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  • 151.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Pressures, drivers and barriers for urban low carbon transitions2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 152.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Stadsplanering på entreprenad2005Ingår i: Spelet om staden / [ed] Gun Frank, Stockholm: Formas , 2005, s. 137-143Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 153.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Uncertainty in decision making2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 154.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Urban transformations and policy responses2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban transformations and policy responses  

    Mikael Granberg

     

    We now have a rapidly growing global city system that is changing society. The economic and social settings are impacted and even ecology is changing as urban areas develop into new biospheres. The impact of this process is considerable and has far reaching consequences for the way society will develop in the future. Changes and challenges are channelled and mediated through societal structures and through the actions of a multitude of heterogeneous actors—formal and informal, top-down or bottom-up, individual or collective—in action and reaction to perceived changes in society. This means that the culture, lifestyles, design, economy, management and governing of cities is essential for world developments. The central issue is how societal actors in urban settings handle the impact of these changes (transformations) in a way that facilitates sustainable urban development?

    Society itself is a continuous process of action, decisions and effects where the actions of earlier generations have a considerable impact on contemporary developments and where contemporary action and decisions will impact future generations. Accordingly, we are talking about an ongoing historical conditioning of society. One aspect of this is path dependency. Path dependency occurs when incumbent structures, i.e., infrastructure or institutions (norms, routines and rules) guides (facilitates or delimits) behaviour. It is important to state, however, that the structuring always is temporary path dependency only temper continuous processes of change. Change in path dependent conditions take place through formative moments or windows opportunity and this refers to situations were historical and contemporary circumstances align in ways that make rapid change possible despite structural constraints. Changes in formative moment can be rapid and revolutionary. Formative moments can be driven by different types of crises (political, economical, technological, social and environmental) leading to paradigmatic shifts in society changing the preconditions for policy making and making more radical change possible.

    The urban setting can be perceived as a common. That is, a common pool of resource, challenges and problems that has to be owned and handled by the inhabitants of the city. Governance of commons requires a flexible system for policy making that includes interactive and adaptive steering, including social and policy learning. Flexible policy making demands a positive feedback loop that creates order out of our experience and storing these experiences as knowledge. Proactive and flexible policymaking is not about finding the right policy for the future to come. The focus must be on flexible and proactive policy making that is formulated at scales appropriate for decision makers and citizens. This is a more systemic perspective on policy that concerns itself more with who interacts with whom, about what, rather than targeting specific, well-defined outcomes as policy goals. From this perspective policy is perceived as a process. With this perspective on policy follows that a multitude of agents can act as policy-makers, not just government agencies, but also firms and industry associations, NGOs and private foundations. Uncertainty connected to social development encourages viewing policy as an on-going exploration with many possible changes of direction rather than an optimization exercise based upon detailed assumptions about the lay of the land ahead and a clear and explicit goal about where the journey is to end. One issue is, of course, if the incumbent policy system will be able to adapt to accommodate flexible policy processes or if path dependency will hinder or considerably slow down such development?

  • 155.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Urban Transitions and Flexible Policy Making2012Ingår i: Statsvetenskapliga förbundets årsmöte, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, 26-28 september, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We now have a rapidly growing global city system that is changing society. The impact of this process is considerable and has far reaching consequences for global sustainable development. These transitions occur as a result of the complexities, uncertainties and challenges confronting society. Urban transitions are both evolutionary – incremental changes to societal structures and the environment – and revolutionary – rapid changes to societal structures and the environment. Urban transitions are about broad societal change that is the intentional and unintentional result of historical or contemporary decisions. This means that transitions are channelled and mediated through societal structures and through the actions of a multitude of heterogeneous actors—formal and informal, top-down or bottom-up, individual or collective—in action and reaction to perceived changes in society. Urban transitions are a vital global issue as more than half of the world population lives in urban areas today, and, at the same time global economy, cultures and politics becomes increasingly urban.

    Modern society has constructed forms for handling collective problems and this has taken the form of departmentalisation within the framework of the welfare state, as well as in the highly specialised business sector. These departments and branches are to a great extent geared to face identified challenges to society and consist of trained experts. Problems suitable for handling by such existing –‘prefabricated’ – departments are sometimes called ‘tame’ problems, which refer to problems that enjoy relative consensus in society on both problem definition and solution. Society faces issues characterized by fragmentation of perspectives, understanding, knowledge and interests, or when the issue at stake is given different priority by the involved actors. Complex problems that do not fit neatly into predefined policy areas and regulatory arrangements provide an opening for innovations and solutions that can break free from constraining structures.

    Uncertainty encourages viewing policy as an ongoing exploration with many possible adjustments, rather than an exercise based upon detailed assumptions and one singular image of the future to come. This requires research and reflection on social learning and institutional innovation as well as development of new modes of communication between different actors, scales and areas of expertise in the urban setting. The kingpin for handling uncertainty is an improved communication between actors leading to an increased social learning. This social learning must aim at a more common understanding of problems facing society, and take place between experts, businesses, individuals, NGOs and politicians.

    An elaborated and commonly shared understanding of the policy ‘playing field’ will bring actors from different spheres of society together and help to solve collective issues. A strong focus on social learning further call for flexible policy making that demands a positive feedback loop which may create order and efficient knowledge out of various experiences. Proactive policymaking is not about finding the one right policy for the future, but the focus must be on a flexible policy making at proper scales for both democracy and efficiency concerns. This is a more systemic perspective on policy, more concerned with who interacts with whom, about what, rather than targeting specific, well-defined outcomes as policy goals. With this perspective on policy as an ongoing process follows that a multitude of agents act as policy-makers, not just government agencies, but also firms and industry associations, NGOs and private foundations.

    Capacity to act is at the core of handling urban transitions. Capacity to act is built upon the ability to pool resources from different actors in society creating a system for efficient problem solving. How may society build the capacity to be more proactive and mitigate perceived future problems already today? How do society create authority (legitimate decision making) to handle ‘abrasive’ policy problem that can entail sacrifices by both elites and ordinary citizens?

  • 156.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Bodland, Tove
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Klimatanpassning och samhällets resiliens: Ett svenskt perspektiv2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utgör en delrapportering inom projektet ”Samhällsresiliens i Sverige: Styrning, Sociala nätverk och lärande” finansierat av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) och koordinerat av Risk and crisis research centre (RCR) vid Mittuniversitetet. Syftet med rapporten är att skapa förståelse för relationen mellan begreppen klimatanpassning och resiliens samt att ge en bild av hur det lokala klimatanpassningsarbetet hanteras i svenska kommuner (primärt i samhällsplaneringen) ur ett resiliensperspektiv. Denna text är en av fem inom forskningsprojektet där de andra fyra fokuserar på begreppen resiliens, community och ”community resilience”; resiliens i praktiken; flyktingskap och migration; samt terrorism och våldsbejakande extremism utifrån ett resiliensperspektiv.

  • 157.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bosomworth, Karyn
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Moloney, Susie
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    Örebro universitet.
    Fünfgeld, Hartmut
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Can Regional-Scale Governance and Planning Support Transformative Adaptation?: A Study of Two Places2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 24, s. 1-17, artikel-id 6978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that climate change adaptation is best leveraged at the local scale is a well-institutionalized script in both research and formal governance. This idea is based on the argument that the local scale is where climate change impacts are “felt” and experienced. However, sustainable and just climate futures require transformations in systems, norms, and cultures that underpin and reinforce our unsustainable practices and development pathways, not just “local” action. Governance interventions are needed to catalyse such shifts, connecting multilevel and multiscale boundaries of knowledge, values, levels and organizational remits. We critically reflect on current adaptation governance processes in Victoria, Australia and the Gothenburg region, Sweden to explore whether regional-scale governance can provide just as important leverage for adaptation as local governance, by identifying and addressing intersecting gaps and challenges in adaptation at local levels. We suggest that regional-scale adaptation oers possibilities for transformative change because they can identify, connect, and amplify small-scale (local) wins and utilize this collective body of knowledge to challenge and advocate for unblocking stagnated, institutionalized policies and practices, and support transformative change.

  • 158.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Elander, Ingemar
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local governance and climate change: reflections on the Swedish experience2007Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 537-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the Swedish experience of local governance and climate change, including mitigation and adaptation. The municipal response to these two challenges is set within a broader policy context that acknowledges Sweden as a pioneer in environmental governance, including its comparatively high ambitions with regard to the reduction of greenhouse ga emissions. Central–local relations in climate policy are analysed, and climate change mitigation and adaptation are exemplified by some snapshots of municipal initiatives, including the popular habit of networking between municipalities within as well as across national borders. In conclusion we briefly evaluate the Swedish local governance experience of climate change mitigation and adaptation to date as characterized by radical rhetoric and ambitious goals combined with a lot of promising initiatives, although still with fairly modest results in terms of tangible outcomes. Finally, we reflect upon what we consider to be the most important questions for future research on local governance and climate change.

  • 159.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Glover, Leigh
    Australasian Centre for the Governance and Management of Urban Transport (GAMUT), Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Adaptation and Maladaptation in Australian National Climate Change Policy2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, ISSN 1523-908X, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 147-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines Australia's national policies for adapting to climate change impacts. Recent developments in research funding, institutional capacities and extreme events have resulted in a greater interest and level of activity in adaptation policy. Based on a historical review of national policy, adaptation policy is considered within a political frame and political values, especially the values of neoliberalism, within adaptation policy are identified. Of interest are the implications of these values for the outcomes of adaptation policy, with attention given to the problem of maladaptation.

  • 160.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Glover, Leigh
    University of Melbourne.
    Adapting Australian cities to climate change: is there a growing risk of maladaptation?2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose that public climate change adaptation policy arises frompolitics and, accordingly, understanding and analysing such policy has to engagescholars with a keen interest in politics. In line with this proposition a distinguishingfeature in this paper is that it seeks to consider adaptation policy for cities in a politicalcontext. This paper aims to review issues associated with the public policy response toclimate change adaptation in Australian cities and consider whether the approachadopted by the federal government increases the risks of maladaptation.

  • 161.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Glover, Leigh
    Adapting Australien Cities to Climate Change: Is There a Growing Risk of Maladaptation?2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 162.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Glover, Leigh
    University of Melbourne.
    Climate change adaptation and the regional mess2013Ingår i: Workshop of climate change policy arranged by the network Social and Political Studies on Climate Change (SPSCC), 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this paper is on policy and implementation of adaptation policies. The interest in adaptation policy in this text concerns the public policy dimension and not spontaneous social adaptations to changing climate or that undertaken independently by corporations or communities. The focus is on public policy and implementation that are planned, purposeful and intentional. The main issue in this text is how Swedish governance of climate change adaptation is organised and if this type of organising (or lack or organising) can lead to difficulties in reaching long term sustainable adaptation measures or even maladaptation at the local level?

  • 163.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Glover, Leigh
    University of Melbourne.
    Climate Change Adaptation Policy and Practice: The Swedish Experience2012Ingår i: XXI Nordic Municipal Research Conference (NORKOM), Oslo University, Norway, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a complicated social problem. Formulating and implementing adaptation measures at the local level entails handling value conflicts, power relations, governance, equity, resource allocation, competing interests and, connected to all these issues and more, uncertainty. All this takes place in a complex context where a multitude of factors, and actors representing different societal interests, are interacting both facilitating and hindering effective action and involves changes in modes of operation in society as a whole.

    Adaptation range from the local to the large, its time horizon can range from the short to the long terms, it can be tactical or strategic, it can seek immediate, delayed, or cumulative effects, and it can encompass widely differing outcomes.

    Accordingly, formulating adaptation responses is a challenging issue for municipalities for a number of reasons. Firstly, the large range of possible climate change impacts. Secondly, the insufficient knowledge base. Thirdly, the lack of consensus on responsibilities. Fourthly, the usual set of problems facing public policy of this sort. In this paper we will focus adaptation measures implemented by Swedish municipalities. The empirical material consists of studies from state authorities of municipal adaptation to climate change.

  • 164.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Glover, Leigh
    University of Melbourne.
    Trusting invisible hands?: Climate change, political institutions and the market2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 165.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Larsson, Stig
    Dealing with uncertainty: a case study of controlling insect populations in natural ecosystems2008Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 641-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the political process for handling an outbreak of an insect causing human allergic reactions. In the southern part of the Swedish island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, an outbreak of the northern pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pinivora,

    has occurred. With regard to the human nuisance and long-term effects on the tourist industry, demands have been raised for intervention to reduce and control the insect population. At the same time, there have been warnings against treating the insect

    population because there are knowledge gaps concerning the wider ecological consequences, including effects on biodiversity. This paper analyses the political process and its problemsolving

    efforts. Of particular interest is how it dealt with the issue of uncertainty. It was found that the uncertainty associated with the issue hindered the development of a shared understanding of the problem and a possible solution. There seems to be a growing need in society to develop the institutional capacity to handle complex issues that cross different sectors, regulatory frameworks and policy targets.

  • 166.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Moloney, Susie
    Fünfgeld, Hartmut
    Climate change and the emergence of networked governance in Sweden and Australia2015Ingår i: The Tipping Point: Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity: Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference Deakin University, Geelong, 10-12 July 2015 / [ed] Yamini Narayanan, Lambert Bräu, Pauline Deutz, Geelong, Australia: Deakin University , 2015, s. 64-73Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 167.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Montin, Stig
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Modern Municipalities. Notion and ideas guiding the development of Swedish municipalities2014Ingår i: European Consortium for Political Reseach (ECPR) General Conference: Section: Contemporary Local Self-Governance and Democracy – Challenges and Responses, Panel: Institutional Reform in Local Government,, Glasgow: Glasgow University , 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the development of Swedish municipalities as we trace the origin of the modern municipality to the late 19th century to today with a special focus on the last 40-50 years of development. With this as a background, and related to the research literature, we develop four different theoretical perspectives (ideal types): (1), The municipality as community: focusing on common interests and challenges in the local social and political order. (2), The state integrated municipality: focusing on the implementation of national welfare functions, the role of the municipality and the steering and control efforts of the nation-state. (3), The facilitating municipality: focusing on mobilization and integration of different types of resources across borders within the public sector and between public and private institutions. (4), The market oriented municipality: focusing on freedom of choice reform and that public activities should be put on the market according to the belief that competition is the most important motor of public economy. The different theoretical perspectives, it is argued, catches notion and ideas guiding the development of local politics and democracy. Experiences from reforms, which are related to these ideas, are presented. The overall questions raised are what ideas are empirically represented in different policy fields? The paper concludes by discussing two examples of contemporary policy fields in the light of the four theoretical perspectives.

  • 168.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Montin, Stig
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Modern Municipalities: The Changing Role of Local Government and Local Democracy in Sweden2014Ingår i: NOPSA 2014, XVII Nordic Political Science Congress: Kommunale reformer og organisatorisk tilpasninger – utfordringer for lokalpolitikken, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the development of Swedish municipalities – we trace the origin of the modern municipality to the late 19th century to today with a special focus on the last 40-50 years of development – through four different theoretical lenses (ideal types): (1), The municipality as a common (communitarian) that focuses on common interests and challenges in the local social and political order. (2), The state integrated municipality that focuses on the implementation of national welfare functions, the role of the municipality and the steering and control efforts of the nation-state. (3), The market oriented municipality that focuses freedom of choice reform and that public activities should be put on the market according to the belief that competition is the most important motor of public economy. (4), The coordinating and facilitating municipality that focuses on how to mobilize and integrate different types of resources across borders within the public sector and between public and private institutions. By using the different theoretical perspectives it is shown that the development of local politics and democracy is driven by different ideas. Experiences from reforms, which are related to these ideas, are presented. The article concludes by pointing out some important challenges and potential pathways for future development of local democracy in Sweden.

  • 169.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Civic participation and interactive decision-making: a case study2010Ingår i: New forms of citizen participation: Normative implications / [ed] Erik Amnå, Baden-Baden: Nomos , 2010, 1, s. 53-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 170.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Deltagandets dilemman: erfarenheter från stadsomvandling Södra Älvstranden2007Ingår i: Kommunal ekonomi och politik, ISSN 1402-8700, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 25-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 171.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Medborgarnas deltagande i stadsplaneringen och effekter av ny teknik2011Ingår i: Nordisk kommunforskning: en forskningsöversikt med 113 projekt / [ed] Andreas Ivarsson, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Förvaltningshögskolan , 2011, s. 332-333Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 172.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Planners support of e-participation in the field of urban planning2010Ingår i: Handbook of research on e-planning: ICTs for urban development and monitoring / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, Hershey-New York: IGI Global , 2010, s. 237-251Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 173.
    Granbom, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Jörnmyr, Maria
    Persson, Monica
    Ekonomistyrning inom individ- och familjeomsorg: "Sen om himlen ramlat ner och alla har blivit funktionshindrade, det spelar ingen roll, för det ni hade innan – det får ni nästa år ändå."2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe how financial management functions within the individual and family care services in three mid-sized municipalities.

    27 interviews with managers and key personnel at three management levels in Örebro, Växjö and Jönkö-ping were conducted using a descriptive approach and qualitative method. In addition governing docu-ments and delineations in regards to these municipalities have been studied.

    The combined findings show that all municipalities have separate visions and control systems/models for their municipality with focus on management by objectives and politically determined goals, which in-clude economical measurements and requirements for the departments. Moreover, are also tracking sys-tems, which are described as following up on the results thru indicators and/or measurable goals. The municipalities utilize framework financials and budget processing on a high level and its timings appears similar in each municipality.

    Additionally the study has shown that there is a desire and aspiration to implement central economic goals in all three municipalities. The interviewees describe how they use their leadership to anchor, follow up and create participation in economic objectives and results thru instrumental and institutional leadership. All describe the importance of good forecasting in order for the financial management to work and create legitimacy, but they also see difficulties in anticipating needs arising mainly from livelihood support and external placements. None of the municipalities have a specific resource allocation model for individual and family care services. The study shows relatively small changes in the budget year over year, which in addition to difficulties in forecasting affects their perceived ability to take action.

    Conclusive, the study shows dilemmas in the individual and family care services and the difficulty of combining legal certainty and protection for the most vulnerable in our society, all while utilizing shared public resources in a responsible and appropriate manner.

  • 174.
    Graversgaard, Morten
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Smith, Laurence
    SOAS University of London, UK.
    Gertz, Flemming
    SEGES, Landbrug & Fødevarer F.M.B.A., Denmark.
    Højberg, Anker Lajer
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Langford, John
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Martinez, Grit
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    Mostert, Erik
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Ptak, Emilia
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Peterson, Heidi
    University of Minnesota, MN, USA; International Plant Nutrition Institute, MN, USA.
    Stelljes, Nico
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    van den Brink, Cors
    Royal Haskoning DHV, The Netherlands; Groningen University, The Netherlands.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Opportunities and barriers for water co-governance: A critical analysis of seven cases of diffuse water pollution from agriculture in Europe, Australia and North America2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id 1634Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) and its governance has received increased attention as a policy concern across the globe. Mitigation of DWPA is a complex problem that requires a mix of policy instruments and a multi-agency, broad societal response. In this paper, opportunities and barriers for developing co-governance, defined as collaborative societal involvement in the functions of government, and its suitability for mitigation of DWPA are reviewed using seven case studies in Europe (Poland, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands and UK), Australia (Murray-Darling Basin) and North America (State of Minnesota). An analytical framework for assessing opportunities and barriers of co-governance was developed and applied in this review. Results indicated that five key issues constitute both opportunities and barriers, and include: (i) pressure for change; (ii) connected governance structures and allocation of resources and funding; (iii) leadership and establishment of partnerships through capacity building; (iv) use and co-production of knowledge; and (v) time commitment to develop water co-governance

  • 175. Gray, David
    et al.
    Miles, Lee
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    The Volvo-Renault Merger1994Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 176.
    Grimsmo, Aslaug
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Erichsen, Cecilie W
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Skolen som lærende organisasjon: En studie av utvalgte rektorer og læreres oppfatninger av forutsetninger for organisasjonslæring i skolen2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
  • 177. Grove, Eric
    et al.
    Miles, Lee
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    When Actions Speak Louder than Words: The Changing Security Architecture and the Future of NATO1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This commissioned report for NATO, completed as part of a NATO Fellowship award, examined the crisis management policy options available to NATO. The report argues that rather than devising 'top down' approaches to crisis management, logistical challenges of undertakinjg crisis management operations in Europe required a 'bottom up' perspective

  • 178.
    Grönlund, Agneta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik.
    Redskap för lärande?: Återkoppling i samhällskunskap på gymnasiet2011Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores written and oral feedback in different contexts. The study is based on interviews with five Swedish teachers in Civics and on observations of their way of giving feedback in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers’ comments on the students’ written tasks were examined.

    Feedback from the teacher to the student has been classified into the categories: Focus on task, Focus on grade, Focus on learning process and Focus on self-regulation. According to previous research feedback with focus on process and self-regulation is the most powerful tool for enhancing learning. The result shows that the feedback which was given on written tests and written tasks was not favourable for enhancing learning. Feedback in a written log and during work in class was more effective. In the context where teacher gave oral feedback when giving back the written texts both grades and learning process appeared to be in focus.

    Activity theory has influenced the analysis of variation in feedback and of obstacles and possibilities for developing formative feedback. In order to explain the variation I discuss the form of the task, the nature of the subject and the fact that feedback is given in both a formative and a summative discourse.

    In the formative discourse, where the teacher acts as a promoter, I find good possibilities for developing formative feedback. Open tasks, feedback towards abilities and a direct relation between the student and the subject matter appeared in this discourse. A summative discourse, where examination and grades characterized the feedback, has been interpreted as an obstacle for development of a more formative practice. In that discourse the teacher acts as a mediator between the student and the subject matter.

  • 179.
    Gulijeva, Kira
    Karlstads universitet.
    EU och Azerbajdzjan: att producera respons: Diskursanalys av EU:s retorik gentemot Azerbajdzjans kritik2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to examine how EU’s response to the critics from Azerbaijan’s foreign policy bodies is produced and see whether Azerbaijan’s geopolitical position on the crossroads of

    powerful international actors have had an impact. The discursive analytical approach “What’s the problem represented to be?” makes it possible to study how the EU’s rhetoric in policies and statements towards Azerbaijan has been created and what assumptions and ideas layed behind. After a thorough review of a number of relevant policy documents and statements from the EU officials it emerged that the response on a chosen critic is created in a way that promotes EU’s own interests and secures its influence and actorness in the region. This can be seen in the creation of a certain response and in silencing some other aspects of the examined critics. The result shows an interesting pattern of the way in which the rhetoric is being adapted in order to meet difficulties and resistance of Azerbaijan’s officials in the relation with Azerbaijan.

  • 180.
    Gunnarsson, Lovisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Samverkan mellan kommun och näringsliv i en medelstor stad: En fallstudie av satsningen "100 nya Karlstadjobb"2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets styrformer har genomgått en förändring och kännetecknas idag av en komplexitet som innebär att flera olika aktörer är inblandade, där samarbeten över de privatoffentliga gränserna har blivit allt vanligare för att lösa samhällsproblem som traditionellt sett ålegat staten. År 2013 tog Kommunfullmäktige i Karlstad beslut att genomföra en arbetsmarknadspolitisk åtgärd i form av satsningen ”100 nya Karlstadjobb”. Beslutet innebar att kommunen tillsammans med det privata näringslivet skulle ta fram 100 nya jobb till personer som stod långt ifrån arbetsmarknaden. Den 31 december 2014 avslutades satsnigen och utvärderades av en samordnare på kommunen. Utvärderingen visade att den interna satsningen uppnått ett bättre resultat än den externa, och det är mot bakgrund av resultatet i den genomförda utvärderingen som denna uppsats tar sitt avstamp.

    Syftet med studien har varit att förklara varför den interna satsningen uppnådde ett bättre resultat än vad som åstadkoms externt. För att besvara syftet har tre rimliga hypoteser med influenser från teorityperna governance, policyanalys och privatoffentliga partnerskap tagits fram. Det empiriska materialet har grundats ifrån intervjuer av respondentkaraktär med personer som har varit involverade i satsningen, och analysen av materialet har vidare realiserats utifrån de framtagna hypoteserna. 

    Analysen påvisade att båda satsningarna initialt präglats av otydliga riktlinjer, och inom den externa satsningen påverkades det fortlöpande arbetet negativt av det faktumet, vilket försvårade hela arbetsprocessen.  Den interna satsningen kunde däremot återhämta sig från de otydligheter som funnits inledningsvis genom bland annat kontinuerlig dialog samt god samverkan, vilket kan ses som en förklaring till den interna satsningens framgång.

    Nyckelord: governance, policyanalys, privatoffentliga partnerskap, kommun, näringsliv, samverkan.

  • 181. Gustafsson, Erik
    Regionaliseringens påverkan på tillväxt och välfärd: En studie med 41 länder2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The regional level is awakening all over the world and is given more power and independence from the state often in the name of increasing growth and welfare. This process of decentralization, usually called regionalization, raises the question of the empirical truth of the alleged increased economic growth and higher welfare, which is what the theory of new regionalism and politicians both proclaim. The purpose of this study is to find and measure the effect of regionalization on national economic growth and welfare. It also strives to put the results from this study in context to both the theory of new regionalism and to give guidance to further regionalization from an economic growth- and welfare perspective. Therefore the research questions for this thesis is: Does regionalization, measured through Regional Authority Index, have an effect on the economic growth of countries, measured through an increase in the average Gross Domestic Product per capita? Does regionalization, measured through Regional Authority Index, have an effect on the welfare of countries, measured through Human Development Index? How do the results from these questions matter in the existing theory of new regionalism?

    By use of economic theory five other predictors of economic growth and welfare are chosen and put into the multiple regression analysis, to control the effect of regionalization compared to these other explanatory variables. The result indicates that regionalization cannot be said to have a significant effect on economic growth and welfare. Thus the theory of new regionalism is not supported in the claim that regions rising up because it is a better engine of growth and prosperity than the rigid state level. This doesn’t mean that regionalization is a process to avoid, there might be many more reasons to decentralize power, merely the claim that regionalization gives a country a higher economic growth and welfare isn’t accurate. From this study’s conclusion a more likely factor to economic growth and welfare seems to be to invest in research and development and to have a growth in population. Finally this study’s results indicates a normative suggestion that further regionalization is not appropriate from a growth perspective.

  • 182.
    Gustafsson, Frida
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Hot, våld och trakasserier mot förtroendevalda: En studie om hot, våld och trakasseriers påverkan på förtroendevaldas handlingsutrymme på lokal nivå2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 183.
    Gustafsson Opdal, Karl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Inkomstskatters inverkan på det sociala kapitalet: en kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan skatt och social tillit2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay study the connection between income taxes and social trust. This has been conducted through studying the social trust between income classes, investigate if there is a connection between trust and attitude to tax levels. Furthermore, the study will analyze if the variation in income can explain the level of variation in social trust. 

    Based on the analysis it is possible to determine a connection between the opinion of the income tax as too high and a low degree of social trust. It is not possible to determine that there is a significant connection between high income and a low degree of social trust. 

    Social capital is a widespread concept within almost every academic field. In this study, social trust will be used in a further extent since it better describes trust between people on a micro level. Social capital will instead be used when speaking of the accumulated amount of social trust on a level of macro. 

    The study is based on data from Välfärdsstatsundersökningen 2010 (Welfare state survey), which is carried out by Umeå university. The variables used originates from the survey, which later is recoded to suit the purpose of the essay.

  • 184.
    Gustafsson, Tobias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Medborgarens politiska deltagande: Medborgarförslag i Karlstads kommun2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    “Political participation by the citizen”

    - Citizen proposals in Karlstad municipality

    Essay in Political Science, C-level

    Author: Tobias Gustafsson

    Tutor: Michele Micheletti

    In Sweden the political parties are losing more and more of their members. That in combination with a tendency that the participation in the elections is getting lower is a problem for the representative and parliamentary political system in Sweden.

    In order to strengthen the democracy in Sweden and to make the gap between the citizens and the elected smaller there has been some democracy-projects. The purpose of these democracy-projects is to make the political participation by the citizens, between the elections, higher. One of them is “citizen proposals to the municipality”.

    The purpose of this essay is to examine this democracy-project in order to see what influences it might have on the local democracy. The local democracy is defined as “the big democracy” within Karlstad municipality. The study is mainly conducted as a survey.

    In order to determine the purpose three specified research questions has been constructed:

    1. How is “citizen proposals to the municipality” dealt with?

    2. Who are the citizens which utilize the right to “citizen proposals to the municipality”?

    3. How effective is “citizen proposals to the municipality”?

    The answer to the first question is: There is a developed formal way of dealing with the proposals at Karlstad municipality. The dealing with the “citizen proposals to the municipality” is a procedure that is time-consuming and there is a lack of information of the right to give “citizen proposals to the municipality”. The answer to the second question is: those citizens most likely to be political active are a man with high education, in his middle ages with an average income. He has an occupation and is political active in the local elections, but he is not a member of a political party. Observe though that there is a broad spectrum of those who propose suggestions in the examine group. The answer to the third question is that it is possible to get your proposal sanctioned. However the citizens feel’s that there is a problem with how the municipality handles the proposal after it has been sanctioned. Most of the citizens are not happy with how their proposal has been handled after it has been sanctioned. They feel that there pass to much time between the sanction and that the proposal is accomplished.

  • 185. Gustavsson, BO
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Räftegård, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Work in the 1980s1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 186.
    Gustavsson, Elin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Deliberativ demokrati och valdemokrati - i harmoni eller konflikt?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    How a citizen dialogue or planning consultation is conducted can be a root cause of planning contests in new construction projects. The aim of the paper is to study the effects of the citizensial dialogue in connection with the local development “Muminlandet” theme park at Skutberget. This study explores how the citizen dialogue have been done in Karlstad and tries to look at it in different democracy perspectives. The method used is qualitative semi-structured individual interviews with politicians, civil servants and citizens in order to gain their view of the process. The study analysis shows that the development of Skutberget area in Karlstad municipality has been divided into two separate plans. In one part, which is the outdoor recreational area, citizen dialogue has taken place with deliberative aspects in the form of focus groups and direct dialogues with the citizens. The second part is about “Muminparken” and it has been planned for public consultation meeting. Citizens have only given comments on this plan, but have not had the possibility to have a direct dialog with the people in charge, so no deliberative talks have been achieved. The conclusion that follows is that there has been no opportunity for citizens to enter into dialogue with the municipality regarding the “Muminpark”. The conclusion that follows is that there has been a certain tension between the representatives from my interviews and the citizens. They see the building plan from two different perspectives.

  • 187.
    Gustavsson, Tore
    Karlstads universitet.
    Att försöka gjuta olja på vågorna: En studie om legitimiteten av Viltförvaltningsdelegationen i två län i Sverige2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze the conditions for legitimacy of the Wildlife Conservation Committees in two counties in Sweden. This study uses three concepts. Social networks, deliberation and learning as the main focus points to analyze. Olson's theory of organisations collective action with public goods stands as the theoretical perspective. Selective incitements are necessary to get them to promote the public goods. The study examines the legitimacy and functionality of the Wildlife Conservation Committees through interviews and an comparative study with the government bill 2008/09:2010.

    The results are that the governor with the leadership stands as a very important role to get organisations to make them promote collective action, because co-management thrives from it. The interest of hunters has an advantage when it comes to representation but only when the incentives for collective action are missing. The functionality differs between the committees when it comes to the form of management.

    Further research could expand the scope of this subject. Both the scale of included committees and with quantitative data research. The leadership role in co-management needs more focus in co-management studies.

  • 188.
    Göransdotter, Susanna
    Karlstads universitet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bloggar och dagordningsteorin: En undersökning av bloggreferenser i fyra svenska tidningar under förvalsperioden 2006 och 20102010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last ten years Internet has become more popular and is now used by most Swedes every day.  Internet has made it possible for many people to access a great deal of information about news all day long. Internet has also made it possible for people to create their own news and comment on happenings as they are taking place. One way to do this is to start your own blog, which is a kind of diary where you can publish your own thoughts about politics and news.

    In Sweden the media is often referred to as the third governmental power since the media is examining the government and people in power positions and bringing the people as consumers of news closer to the government. There is a theory called agenda setting that says that the media is an actor that shapes the political issues discussed by the people and politicians.

    In this essay I have used the agenda setting theory and linked it together with the Medias references to blogs in their news. This I have done to see if the media might be influenced by blogs. I have chosen to conduct my study at two different times, spring 2006 and spring 2010 since this is dates pre-existing an election and the political discussion is more active in media.  The purpose of this essay is to examine if there are any references to blogs in four of Sweden’s biggest newspapers. The empirical material has been divided into four categories which are political elite, the establishment, the newspapers own journalists and others. This I have done to see if there are any specific changes over time regarding the different categories.

    The questions I have answered in this essay are:

    Are there any references to blogs in the four newspapers?

    If yes, witch categories of blogs are the references too?

    If yes, how often are there references over a two-month period?

    How does the change regarding references to blogs look over time?

    After conducting this study I saw that there has been an increase in Media’s references to blogs over time. In 2006 there were 22 references and in 2010 there were 93 references. This result points to the fact that media have come closer to the blogs and is using them more frequently when the construct their news.

  • 189.
    Hafström, Ludvig
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Demokratisk kultur?: En studie av kultursamverkansmodellen2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, a change has occurred in the Swedish cultural policy through the implementation of what has come to be known as culture collaborative model (kultursamverkansmodellen). In short, this means that a greater emphasis on cultural policies is imposed on the regional level which not previously had any active role in cultural policy.

    Kultursamverkansmodellen is for many reasons a good example of what in Political Science is referred to as interactive governance. A form of control method which is characterized by policy networks, multi-level governance, and a large amount of included participants

    The change in decision-making kultursamverkansmodellen is characterized by risk giving rise to a range of democratic problems. Elected officials and stakeholders might for example be losing power and control over decisions. The purpose of this study is to answer the question: Is kultursamverkansmodellen is democratic anchored? To answer that question I use the book Interactive Governance (2012) and the four models for democratic basis that it presents.

    The survey shows that kultursamverkansmodellen is anchored on elected politicians, participating teams and organizations, and the democratic rules and norms. However not in the regional population. But the anchor of elected politicians is considered so strong that the democratic problem can be resolved.

    The conclusion is thus that the Culture collaborative model is democratically anchored. However, there are other boundary problems that might be worth paying additional attention to in further studies. 

  • 190.
    Hagberg Ryngefors, Marielle
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Att förbereda för politiskt deltagande?: Gymnasieskolans uppdrag i samhällskunskapsundervisning2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur gymnasielärare i samhällskunskap tolkar och transformerar skolans uppdrag att förbereda elever för politiskt deltagande. Utifrån lärares utsagor kring hur uppdraget tolkas och transformeras inför samhällskunskapsundervisning, samt vilka faktorer som uttrycks påverka denna transformering, syftar studien till att utröna vilka skillnader som föreligger beträffande hur uppdraget transformeras, samt vad dessa skillnader kan ses bero på. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju samhällskunskapslärare, syftar studien till att besvara tre forskningsfrågor, vilka behandlar hur lärarna tolkar uppdraget att förbereda elever för politiskt deltagande, hur de uttrycker att uppdraget transformeras inför undervisning samt vilka faktorer som uttrycks påverka denna transformering. Studiens övergripande slutsats är att lärarna ger uttryck för att uppdraget att förbereda eleverna för politiskt deltagande inbegriper flera olika dimensioner, vilka transformeras på olika sätt inför undervisning. De mest centrala skillnaderna kan ses finnas inom de kunskapsförmedlande och deltagarfrämjande dimensionerna, vilket yttrar sig genom att lärarna i viss mån fokuserar på olika undervisningsområden och behandlar dessa på olika nivåer. Vidare framhävs olika påverkansmöjligheter och deltagandeformer i varierande grad. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar studien att lärarna, i egenskap av politiska socialisationsagenter, förbereder eleverna olika för politiskt deltagande.

  • 191.
    Haldén, Jasmine
    Karlstads universitet.
    Nyttomaximering vs. rättighetsrespekt i det svenska samhället: En filosofisk analys över samhällsstrukturers möjlighet till rättfärdigande utifrån Benthams och Nozicks teorier2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 192.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Varför är det säkrare att flyga än att få sjukvård?: En jämförande studie av säkerhetsutveckling inom hälso- och sjukvård respektive civilflyg2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna jämförande studie är att söka förklaringsfaktorer till varför hälso- och sjukvård respektive civilflyg har utvecklats olika i säkerhetstänkande. Frågeställningen är huruvida de statliga tillsynsmyndigheternas förutsättningar och arbetssätt har betydelse för säkerhetskulturen i respektive tillsynsverksamhet. Till förutsättningarna hör författningarna - skiljer sig dessa åt? Myndigheternas arbetssätt, dvs. tillsynens utformning – vilken betydelse har den?

    Resultaten visar att säkerhetsrelaterade författningar inom civilflyget är tydligare jämfört med hälso- och sjukvården. Inom civilflyget anges tydligt hur säkerhetsarbetet ska organiseras, till skillnad mot hälso- och sjukvården.

    Tillsynsmyndigheternas arbetssätt påverkas av skillnader i författningarnas utformning. Luftfartsstyrelsen kan påverka de flygsäkerhetsrelaterade resurserna vid en flygplats. Socialstyrelsen har små möjligheter att påverka sjukvårdens bemanning.

    Genom civilflygets föreskrifter har man uppnått strikt följsamhet mot upprättade rutiner. Miljön för avvikelserapportering är icke-bestraffande. Felhandlingar förebyggs genom övningar och repetitionsutbildningar. Socialstyrelsen saknar bemyndigande i utbildningsfrågan.

    Tillståndsplikten inom civilflyget har sannolikt främjat säkerhetsutvecklingen, så även det internationella samarbetet.

    Slutsatsen är att utformningen av författningarna har betydelse för tillsynsmyndigheternas möjligheter att påverka säkerhetsutvecklingen inom respektive tillsynsområde. Bristen på tydlighet i författningarna kan förlångsamma sjukvårdens utveckling mot ökande patientsäkerhet.

  • 193.
    Halvordsson, Åsa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Inflytandets vara eller icke vara för utvecklingsländer inom WTO.: Världssystemteorin förklarar.2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
  • 194.
    Halvorsen, Stein
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hauge, Frank Steinar
    Karlstads universitet.
    KOSTRA som verktøy for styring av kommunene: en studie av 10 kommuner i Hedmark og Oppland2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian public sector, in particular local Councils as the principal supplier of welfare services, face great challenges in the coming years. Expectations and demands upon public services are increasing in proportion with the increase in private wealth. Among the consequences are higher demands on the distribution of welfare services, and the need for a more effective use of resources.

    Inspired by New Public Management theories, Norwegian local Councils have made considerable changes in management over the last 10-20 years. To meet the demands for increased activity, public sector has undergone a transition towards a less hierarchal organisational structure, their delegation to appropriate performance units has increased, and systems to monitor aims and results have been introduced. With respect to the latter, it has become crucial that data concerning resource utilisation and economy are made easily available and can be related to management issues.

    In 2001 the national government introduced the so-called KOSTRA public reporting system (Kommune-ST-at-Rapportering) The overall aim of KOSTRA is to produce relevant, reliable, current and comparable management information. In addition, the KOSTRA reporting system will provide an improved database as an aid to service provision, as well as providing a foundation for improved Council management.

    Our aim with this assignment has been to take a closer look at KOSTRA as a suitable tool for resource management within local Councils, and to see whether Councils do in fact use it actively in their own administrational priorities and activities. We have illustrated this by taking a closer look at possible connections between active use of KOSTRA and the Councils` economic situation, priorities and effectiveness.

    We have found no grounds in our studies to indicate that there is any difference in the allocation of priorities between those local Councils using KOSTRA in management-related activities and those who do not. On the other hand, we have discovered links between active use of KOSTRA and the Councils`economic situation.

    This connection is very interesting. It is the Councils under financial stress which appear to be using KOSTRA actively.

    Our major conclusion is that KOSTRA alone does not produce all necessary and relevant management information. KOSTRA is more applicable when seen in context with the complexity of public sector, and with a firm knowledge of the system's underlying indicators.

  • 195.
    Hansson, Clara
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Svenska regioners förståelse av tillväxt2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 196.
    Hansson, Elin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    I hamn: - En fallstudie av det privatoffentliga partnerskapet Vänerhamn2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses upon the new societal objects that are termed public private

    partnerships where the public sector forms strategic alliances with the private sector

    and the civil society to manage the wicked issues of today. An exampel of such

    cooperation is Vänerhamn AB where the municipalities around the lake of Vänern

    and the private shipping companies got togheter to handle an economic crisis of the

    shipping buisiness. The partnership Vänerhamn has developed from a problematic

    activity to a healthy company and the aim of this thesis is to illuminate this

    development through an historical institutional approach, focusing critical juncture

    to discover if the governance theory can be used to understand the partnerships

    positive process.

     

    This will be done through research questions about the organisation of the

    partnership, about the members interests with the partnership and about eventually

    coordination problems in the partnership. The questions derive from dimensions in

    governance theory, central for the activity of partnerships. Interviews with central

    informants where held and it was complemented through a document analyses in

    order to search for indications of the dimensions and that is the methodological

    approach of the study.

     

    The conclusion of this thesis is that the governance theory can be used to

    understand Vänerhamns postive development since the members interest with the

    partnership to a begining was not at all conformed and that led to obvious

    coordination problems. With more conformed interests the coordination problems

    were almost absent and the partnership made success. In this case the organisation

    of the partnership did not matter as it was a registered company during the whole

    time. The central sapiency of the thesis is that the public sector has to learn more

    about the private sector and vice versa.

  • 197.
    Hansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Åberg, Jonas
    Krisberedskapsprocessen, samverkan mellan nivåer och utspridd ansvarsfördelning: En deskriptiv fallstudie av krisberedskap på regional och lokal nivå.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån Sveriges förändrade agenda avseende samhällets beredskap att hantera kriser, studera krisberedskapsprocessen på regional och lokal nivå genom informantintervjuer av nyckelbefattningar inom länsstyrelse och kommun. Uppsatsen svarar genom en deskriptiv fallstudie med kvalitativ metod av länsstyrelser och kommuner på frågeställningarna: Hur genomförs den komplexa krisberedskapsprocessen vid regional och lokal nivå samt vilket behov av stöd kräver krisberedskapsprocessen? I studien sammanställs en empirisk krisberedskapsprocess vilken jämförts med den normativa krisberedskapsprocesen genom att använda Lundqvists (1992) implementeringsteori baserad på Förstå, Kan, Vill. Studiens mest signifikanta resultat är att en väl utvecklad samverkan har identifierats mellan aktörer på regional och lokal nivå. Studien har funnit viss liknelse mellan den empiriska krisberedskapsprocessen och Lundqvists Policyprocessens stadier med förvaltningens huvuduppgifter. Även om informanterna upplever vissa problem inom krisberedskapen, finner vi att aktörerna genom ett stort engagemang anses kunna hantera krisberedskapsprocessen.

  • 198.
    Harnell, Christoffer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Kärnvapennedrustning i USA och Sovjetunionen: Åren 1960-20022009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractIII-essay in political science by Christoffer Harnell, autumn -08. Supervisor: Malin Stegman-McCallion. ”Nuclear Disarmament - USA and the Soviet Union 1960-2002” This essay is about USA and the former Soviet Union and their nuclear disarmament. The purpose is to explain why and when the two states begun their nuclear disarmament, as well as what caused the start of the process. The essay investigates how well the two states have followed the NPT-Treaty’s article of nuclear disarmament. The article says that the states who have signed the NPT-treaty shall work for an disarmament of their nuclear weapons.          The arguments are that a state’s nuclear disarmament starts because of a previous action or happening, the new development of a disarmament-theory, the essay aims to proove this.Both the United States of America and the Soviet Union show evidence that they have started their nuclear disarmament after a previous action. USA started their nuclear disarmament in the period 1966-70 because of the former American minister of security Robert McNamara and his U-turn in the aggressive war politic and the former president Nixon and his ambition to lower the heat between USA and the Soviet union by signin the ABM-Treaty.          The Soviet Union started their nuclear disarmament many years later in the period of 1986-1987, the cause of this, it is believed, is the nuclear explosion in Chernobyl and the former president of the Soviet Union Michail Gorbatjov’s ambitions to end the war in the world and disarm the nuclear weapons, not just between USA and the Soviet Union, but in all states.          USA has followed the NPT-Treaty’s article of nuclear disarmament well, one reason for this is that, they started the disarmament before they signed the NPT-Treaty in 1968. The Soviet Union, however, has followed the NPT-treatys article of nuclear disarmament less well and did not start their nuclear disarmament until 1986-87, even though they signed up for the NPT-Treaty in 1968.           The NPT-Treaty will probably still be relevant in the future for the nuclear disarmament, but how well the world’s states will follow it, the future will tell. The nuclear disarmament in this two states has been caused by a previous action and the new developed disarmament-theory is avaliable for further disarmament research.

  • 199.
    Harnell, Christoffer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Nordkorea - En nutida Furstestat?1985Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about North Korea, Kim Jong Il and how the future looks for the states political system. The purpose is to explain how Kim Jong Il and the North Korean regim rules the state and with help of Machiavellis theory about the Prince, tell about the states future. The essayinvestigates how well Kim Jong Il and the North Korean regime are keeping their power overthe state and if their possibilities to continue in the same way are good or bad. The essayinvestigates North Koreas possibilities for further reign through Niccolo Machiavellis theory.

    The argument is that the North Korean state and Kim Jong Il have few or noneconditions to continue with the same political system that the state in this time have.

    The result shows that, through a Machiavellian perspective, Kim Jong Il and the North Korean regime have bad conditions to continue ruling the state in same way as now. The investigation, unfortunately, do not show when and how North Korea will be exposed to a government switch , but the result points to a change.

  • 200.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    The EU Floods Directive trickling down: Tracing the ideas of integrated and participatory flood risk management in Sweden2017Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 286-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the EU Floods Directive - an extensive and innovative legislative instrument for integrated and participatory flood risk planning in all EU member states - influences local flood risk management in one member state, Sweden. The study identifies that: many municipalities have received new knowledge; crosssectoral organisational structures for water and flood risk issues at the local level are being formed or strengthened; and the flood risk issue has been elevated up the political agenda. There are also however clear signs that a number of other fundamental issues are not being adequately addressed in the complex institutional setting that results from the directive's implementation. These issues are undoubtedly obstructing the development of a more integrated and participatory flood risk management system. Of key importance here are questions relating to how roles and mandates are communicated and adopted, the lack of coordination between the Floods Directive and the Water Framework Directive, and the inadequate involvement of the municipal level and other stakeholders. Practical recommendations on how to redirect development towards more positive outcomes in these areas are thus formulated.

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