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  • 151.
    Andersson, Berndt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Pasanen, M
    Energidistributörernas strategier inför en avreglerad elmarknad: erfarenheter från Storbritannien, Norge och Finland1997Report (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Johansson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Att vara eller inte vara: styrs uttaget av föräldraledighet av föreställningar eller faktiska förhållanden?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this survey is to investigate how well parents ideas and conceptions concerning parental leave, matches factual circumstances, or if there is a difference? More specifically it has been investigated if it is the common conceptions concerning the obstacles for the male parental leave which is in control, or if it is the actual circumstances which control the parental leave? The survey is based on a quantitative empiric where the collection of data has been done through a selection of availability with a questionnaire as the measuring instrument.

    In order to find the answer to the question at hand, theory in the field of parental leave and gender has been studied. The theory section contains a presentation of the parental leave discourse with its four obstacles; economy, workplace, the woman and the gender roles. The section is the base of our understanding and has also been the framework from which the questions for the survey have been constructed.

    The results from the empirical survey have been analyzed together with relevant literature to give an answer to the question at hand. From this it can be read that the distribution of the days of the parental leave is highly affected by the conceptions and ideas males face concerning parental leave. The results also clearly show that the obstacles partially are not rooted in reality. In the survey it also surfaced that those responding had insufficient knowledge concerning the parental insurance which we believe has aided the conceptions and ideas to the influence and degree they have had. The authors hence believe that the information to the parents should improve and that researches in the field should find strategies in order to better inform the public of their knowledge.

    Keywords: Parental insurance, parental leave, gender system, discourse and obstacle

  • 153.
    Andersson, Carin E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills2011In: Nordic Academy of Management conference 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management skills are needed in a growing number of areas, all with specific requirements regarding technical and social competencies. Still, the majority of project management training is focusing on technical tools and techniques, emphasized in standards suggested by global professional project management associations. Uncertainties and unique social settings require a managerial approach different from the linear, rational and analytical view of the world provided by international standards such as the PMBOK Guide. A new approach to project management education is needed that deals with the complexity of today’s project environments. This paper describes a one year master program in project management at theKarlstadUniversityinSweden. The program is general and focuses on issues regardless of business area or project type, and mix both technical and social skills. The program was initiated in 2002 and more than 200 students have until today been part of the program. In addition to the mandatory courses in the program, several students have, on voluntary basis, passed the IPMA D-level certification. The paper also presents the results from two different types of evaluations showing that the majority of the students have great use of their education in their current employment.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kartläggning och analys av projektledarkompetens i forskningsprojekt vid Karlstads universitet2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research at universities is today often conducted as projects. This is especially true in the engineering, natural science, medicine, and social science disciplines. Research projects are typically carried out by different categories of employers, such as professors, associate professors, assistant professors, and PhD students. These projects are typically managed by the person that applied for the project money, or the person that is the most experienced researcher at the department, which is often a professor or associate professor. From such leading persons, miracles are expected. Except acting as project managers, they are also engaged in many other parallel activities, e.g., supervision of PhD students, undergraduate and graduate education, conference organization and administration, project application writing, and representing the department internally as well as externally.

    In this report, a survey of project management competence within research projects at Karlstad University is presented. Empirical data have been gathered through two questionnaires and six complementary interviews. Professors and associate professors as well as PhD students have participated in the study. The survey shows that the active project managers have learned to lead projects based on experience and very few project managers have a formal leadership education. This implies that long stablished project management methods and tools are seldom used.

    Based on the outcome from the survey and our own observations, four concrete activities to improve project management skills are proposed in the report. The first activity is to provide a suitable and well-balanced course in project management methods that is offered to both active and future project managers. The second activity is to establish experience networks among active project mangers at Karlstad University. The third activity is to create a mentor program for new project managers. The fourth activity is to establish a group of experienced project managers that can assist in and give support to ongoing and planned projects.

  • 155. Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Survey and Analysis of Project Management Competence within Research Projects at Karlstad University2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Research at universities is today often conducted as projects. This is especially true in the engineering, natural science, medicine, and social science disciplines. Research projects are typically carried out by different categories of employers, such as professors, associate professors, assistant professors, and PhD students. These projects are typically managed by the person that applied for the project money, or the person that is the most experienced researcher at the department, which is often a professor or associate professor. From such leading persons, miracles are expected. Except acting as project managers, they are also engaged in many other parallel activities, e.g., supervision of PhD students, undergraduate and graduate education, conference organization and administration, project application writing, and representing the department internally as well as externally.



    In this report, a survey of project management competence within research projects at Karlstad University is presented. Empirical data have been gathered through two questionnaires and six complementary interviews. Professors and associate professors as well as PhD students have participated in the study. The survey shows that the active project managers have learned to lead projects based on experience and very few project managers have a formal leadership education. This implies that long established project management methods and tools are seldom used.



    Based on the outcome from the survey and our own observations, four concrete activities to improve project management skills are proposed in the report. The first activity is to provide a suitable and well-balanced course in project management methods that is offered to both active and future project managers. The second activity is to establish experience networks among active project mangers at Karlstad University. The third activity is to create a mentor program for new project managers. The fourth activity is to establish a group of experienced project managers that can assist in and give support to ongoing and planned projects.

  • 156.
    Andersson, Carina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gunnarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Turordningsreglerna: En studie avturordningsreglerna vid en verksamhetsövergång i Karlstad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metso Paper in Karlstad is acquiring Kvaerner Pulping and Kvaerner Kamfab, also located in Karlstad. Following this acquisition, there are going to be changes in the organizational structure and some employees might even loose their jobs. There are guidelines from the European Union how to handle situations like this, the purpose of these are to protect the employees. There are also Swedish laws that regulate the protection of the employees when a company is acquired, who is going to keep their job and who is to be made redundant.

    The transaction between the companies is large why they need an approval from the European Union. The European Union has certain demands for the approval. Metso and Kvaerner have to sell some parts of the production to another company in order to not become too dominant in the market. In this essay we are investigating what the law says about layoffs and how it is handled in reality.

    We have kept focus on the paragraphs 6 b and 22 of the law regarding employment protection. These paragraphs regulate the protection for the employees in an acquisition, they also regulate who has to leave first in a potential of layoff situation. Important parts of the legislation protect employees with high age and those who have the longest employment time in the company. A prerequisite for keeping their jobs is that the employees have necessary knowledge and skills for the tasks he or she is going to perform.

    We have used traditional legal method so-called dogmatic method with empirical elements. The traditional method means to search through literature such as doctrine and dissertations for information and the empirical elements means for example the information we’ve gathered from the companies. We got the idea for this essay when we were doing our internships at Metso Paper and Kvaerner Kamfab, a part of our examination in this course. We were informed about the transaction and got curious about what was going to happen with the employees in the companies.

    Our result shows that almost everything is negotiable through collective bargaining agreements. Another conclusion is that when a Swedish company sells parts of the production to a company located in another country and with no intent to keep the production in Sweden, the law is not preventing them executing their plans.

  • 157.
    Andersson, Carin.E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    The Project Manager at Work2012In: Makt, Myter och Motstridigheter: Utmaningar i dagens arbetsliv, Karlstads universitet, 2012, p. 1-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature there is a common belief that project management is a general theory that is mainly

    about techniques and/or tools used for planning, budgeting, and control. This view has lately been

    questioned due to the fact that it does not give a complete picture of what a project manager actually

    does in their daily work. By including other skills, such as, skills for communication, team building,

    and leadership, a more complete picture of the project management role may be provided. Project

    management research needs more empirical data from project managers about what their role as project

    manager actually means. The purpose of this study is to investigate what it means to work as a project

    manager in small and medium sized organizations. Empirical data is planned to be gathered (in the

    county of Värmland, Sweden) from May through October 2012, using semi-structured interviews and

    participant observations of project managers working in a multi-project management environment.

    Three overlapping analyzes techniques will be used to analyze the gathered data: thematic analysis,

    grounded theory, and narrative analysis. By using these techniques, hopefully this article will expand the

    knowledge and the understanding what a project manager actually does in their daily work.

     

  • 158.
    Andersson, Carin.E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    A Master Program in Project Management: Experiences from combining hard and soft skills2011In: Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) 2011 Conference, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management skills are needed in a growing number of areas, all with specific requirements regarding technical and social competencies. Still, the majority of project management training is focusing on technical tools and techniques, emphasized in standards suggested by global professional project management associations. Uncertainties and unique social settings require a managerial approach different from the linear, rational and analytical view of the world provided by international standards such as the PMBOK Guide. A new approach to project management education is needed that deals with the complexity of today’s project environments. This paper describes a one year master program in project management at the KarlstadUniversity in Sweden. The program is general and focuses on issues regardless of business area or project type, and mix both technical and social skills. The program was initiated in 2002 and more than 200 students have until today been part of the program. In addition to the mandatory courses in the program, several students have, on voluntary basis, passed the IPMA D-level certification. The paper also presents the results from two different types of evaluations showing that the majority of the students have great use of their education in their current employment.

    Keywords: project management education; project management knowledge; soft skills; hard skills; pedagogic

  • 159.
    Andersson, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Design and Evaluation of Anonymity Solutions for Mobile Networks2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet and mobile communications have had a profound effect on today's society. New services are constantly being deployed, in which personal data are being processed in return for personally tailored services. While mobile networks lay the groundwork for new innovative services, at the same time they pose numerous privacy challenges. There is the risk that honest citizens participating in mobile communications will have their privacy invaded for "the greater good". We argue that it is highly important that individuals are empowered to retain control over their personal spheres. Thus, the goal of this thesis is to design and evaluate anonymous overlay networks} adapted for mobile networks that allow users to control which information leaves their personal spheres in a mobile communication.

    Technically, by using an anonymous overlay network, users can communicate with their communication partners without disclosing their network identities. In this thesis, we propose three different anonymous overlay networks tailored for mobile networks. First, two approaches are proposed for anonymous browsing on the mobile Internet, namely mCrowds and a Tor-based approach. By applying theoretical analysis and\,/\,or practical experiments, we show that these approaches offer an appropriate trade-off between the offered degree of anonymity and performance loss. Second, an anonymous overlay network for use in mobile ad hoc networks - Chameleon - is suggested.

    Besides the actual design of these anonymous overlay networks, this thesis provides novel contributions in other essential areas of privacy protection and anonymous communication. First, also non-technical aspects of privacy protection are thoroughly discussed, including legal, social, and user interface aspects. Second, we survey existing metrics for quantifying anonymity and also propose new ideas regarding anonymity metrics. Third, we review and classify existing mechanisms for anonymous communication in mobile ad hoc networks. Lastly, we also propose a cryptographic technique for building up the user base of an anonymous overlay network in a secure and privacy-friendly manner.

  • 160. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Enabling anonymity for the mobile Internet using the mCrowds system2004In: Risk and Challenges of the Network Society: Proceedings of the Second IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.6, 11.7 International Summer School / [ed] Penny Duquenoy, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Jan Holvast, and Albin Zuccato, Karlstad University Press, 2004, p. 178-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile Internet is a fast growing technology that introduces new privacy risks. We argue that, since privacy legislation alone is not sufficient to protect the users privacy, technical solutions to enhanceinformational privacy of individuals are also needed. This paper introduces mCrowds, a privacy-enhancing technology that combines the concept of a crowd system in a mobile Internet setting with a filteringfunctionality to enable anonymity towards the content providers

  • 161.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    mCrowds: Anonymity for the Mobile Internet2003In: HumanIT 2003, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2003, p. 79-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kohlweiss, Markulf
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Panchenko, Andriy
    Self-certified Sybil-Free Pseudonyms: Introducing Privacy in Infrastructureless Wireless NetworksManuscript (Other academic)
  • 163. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    On the Fundamentals of Anonymity Metrics2007In: The Future of Identity in the Information Society: Proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/ 11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School on The Future of Identity in the Information Society / [ed] Simone Fischer-Hübner, Penny Duquenoy, Albin Zuccato and Leonardo Martucci, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Privacy & Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2008In: Handbook of Research on Wireless Security / [ed] Yan Zhang, Jun Zheng & Miao Ma, IGI Global , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Requirements for Privacy-Enhancements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2005In: 3rd German Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks  (WMAN 2005): Proceedings of Informatik 2005 - Informatik LIVE! Band 2, 2005, p. 344-348Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy and Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2008In: Mobile Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] David Taniar, Information Science Reference , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 167. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy Requirements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Panchenko, Andriy
    Practical Anonynous Communication on the Mobile Internet using Tor2007In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on the Value of Security through Collaboration (SEVOCAL 2007), 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Andersson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Teoretisk och praktisk genomgång av IPv6 och dess säkerhetsaspekter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a theoretical as well as a practical approach to what IPv6 is in order to create an understanding for the new protocol. In addition to the theoretical review of the protocol, this paper also describes the work that has been done in order to create an implementation that is supposed to bring  secure IPv6 support to both private individuals and smaller organizations, even if the Internet service provider only offers IPv4.

     

    This paper and implementation is done on a personal initiative, since the need for knowledge regarding IPv6 is rapidly increasing and private individuals probably will be among the last to be offered native IPv6 support from their Internet service providers.

  • 170.
    Andersson, Emilie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Bloggar inspirerar: En studie om hur bloggläsare blir inspirerade till konsumtion2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 171.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nätverkslagring: SAN/NAS-lösning för VM-miljö2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 172.
    Andersson, Evelina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Danielsen Gustavsson, Madelene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Låt den andra parten bli hörd: En studie av hur kunder uppfattar relationsmarknadsföring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Relationsmarknadsföring är egentligen inget nytt fenomen men ett relativt nytt begrepp då det användes första gången 1983 av Leonard Berry. Idag är begreppet välkänt och accepterat av forskare och teoretiker och har även fått fäste i litteraturens värld. I litteraturen (Bl.a. Blomqvist, Dahl & Heager, 2004, Gummesson 1999, Grönsroos, 2008) framhävs fördelarna med relationsmarknadsföring ur ett företagsperspektiv och det skrivs om varför det är viktigt att satsa på. Dock tas det sällan upp om kunderna faktiskt är lika intresserade. För att relationsmarknadsföring ska nå maximal effekt är det viktigt att det även finns ett intresse från kundernas sida att skapa relationer med företag.

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur kunders intresse för relationsmarknadsföring ser ut, samt att undersöka om relationsmarknadsföring kan påverka synen på ett varumärke. Genom en kvantitativ telefonenkät genomfördes studien på Karlstads Stadsnäts kunder där de fick svara på frågor som tog upp relationer, kunddialog och varumärken.

    Undersökningen visar på att kunderna upplever relationer med företag som viktigt om det handlar om varan eller tjänsten som köps kräver större engagemang från kundens sida. Kunderna tycker också att det är viktigt att få information regelbundet om vad som händer inom företaget, för Karlstads Stadsnät handlar det om information om nya operatörer, tjänster, erbjudanden även information om nyanslutna områden önskas. Studien pekar också på att det finns olika typer av kunder, passiva eller aktiva. De flesta kunderna är passiva och nöjer sig med att veta att företaget finns där och att möjligheten till kontakt finns om det behövs. De aktiva kunderna vill ha en större kontakt med företaget och få ut ett större värde.

    En kundrelation kan förbättra kunders associationer till ett varumärke. En stark och bra relation gör att kunden förstår varumärket och dess innebörd bättre. Vad gäller denna undersökning visar den att Karlstads Stadsnät kan bli bättre på att kommunicera ut sina värdeord och göra det tydligare för sina kunder.

  • 173.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Prognostisering av Sveriges inflation: Med hjälp av ARIMA-modeller2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min uppsats är att redogöra för de steg som krävs för att prognostisera den svenska inflationen med hjälp av Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), för att sedan bestämma den modell som ger den bästa prognosen. Jag använder mig av månadsdata av Konsumentprisindex (KPI) som mått på inflation. För att man ska kunna prognostisera en tidsserie är det viktigt att den är stationär  och efter att ha utforskat korrelogram drar jag slutsatsen att dels en förstadifferens och dels en tolvmånadersdifferens måste tas för att kunna prognostisera KPI.   

    Jag följer Box-Jenkins-metodologin tämligen väl, där modellidentifikation, diagnostiska test och prognostisering är centrala begrepp.  Jag rankar de tio bästa modellerna enligt Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) för att sedan utföra diagnostiska test på den bästa modellen i synnerhet och de andra modellerna i allmänhet. Slutligen utvärderas de olika modellerna bl.a. med hjälp av ”Root Mean Square Error” (RMSE). Den modell som bäst prognostiserar  inflationen  är en säsongsbetonad Moving Average  process  av order  ett förutom differentieringarna. 

  • 174.
    Andersson Frick, Zakarias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Cvijetic, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Ett arbete är ett arbete: -        En kvalitativ studie om vad som motiverar Generation Y2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser att undersöka vad personer tillhörande generation Y motiveras av. Studiens frågeställningar är följande: Vilka behov upplever personerna att de har i sitt arbete? Hur behåller man personer tillhörande generation Y i sin organisation? Vilka egenskaper i ett arbete är det som är motiverande enligt personer tillhörande generation Y? Syftet med uppsatsen är att skaffa ökad kunskap om vad personer tillhörande generation Y på industriföretag i mellersta Sverige motiveras av.

     

    Studiens population är personer tillhörande generation Y. De teorier som studien har använt för att beskriva fenomenet motivation är: Self-determination teori, Herzbergs tvåfaktorteori, Self-efficacy, Expectancy teori. Samt en teori om hur man konkret kan öka motivationen hos individer på en arbetsplats: målsättningsteori.

     

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie som har använt intervjuer som datainsamlingsteknik. Sju personer tillhörande generation Y som arbetade inom industrin intervjuades. Intervjun som utfördes var halvstrukturerad, vilket gav studien ett rikt material att arbeta med.

     

    Studiens resultat visar på att personerna inte har ett genuint intresse av själva arbetet utan använder det som ett medel för att leva på fritiden. De ser även arbetet som en plikt, man skall göra sin del av kakan. Finns vissa egenskaper i arbetet som gör att personerna trivs på deras arbete, vilka är: kompetent ledarskap, yrket har hög status i deras samhälle, en bra lön, bra arbetsförhållande, bra arbetskollegor samt att arbetet ligger nära deras egna boende. Studiens resultat redogör även för behov som ökar motivationen hos medarbetarna, dessa var: feedback, flexibilitet i arbetet, konkret målsättning, meningsfulla arbetsuppgifter samt variation och utvecklingsmöjligheter. 

     

    Studiens resultat visade även att det fanns saker som ogillades i arbetet och som kunde hindra motivationen, dessa saker var: orättvisa, dåligt arbetstempo & understimulerade arbetsuppgifter och kontroll. Avslutningsvis är det värt att diskutera ifall det är möjligt att generalisera egenskaper hos en hel generation.

  • 175.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tillförlitlig försörjningskedja: En fallstudie på Saabs projektprocess2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 176.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Oreland, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    City Mobility Model with Google Earth Visualization2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are flexible, self configuring networks that do not need a fixed infrastructure. When these nets are simulated, mobility models can be used to specify node movements. The work in this thesis focuses on designing an extension of the random trip

    mobility model on a city section from EPFL (Swiss federal institute of technology). Road data is extracted from the census TIGER database, displayed in Google Earth and used as input for the model. This model produces output that can be used in the open source network simulator ns-2.

    We created utilities that take output from a database of US counties, the TIGER database, and convert it to KML. KML is an XML based format used by Google Earth to store geographical data, so that it can be viewed in Google Earth. This data will then be used as input to the modified mobility model and finally run through the ns-2 simulator. We present some NAM traces, a network animator that will show node movements over time.

    We managed to complete most of the goals we set out, apart from being able to modify node positions in Google Earth. This was skipped because the model we modified had an initialization phase that made node positions random regardless of initial position. We were also asked to add the ability to set stationary nodes in Google Earth; this was not added due to time constraints.

  • 177. Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178. Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method: An Analysis of Willingness to Pay to Reduce Mortality Risks2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Scale sensitivity and question order in the contingent valuation method2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1746-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evidence in the literature. It was also found that the respondents' cognitive ability is more important for showing scale sensitivity when respondents are asked about a larger risk reduction first ('top-down' approach), also reinforcing the result that a 'bottom-up' approach is more consistent with answers in line with theoretical predictions for a larger proportion of respondents.

  • 180. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Nellborn, C.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tolis, C.
    Business Modelling - Konsortium förenar forskning vid tre högskolor1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med business modelling projektet är att undersöka möjligheterna att överbrygga kommunikationsgapet mellan affärsansvariga och systemexperter via användning av gemensamma metoder och arbetssätt.



    Projektets mål är att utreda förutsättningarna för, samt ta fram ramverk för ett integrerat arbetssätt där metoder för affärs- verksamhets- och systemutveckling kombineras i metodkedjor (metoder med olika syfte) och metodallianser (metoder med liknande men kompletterande syfte).



    Projektet drivs av ett konsortium bestående av tre högskolor (Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan och Linköpings universitet) i samverkan med fyra företag (ABB, Ericsson, Posten och Scania). Projektet finansierades av Nutek (numera Vinnova) för projektledning och forskarstuderande. I referensgruppen ingår professorer från de tre högskolorna och erfarna konsulter med spetskunskaper inom verksamhetsutveckling. Projektet slutdokumenterades i boken: "Perspectives on Business Modelling - Understanding and Changing Organisations" (Springer, 1999)

  • 181.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gustafsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Redovisning av utsläppsrätter2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Redovisning av utsläppsrätter

    Författare: Andersson, Jennie

    Gustafsson, Emma

    Problemformulering:

    Vad anser företagen om handelssystemet med utsläppsrätter?

    Hur redovisar företagen sina utsläppsrätter?

    Hur anser revisorerna att utsläppsrätter skall redovisas?

    Hur ser nuvarande regler ut jämfört med IFRIC 3? (Vad

    innebar tillbakadragandet av IFRIC 3 för företagen?)

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur några svenska

    företag har valt att redovisa sina utsläppsrätter, syftet är även

    att utifrån ett revisorsperspektiv undersöka redovisning av

    utsläppsrätter.

    Metod: Vår undersökning är genomförd utifrån en kvalitativ metod

    då vi ej är intresserade av att generalisera utan vi vill få en

    djupare förståelse av de intervjuade respondenternas syn på

    redovisning av utsläppsrätter. Vi har med anledning av detta

    valt att genomföra åtta djupgående intervjuer.

    Undersökningsresultat: Undersökningsresultatet visar att samtliga

    företagsrespondenter anser att handelssystemet med

    utsläppsrätter bidrar till en snedvriden konkurrens eftersom

    det ej är globalt. Vidare visar undersökningen att

    respondenterna ej är eniga om hur redovisning av

    utsläppsrätter skall ske för att det skall ge en så rättvis bild

    som möjligt av företagets balansräkning. Detta kan bero på

    att företag inom olika branscher har olika syn på

    utsläppsrätter. Samtliga respondenter ansåg att indragandet

    av IFRIC 3 var nödvändigt med tanke på de missmatcher

    som uppstod vid redovisning enligt detta uttalande.

    Slutsats: Det har i vår uppsats visat sig att samtliga respondenter

    anser det vara nödvändigt med nya klara redovisningsregler

    när det gäller redovisning av utsläppsrätter. Dock kunde

    ingen respondent ge ett konkret förslag på hur dessa framtida

    redovisningsregler skulle kunna se ut. Ett förslag var att det

    kanske skulle vara bra med olika redovisningsmetoder

    beroende på vilken bransch företag verkar inom, detta kan

    vara praktiskt svårt att genomföra.

  • 182.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Rättssäkerhet vid tredjemansrevision2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 183.
    Andersson, Johannes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Arbitrage Pricing Theory: ett empiriskt test av Arbitrage Pricing Theory på den svenska aktiemarknaden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Andersson, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University.
    Bidrar Case Management enligtAktivt Uppsökande SamhällsbaseradBehandling och Rehabilitering tillminskad psykiatrisk slutenvård?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag riktas allt mer fokus i samhällsdebatten och i politiken på personer med

    allvarlig psykisk sjukdom. Man debatterar dels hur samhället skall kunna tillhandahålla en

    högkvalitativ vård och ett bra omhändertagande, men också ur ett samhällsekonomiskt

    perspektiv. Den psykiatriska slutenvårdens kostnader är höga och debatten handlar ofta om

    hur dessa kostnader skall kunna reduceras.

    Denna studie vill titta närmare på om metoden Case management enligt

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) kan bidra till att den psykiatriska

    slutenvårdskonsumtionen minskar för personer med allvarlig psykisk sjukdom. För att

    granska detta har intervjuer med fyra brukare använts där frågeställningen var fokuserad på

    deras subjektiva upplevelser av att erhålla Case management enligt ACT under en period av

    tre år. Vidare granskades skattningar enligt Kvalitetsstjärnan som utförts under en tre års

    period. Därefter inhämtades statistik från databas avseende respondenternas konsumtion av

    psykiatrisk slutenvård under tre år. Dessutom har artiklar i ämnet Case management kontra

    psykiatrisk slutenvård granskats.

    Resultaten av intervjuerna visade att respondenterna upplevt att Case

    management enligt ACT hade varit viktigt för dem för att undvika psykiatrisk slutenvård.

    Kvalitetsstjärnans resultat visade på en ökad livskvalitet, minskade besvär och detta i

    kombination med en minskad konsumtion av psykiatrisk slutenvård. Vidare visade statistiken

    från respondenternas psykiatriska slutenvårdskonsumtion att antalet inläggningar minskade

    och antalet dagar som inläggningarna varade minskade också. Den dokumentation som

    granskats i vetenskapliga artiklar visar att Case management enligt ACT är den metod som

    bäst medverkar till att den psykiatriska slutenvårdskonsumtionen minskar.

    Slutsatsen är att genom arbetssättet Case management enligt ACT tillsammans

    med en hög programtrohet och validerade mätmetoder såsom Kvalitetsstjärnan kan den

    psykiatrisk slutenvårdskonsumtion för personer med allvarlig psykisk sjukdom minska.

    Nyckelord: Case management, Assertive Community Treatment, ACT,

    Kvalitetsstjärnan, psykiatrisk slutenvårdskonsumtion.

  • 185.
    Andersson, Jonny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nordenberg, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Energieffektiv nyproduktion?: "It´s an ecenomic thing"2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Författare: Jonny Andersson och Anders Nordenberg

    Handledare: Tommy Bergquist Titel: It´s an ecenomic thing – Energieffektivt byggande

    Inledning och problem:Idag produceras det fler bostadsrätter än hyresrätter. Följaktligen kommer de nyproducerade bostadsrätterna i allt högre grad avgöra hur energieffektivt det svenska nyproducerade fastighetsbeståndet byggs. En än mer energieffektiv nyproduktion kan vara förenad med en högre initial kostnad för grundinvesteringen. Ett fastighetsbolag som är långsiktig i sitt ägande kan med fördel välja en mer energieffektiv byggnad eftersom det ger lägre driftskostnader över fastighetens livscykel. En byggentreprenör som producerar bostadsrätter i egen regi saknar det långsiktiga ägarperspektivet då förvaltningen när byggnaden är färdigställd övergår till bostadsrättsföreningen. Det gör det följaktligen svårt för byggentreprenörerna att motivera en mer kostsam grundinvestering i syfte att uppnå en mer energieffektiv byggnad.

    Syfte:Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att undersöka om det finns någon skillnad i hur energieffektivt hyres- och bostadsrätter produceras. Vidare ämnar uppsatsen att undersöka de ekonomiska incitament som kan möjliggöra en mer energieffektiv nyproduktion av hyres- och bostadsrätter.

    Metod:Uppsatsen bygger på både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ metod. Den kvalitativa delen gjordes genom fem intervjuer där tre respondenter var byggentreprenörer och två var fastighetsbolag. Den kvantitativa delen genomfördes genom att studera statistik som inhämtats från Boverket angående energiförbrukning för nyproducerade fastigheter under åren 2006-2008. Slutligen analyserades och diskuterades denna empiri utifrån uppsatsens referensram.

    Slutsats:Utifrån uppsatsen kan vi fastslå att hyresrätter inte produceras mer energieffektivt än bostadsrätter. Det råder ett omvänt förhållande. Vi kan vidare dra slutsatsen att flerbostadshus med bostads- och hyresrätter överlaginte produceras så energieffektivt som idag är rimligt. Samtidigt som det kan konstateras att en mer energieffektiv nyproduktion inte nödvändigtvis är förenad med en väsentligt högre initial grundinvestering. Vi kan avslutningsvis dra slutsatsen att ett det finns ekonomiska incitament för aktörer i den svenska bygg- och fastighetssektorn att vara miljöprofilerade.

  • 186.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Jansson, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Hälsokultur: När idéer om välmående leder till ohälsa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health has become increasingly important in the community and has been taken into the labour market to a greater extent. Organizations are trying to keep up with the development of health in the society and working strategically to promote employee health through a variety of fitness activities. The community is contributing to a new vision of the individual where the aesthetic appearance is of growing importance. The employers are trying to keep up with this development and provide an increasing range of fitness activities and from this expect high performing employees. The health promotion today is more about maintaining good looks than previously, where focus was to combat disease. The various health promotion activities are performed on the employee's time off, which means that it will be yet more difficult to distinguish between work and leisure. Not all of the employees will take part in health activities, offered by the company, because of interest, family situation and more. This could lead to that groupings occur to categorize the employees of the "good" and the "bad". One natural question to ask is can this contribute to stress and higher pressure amongst workers? And furthermore can it even cause illness?

    This study deals with how companies get greater responsibility and interest in employee health and in what way that this is handled. The two main questions analysed are if the concept "health culture" can describe how employees perceive the atmosphere regarding health?  And, how do they experience the promoted health activities?To investigate the experiences of a precise phenomenon a qualitative study through interviews has been carried out. The interviews were conducted at one company, with variation by age, gender and occupation. The primary outcome from the results is that employers work with health promotion activities to reduce costs, reduce sick leave and increase efficiency. The experiences of health promotion were mostly positive but it emerged underlying negative sides. In some cases, it was found that the employees experience stress because they do not want or have the time to participate in the activities offered.

    Finally, the concept of health culture was never seen used before. No other term, describing the same property, was found. It is therefore suggested as a concept to describe what is experienced inside an organization regarding common norms, perception and values of health.

  • 187.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Changing the servicescape: The influence of music and self-disclosure on approach-avoidance behavior2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail context. More specifically, this thesis investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli) and employees’ self-disclosure (social stimuli) on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail store. Paper I comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of the independent variable No music/Music. Likewise, experiment 2 studied the influence of the independent variable No music/Slow-tempo music/Fast-tempo music. The dependent variables in both experiments were pleasure, arousal, and the resulting Approach/Avoidance behavior. Paper II investigated the influence of the independent variable self-disclosure. The dependent variables were Approach/Avoidance behavior, measured by pleasure, arousal, liking, satisfaction, and reciprocity. The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the situation (type of purchase), retail (bank, supermarket, or electronic retail store), and stimuli (ambient or social), the internal and behavioral responses are different.

  • 188.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acting as we were friends: the influence of contact employee self-disclosure on customer reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    I'll tell you something private and you'll buy from me: Effects of self-disclosure on reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Selling by Telling: Effects of Self-disclosure on ReciprocityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

  • 192.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Let the music play or not: the influence of background music on consumer behavior.2012In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 553-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the effect that music has on consumer behavior in two different retail contexts during regular opening hours. Two studies were conducted in a field setting with consumers (N=550). Consumers were recruited to answer questions regarding behavioral measures, attitudes, and mood during days when background music was played. The conclusions from the two studies are that music affects consumer behavior, but also that the type of retail store and gender influences both the strength and direction of the effect

  • 193.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

    Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    CASSCF second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2)1998In: Encyclopedia of Computational Chemistry / [ed] P. von Ragué Schleyer, Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons , 1998Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cellular Automata2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Properties and behavior of cellular automata are considered. Cellular automata can simply be described as lattices of cells, where the cells can be in a finite number of states. By using simple rules the states of the cells are updated at discrete time steps. The evolution of cellular automata can be used for computations. Some cellular automata display universality meaning that there is no limit to the sophistication of the computations they can perform.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cellular Automata2004In: Promote IT 2004: proceedings of the fourth Conference for the Promotion of Research in IT at New Universities and University Colleges in Sweden : 5-7 May, 2004, Karlstad University, Sweden. P. 1 / [ed] Bubenko, Janis, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2004, Vol. 2004:26, p. 598-608Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper properties and behavior of cellular automata are considered. Cellular automata can simply be described as lattices of cells, where the cells can be in a finite number of states. By using simple rules the states of the cells are updated in parallel at discrete time steps. Depending on the rule and, to a certain degree, the initial states of the cells, the evolution of a cellular automaton is restricted to a small number a ways. Some cellular automata evolve uniformly, meaning that all cells end up in the same state, while others evolve randomly, meaning that the states of the cells appear to be totally randomized during evolution. Intermediate behavior, displaying repetitiveness or nesting, also occurs.Properties of cellular automata that are discussed in the paper are, for instance, sensitivity to initial conditions, randomness, reversibility, entropy, and conservation. These properties also appear in the physical world and cellular automata provide good examples in the understanding of these properties.The evolution of cellular automata can be used for computations. Some cellular automata even display the property of universality, a term well known from the universal Turing machine, meaning that there is no limit to the sophistication of the computations they can perform.

  • 197.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cellular Automata2005In: Promote IT 2005: proceedings of the fifth Conference for the Promotion of Research in IT at New Universities and University Colleges in Sweden : Borlänge, Sweden 11-13 May, 2005 / [ed] Bubenko, Janis, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular automata have a widespread use in the description of complex phenomena in disciplines as disparate as for example physics and economics. They are described by a lattice of cells, states of the cells, and rules for updating the states of the cells. One characteristics of a cellular automaton is the simplicity of the rules that determine how the cellular automaton evolves in time. These rules are local, are applied in parallel to all the cells and despite their simplicity they may give rise to a complex macroscopic behaviour. In this paper this is illustrated by examples from hydrodynamics and it is shown that cellular automata might provide powerful alternatives to partial differential equations

  • 198.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Cellular Automata in Science2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular automata have a widespread use in the description of complex phenomena in disciplines as disparate as, for example, physics and economics. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells, and the cells can be in a finite number of states. By using simple local rules the states of the cells are updated in parallel at discrete time steps. In short, a cellular automaton can be characterised by the three words - simple, local, and parallel. These three words are one of the reasons for the attractiveness of cellular automata. They are simple to implement and they are well suited for parallel computers (computations). Another reason for using cellular automata are for their spatio-temporal properties. The lattice may represent space and the updating of the cells gives a

    dimension of time.



    In spite of the simplicity of cellular automata they may give rise to a complex macroscopic behaviour. This is illustrated, in this thesis, by an hydrodynamic example, namely the creation of vortices in flow behind a cylinder.



    Although cellular automata have the ability to describe complex phenomena it is sometimes hard to find the proper rules for a given macroscopic behaviour. One approach which has been successfully employed is to let cellular automata rules evolve (for example, through genetic algorithms) when finding the desired properties. In this thesis this is demonstrated for two-dimensional cellular automata with two possible states of the cells. A genetic algorithm is used to find rules that evolve a given initial configuration of the cells to another given configuration.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Different forms of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian in second-order perturbation theory with a complete active space self-consistent field reference function1995In: Theoretica Chimica Acta, 91:31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Multiconfigurational perturbation theory1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze a method which describes the electron correlation in atoms and molecules. The method is based on Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory with a partitioning of the Hamiltonian into a fairly simple zeroth-order operator and a perturbation operator. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is founded on a one-electron Fock-type operator and two different operators have been tested. The zeroth-order wave function is constructed from a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculation. This means that the zeroth-order wave function for open-shell systems and systems with strong configurational mixing (near degeneracy) can be obtained on an equal level as closed-shell (single determinant) states. The theory is formulated in such a way that the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory is obtained for the closed-shell (single determinant) state. The flexibility of the CASSCF method makes it possible, in principle, to construct the zeroth-order wave function (and the zeroth-order Hamiltonian) to any desired accuracy. The perturbation expansion of the energy is therefore expected to converge fast and only up to the second-order contribution has been implemented leading to fairly fast and accurate calculations. The aim of the computer implementation is to describe the electron correlation in small and medium-sized molecules (up to 20 atoms) accurately. The application of the perturbation method to a number of problems in chemistry is demonstrated in the thesis: (1) the calculation of electronic properties and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the ozone molecule; (2) the calculation of electric dipole polarizabilities of excited valence states of several first- and second-row atoms; (3) the calculation of excited states of the nickel atom, the benzene molecule, and the azabenzenes pyridine, pyrazine, pyridazine, and s-triazine

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