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  • 201. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Are there any cognitive differences between patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 202. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Could CGI serve as a predictor of remission?2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission2008In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practise, 12, 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission and Cognitive Ability in a Cohort of Patients with Schizophrenia2006In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 738-745Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission in Prognosis of Functional Outcome: A new dimension in the treatment of patients with schizo-psychotic disorder2007In: Schizophrenia Research, 93, 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission in schizophrenia: Where should the bar be set?2007In: European Journal of Psychiatry, 000-000Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 207. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Remission: A therapeutic goal in the treatment of schizophrenia and the choice of antipsychotic treatment2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The Importance of Remission in the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Syndromes: Clinical Long-term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis was to investigate the hypothesis whether symptomatic remission for patents with schizophrenia spectrum syndrome would provide practical and qualitative benefits for patients and for society.

    The first work (Paper I) examines the relationship between cross-sectional remission and the patients’ practical resources. The patients’ adaptations to society as well as their employments, living situations and social networks were studied. Their activity of daily living resources are described in terms of the extent to which they could pursue various undertakings autonomously. Their need for care was also studied. The results showed that the patient group that had achieved remission scored better on all of the variables studied, had better resources and less need for medical care and sheltered housing.

    The second work (Paper II) analysed the relationship between cross-sectional remission and quality of life, burden placed on patients by the illness, and the patients’ satisfaction with care received and with their medication, and also their capacity for understanding their symptoms and their illness. Even the results of this study showed that the patients in the remission group had a better quality of life, bore a lesser burden, were more satisfied with their care and had better insight into their illness.

    The third work (Paper III) studied the patients’ neurocognitive capacity to see if a higher capacity resulted in a higher percentage of patients achieving remission. The results showed unequivocally that the patients in remission consistently performed better in the cognitive tests. They also showed that they even had a larger vocabulary indicating a higher premorbid capacity.

    The fourth work (Paper IV) followed the patients over an average time of 65 months. In this study, the patients’ needs for medical care and for housing were investigated. Patients who were not in cross-sectional remission at baseline had for all the measured variables a higher consumption than those in remission even if the differences were not significant, except for patients who lived in sheltered housing and who had greater need for medical care.

    Taking all these findings together, the result of this thesis shows that the attainment of remission provides practical and qualitative advantages to the patients and to society.

  • 209.
    Helldin, Lars
    et al.
    NU Health Care, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kane, John
    The Zucker Hillside Hospital and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
    Karilampi, Ulla
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    Department of Health and Behavioural Science, Kalmar University.
    Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission2008In: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print), ISSN 1365-1501, E-ISSN 1471-1788, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Helldin, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Kane, John M.
    The Zucker Hillside Hospital and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of cross-sectional remission in schizophrenia for long-term outcome: A clinical prospective study2009In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acute alcohol tolerance in cognitive and psychomotor performance:: Influence of the alcohol dose and prior alcohol experience1997In: Alcohol 14: 125-130, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acute alcohol tolerance in social drinkers:: Changes in subjective effects dependent on the alcohol dose and prior alcohol experience1997In: Alcohol 14: 373-378, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Beck, O.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Almström, U.
    Brodin, K.
    Von Wachenfeldt, J.
    Borg, S.
    Rated well-being in relation to plasma concentrations of l- and d-methadone in satisfied and dissatisfied patients on methadone maintenance treatment1999In: Psychopharmacology 143: 385-393, 1999Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Eklund, C.
    Withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment:: Reasons for not trying to quit methadone2002In: Eur. Addict. Res. 8: 38-44, 2002Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kocys, Elo
    Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: An Evaluation of Therapies provided by Trainees at the University Psychotherapy Training Center2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p ≤ .006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p ≤ .001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients' condition. According to the therapists' estimations, 64% (SD = 32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients' perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r = .50, p < .005). By including the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) in our study it was possible to measure trueness to therapy form. An analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p ≤ .001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT genre.

  • 216.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Koechling, U.M.
    Voltaire-Carlsson, A.
    Borg, S.
    Subpopulations of alcohol-dependent patients:: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers1996In: Alcohol & Alcoholism 31: 429-438, 1996Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Lafolie, P.
    Martel, J.
    Ottosson, E.-C.
    Boreus, L.
    Beck, O.
    Borg, S.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Subjective and objective symptoms in relation to plasma methadone concentration in methadone patients1995In: Psychopharmacology, 118: 122-126, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L
    Borg, S
    Reduction of aggression during benzodiazepine withdrawal: Effects of flumazenil2010In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 148-151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L.
    Skagerberg, S.
    Acute tolerance during intravenous infusion of alcohol: Comparison of performance during ascending and steady state concentrations: a pilot study2000In: Alcohol 22: 69-74, 2000Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L
    Skagerberg, S
    Borg, S
    Should mood during intravenous alcohol administration be studied as a bi- or unipolar phenomenom?: A pilot study2010In: Alcohol, ISSN 0741-8329, E-ISSN 1873-6823, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221. Hjortsberg, C
    et al.
    Helldin, L
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Löthgren, M
    Direct and indirect costs for psychotic illness in Sweden2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the direct and indirect costs for a defined patient population with psychotic illness in Sweden was estimated. The cost analyses are based on data from the Clinical Long-term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden (CLIPS), which was an ongoing, single-centre, epidemiological study at the time of this study. A bottom-up costing approach was used to estimate the total costs for schizophrenia, schizoaffective and delusional disorders in Sweden for 2007. Resource use were captured for the patients during one year. 199 patients with a mean age of 51 (63% men) were followed for 12 months. They had a mean (median) of 6.4 (0) inpatient-days, 1.4 (1.2) physician visits, 18.6 (8.4) nurse visits, 1.2 (0) counsellor visits and 6.3 (1.2) visits to other staff including tests and diagnostic procedures per patient- year. The mean cost in our study amounted to 578,000 per patient year which translates to an estimated cost of illness of 16.8 billion SEK for Sweden. Schizophrenia and related disorders significantly interferes with professional activities and as a result, the total burden on society is great. A reallocation has taken place the last 15 years, between different cost items, from direct costs to indirect costs and from in-patient care at hospitals to out-patient care and assistance at home.

  • 222.
    Hjortsberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Swedish Inst Hlth Econ, IHE, SE-22002 Lund, Sweden.
    Helldin, Lars
    NU Hlth Care, Trollhattan, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. NU Hlth Care, Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Löthgren, M
    Janssen Cilag, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Costs for patients with psychotic illness: differences depending upon state of remission2011In: The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, ISSN 1091-4358, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic illnesses have a substantial economic burden on patients, family members, friends, and society in general, still there have been limited attempts to estimate the costs associated with this condition. Moreover, nothing is known about the differences in costs between patients depending on disease severity, i.e. state of remission.

    AIM:

    Estimate the direct and indirect costs for a defined patient population with psychotic illness in Sweden, and demonstrate differences in direct costs depending on disease severity (state of remission).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    The cost analyses are based on data from the Clinical Long-term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden (CLIPS), which is an ongoing, single-centre, epidemiological study. Resource use and disease severity were captured for the patients during one year, 2007. Total costs per patients are estimated and cost differences between patients, depending on state of remission, are considered.

    RESULTS:

    199 patients with a mean age of 51 (63% men) were followed for 12 months. They had a mean of 6.4 inpatient-days, 1.4 physician visits, 18.6 nurse visits, 1.2 counsellor visits and 6.3 visits to other staff including tests and diagnostic procedures per patient- year. The mean total cost (direct and indirect) amounted to 62,500 per patient and year. Patients in steady state of remission had lower direct costs compared to other patients. Moreover, the size of the various cost items differed between patients' depending on state of remission. Patients in steady remission had almost no inpatient costs.

    DISCUSSION:

    For a comprehensive assessment of treatment of psychotic illnesses it is necessary to provide evidence of the costs related to disease severity. We find that patients suffering from psychotic illness have varying costs depending on their disease severity, and this study indicates that if patients can be kept in remission direct costs will decrease. We can also confirm that reallocation has taken place the last 15 years, between different cost items, from in-patient care at hospitals to out-patient care and assistance at home.

    LIMITATIONS:

    Information about informal care was collected from patients and not from informal carers themselves.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE:

    Costs have been reallocated from in-patient care to costs for assistance at home, which is a reflection of the change in care of patients with mental problems that has taken place during the last 15 years. Patients in steady remission have lower costs compared to patients in steady non-remission or patients switching between the two states. A better surveillance of the disorder would lead to lower direct, as well as indirect, costs.

  • 223.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Assessing Family Burden of Psychotic Illness in Clinical Practice2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was twofold. One purpose was to create a user-friendly instrument to be used in regular clinical practice to collect information regarding family burden of psychotic illness. The second purpose was to study how family burden could be linked to the patients’ level of functioning, the patients’ cognition and the patients’ own experience of their illness.    

    Two studies were conducted. In the first study (Paper I) the instrument Burden Inventory for Relatives to persons with Psychotic disturbances (BIRP) was created. This instrument contained ten statements and showed good psychometrical properties for those dimensions that were investigated. The instrument measures three dimensions of experienced family burden: practical burden, emotional burden, and the relatives’ own health. In the second study (Paper II) the second part of this thesis purpose was investigated. Results showed that increased family burden could be tied to the patients’ impaired functioning as well as to the patients’ higher self ratings regarding distress. The cognitive connection to family burden is not totally clear though, and should be further investigated. A theoretical model which explains the experienced family burden of psychotic illness is also presented within this thesis.

    The conclusions of this thesis are that BIRP is a useful instrument in regular clinical practise for measuring experienced family burden, and that the patients’ level of functioning and the patients’ own experience of their illness were correlated to the family burden experienced.

  • 224.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    BUP Värmland: en utvärdering av hur personalen uppfattar effekterna av omorganisation och förstärkning av vårdgarantin2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar resultatet av en utvärdering som har gjorts om hur personalen vid BUP Värmland uppfattar effekterna av en omorganisation och förstärkningen av vårdgarantin för de olika patientgrupperna. FoU Välfärd Värmland, Karlstads universitet, fick uppdraget av BUP Värmland, Landstinget i Värmland, att under hösten 2011 genomföra utvärderingen vilket gjordes genom en enkätstudie vänd till samtlig personal vid BUP Värmland. 

    Utifrån den höga svarsfrekvensen och utförligheten i svaren, kan det konstateras att personalen vid BUP Värmland är mycket engagerad och mån om att verksamheten skall hålla en hög kvalitet. Organisationens struktur i sig är de flesta svarande nöjda med, men ett stort problem som många beskriver är att mängden patienter upplevs som oproportionerlig i förhållande till befintliga resurser inom BUP Värmland. Detta påverkar också möjligheterna att klara av den förstärkta vårdgarantin som har högprioriterats, enligt de flesta svarande på bekostnad av mer långsiktiga kvalitetsparametrar inom vården. Exempelvis uppges den tydlighet i nya organisationens flöde som var tänkt för patienter med neuropsykiatrisk problematik ha påverkats negativt av en högprioriterad vårdgaranti utifrån de begränsade resurser som finns. Organisationens delar inom BUP Värmland som utgörs av fyra olika enheter, upplevs också av flera i personalen som alltför åtskilda sinsemellan. Personalen är mån om bibehållandet av nuvarande kompetens genom fortbildning och handledning samt rekrytering av ny kompetens för att ännu bättre kunna möta aktuella och framtida vårdbehov.

  • 225.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Screening Family Burden in Clinical Practice: The development of a new instrument and investigation of its correlates to psychotic disorders2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to develop a short and user-friendly instrument for the assessment of family burden caused by psychotic disorders. A secondary purpose is to further investigate variables that might be linked to an increased burden. Of these variables, patients’ reduced functioning will be addressed in more detail. As a final purpose, ratings of disorder-related variables carried out by staff will be compared to similar ratings carried out by relatives. These different purposes are investigated in five studies.

    In the first study (Paper I) the instrument Burden Inventory for Relatives to persons with Psychotic disturbances (BIRP) is created. This new screening instrument contains ten statements and shows good psychometrical properties for those dimensions that are investigated. In the second study (Paper II) results show that increased family burden can be tied to patients’ impaired functioning as well as to patients’ higher self ratings regarding distress. In the third study (Paper III) different parts of patients’ observable behavioral functioning are investigated and results show that most functional dimensions correlate with family burden. Also staff ratings of function are compared with relatives’ ratings and despite similar patterns in ratings there are differences. In the fourth study (Paper IV) demographic variables are studied and results show that only higher age and fewer contact hours correlate significantly with lower burden.  Also, the BIRP instrument shows good stability. In the fifth study (Paper V) correlations with family burden are generally stronger for relatives’ own ratings of illness activity as compared to symptom ratings made by staff. Relatives’ ratings of illness activity do not correlate significantly with staff symptom ratings on all instruments used.

    The conclusions of this thesis are that the new screening instrument BIRP can be considered a good instrument to use in regular clinical practice in order to measure relatives’ burden in connection to psychotic disorders. Also, the thesis contributes with knowledge about what in the psychotic disorder and which demographic factors might be linked to an increase of family burden. Findings also indicate that it matters who does the rating of a disorder-related variable. Furthermore, in this thesis a theoretical framework for family burden is presented.

     

  • 226.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Are there different attitudes to medication for patients with psychosis, considering their antipsychotic medication and cross sectional remission status?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Clinical Long term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden (CLIPS), 159 outpatients were investigated regarding their present antipsychotic treatment, symptom severity and their attitude to medication with the DAI-10. The attitude to medication was more positive in the group with less symptom severity, while there were no differences in attitudes between patients treated with clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone

  • 227.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    How is family burden correlated to the patients´ symptoms, function, quality of life and attitude to medication?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    How is family burden correlated to the patients' symptoms, function, quality of life and attitude to medication?2008In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 468-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research has concluded that symptom severity is an important factor for explaining family burden related to psychotic illness. Some studies also point out the impaired function of the ill person as a contributing factor to the burden. However, there are few investigations that also considerate the ill persons own view of his/her quality of life and attitude to medication. This study investigates how persons with psychosis symptom severity, functional disability, quality of life and attitude to medication, could be correlated to family burden.

  • 229.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness activity of medical history: what is most important for family burden in schizophrenia? The impact of remission2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness activity or medical history: what is most important for family burden in schizophrenia? The impact of remission2007In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 17, p. 498-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Olsson, A-K.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Function in patients with psychosis measured by UPSA-B in relation to their cross sectional remission status2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how cross sectional remission and functional performance in psychotic outpatients are linked together. Even though there are some differences between the remission groups there are also substantial overlaps between the groups, proving that functional performance and symptom severity are two separate dimensions

  • 232.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Karilampi, Ulla
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness Related Components for the Family Burden of Relatives to Patients with Psychotic Illness2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 275-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that symptom severity often implies an increased family burden. Few other illness related variables have, however, been investigated in this context. This study investigates how family burden is affected by symptom, function, and cognition, as well as how the patient perceives his/her illness and quality of life. Method: A total of 99 relatives, to as many patients diagnosed with psychosis and with their illness at a stable level, participated in this study. The relatives estimated their perceived burden, the patients rated the distress caused by their illness as well as the quality of their lives, and the care staff rated the patients’ symptom and function as well as tested their cognitive abilities. Results: Increased family burden can be tied to the patients’ increased symptom severity, to their impaired functioning as well as to the patients’ higher self ratings regarding distress. The family burden is also connected to the patient’s reduced working memory and reduced executive functioning, but this connection is not totally clear and should be further investigated. Of the variables that the patients were rated on, it was the overall functional ability measured with GAF that had the single most impact on perceived family burden. Conclusions: To control illness related variables such as symptoms, impaired functioning, impaired working memory and executive functioning, as well as the patients’ own experiences of distress, is important in order to lessen the burden for the relatives. All aspects of family burden are, however, not explained by these factors, which is why further research within this realm is required.

  • 233.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Family burden and demographic correlates in a naturalistic Swedish test-retest setting following relatives to persons with psychotic disorders2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric Properties of the Burden Inventory for Relatives of Persons with Psychotic Disturbances2008In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 103, p. 58p. 323-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that close relatives are heavily burdened when a family member has schizophrenia. The current purpose was twofold, (1) to examine the psychometric properties for a test of the burden of family members, one used in Swedish clinical practice (the Care Burden Scale for Relatives) and (2) develop a shortened version with the same or better psychometric properties. Ninety-nine close relatives, 34 men and 65 women, of the same number of patients who had been diagnosed either with schizophrenia or with schizoaffective disorder, were studied. Participants completed the Care Burden Scale for Relatives and a visual analogue scale measuring perceived global burden on which the total burden was assessed. Patients of the close relatives were assessed on clinical tests often used in the psychiatric care, in an attempt to validate the external criteria, such as severity of symptoms and level of functioning. The resulting instrument, Burden Inventory for Relatives of persons with Psychotic disturbances, showed good psychometric properties which simplifies data collection from relatives of patients with psychotic disturbances. In this study, relatives of those patients not in remission evinced a significant greater family burden.

  • 235.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Relatives' and staff ratings of present illness activity from psychotic disorder and their relation to perceived family burden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. NU Healthcare, Dept Psychiat, S-46185 Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. NU Healthcare, Dept Psychiat, S-46185 Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Family burden and functional assessment in the Swedish CLIPS-study: Do staff and relatives agree on individuals with psychotic disorders' functional status?2012In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 581-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    In this study, the individuals with psychotic disorders' daily life function was investigated on six dimensions considering their relations to family burden. Functional ratings carried out by relatives and staff were also compared.

    METHODS:

    Totally 88 relatives, to as many individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, participated in this study. Relatives were to rate their own perceived burden and their ill relatives' physical functioning, personal care skills, interpersonal relationships, social acceptability, activities, and work skills. The outpatient staff, in all 24 case managers also rated the patients' functional level on the same assessment tool as did the relatives.

    RESULTS:

    Most dimensions of patients' everyday functioning were highly correlated to relatives' burden. The two functional dimensions "interpersonal relationships" and "activities" were best at classifying burden when rated by relatives. Also, comparing independent functional ratings by relatives and staff showed that despite great agreements on most dimensions, they differed significantly on "social acceptability" where relatives rated the function to be poorer and "activities" where relatives rated the function to be better.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Relatives, who perceive individuals with a psychotic disorder to be limited in their ability to interpersonal relationships and limited in their ability to activate in everyday life, are more likely to perceive a higher burden. Even though staff and relatives mainly agree on the patients' functional ability, they often differ in ratings regarding patients' social acceptability and ability to activate in everyday life. This should be worth considering in clinical practice as well as in future research.

  • 237.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    The effect of effort, control and value frames on online users privacy decision2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A frame refers to a decision maker’s perception of a decision problem. Frames affect outcomes of decisions and are partially controlled by how decision problems are formulated. This study investigated the effect of framing alternatives in a privacy decision as gaining or losing value, need to make an effort and gaining control in an online environment. Also a structure among the many effects found in earlier research concerning privacy in the context of Internet based services was sought. For these purposes two experiments and one survey were conducted at a university in Sweden. The study included 238 individuals, 197 of them being in the age range of 19-30. The participants were approached in public areas at the University and were asked to register on a fictive online cloud service. During registration they got a choice of registering automatically with little control and manually with control over what information would be published. The most salient effect found was the impact of framing the low control alternative as time saving, meaning that the participants were willing to give up privacy to save time. The practical implication of these results would be for developers of new online services to focus on making it easy and time efficient to take control over private information. For value and control frames no significant effects were found. Also exploring the result of the survey, a structure with the two components online concern and willingness to take risk online were found.

  • 238. Högström Brandt, A.-M.
    et al.
    Thorburn, D.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, S.
    Prediction of relapses in alcohol dependent patients1999In: Alcohol 18: 35-42, 1999Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Borås hospital.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Malm, Ulf
    Inst. for clinical neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University, Gothenburg.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Consumer satisfaction, quality of life and distress with regard to social function and gender in severe mental illness2011In: Open Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 2161-7325, no 1, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The relationships between subjectivesatisfaction, distress and quality of life for severelymental ill patients with different functional levels andgender was investigated in a multi-center cohort,using a balanced mix of subjective and clinician ratingsin an outcome-informed model for a clinicalmanagement based on shared decision making, "TheQuality Star". METHODS: Naturalistic data for 2552persons, mainly with schizophrenia diagnoses, in longtermtreatment and rehabilitation, were analyzed in across-sectional study. RESULTS: With increasingSocial Function, rated with the split-GAF Disability/Functioning scale, the better were patients' Satisfaction,subjective Quality of life and Perceived GlobalDistress. Women were more satisfied with thecare but also more distressed. CONCLUSION: Mainfindings were in line with other studies. However, thegender differences are in line with some, but not withother, studies. This poses questions how patient factors,instrument constructs, and treatment, especiallyshared decision making, influence subjective reports.

  • 240.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Psychiatric services, Borås Hospital.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Malm, Ulf
    Institution for clinical neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University, Gothenburg.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The Self-Assessment Percieved Global Distress scale: Reliability and Construct Validity2011In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 241. Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Tungstrom, Stefan
    R&D Psychiat Serv, S-78327 Sater, Sweden..
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Malm, Ulf
    Gothenburg Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Subjective Quality of Life, Distress, Satisfaction with Service Scales related to Observer GAF-Functional Ratings in Severe Mental Illness2012In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, ISSN 1091-4358, E-ISSN 1099-176X, Vol. 15, p. S12-S12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Psychiatric services, Borås Hospital.
    Ulf, Malm
    Institute for Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The self-assessment Global Quality of Life scale: Reliability and construct validity2010In: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print), ISSN 1365-1501, E-ISSN 1471-1788, Vol. 14, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hagman, Olle
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Polk, Merrit
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Affective-Symbolic and Instrumental-Independence Psychological Motives Mediating Effects of Socio-Demographic Variables on Daily Car Use2011In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gamble, Amelie
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Polk, Merritt
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Influences of affect associated with routine out-of-home activities on subjective well-being2012In: Applied Research in Quality of Life, ISSN 1871-2584, E-ISSN 1871-2576, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic variables accounted for most variance in CSWB (7%) and least in mood (2%). In agreement with previous research, CSWB increased with income, employment, and cohabiting with a spouse, and had a U-formed relationship with age. Affect associated with routine activities accounted for more variance than the socio-demographic variables in mood (30%) and in CSWB (13%). Mood partially mediated the effect on CSWB of affect associated with the activities. The results suggest that future policy-related research should consider the possibility that community-provided resources that facilitate performance of routine out-of-home activities would increase life satisfaction

  • 245. Jakobsson, C.
    et al.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The role of the car for everyday activities and subjective well-being2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Jancke, Christoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Klädselns påverkan på förtroendet2016Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mayer, Davis och Schoorman (1995) definierar förtroende som villighet att vara beroende av en annan individ, och då också göra sig sårbar, i tron att individen kommer göra något som anses som viktigt för den egna personen. Khanfar, Zapantis, Alkhateeb, Clauson och Beckey (2013) fann att apotekarens klädsel påverkade förtroendet de fick. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om utomstående persons kläder påverkar förtroende vid grupparbete. Frågeställningarna var Påverkar klädseln på en person utanför gruppen förtroendet för den egna gruppen vid en mattematisk gruppuppgift och Påverkar klädseln på en person utanför gruppen förtroendet för personen utanför gruppen vid en mattematisk gruppuppgift. Ett experiment genomfördes där 20 deltagare slumpades i två olika betingelser där person utanför gruppen hade träningskläder eller kavaj på sig. Ett instrument skapades för att mäta förtroende till gruppen och förtroende till person utanför gruppen. Resultatet visade ingen signifikant skillnad för förtroende till person utanför gruppen men en signifikant minskning av förtroendet till gruppen.

  • 247. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The achievement of timing at the highest competitive level: the necessity of a "driving" concept2005In: Athletic Insight, 7 (2). Retrieved August 6, 2005, from http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol7lss2/AchievementofTiming.htmlArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 248. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Timing in sports performance: psychophysiological analysis of technique in male and female athletes2003In: Athletic Insight, 5 (4). Retrieved December 15, 2003, from http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol5lss4/Timing.htmlArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 249. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tajmingens betydelse inom idrotten: Vad händer vid prestationstillfället?2002In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 11 (2), 42-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 250. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Varför är de så bra? Om betydelsen av en drivande tanke och att aldrig ge upp. Intervjuer med svenska OS-guldmedaljörer2003In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 12 (4), 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
2345678 201 - 250 of 569
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