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  • 201.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    D’Andreagiovanni, Fabio
    Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB), Germany.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fair Optimization of Mesh-Connected WLAN Hotspots2015In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 924-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Wireless mesh networks mesh access points (MAPs) forward traffic wirelessly towards users or Internet gateways. A user device usually connects to the MAP with the strongest signal, as such MAP should guarantee the best quality of service. However, this connection policy may lead to: (i) unfairness towards users that are distant from gateways; (ii) uneven distribution of users to MAPs; and (iii) inefficient use of network paths. We present a new model and solution approach to the problem of assigning users to MAPs and routing the data within the mesh network with the objective of providing max–min fair throughput. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem (MILP). Because of the inherent complexity of the problem, real size instances cannot be solved to optimality within the time limits for online optimization. Therefore, we propose an original heuristic solution algorithm for the resulting MILP. Both numerical comparisons and network simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic. For random networks, the heuristic achieves 98% of the optimal solution. Network simulations show that in medium-sized networks, the number of users with at least 1Mbit/s minimum end-to-end rate increases by 550% when compared with the classical signal-strength based association.

  • 202.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Adaptive Aggregierung von VoIP Paketen in Wireless Mesh Networks2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Architecture and Algorithms for User Association and Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 204.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    KAUMesh Demo: A MultiRadio MultiChannel Mesh Testbed2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this demo, we will present KAUMesh, an experimental Wireless Broadband Mesh Network based on 802.11a/b/g WLAN devices that has been deployed at the Karlstad University Campus. KAUMesh comprises currently 20 mesh nodes, which are permanently installed to cover large areas inside the new House 21. Standard 802.11b/g based clients can be used to connect to the mesh as they would to any given normal WLAN access point. KAUMesh features multiple gateways that connect the mesh network towards the internet. By deploying multiple radio cards in mesh nodes, KAUMesh is able to fully exploit available spectrum in the mesh backbone. One radio card interface is used for transparent client access, using typically 802.11b/g mode. The mesh backhaul connectivity is established using multiple radio interfaces per mesh node. The interfaces involved in the backhaul use a hybrid channel assignment mechanism, which rebalances channel usage according to user demand. As the hybrid channel assignment involves channel switching, a novel scheduling approach for making the channel switching QoS aware has been developed. KAUMesh also supports 802.11e standard on the mesh interface to provide service differentiation on the mesh backhaul

  • 205.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    On Packet Aggregation for VoIP in Wireless Meshed Networks2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bayer, Nico
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Einsiedler, Hans
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Method and System for Centralized Control of User Associations in Wireless Mesh Networks2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 207.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bayer, Nico
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Einsiedler, Hans
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Peylo, Christoph
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Optimization of WLAN associations considering handover costs2012In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) hotspots the coverage areas of Access Points (APs) often overlap considerably. Current state of the art optimization models find the optimal AP for each user station by balancing the load across the network. Recent studies have shown that in typical commercial WLAN hotspots the median connection duration is short. In such dynamic network settings the mentioned optimization models might cause many handovers between APs to accommodate for user arrivals or mobility. We introduce a new mixed integer linear optimization problem that allows to optimize handovers but takes into account the costs of handovers such as signaling and communication interruption. Using our model and extensive numeric simulations we show that disregarding the handover costs leads to low performance. Based on this insight we design a new optimization scheme that uses estimates of future station arrivals and mobility patterns. We show that our scheme outperforms current optimization mechanisms and is robust against estimation errors

  • 208.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bayer, Nico
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Einsiedler, Hans
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Peylo, Christoph
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Chow, Lawrence
    Stanford University.
    Collins, Bradley
    Stanford University.
    Bambos, Nicholas
    Stanford University.
    Daniel, Mellado
    Miguel, Sanchez
    A Software Defined Networking Approach for Handover Management with Real-Time Video in WLANs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cavalcanti de Castro, Marcel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Paolo Delia, Francesco
    Avallone, Stefano
    OLSR and Net-X as a Framework for Channel Assignment Experiments: Poster Presentation2009In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM international workshop on Experimental evaluation and characterization WiNTECH 09, NewYork: ACM , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a software framework for channel assingment and routing experiments in multi-channel/multi-radio wireless mesh networks.Based on a plug-in architecture we develop a traffic demand-aware channel assignment algorithm. The evaluation in KAUMesh - an experimental multi-radio mesh network - shows around 30% throughput improvement with respect to a traffic un-aware channel assignment scheme

  • 210.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Einsiedler, Hans
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Bayer, Nico
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Peylo, Christoph
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Software Defined Networking for the Management and Operation of WLANs2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 211.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Staehle, Barbara
    Staehle, Dirk
    Pries, Rastin
    Hirth,, Matthias
    Measuring One-Way Delay in Wireless Mesh Networks: An Experimental Investigation2009In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM workshop on Performance monitoring and measurement of heterogeneous wireless and wired networks, New York: ACM , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Mesh networks are multi-hop networks mostly based on IEEE 802.11 technology and are considered as a viable alternative for providing broadband wireless Internet access. As a consequence, they require support for Quality of Service or advanced mechanisms for selecting Internet gateways. One important requiredinformation is the one-way delay between different nodes. In this paper, we have developed, implemented, and evaluated an one-way delay estimation technique for wireless mesh networks which is based on estimating intra node queuing and inter node forwarding delay. An IP-header option field is used to accumulate the per hop delay estimate to provide an end-to-end estimate. We also outline problems with the implementation and compare results with real one-way delays obtained from a 14 node mesh testbed.We show how estimation accuracy depends on network load and provide insights into further improvements

  • 212.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Vestin, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    CloudMAC - Using OpenFlow to Process 802.11 MAC Frames in the Cloud2013In: PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation, ISSN 0930-5157, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 53-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Dely, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Vestin, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bayer, Nico
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Einsiedler, Hans
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    Peylo, Christoph
    Telekom Innovation Laboratories.
    CloudMAC: An OpenFlow based Architecture for 802.11 MAC Layer Processing in the Cloud2012In: 2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps 2012): Proceedings of a meeting held 3-7 December 2012, Anaheim, California, USA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 186-191Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Di Felice, Marco
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Chowdhury, Kaushik Roy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, USA.
    Kim, Wooseong
    Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bononi, Luciano
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna, Italy.
    End-to-end Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: An Evaluation Study2010In: Performance evaluation (Print), ISSN 0166-5316, E-ISSN 1872-745X, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 859-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) constitute a viable solution to solve the current problems of inefficiency in the spectrum allocation, and to deploy highly reconfigurable and self-organizing wireless networks. Cognitive radio (CR) devices are envisaged to utilize the spectrum in an opportunistic way by dynamically accessing different licensed portions of the spectrum. To this aim, most of the recent research has mainly focused on devising spectrum sensing and sharing algorithms at the link layer, so that CR devices can operate without interfering with the transmissions of other licensed users, also called primary users (PUs). However, it is also important to consider the impact of such schemes on the higher layers of the protocol stack, in order to provide efficient end-to-end data delivery. At present, routing and transport layer protocols constitute an important yet not deeply investigated area of research over CRAHNs. This paper provides three main contributions on the modeling and performance evaluation of end-to-end protocols (e.g. routing and transport layer protocols) for CRAHNs. First, we describe NS2-CRAHN, an extension of the NS-2 simulator, which is designed to support realistic simulation of CRAHNs. NS2-CRAHN contains an accurate yet flexible modeling of the activities of PUs and of the cognitive cycle implemented by each CR user. Second, we analyze the impact of CRAHNs characteristics over the route formation process, by considering different routing metrics and route discovery algorithms. Finally, we study TCP performance over CRAHNs, by considering the impact of three factors on different TCP variants: (i) spectrum sensing cycle, (ii) interference from PUs and (iii) channel heterogeneity. Simulation results highlight the differences of CRAHNs with traditional ad hoc networks and provide useful directions for the design of novel end-to-end protocols for CRAHNs.

  • 215.
    Dobrijevic, Ognjen
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Skorin-Kapov, Lea
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Matijasevic, Maja
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    QoE-Driven Path Optimization Model for Multimedia Services2014In: Wired/Wireless Internet Communications : 12th International Conference, WIWIK14, Paris, FRANCE, May 26-28, 2014 Proceedings, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8458, p. 134-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When delivering multimedia services over Internet, different media types are impacted by resource limitations in a different way. While an interactive audio service calls for low-latency communication, video streams should be routed over network paths with sufficient capacity. However, in current networks flows towards the same destination follow the same path, which may lead to a suboptimal resource utilization that effectively penalizes end-users' quality of experience (QoE). This paper proposes Q-POINT, a QoE-driven path optimization model to fairly maximize aggregated end-user QoE for competing clients' service flows by calculating the best path for each flow, subject to resource constraints. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer linear program integrating QoE models for audio, video and data transfer. Such an approach can be leveraged within the software-defined networking paradigm, which provides a control plane to orchestrate path set-up. We evaluate our model and illustrate its benefits over shortest path selection.

  • 216.
    Doolin, Kevin
    et al.
    Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    Pashalidis, Andreas
    NEC Europe Ltd., Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Mota, Telma
    PT Inovação S.A., Portugal.
    Context-Aware Multimedia Services in a Pervasive Environment: The Daidalos Approach2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 Ambi-Sys workshop on Software Organisation and MonIToring of Ambient Systems, ICST , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a clear trend towards making multimedia applications context-aware so as to customize them by taking into account any collection of information which may be relevant, such as e.g. user location. However, current multimedia services are dominated by IMS, which is seen as a service platform that uses the SIP protocol to access all services that the internet can provide. In this paper, we describe the Daidalos approach on making IMS based multi-media services context-aware. We also demonstrate, how generic sensor networks can be integrated into the context management system of our platform thus enabling sensor network detected events to influence behavior of context-aware multimedia applications

  • 217.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Haglund, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Mattsson, J.
    Analysis Planning, Improvisation and Control in the Development of New Services - some Swedisch experiences1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evaluation of Emulab as Experimental Platform by comparing TCP and SCTP2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to evaluate new protocols it is important to have access to good experimental environments. Several experiments are needed to verify different aspects of protocol performance as well as robustness under various network conditions. Emulab is a new public experimental platform which is available for remote users. The ambition is that Emulab should offer the user the possibility to perform both simulation and emulation of a network. In addition, Emulab offers access to an experimental live network. This thesis presents a study where a series of tests are performed on the Emulab platform and also gives an introduction to SCTP. The first objective of the thesis is to obtain practical experience and to evaluate the usability of Emulab and the second objective is to compare the throughput between the transport protocols TCP and SCTP. The experiences from using Emulab are very positive. The results show that Emulab is a reliable and robust platform with high availability. The throughput comparison did not reveal significant differences between SCTP and TCP under moderate traffic load. Further tests and analyses are necessary to obtain a clear view of the situation in a heavily loaded network

  • 219.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Impact of SACK delay and link delay on Failover performance in SCTP2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) was developed

    to support the transfer of telephony signaling over

    IP networks. One of the ambitions when designing SCTP

    was to offer a robust transfer of traffic between hosts. For

    this reason SCTP was designed to support multihoming,

    which gives the possibility to set up several paths between

    the same hosts in the same session. If the primary path between

    a source machine and a destination machine breaks

    down, the traffic may still be sent to the destination by utilizing

    one of the alternate paths. The failover that occurs

    when changing path is to be transparent to the application.

    Consequently, the time between occurrence of a break on

    the primary path until the traffic is run smoothly on one of

    the alternate paths is important. This paper presents experimental

    results concerning SCTP failover performance. The

    focus in this paper is to evaluate the impact of the SACK

    delay and link delay on the failover time as well as on the

    maximum transfer time for a single message, which complements

    earlier studies in this area. The results show a

    significant performance impact of the SACK delay as well

    as of the link delay. This suggests that the SACK delay

    is an important parameter to tune to enhance application

    transparency in failure situations

  • 220.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Performance of Network Redundancy Mechanisms in SCTP2005Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the ambitions when designing the Stream Control Transmission Protocol was to offer a robust transfer of traffic between hosts. For this reason SCTP was designed to support multihoming, which presumes the possibility to set up several paths between the same hosts in the same session. If the primary path between a source machine and a destination machine breaks down, the traffic may still be sent to the destination, by utilizing one of the alternate paths. The failover that occurs when changing path is to be transparent to the application.



    This paper describes the results from an experiment concerning SCTP failover performance, which means the time between occurrence of a break on the primary path until the traffic is run smoothly on the alternate path. The experiment is performed mainly to verify the Linux Kernel implementation of SCTP (LK-SCTP) and is run on the Emulab platform. The results will serve as a basis for further experiments.



    The experiment is performed in a network without concurrent traffic and in conclusion the results from the experiment correspond well to the values found in other studies and they are close to the theoretical best values. As expected the parameter Path.Max.Retrans has a great impact on the failover time. One observation is that the failover time and the max transfer time for a message are dependent upon the status in the network when the break of the primary path occurs.

  • 221.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheimonidis, Georgios
    Ismailov, Yuri
    Delay Penalty during SCTP Handover2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly growing interest in untethered Internet connections such as WLAN and 3G/4G mobile connections,calls for intelligent session management, not least in terms of handovers. As part of an effort to develop a SCTP-based session management framework, we are studying ways of improving the SCTP handover delay forreal-time traffic by optimizing the startup delay on the handover-target path. We have developed a theoretical model that predicts the transfer times of SCTP messages during the startup on a new path. This paper validates our model. It shows that the model can be used to predict message transfer times in variable bitrate flows. The paper further employs our model to study the startup delay penalty during handover for the spectrum of network conditions considered relevant for real-time traffic over mobile connections.

  • 222.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheimonidis, Georgios
    Ismailov, Yuri
    Impact of Slow Start on SCTP Handover Performance2011In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks: ICCCN2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly growing interest in untethered Internet connections, especially in terms of WLAN and 3G/4G mobile connections, calls for intelligent session management: a mobile device should be able to provide a reasonable end-user experience despite location changes, disconnection periods and, not least, handovers. As part of an effort to develop a SCTP-based session management framework that meets these criteria, we are studying ways of improving the SCTP handover delay for real-time traffic; especially the startup delay on the connection between a mobile device and the target access point. To obtain an appreciation of the theoretically feasible gains of optimizing the startup delay on the handover-target path, we have developed a model that predicts the transfer times of SCTP messages during slow start. This paper experimentally validates our model and demonstrates that it could be used to predict the message transfer times in a variable bitrate flow by approximating the variable flow with a constant dito. It also employs our model to obtain an appreciation of the startup delay penalties incured by slow start during handovers in typical mobile, real-time traffic scenarios.

  • 223.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Using multiple paths in SCTP to reduce latency for signaling traffic2018In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 129, p. 184-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in traffic volumes as well as the heterogeneity in network infrastructure in the upcoming 5G cellular networks will lead to a dramatic increase in volumes of control traffic, i.e., signaling traffic, in the networks. Moreover, the increasing number of low-power devices with an on-off behavior to save energy will generate extra control traffic. These increased traffic volumes for signaling traffic, often generated as bursts of messages, will challenge the signaling application timing requirements on transmission. One of the major transport protocols deployed for signaling traffic in cellular networks is the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), with support for multiple paths as well as for independent data flows. This paper evaluates transmission over several paths in SCTP to keep the latency low despite increasing traffic volumes. We explore different transmission strategies and find that concurrent multipath transfer over several paths will significantly reduce latency for transmission over network paths with the same or similar delay. Still, over heterogeneous paths, careful, continuous sender scheduling is crucial to keep latency low. To this end, we design and evaluate a sender scheduler that considers path characteristics as well as queuing status and data flows of different priority to make scheduling decisions. Our results indicate that by careful dynamic sender scheduling, concurrent multipath transfer could lead to reduced latency for signaling traffic irrespective of path or traffic characteristics.

  • 224. Ellegård, Alvar
    et al.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pedersén, Olof
    Alfabet2000In: Nationalencyklopedin, 2:a uppl. (=Supplementbanden, DVD,, webbplats www.ne.se), Höganäs: Bra Böckers Bokförlag , 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Elsholz, Jan-Patrick
    et al.
    Institute of Distributed Systems, Ulm University, Germany.
    Schmidt, Holger
    Institute of Distributed Systems, Ulm University, Germany.
    Schober, Sven
    Institute of Distributed Systems, Ulm University, Germany.
    Hauck, Franz J
    Institute of Distributed Systems, Ulm University, Germany.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Instant-X: Towards a Generic API for Multimedia Middleware2009In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Internet Multimedia Systems Architecture and Applications, IEEE Press, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalisation of our society leads to an increasing need for spontaneous communication. However, the development of such applications is a tedious and error-prone process. This results from the fact that in general only basic functionality is available in terms of protocol implementations and encoders/decoders. This leads to inflexible proprietary software systems implementing unavailable functionality on their own. In this work we introduce Instant-X, a novel component-based middleware platform for multimedia applications. Unlike related work, Instant-X provides a generic programming model with an API for essential tasks of multimedia applications with respect to signalling and data transmission. This API abstracts from concrete component implementations and thus allows replacing specific protocol implementations without changing the application code. Furthermore, Instant-X supports dynamic deployment, i.e., unavailable components can be automatically loaded at runtime. To show the feasibility of our approach we evaluated our Instant-X prototype regarding code complexity and performance.

  • 226. Endeshaw, T.
    et al.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jakobsson, Andreas
    Fast Classification of Indecent Video by Low Complexity Repetitive Motion Detection2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Flachsland, Cecilia
    Rosenberg, Violeta
    Youth, Memory and Justice: The Cromañón Case and Communication in an Age of Precariousness2009In: Youth Engaging with the World : Media, Communication and Social Change / [ed] Thomas Tufte ; Florencia Enghel, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tufte, Thomas
    Youth engaging with media and communication: different, unequal and disconnected?2009In: Youth Engaging with the World : Media, Communication and Social Change / [ed] Thomas Tufte ; Florencia Enghel, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tufte, Thomas
    Youth engaging with the world/Media, communication and social change2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Enghel, Florencia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Wilkins, Karin
    The privatization of participation in development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    ICT, teacher education and assessment: What is assessed and how is it done?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is mandatory for student teachers in Sweden to show an ability to use ICT in pedagogical activities to obtain a teacher's degree, this ability is not always assessed in courses. Student teachers themselves claim that they are not enough prepared, not only in Sweden. Assessment in teacher training has two sides, the students will be assessed themselves, but they will also learn how to assess others. When ICT is involved there are further two sides; the student teachers ability to use ICT will be assessed and ICT can be used for assessment. When discussing teacher training, ICT and assessment there are several perspectives to take into account. This paper presents a review of research within the area, but it also takes a step further and looks at how ICT is used in combination with assessment in other parts of higher education to discuss how teacher education can be developed in this respect.

  • 232. Escudero-Pascual, A.
    et al.
    Holleboom, Thijs Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy for location data in mobile networks, a summary2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU Directive 2002/58/EC has introduced, by means of Art. 9, special protection for location data other than traffic data. In this paper, we argue that also location data within traffic data can contain sensitive information about the relative positioning and co-located displacements of mobile nodes and thus also

    requires special protection.



    Brief discussions are given to how mobility is supported in IP networks, to the level of privacy protection for location data that was introduced in the new European Union data protection directive, and to means of protecting privacy by technology. The concept of \textit{co-located displacements in

    MobileIP} is introduced and we show how the home agent will be able to determine whether or not a set of mobile nodes move in a co-located fashion.



    Finally we present how, also for location information within traffic data, privacy-enhancing technologies can be used to provide the level of privacy protection that is required by Art. 9 of the EU Directive 2002/58/EC for location data other than traffic data.

  • 233. Faigl, Zoltán
    et al.
    Fazekas, Péter
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Analytical Analysis of the Performance Overheads of IPsec in Mobile IPv6 Scenarios2008In: Advances in Mobile and Wireless Communications: Views of the 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communication Summit / [ed] István Frigyes, Janos Bito, and Péter Bakki, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 234. Faigl, Zoltán
    et al.
    Fazekas, Péter
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Performance Analysis of IPsec in MIPv6 Scenarios2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an analysis of the performance overheads caused by the processing and space requirements of IPsec when protecting Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) signaling. Signaling between the Mobile Nodes and the Home Agent (HA) in a large-scale reference scenario is considered. The analysis is based on queuing theory and focuses on the overall utilization of the HA by the MIPv6 signaling processes as well as the total mean response time for a mobility process in the network. The results can assist network designers in finding the most appropriate security configuration for their specific network and mobility scenario

  • 235. Faigl, Zoltán
    et al.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Experimental Evaluation of the Performance Costs of Different IKEv2 Authentication Methods2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the costs of different IKEv2 authentication methods. The studied methods are pre-shared keys (PSK), extensible authentication protocol (EAP) using MD5 and TLS, which are typically referred to as EAP-MD5 and EAP-TLS, respectively. For the EAP-based methods RADIUS is used as AAA server. Different lengths of certification chains are studied in the EAP-TLS case. The paper first presents a brief overview of the considered authentication methods. Then, an experimental comparison of the costs for computations and messages transfers associated with the authentication methods are provided. The measurement results illustrate the practical costs involved for IKEv2 authentication, and show the performance implications of using different authentication methods. EAP-TLS is several times more demanding than both PSK and EAP-MD5. When EAP-TLS is used, the length of certificate chains also has a notable impact on performance

  • 236. Faigl, Zoltán
    et al.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    IKEv2 Performance when Protecting Mobile IPv6 Signaling2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an analysis of the performance overheads caused by the processing and space requirements of the IKEv2 protocol using Diameter and EAP-TLS authentication when protecting Mobile IPv6 signaling. IKEv2 negotiation between mobile nodes, the home agent, and the AAA server in a large-scale reference scenario is considered. The analysis is based on queuing theory and focuses on the overall utilization of the home agent and the AAA server by the IKEv2 reauthentication processes as well as the total mean response time for such a process in the network

  • 237. Faigl, Zoltán
    et al.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Tóth, Katalin
    Providing Tunable Security in IEEE 802.11i Enabled Networks2006Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic idea of QoS is to provide mechanisms that can offer different service levels, which are expressed through well-defined parameters that are specified at run-time on the basis of need. Bit rate, throughput, delay, jitter, and packet loss rate are all examples of common QoS parameters suggested for packet networks. These parameters are all aimed to express (and guarantee) a certain service level with respect to reliability and/or performance. In this report, we investigate how security can be treated as yet another QoS parameter through the use of tunable security services. The main idea with this work is to let users specify a trade-off between security and performance through the choice of available security configuration(s). The performance metric used is latency. The concept is illustrated using the IEEE 802.11i wireless local area networking standard.

  • 238. Falkheimer, Jesper
    et al.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Geographies of Communication: The Spatial Turn in Media Studies2006Book (Refereed)
  • 239. Feiten, B.
    et al.
    Wolf, I.
    Guenkova-Luy, T.
    Schorr, A.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    New mode for rfc3640: AAC-BSAC with MPEG-21 gBSD: draft-feiten-avt-bsacmode-for-rfc3640-00.txt, Feb2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This draft proposes a mode for RFC 3640 to support an MPEG-4 AAC-BSAC audio codec format with an optional attached bitstream description. The bitstream description employs the MPEG-21 generalized Bitstream Syntax Description Language (gBSDL). The description is attached as auxiliary header and can be used to support adaptation

  • 240. Fernández Gago, M. Carmen
    et al.
    Tountopoulos, Vassilis
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Nuñez, David
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Koulouris, Theo
    Tools for Cloud Accountability: A4Cloud Tutorial2015In: Privacy and Identity Management for the Future Internet in the Age of Globalisation: 9th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Patras, Greece, September 7-12, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Jan Camenisch, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Marit Hansen, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 219-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is becoming a key IT infrastructure technology being adopted progressively by companies and users. Still, there are issues and uncertainties surrounding its adoption, such as security and how users data is dealt with that require attention from developers, researchers, providers and users. The A4Cloud project tries to help solving the problem of accountability in the cloud by providing tools that support the process of achieving accountability. This paper presents the contents of the first A4Cloud tutorial. These contents include basic concepts and tools developed within the project. In particular, we will review how metrics can aid the accountability process and some of the tools that the A4Cloud project will produce such as the Data Track Tool (DTT) and the Cloud Offering Advisory Tool (COAT).

  • 241. Ferreira, Lucio
    et al.
    Perez-Romero, Jordi
    Tralli, Velio
    Fazekas, Peter
    Oliver, Miquel
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Agustí, Ramón
    QoS Provision in Wireless Networks: Mobility, Security, and Radio Resource Management: An Overview2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 242.
    Fida, Mah-Rukh
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Argyriou, Antonios
    University of Thessaly, Greece.
    Demo: experimentation in controlled and operational LTE settings with FLEX-MONROE2017In: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization WiNTECH '17, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 93-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo paper presents FLEX-MONROE, a platform that facilitates better understanding of current LTE Mobile Broadband(MBB) networks and enables performance improvementsby allowing experimentation with controllable LTE parameters. The platform enables investigating impact oflow-level network parameter tweaks in LTE infrastructure onthe application performance. We argue that FLEX-MONROEis crucial to provide guidelines on improving application performance both in the current and future MBB networks

  • 243.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Anonymity2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems, Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 90-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    IT-Security and Privacy: Design and Use of Privacy-Enhancing Security Mechanisms2001Book (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy and Security at Risk in the Global Information Society2000Report (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pseudonymity2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems / [ed] Liu, Ling; Özsu, M.Tamer, Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 2207-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Conflict between Privacy and Digital Forensics2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 248.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Unobservability2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems / [ed] Liu, Ling; Özsu, M.Tamer, Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 3240-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Andersson, Christer
    Framework V0: PRIME project deliverable D14.0a2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This document establishes the initial framework (V0) for the PRIME (Privacy and Identity

    Management for Europe) project, which is a holistic framework that provides a detailed map of

    privacy-enhancing identity management: it defines the problem space, the vision of PRIME, lists

    the PRIME stakeholders and clarifies their roles and responsibilities. It provides a set of

    application scenarios and describes the legal and social environment of PRIME as well as

    business models and economic drivers. Besides, it defines PRIME concepts and terminology and

    discusses PRIME models for users and metaphors.

    This initial PRIME framework describes work in progress and will be further elaborated and

    refined for the PRIME framework V1.

  • 250.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Andersson, Christer
    Privacy Risks and Challenges for the Mobile Internet2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the mobile Internet offers many useful services, it also

    poses new social risks and challenges that have to be

    addressed by law and technology. This paper will present

    trends for location based service applications and will discuss

    their privacy challenges and risks. It will discuss how far the

    EU Directive 2002/58/EC on privacy and electronic

    communications can help to protect privacy in mobile

    environments and what are the Directives limitations and

    controversies. Finally, it will be outlined how privacy enhancing

    technologies can help to technically enforce legal

    privacy requirements of EU Directive 2002/58/EC.

2345678 201 - 250 of 886
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