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  • 151.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Hamari, Juho
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 152.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Olsson, Marcus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Gamified in-store shopping: A field experiment integrating gamification with location based services2016Ingår i: 23rd Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference, July 11-14, 2016, Edinburgh, Scotland: Book of abstracts / [ed] S. Rasouli & H.J.P. Timmermans, Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 153.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Olsson, Marcus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Gamified in-store shopping: A field experiment investigating the effect off gamification2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 154.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Olsson Ramberg, Marcus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    BI Norwegian Business School, Norway.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences2019Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, s. 122-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to understand how gamification contributes to customers’ value creation in a retail context and how this value creation relates to brand engagement. The study builds on a field experiment using a two-group between-subjects design combined with correlational research. The experiment involved 378 participants recruited at a major European sports retailer. Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: one with a gamified activity in a store, and one in which the participants performed the same activity without being exposed to any game elements. The findings show that gamification affects the hedonic value of an activity and that this effect can be partly explained by positive affect. When this hedonic value was compared to the satisfaction with a reward, the hedonic value was found to be a better predictor of continued engagement intention. Finally, gamification through continued engagement intention is positively associated with brand engagement.

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  • 155.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising2019Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, s. 298-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

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  • 156.
    Högström, Claes
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Fit in to stand out: An experience perspective on value creation2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to grow and survive, a firm must create value with consumers in ways that both fit in with consumer demands and stand out from competitors. Focusing on and understanding consumer and firm assessments of value and creation of value has become a central scope in the contemporary strategic management and marketing literature for understanding and explaining firm survival and success. Consequently, the overall aim of this thesis is to provide a conceptually and empirically grounded understanding of consumers’ and managers’ value assessments and behavior in value creation.

    This thesis draws on a consumer experience perspective and theories on social construction, organizational identity, self-congruence, and the theory of attractive quality, and combines multiple qualitative and quantitative studies. The findings in this thesis shed light on the interplay between consumers, firms, and contextual structures in value creation. Contextual structural, cultural, and political forces are shown to affect and be affected by the shared and individual cognitions of value creation that firms and consumers use in their assessment and creation value.

    The results of the study enhance the understanding of how firms can adopt various strategic schemas or organizing logics to optimize different types of use value creation when choosing between opposing and contradictive demands in their value creation. Furthermore, the thesis provides a deeper understanding of the hierarchical nature of consumer judgments of value that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of firm prioritizations and as a foundation for future value-creating strategies.

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  • 157.
    Högström, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Davoudi, Sara
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Relevant and Preferred Public Service: A study of user experiences and value creation in public transit2016Ingår i: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 65-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When public service success is dependent upon creating value that attracts users, public managers can benefit from adopting private sector principles. This article draws on the theory of attractive quality and strategic management research to focus on the theoretical and managerial implications of how organizations' resource allocations affect user experiences. The present study shows how public transit organizations' achievement of twenty-five different service requirements affected their offerings' relevance and preference among 930 users. This article increases the understanding of how strategic choices and prioritization between various service requirements affect both the effectiveness and efficiency of (public) service offerings.

  • 158.
    Högström, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bard
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Hedmark University College, Norway.
    Strategic brand management: Archetypes for managing brands through paradoxes2015Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 391-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although brands are acknowledged as significant assets in a firm's value creation and differentiation process, branding literature often describes opposing perspectives and contradictory demands. This article develops a framework of three strategic brand management archetypes that provide new insights into the complexity and often paradoxical ambiguity of branding. By combining an empirical qualitative study with extant brand management and relational exchange theory, the authors suggests that firms create, reinforce, switch, or allow certain brand management archetypes to coexist to optimize specific effects and manage paradoxes. From a managerial perspective, the article suggests that understanding strategic brand management and related paradoxes is fundamental for organizations to achieve desired effects with their value creation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

  • 159.
    Isaksson, Raine Birger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.;Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Lulea University of Technology, Sweden..
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    The crippled bottom line - measuring and managing sustainability2015Ingår i: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 334-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Sustainability can be assessed in the dimensions Profit, Planet and People. A problem with the approach is that these dimensions cannot be added. Another problem is that performance seldom is related to global system boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to study the "what" of sustainability by linking this to global boundaries and proposing "how" the authors could manage change toward sustainability. Design/methodology/approach - Sustainability definitions are reviewed to identify main stakeholders. People value defined as utility is compared to Planet harm as carbon emissions and People harm as prices of products. This approach is examined in business studying the global processes of housing, transporting, providing food and cement manufacturing. Findings - The relative indicators with focus on People utility compare to Planet and People harm seem to be relevant for measuring the level of sustainability. The Crippled Bottom Line of People value/Planet harm and People value/Planet harm is proposed as the "what" to measure and the change process of "understanding-defining-measuring-communicating-leading change" is proposed as the "how" to change. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on identifying the main stakeholders based on sustainability definitions and from that point mostly on deductive reasoning. Practical implications - The practical implications are that organizations could define sustainability indicators with objectives that are linked to global limits. Social implications - Advocating the use of price as a social indicator could have social implications. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the discussion of how to link global limits to organizational measurements and targets.

  • 160.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Norrbotten County Council.
    Pareigis, Jörg
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Sustaining swedens competitive position: Lean lifelong learning2015Ingår i: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 92-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore what options the adult learner has for continued learning and what role universities are playing in providing net-based education. Current options for lifelong learning and improvement opportunities in the educational process are described based on an assessment inspired by principles of lean management. Design/methodology/approach – Sweden is chosen as an example. The current level of net-based university education and the demand for it is assessed using official Swedish data. Lean management principles are used as a starting point to define parameters for interest for the adult learner. These parameters are then converted into a five-level scale for assessing current performance with focus on university courses. The authors also study how Swedish County Councils manage their employee education and carry out a check of courses offered by massive open online course providers. Findings – Lean management principles in combination with customer focus seem to present relevant parameters for assessing distance education. Preliminary results indicate that lean lifelong learning has a considerable improvement potential. The main reasons for this potential seem to be more of a bureaucratic and political nature, whereas technology and resources appear to be less of an issue. Practical implications – The results have implications for both universities and organisations. The pressure on universities to become more customer-focussed, while at the same time, cost-effectiveness is likely to increase. Originality/value – Using the customer perspective for educational services and applying lean principles to education.

  • 161.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland Univ, Humanities & Social Sci, Visby, Sweden..
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Lulea Univ Technol, Lulea, Sweden..
    Towards a Model for Measuring University Sustainability2013Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL, Academic Conferences Limited, 2013, s. 213-221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The multitude of challenges related to sustainable development require, not only a shift in mind-set but also high competence in most sectors of employment. But how could we know if a university education is going to provide necessary competence in sustainable development? A model being developed to measure university sustainability is the Assessment Instrument of Sustainability in Higher Education (AISHE). Using the logic of self-assessment and based on the Triple Bottom Line this model deals with operations, education, research, interaction with society and core values with a so called identity module. The model makes an operationalization of sustainable development and its structure should be usable for constructing a quick assessment system similar to those of many business excellence models. Finding out the level of university sustainability is clearly not very easy for presumptive students. Furthermore, we can assume that since being sustainable is politically correct there is a risk of "sustainability washing" of information provided. Current university ranking systems do not seem to correspond well with how universities are working with sustainable development. The research question is if the AISHE-model could be converted into a credible quick assessment tool by relying on information provided by the university web-site. For this to work the university needs to have a culture that promotes transparency. With the rapid development of information technology it could be expected that more and more countries will have the conditions for using web-sites for providing the necessary information. Swedish university web-sites are used for testing the model. Sweden has a high level of transparency and is therefore thought to form a suitable example. This paper deals with conceptual development of the assessment model. Further studies will be carried out to validate the model. Results indicate that a structured web-site analysis can be used to quantify information that is organised according to chosen parts of the AISHE-model. The first results indicate that Swedish universities still have a long way to go in becoming sustainable.

  • 162.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Turku, Finland..
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Inst Ind Engn, Dept New Serv Dev, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Linkoping Univ, Linkoping.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Schfer, Adrienne
    Lucerne Univ Appl Sci & Arts, Dept Serv Management, Luzern, Switzerland..
    Reynoso, Javier
    Tecnol Monterrey, Dept Serv Management Res, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico..
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Econ & Business Management Sci, Milan, Italy..
    Weitlaner, Doris
    Campus 02 Univ Appl Sci, Dept Informat Technol & Business Informat, Graz, Austria..
    Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services2017Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 329-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results. Findings - Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types. Practical implications - The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed. Originality/value - This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the "one size fits all" assumption evident in current NSD research.

  • 163.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Eawag/Environmental Social Sciences/Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Born solution providers Dynamic capabilities for providing solutions: Dynamic capabilities for providing solutions2018Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 73, s. 31-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our investigation draws on a qualitative study, which explores the anomaly of Born Solution Providers. Compared to the traditional assumption that product companies shift toward solutions during the maturity phase, companies can already offer solutions in the market development phase. We investigate the dynamic capabilities for providing solutions in the market development phase. Our findings reveal a microfoundation of dynamic capabilities. This microfoundation is structured into 10 dimensions along sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring activities. Within these 10 dimensions, we disaggregate the dynamic capabilities into individual skills and organizational routines. Interestingly, organizations utilize routines underlying the options for each dimension (e.g., routines for sensing internal and external opportunities, seizing standardization, and customization), but they tend to stick to routines for one of these options. Individual skills enable organizations to balance the options. Our results suggest that these individual skills evolve through higher-order processes, namely, single- and double-loop learning activities.

  • 164.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Digital transformation as an enabler for advanced services in the sanitation sector2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id 752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People in Base of the Pyramid markets still face difficulties when it comes to sanitation. Container-based Sanitation (CBS) services represent a promising advanced sanitation service. Despite the observed outcomes of CBS services, organizations face obstacles when providing these services. To overcome these obstacles, digital transformations of these services are being carried out. We rely on multiple case studies to understand these digital transformations. Our findings highlight (1) the challenges these case organizations faced before engaging in the digital transformation, (2) their individual digital transformation pathways, and (3) a general framework for digital transformations in BoP markets.

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  • 165.
    Johansson, A. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Raddats, C.
    Management School University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Linköping University, Sweden.
    The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers2019Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, s. 328-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is a key driver of service infusion for manufacturers. Although service innovation is widely researched for service firms, it is less explored for service infusion in manufacturers. Existing research about service infusion considers developing customer knowledge in sales and service delivery, but there is scarce research about how manufacturers develop customer knowledge during new service development (NSD). This study investigates customer knowledge development within manufacturers and considers how it differs between the development of incremental and radical service innovations. A study was undertaken with 239 European manufacturers which revealed multiple drivers of customer knowledge development, service innovation performance, and firm performance. Developing incremental service innovations are more successful when customers participate in NSD teams while developing radical service innovations leads manufacturers to higher firm performance. 

  • 166.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Changing quality initiative - does the quality profile really change?2013Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, nr 1-2, s. 79-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm working with quality management over time may change from total quality management to Six Sigma to lean production, but does this actually change the firm's quality profile? This paper seeks to identify specific quality profiles in service firms and how these profiles change over time. The empirical investigation is based on self-assessment studies conducted in 138 Swedish service firms. The results show that service firms often build up a specific quality profile, which they retain over time. The paper develops theoretical and managerial implications based on the research.

  • 167.
    Jouny-River, Eloide
    et al.
    ESSCA School of Management, Angers, France.
    Reynoso, Javier
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Determinants of Co-creation of B-to-B Services2017Ingår i: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 85-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis paper aims to identify and analyze factors that determine firms' commitment to co-create new services with business customers.Design/methodology/approachA quantitative study based on a scenario method, involving an online survey of French service companies, reveals the determinants of commitment to service co-creation.FindingsCustomer benefits and organizational sacrifices, as well as firm-related factors (specialization, partners' involvement and innovativeness) correlate with firms' commitment to co-create new services. The proposed, empirically grounded model details factors that determine firms' commitment to co-create new services with business customers, including innovative culture as a key determinant.Practical implicationsThe identified factors that affect firms' commitment to co-create services can guide managers' efforts to improve customer relationships and thus their service innovation processes.Originality/valueThis study identifies and analyzes characteristics of committed firms, as well as the benefits and sacrifices they face in co-creating new services, in a novel way. Thus, it helps define the fit between a service offering and business customers' participation in new service development contexts.

  • 168.
    Kaluza, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Sjukskrivnas arbetsbörda: Arbetande medborgare möter en kundorienterad byråkrati2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling är baserad på en empirisk studie av Försäkringskassan. Teoretiskt tar avhandlingen sitt avstamp i litteraturen om arbetande konsumenter och kundorienterade byråkratier. Följande paradox utgör avhandlingens utgångspunkt: för att kvalificera för sjukförsäkring måste medborgarens förmåga att utföra sitt arbete vara begränsad samtidigt som handläggningen av sjukförsäkringen förutsätter att medborgaren utför arbete för att få tillgång till den. För att förklara hur paradoxen hanteras så är syftet med avhandlingen att kartlägga och förklara de praktiker som arbetande medborgares samt kundorienterade byråkrater, med stöd av andra aktörer, utför för att realisera sjukförsäkringen. Kartläggningen resulterar i konstaterandet att arbetet består av åtta praktiker uppdelade i två teman; stödpraktiker och kontrollpraktiker. Utifrån praktikteori diskuteras sedan hur dessa praktiker samspelar med varandra samt vad som inträffar då samspelet misslyckas. Avhandlingen identifierar även tre strategier som aktörerna använder när samspelet mellan praktiker misslyckas, nämligen korrigering, påtryckning och övertagande.

    Avhandlingen bidrar med ny kunskap genom att utveckla begreppet arbetande medborgare och genom att kartlägga arbetet som utförs för att realisera offentliga tjänster. Arbetet stimuleras delvis av medborgarnas oro av att göra fel inom försäkringen. Handläggare använder medborgarnas arbete för att underlätta sin arbetssituation genom vad som i avhandlingen benämns byråkratiskt samskapande. Utvecklingen av detta begrepp utgör avhandlingens andra centrala forskningsbidrag. Genom begreppet vidareutvecklas teorin om kundorienterade byråkratier. Begreppet skapar också en grund för en kritisk diskussion av begreppet samskapande inom tjänsteforskningen som förutsätter att medborgare fritt kan påverka utfallet av handläggningen. Avhandlingen visar dock att samskapande för medborgarna i princip uteslutande består av rutinmässig insamling och kontroll av uppgifter.

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  • 169.
    Kaluza, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Addressing Public Sector Challenges from a Service Logic Perspective2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole range of new public management (NPM) initiatives has during the last 30 years been introduced to meet the challenges of the public sector. The political aim for many of these NPM initiatives has been to get control over public spending and increase the internal efficiency of public sector organizations (PSOs). This has been done, mainly through introducing practices and programs, which has been developed within industrial organizations. In this conceptual paper we outline a service logic framework, which addresses the challenges of the public sector. We argue that this framework may counterbalance the NPM initiatives that has promoted and institutionalized goods logic practices and programs within PSOs. The main notion of this service logic framework is that citizens, as end-users, create value to become better off or to solve a problem. This is done through integration of different resources. The role of PSOs within the service logic is to facilitate resources and/or through interaction collaboratively co-create value. Drawing on a larger service system value creation, value facilitation and value co-creation can be seen as parts of a wider social system which makes them contextual. By outlining a service logic framework, for the public sector, we also suggested 12 implications for management and scholars within the field. 

  • 170.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Frontline employees' role in service innovation and value creation2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Frontline employees play a key role in service innovation and value creation. However, a detailed and structured understanding of how frontline employees contribute, and what types of roles they enact when involved in service innovation, is lacking. Hence, this thesis aims to explore frontline employees’ contributions to service innovation. The thesis consists of five empirical papers. Data has been collected from both private and public organizations via interviews, observations, documents, and innovation groups.

    The three main contributions of this thesis are as follows: Firstly, an extended understanding of how frontline employees contribute to service innovation. It was found that they contribute knowledge generated in three resource integration processes; value facilitation, value co-creation, and by learning from users’ value creation processes. Frontline employees are well equipped to draw on their knowledge and to integrate resources into new or developed value propositions, both during specific service innovation projects and in their day-to-day work practices. Secondly, when involved in service innovation, frontline employees enact different types of roles, e.g. as deliverers, as co-creators, and as negotiators. The third contribution, suggests that front line employees’ contributions to service innovation, as well as service innovation and value creation more generally, can be understood from three perspectives; i) an intra-organizational perspective following a goods-dominant logic, ii) an open-collective perspective, and iii) an open-conflictual perspective, where the latter two are informed by service-dominant logic. Thus, this thesis confirms, develops, and extends previous research by illuminating different ways of creating value and conducting service innovation, relating to frontline employees.  

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  • 171.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Front-line employees role in practice based service innovationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 172.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Skalen, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Exploring front-line employee contributions to service innovation2015Ingår i: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 49, nr 9-10, s. 1346-1365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to study front-line employees' contribution to service innovation, when they contribute and how they are involved in service innovation. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on a multiple-case study on service innovation in four organizations with extensive front-line employee involvement. The main data collection methods are interviews and observations. Findings - The paper suggests that front-line employees contribute customer knowledge, product knowledge and practice knowledge during five phases of the service innovation process - project formation, idea generation, service design, testing and implementation - and that front-line employee involvement ranges from active to passive. Research limitations/implications - Statistical generalization of the results is needed. Practical implications - The paper reveals that early and active front-line employee involvement in the service innovation process creates conditions for a positive contribution to service innovation. Originality/value - The paper suggests that early and active knowledge contributions by front-line employees to the service innovation process are associated with the creation of attractive value propositions.

  • 173.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    How Frontline Employees Nurture Service Innovation through Co-creation with Their Customers: A Case Study of Public Health Care2014Ingår i: Framing innovation in public sectors / [ed] Rolf Rönning, Bo Enquist, Lars Fuglsang, New York: Routledge, 2014, Vol. 30, s. 18-40Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 174.
    Kelleher, Carol
    et al.
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork Univ Business Sch, Cork, Ireland.;Univ Coll Cork, Inst Social Sci 21st Century ISS21, Cork, Ireland..
    O'Loughlin, Deirdre
    Univ Limerick, Kemmy Business Sch, Res, Limerick, Ireland..
    Gummerus, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Hanken Sch Econ, Mkt, Helsinki, Finland.;Karlstad Univ, CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Penaloza, Lisa
    KEDGE Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Talence, France..
    Shifting Arrays of a Kaleidoscope: The Orchestration of Relational Value Cocreation in Service SystemsIngår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, artikel-id UNSP 1094670519882495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The predominant value discourse among scholars characterizes value cocreation as involving multiple actors at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels in service systems. This research contributes to the knowledge of the interdependencies among multiple resource-integrating actors and value outcomes by employing a relational perspective on value cocreation within the empirical context of family caregiving. The findings reveal how interdependent actors orchestrate value cocreation in service systems, how this impacts value, and how orchestration precipitates system adjustments, which form the recursive context of value cocreation over time. We differentiate and delineate three multi-actor orchestration mechanisms-assembling, performing, and brokering-through which nonreferent beneficiaries coordinate value cocreation on behalf of dependent referent beneficiaries. We term the mutually generalized oscillating multiform negative and positive well-being outcomes that emerge from orchestration among interdependent actors as relational value. In employing the metaphor of the kaleidoscope to emphasize system dynamism, our discussion of relational value cocreation deepens our understanding of how nonreferent beneficiary-led orchestration, founded on generalized mutuality and on behalf of referent beneficiaries with reduced agency, enhances and balances multiform, oscillating and positive and negative well-being outcomes in service systems. This will help service practitioners facilitate orchestration and optimize value for all.

  • 175.
    Kistler, Beat
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Passenger representation within the light-handed regulation - Insights from the Australian air transport market2018Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 71, s. 106-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically reviews the representation of passengers within the light-handed regulation (LHR) that has been in place in the Australian air transport market since 2002. The focus is the commercial negotiations between airlines and airports concerning investments that affect passengers as key stakeholders, end-users, and payers. The article draws on literature on consumer representation and willingness to pay, as well as data from 21 in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that within the current arrangement, passengers are dependent on airlines as their representatives, although their interests may differ concerning investments in airport infrastructure and services. This dependency is leveraged by the current airline duopoly in the Australian domestic air transport market because passengers have no transport alternatives among which to choose. Airports charging passengers their fees (and eventually negotiating prices for improved services) directly is not deemed a suitable option because it could increase the airports' market power and affect the passenger experience negatively. Recommendations, such as involving an independent representation body and diversifying service provision at the airport, are discussed as possibilities for increasing passengers' influence.

  • 176.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Is It Harmful? Measuring People’s Perceptions of Online Privacy Issues2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We report preliminary findings from an online study, identifying people’s attitudes toward privacy issues. The results confirm some of the previous research findings regarding demographic and contextual dependencies of privacy perceptions. The research presents a new scale for measuring attitudes to privacy issues that is based on privacy harms. The results suggest that people consider privacy harms in generic and simplified terms, rather than as separated issues suggested in legal research. This research identified major factors that people tend to think of while considering online privacy.

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  • 177.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Shulman, Yefim
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Psychological Effects and Their Role in Online Privacy Interactions: A Review2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 21236-21260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increasing dependency on online technologies in even the most ordinary activities, people have to make privacy decisions during everyday online interactions. Visual design often influences their choices. Hence, it is in the hands of choice architects and designers to guide users towards specific decision outcomes. This “nudging” has gained much interest among scholars in interdisciplinary research, resulting in experimental studies with visual cues that may have the potential to alter attitudes and behaviors. Attitude and behavior changes are often attributed to several psychological effects manifesting in cognitive processing and decision-making. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review carried out to identify which psychological effects have been previously studied in the context of online privacy interactions. Subsequently, fifteen articles were selected and thoroughly reviewed, resulting in the identification of twenty psychological effects. The visual cues triggering these effects were recognized and classified against their capabilities to alter privacy attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, the visual cues were divided into two categories: privacy-enhancing and privacy-deteriorating. This review discusses the applicability of such cues in research and UI design. Further, the findings are discussed against the existing research on digital nudges. The authors conclude with a discussion on issues of research quality in the privacy-related field and outline the road to improvement.

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  • 178.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Emotional Privacy: Explaining Privacy Behaviours with Affect and Personality TraitsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 179.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    (In)escapable Affect? Exploring Factors Influencing Privacy-RelatedBehavioral Intentions2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020, 2020, s. 4112-4121Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was run to investigate exploratory capabilities of factors such as individual characteristics, privacy concerns and information disclosure in the context of privacy behaviors. The research examined whether affective states arising from immediate emotions alter such capabilities. The results of an online study with 474 international participants demonstrate that immediate emotions might influence information sharing. The effect of privacy concerns, personality and information disclosure on the willingness to share is stronger when participants are in a neutral affective state. However, when the positive or negative feelings take over, the influence of these factors on willingness to share decreases. In this article, we postulate the necessity to include immediate emotions into research on privacy-related decision-making and discuss the applicability of our results in the context of privacy UIs.

  • 180.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Is It Harmful?: Re-examining Privacy Concerns2017Ingår i: Privacy and Identity Management: The Smart Revolution / [ed] Hansen Marit., Kosta Eleni., Nai-Fovino Igor., Fischer-Hübner Simone, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, s. 59-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased popularity of interconnected devices, which we rely on when performing day-to-day activities expose people to various privacy harms. This paper presents findings from the empirical investigation of privacy concerns. The study revealed that people, regardless of their diversity, perceive privacy harms as generic and simplified models, not individually as suggested in Solove’s framework. Additionally, the results identified differences in privacy concerns related to information disclosure, protection behavior, and demographics. The findings may benefit privacy and system designers, ensuring that policies and digital systems match people’s privacy expectations, decreasing risks and harms.

  • 181. Klaus, Phil
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    A critical examination of service system's role in implementing customer experience strategies2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 182. Klaus, Phil
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Striking the right balance: How to design, Implement, and Operationalize Customer Experience Management Programs2014Ingår i: Managing Customer Service: Factory or Theater? / [ed] Enzo Baglieri & Uday Karmarkar, Springer, 2014, s. 69-90Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 183. Klaus, Phil
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    The role of service systems in executing customer-service experience strategies: A critical examination of existing practices2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 184.
    Klaus, Phillip
    et al.
    UK, France.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan. Norway.
    Keiningham, T.L
    USA.
    Gruber, Thorsten
    UK.
    Getting in with the "In" crowd: how to put marketing back on the CEO's agenda2014Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 195-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Despite efforts by researchers and managers to better link marketing activities with business financial outcomes, there is general agreement that by and large chief marketing officers (CMOs) (and marketing in general) have lost strategic decision-making influence within organizations. The purpose of this paper is to understand the causes of this decline and offer recommended solutions to counteract this trend. Design/methodology/approach - In-depth interviews lasting between 40 and 55 minutes were conducted with 25 chief executive officers (CEOs) of service companies located in Western Europe, North America, and Australia. In total, 13 difference countries were represented. Using Emerging Consensus Technique, we identified four main themes, which cause the goals of CEOs and those of CMOs/marketing to diverge. Findings - The primary cause of the decline of strategic influence of CMOs and marketing overall with CEOs is a function of four key issues: first, the role of the CMO (e.g. task overload, focus on tactical issues, "outdated" skill set); second, lack of financial accountability (e.g. the inability to connect marketing efforts to financial returns); third, digital and social media (e.g. a perceived obsession with new technology); and forth, lack of strategic vision and impact (e.g. lost sight of "core" job, use of irrelevant metrics). Practical implications - The findings indicate that CMOs must address the four key issues uncovered for marketing to attain/regain a role in strategic decision making. A proposed roadmap for putting marketing back on the CEOs agenda is presented to guide CMOs.

  • 185. Klauss, Phillip
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Measuring customer experiences and value-in-context through the lens of Service-Dominant-Logic2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 186.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Dimensions and dynamics of markets as value cocreation solutionsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 187.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    The evolution of markets - A service ecosystems perspective2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual dissertation aims to build an integrative and transdisciplinary framework of market evolution by reconnecting the study of innovations and markets, with help from the service ecosystems perspective. The service ecosystems perspective offers a processual, systemic, and institutional view on value creation, which is grounded in the axiomatic assumptions of service-dominant (S-D) logic. Hence, the dissertation departs from the premise that value, when perceived, is always cocreated by multiple, institutionally guided actors in service ecosystems through service exchange and the integration of resources. The dissertation extends the conceptualizations of innovations and markets from a service ecosystems perspective, with the help of institutional theory. The resulting transcending conceptualizations are then used to reconcile the paradoxical tensions identified in the conceptualizations of innovations within service research and markets within marketing literature in order to synthesize their substantial contributions into a cohesive framework of market evolution. By connecting insights from five appended papers and the reconciled literatures, the dissertation develops a recursive four-phase process model of market evolution as institutional dynamics of multi-dimensional value cocreation structures. The model explains how innovations as proto-institutional value cocreation structures emerge and how markets as institutionalized value cocreation structures evolve through institutional work carried out by multiple actors aiming to either maintain or disrupt a prevailing market. By beginning to unravel the institutional processes and market shaping strategies contributing to market evolution, the dissertation provides guidance to actors who are interested in markets and their development.

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  • 188.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu, Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Jonas, Julia
    Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Sörhammar, David
    Uppsala University.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Innovation in service ecosystems - Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration2016Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, nr 8, s. 2964-2971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on service-dominant logic and institutional theory, this paper examines innovation as a process that unfolds through changes in the institutional arrangements that govern resource integration practices in service ecosystems. Four cases are used to illustrate the interdependent patterns of breaking, making and maintaining the institutionalized rules of resource integration occurring on multiple levels of institutional context. Such institutional work allows actors to cocreate value in novel and useful ways by a) including new actors, b) redefining roles of involved actors and c) reframing resources within service ecosystems. Our findings show that while the efforts of breaking and making the institutionalized rules are required for such changes to occur, at the same time, institutional maintenance is also important for these changes to institutionalize, that is, to become an integral part of the institutional structure coordinating value cocreation.

  • 189.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Emergence of novel resources in service ecosystems2018Ingår i: The SAGE Handbook of Service-Dominant Logic / [ed] Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F., London: Sage Publications, 2018, s. 372-387Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 190.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Siltaloppi, Jaakko
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland.
    Rethinking the actor in service research: toward a processual view of identity dynamics2020Ingår i: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Only a few concepts in the service literature are as pervasive yet as undertheorized as is the concept of the actor. With a growing interest toward value creation as a systemic and institutionally guided phenomenon, there is a particular need for a more robust conceptualization of humans as actors that adopts a processual, as opposed to a static, view. The purpose of this paper is to build such processual conceptualization to advance service-dominant (S-D) logic, in particular, and service research, in general.Design/methodology/approach – The paper is conceptual and extends S-D logic’s institutionally constituted account of the actor by drawing from identity theory and social constructionism.

    Findings – The paper develops a processual conceptualization of the human actor that explicates four social processes explaining the dynamics between two identity concepts—social and personal identity—and institutional arrangements. The resulting framework reveals how humans are simultaneously constituted by institutions and able to perform their roles in varying, even institution-changing, ways.

    Research limitations/implications – By introducing new insights from identity theory and social constructionism, this paper reconciles the dualism in S-D logic’s current description of actors, as well as posits the understanding of identity dynamics and the processual nature of actors as central in many service-related phenomena.

    Originality/value – This paper is among the few that explicitly theorize about the nature of human actors in S-D logic and the service literature.

  • 191.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Siltaloppi, Jaakko
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii.
    Designing Institutional Complexity to Enable Innovation in Service Ecosystems2016Ingår i: Proceeding of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2016 / [ed] Bui, Tung X. and Sprague Jr., Ralph H., IEEE, 2016, s. 1596-1605Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we build on a view of change and innovation stemming from institutional complexity in service ecosystems, that is, institutionally enabled and constrained systems of service systems, and give suggestions on how such conditions can be designed to facilitate innovation. We conceptualize service ecosystems as near-decomposable complex systems in which change is enabled through the co-existence of alternative, overlapping and conflicting institutionalized views on problems and solutions, and draw from social network theory to understand how such institutional complexity emerges both between and within actors in service systems. We then connect these theoretical insights with practice and give guidance on how institutional complexity can be created and how opportunities for interaction and collaboration between diverse and conflicting views on problems and solutions can be fostered.

  • 192.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Siltaloppi, Jaakko
    Aalto University.
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    Understanding institutional complexity in service ecosystems: insights from social network theory and systems thinking2015Ingår i: Service Dominant Logic, Network and Systems Theory and Service Science: Integrating three Perspectives for a New Service Agenda / [ed] Gummesson, E., Mele, C., Polese, F., 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to synthesize some key insights from social network theory and systems thinking to better understand the existence and dynamics of institutional complexity – the source of institutional change and innovation – in service ecosystems.

    Design/Methodology/approach – This conceptual paper integrates insights from social network theory (e.g., Burt, 1992; Granovetter, 1973) and systems thinking (e.g. Simon, 1996) to elaborate the service ecosystems perspective on institutional complexity and innovation.

    Findings – S-D logic and its service ecosystem perspective (Lusch and Vargo, 2014; Vargo and Akaka, 2012; Vargo et al., 2015) imply that value is created by systems consisting of actors who fundamentally do the same thing: cocreate value by exchanging and integrating resources (Vargo and Lusch, 2011). This view results in a systemic notion of value cocreation that highlights the role of institutions as the ‘glue’ of service ecosystems that both enables and constrains value cocreation (Edvardsson et al., 2014; Vargo and Akaka, 2012). In this paper, we extend the service ecosystems perspective on innovation as institutional change in value cocreation by elaborating the dynamics of institutional complexity – the coexistence and interaction of numerous and partially conflicting institutional arrangements – crucial for agency and change in service ecosystems (Siltaloppi et al., 2014). Building on the notions of ‘weak ties’, ‘structural holes’ and ‘near-decomposability’ as well as the triadic view inherent in them, the paper argues that service ecosystems can be seen as complex systems characterized by near-decomposability. This implies that parts or subsystems of service ecosystem(s) interact with one another with varying frequency and tie ‘strengths’ resulting in inconsistencies and incompatibility of institutional arrangements between the subsystems that causes institutional complexity especially as actors can be simultaneously embedded in several subsystems and their respective institutional arrangements.

    Research implications – The paper highlights the importance of 1) triads as a unit of analysis, 2) complexity in institutional arrangements, actors’ role constellations and mutual interactions, and 3) varying density of interaction between subsystems of service ecosystem for building a better understanding of institutional complexity, change and innovation in service ecosystems.

    Originality/value – This paper is among the first to integrate insights from social network theory and systems thinking to elaborate institutional complexity in service ecosystems.

    Key words – Service ecosystems, Institutions, Innovation, Social Network theory, Systems thinking, Triads

    Paper type – Conceptual paper 

  • 193.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Markets as evolving institutional problem-solution configurations2016Ingår i: What's ahead in service research?: New perspectives for business and society / [ed] Russo-Spena, T & Mele, C, Naples: Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Econ Mgmt & Inst , 2016, s. 618-627Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to further the understanding of how markets function and evolve. We do so by elaborating and extending the recent conceptualization of markets as institutionalized solutions of value cocreation proposed by service-dominant (S-D) logic. To better understand how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve, we draw on literature that connects institutional change to the process of framing. We contribute by theorizing how micro-level changes - i.e. organization-specific differences in framing of e.g. a resource or a role - can become amplified and result in macro-level transformation such as market evolution. We develop a theoretical framework describing how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve as actors use institutional complexity - the existence of multiple institutional arrangements and the corresponding patterns of value cocreation - to create alternative frames to interpret situations and guide individual action and then diffuse the novel frames with the help of different types of frame alignment processes. We also describe how we plan to complement our theoretical inquiry with empirical research that we have recently begun.

  • 194.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu, Finland,.
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    Institutions as resource context2016Ingår i: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 163-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of institutions and institutional complexity in the process through which resources-in-context get their “resourceness.”

    Design/methodology/approach – To shed light on the process of potential resources gaining their “resourceness,” the authors draw from two streams of literature: the service ecosystems perspective and institutional theory.

    Findings – The authors combine the process of resources “becoming” with the concept of institutions and conceptualize institutional arrangements, and the unique sets of practices, symbols and organizing principles they carry, as the sense-making frames of the “resourceness” of potential resources. In service ecosystems, numerous partially conflicting institutional arrangements co-exit and provide actors with alternative frames of sense-making and action, enabling the emergence of new instances of “resourceness”.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper suggests that “resourceness” is inseparable from the complex institutional context in which it arises. This conceptualization reveals the need for more holistic, systemic and multidisciplinary perspectives on understanding the implications of the process of resources “becoming” on value co creation, innovation and market formation.

    Practical implications – As the “resourceness” of potential resources arises due to the influence of institutions, managers need a more profound understanding of the complimentary and inhibiting institutional arrangements and the related practices, symbols and organizing principles that comprise the multidimensional context in which they operate.

    Originality/value – This paper is one of the first to focus specifically on the process of resources “becoming,” using a systemic and institutional perspective to grasp the complexity of the phenomenon.

    Paper type Conceptual paper 

  • 195.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Shidler College of BusinessUniversity of Hawai’i at Mānoa.
    Why Service-Dominant Logic?2018Ingår i: The SAGE Handbook of Service-Dominant Logic / [ed] Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F., London: Sage Publications, 2018, s. 40-57Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 196.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Vink, Josina
    Institute of Design, Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    The institutional turn in service research: taking stock and moving ahead2020Ingår i: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service scholars are finding that institutions – enduring social structures, such as rules, norms, beliefs – are increasingly important in theorizing on service-related phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to advance the use of institutional theory in service research by synthesizing the key insights from institutional theory that have been applied to service-related phenomena and developing a research agenda to guide the future use of institutional theory in service research.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper is an integrative literature review covering 68 articles from major service research and marketing journals that adopt institutional concepts and frameworks to study service-related phenomena.

    Findings – The paper maps the “institutional turn” of service research, that is, the increasing tendency to draw on institutional theory for theoretical insights within service research and builds a conceptual framework of the institutional stabilization and destabilization mechanisms that explain endurance and change in service phenomena. The paper also proposes a research agenda that outlines four previously ignored aspects of institutions that have important implications for service research.

    Research limitations/implications – In addition to synthesizing insights and proposing directions for future research, the paper highlights specific theoretical and methodological considerations for the future use of institutional theory within service research. The literature review is limited to the 13 major service research and marketing journals.Originality/value – This paper is the first literature review of the use of institutional theory in service research.

  • 197.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Wieland, Heiko
    California State University, Monterey Bay.
    The role of institutions and interpretive flexibility in the perception and determination of value2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose – We investigate the tension between unique and collective value perceptions using an institutional perspective. In particular, we aim to provide a deeper understanding of value evaluation processes and point to the systemic nature of these processes by conceptually integrating the notions of interpretive flexibility and institutional work into a service ecosystems framework. 

    Design/Methodology/approach – The paper, based on recent developments in S-D logic, conceptually revisits the topic of value perceptions. More specifically, it draws on a service ecosystems framework and its inherent institutional view (Lusch and Vargo, 2014; Vargo and Akaka, 2012; Vargo and Lusch, 2011; Vargo et al. 2014), and the concepts of interpretive flexibility (Pinch, 2008; Pinch and Bijker, 1984) and institutional work (Lawrence and Suddaby, 2006; Lawrence et al., 2009) to provide a deeper understanding of determining value-in-context. 

    Findings – Service-dominant (S-D) logic describes value perceptions as contextual and phenomenologically determined (Chandler and Vargo, 2011; Vargo and Lusch, 2008). At the same time, value perceptions are neither random nor unstructured (Lusch and Vargo, 2014). Culture, for example, can greatly influence how value is perceived. More specifically, institutional configurations – socially constructed systems of norms, values, and beliefs – guide the evaluation of value outcomes in the same way that they enable and constrain the process of value co-creation (c.f. Edvardsson et al. 2011; Lusch and Vargo, 2014; Vargo et al. 2014). By integrating the concepts of interpretive flexibility and institutional work into the service ecosystem framework, we not only show how institutional configurations influence value perceptions, but how multiple actors co-create institutions that influence value perceptions through multiple iterations of institutional developments until common institutional templates become diffused. 

    Research implications – This paper highlights the importance of developing a more systemic and institutional understanding of the perception and determination of value. 

    Practical implications – The systemic view adopted in this paper points to the notion that nested contradictions and inconsistencies are foundational to all institutional configurations and, thus, to value perceptions. We will show that actors resolve these contradictions and inconsistencies through systemic and discursive processes, which means that market communication needs to be reconceptualized from unidirectional communication flows directed at customers to the co-creation of narrative infrastructures. 

    Originality/value – This paper is among the first to explicitly connect the notions of institutional work and interpretive flexibility with value perceptions and their change overtime.

    Key words – Value-in-context, Value evaluation, Institutions, Service ecosystems, Interpretive flexibility 

    Paper type – Conceptual paper

  • 198.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kindstrom, Daniel
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Internalisation or externalisation?: Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services2011Ingår i: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 373-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organises its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm. Design/methodology/approach - The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven manufacturing firms with different organisational arrangements for service provision. Findings - Contrary to certain explicit assumptions, few firms organise for service provision solely through an in-house organisation. Analysis of firms in a wide variety of industries has shown that the organisational arrangements (internal, external or hybrid configuration) are contingent on factors such as market strategy, customer relationships, product-service linkages, internal competences and market channel characteristics. Research limitations/implications - The paper is an initial attempt to understand the strategic choices that firms make in terms of inter-organisational arrangements for service provision. The research should be extended by way of a cross-sectional survey in order to test and further validate the importance of the determinants of the organisational arrangements for service provision. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the service marketing and management literature by examining factors that determine whether firms organise for service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid configuration. Prior research has not explicitly addressed this issue.

  • 199.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion2013Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 200.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, CTF Serv Res Ctr, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Future service technologies and value creation2019Ingår i: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 502-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for understanding, predicting and analyzing how future service technologies can lead to value co-creation at different stages of a value chain. Design/methodology/approach For organizations, future service technologies are growing in importance and will become a crucial means to survival. It is clear that future service technologies will increase the opportunity to reduce costs and create efficiency, but it is not equally clear how future service technologies enable value creation for customers and users. On this premise, the study proposes a conceptual framework. Findings The framework illustrates how future service technologies can lead to value creation for customers. The paper also portrays opportunities and potential pitfalls with future service technologies for organizations. Originality/value Several researchers are focusing on innovative technologies. Many business companies are talking about how to implement them and increase their profit. However, less attention is devoted to the ways in which future service technologies will lead to benefits and the experience of service for customers and users using them. This paper represents an original attempt to illustrate that.

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