driver judged was required to gain exactly 3 min in travel time compared with the first drive. A control group performed the same task with a speedometer and saved less than the targeted 3 min when increasing speed from a high speed, and more than 3 min when increasing from a low speed. Participants in the alternative meter condition were closer to the target. The two studies corroborate a time saving bias and show that biased intuitive judgements can be debiased by displaying the inverted speed.

    Practitioner Summary: Previous studies have shown a cognitive bias in judgements of the time saved by increasing speed. This simulator study aims to improve driver judgements by introducing a speedometer indicating the inverted speed in active driving. The results show that the bias can be reduced by presenting the inverted speed and this finding can be used when designing in-car information systems.

  • 239.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    The time-saving bias in static-cognitive and dynamic-driving judgements2013In: / [ed] U. Ansorge, E. Kircher, C. Lamm & H. Leder, 2013, p. 73-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Swedish National Rd & Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    The time-saving bias: Judgements, cognition and perception2013In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 492-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in people's judgments of time saved by increasing the speed of an activity have been studied mainly with hypothetical scenarios (Svenson, 2008). The present study asked whether the classic time-saving bias persists as a perceptual bias when we control the speed of an activity and assess the perceived time elapsed at different speeds. Specifically, we investigated the time-saving bias in a driving simulator. Each participant was asked to first drive a distance at a given speed and then drive the same distance again at the speed she or he judged necessary to gain exactly three minutes in travel time compared to the first trip. We found that that the time-saving bias applies to active driving and that it affects the choice of driving speed. The drivers' time-saving judgements show that the perception of the time elapsed while driving does not eliminate the time-saving bias.

  • 241.
    Eriksson, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelser av behandling och möten med personal på en kiropraktorklinik.: En kvalitativ studie baserad på klienternas berättelser.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att beskriva hur klienter vid en kiropraktorklinik upplever sin kontakt med mottagningen. Sammanlagt deltog 12 klienter i studien som har gått hos kliniken under ett tidspann mellan ca 5-30 år. Deltagarna värvades via klinikens kiropraktorer och receptionister. Information samlades in via semistrukturerade intervjuer där lämpliga följdfrågor ställdes utefter respondenternas svar. Transkriberat material har utvärderats med en tematisk analys där fyra teman framskridit som beskriver klienternas huvudsakliga gemensamma tankar och upplevelser utifrån sin kontakt med kliniken. Temana var En ängslan inför kiropraktik, Upplevt engagemang, ett sätt att skapa trygghet, Känslan av att bli hjälpt samt En fungerande kropp och en tunnare plånbok. Temana berättar, utifrån deltagarnas skildringar om den ängslan som många av dem känt kring att gå till en kiropraktorklinik. Känslorna härstammar ofta ur rykten och bekantas berättelser men hör också samman med de tankar och funderingar många av dem har flera år senare då problemet trots allt är bättre men tycks ha ersatts eller rentav flyttats till ett nytt ställe i kroppen. Några av deras reflektioner handlar om huruvida kiropraktik är rätt behandlingsform för dem, eller om de bör söka annan eller kompletterande hjälp för sina besvär. Temana beskriver också en enorm trygghet och tacksamhet som klienterna känner för kliniken och personalen som arbetar där och hur de bemöter och tar hand om sina klienter på ett likvärdigt och holistiskt sätt där individerna känner sig sedda som människor. Trots att vården upplevs dyr känner de att den är värd att betala för att få behålla den hälsa de genom kiropraktiken lyckats uppnå.

  • 242.
    Eriksson, Kajsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Musikens påverkan, hur väljer vi musik att lyssna på?: En kartläggning av faktorer som påverkar valet av musik att lyssna på2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 243. Eriksson, L.
    et al.
    Norman, A-C.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Electronic Service Quality: Public Transport Information on the Internet2007In: Journal of Public TransportationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Age, cognitive load, and multimodal effects on driver response to directional warning2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 76, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inattention can be considered a primary cause of vehicular accidents or crashes, and in-car warning signals are applied to alert the driver to take action even in automated vehicles. Because of age related decline of the older driver's abilities, in-car warning signals may need adjustment to the older driver. We therefore investigated the effects of uni-, bi- and trimodal directional warnings (i.e., light, sound, vibration) on young and older drivers' responses in a driving simulator. A young group of 15 drivers (20-25 years of age) and an older group of 16 drivers (65-79 years of age) participated. In the simulations, warning signal was presented at the left, the center, or the right in front of the participant. With a warning at the left, the center, and the right the correct response was to steer to the right, brake, and steer to the left, respectively. The main results showed the older drivers' responses were slower for each type of warning compared with the young drivers' responses. Overall, the responses were slower with an added cognitively loading task. The only multimodal type of warning inducing overall faster response than its constituent warning types was the vibration-sound, and only for the older drivers. Additionally, with the groups' responses collapsed, such a true multimodal effect on response time also showed for the center vibration-sound warning (i.e., braking response). The only multimodal warning showing clear reduction in response errors compared with its constituent warning types was the vibration-sound for the older drivers during extra cognitive load. The main conclusion is that older drivers can benefit from bimodal warning, as compared with unimodal, in terms of faster and more accurate response. The potential superiority of trimodal warning is nevertheless argued.

  • 245.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Car Users' Switching to Public Transport for the Work Commute2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the present thesis was to investigate the determinants of car users’ switching to public transport when driving to work. Since the quality of services is particularly low in medium-sized cities, making the car a much more attractive option, the studies focus on car-use in such cities.

    Four studies were conducted. In the first (Paper I), an Internet survey addressing what people using their cars to commute to work in a medium-size city believe would make them reduce their car-use as well as what improvements to public transport services they believe would make them use those services was conducted. The results showed that, the further to work and/or bus stops - the more the participants desired increased frequencies and shorter travel times, but less often lower fares.

    In the second study (Paper II), using a web-based experimental simulation, participants were given the task of planning their travel to and from work, including the performing of additional activities in accordance with predetermined agendas. The main results of this were that shorter travel times and good access to bus stops led to greater bus use while constraints imposed by a busy daily agenda led to greater car-use, in particular if car costs were low.

    In the third study (Paper III) a scale for measuring satisfaction with travel was developed. A new measure of travel-related subjective well-being (SWB), a 9-item self-report Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS), was developed. The results showed that STS is reliable and differentiates between changes in travel conditions.

    In the fourth study (Paper IV) which attributes other than time and cost contribute to the preference of car over bus in the choice of travel mode was investigated. Using STS, developed in Paper III the effect of different travel modes on satisfaction with travel was studied.

    The conclusions of this thesis are that a public transport system must appear attractive, not only to its present users, but also to prospective users who currently use their cars. To appear attractive, it must not be too expensive and must have timetables and routes that allow users to travel in an efficient manner. One measure that can be used to force commuters out of their cars is higher car-use costs; however, car-use costs may need to be substantially higher than the cost of using public transport in order to be effective. As the present research has indicated, the perceived difficulty of using public transport is also an important factor. Raising car-use costs will thus be insufficient unless changes are made to public transport services. A factor complicating this is activity patterns, which are often complex. As has been indicated in the present research, the more complex the activity pattern - the more the car is used as a means of transport.

  • 246.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Determinants of Car Users’ Switching to Public Transport for the Work Commute2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Sweden.
    Toward a visual flow integrated display format to combat pilot spatial disorientation2010In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming to ascertain basic display guidelines for improved support of pilot spatial orientation (SO), the visual resonance with the perceptual mechanism for SO was explored in 2 experiments. Postural responses indicated the efficiency of visual cues to control proprioception and equilibrium sense. A display design is suggested that integrates the results with the concepts for an operational head-up display symbology. By means of improved perception of integrated pitch, roll, and yaw information and resonance of synthetic visual flow with the SO mechanism, the design may in the future contribute to combatting pilot spatial disorientation.

  • 248.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University,.
    Visual flow display for pilot spatial orientation2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot spatial disorientation (SD) is a significant cause of incidents and fatal accidents in aviation. The pilot is susceptible to SD especially in low visibility when the visual system is deprived of information from outside the cockpit. This thesis presents the notion of visual flow displays as enhancement of symbology on flight displays primarily in low visibility for improved support of the pilot’s spatial orientation (SO) and control actions.

    In Studies I and II, synthetic visual flow of forward ego-motion was presented on displays and postural responses were used as measures of display effectiveness in determining SO. The visual flow significantly affected SO, and although the increased stimulation of the visual periphery from a width of 45° to about 105° increased the effects there was no further effect at a width of about 150° (Studies I and II). Studies I and II also showed that omitting 20°- or 30°-wide central fields of view from the visual flow either reduced or not reduced the effects. Further, although inconclusive, Study II may indicate that horizon symbology in central visual field may enhance the effects of peripheral visual flow. The appropriate integration of peripheral visual flow with the head-up display symbology of the Gripen aircraft was presented.

    Acceleration in a human centrifuge was used in Study III to investigate the effects of synthetic visual flow on the primarily vestibular-dependent somatogravic illusion of pitch-up. Two experiments revealed a reduced illusion with the visual flow. The results of Experiment 2 showed the visual flow scene not only reduced the illusion compared with a darkness condition but also compared with the visual scene without visual flow. Thus, similar to the main findings of Studies I and II, synthetic visual flow can significantly affect SO and supports the visually dependent SO system in an essential manner.

  • 249.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Berglund, Aseel
    Willén, Bengt
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Petterstedt, Michael
    Carlander, Otto
    Lindahl, Björn
    Allerbo, Göran
    On visual, vibrotactile and 3D audio directional cues for dismounted soldier waypoint navigation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Bolling, Anne
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Andersson, Anders
    Ahlström, Christer
    Blissing, Björn
    Nilsson, Göran
    LDW or rumble strips in unintentional lane departures: Driver acceptance and performance2012In: Advances in Human Aspects of Road and Rail Transportation / [ed] N.A. Stanton, CRC Press, 2012, p. 77-86Conference paper (Refereed)
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