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  • 151.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 152.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Affective forecasting of value creation: Professional nurses’ ability to predict and remember the experienced value of a telemedicine diagnostics ICT service2015In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 964-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New innovations that can transform societies and improve life for people are increasingly being asked for. Unfortunately, some avenues of research indicate that users of these new innovations may be inaccurate when they predict or remember the value of such new offerings. For example, the rapid development of new ICT services in areas such as health care may imply opportunities for better life conditions and well-being, but may also involve complicated predictions for users about the value they will create. New innovations may face adoption difficulties if users make inaccurate predictions or remember falsely the value that such innovations might have. In this study, 48 nurses predicted, experienced, and remembered the value of a new ICT service they used to diagnose an external skin lesion on a patient. Results showed significant differences between predicted and experienced value as well as between a service with high technical quality and the same service with lower technical quality; the value was underestimated at the time of prediction, as compared to actual experience, and the value of a high-quality ICT service was substantially more underestimated than the value of a low-quality ICT service. The results provide a novel and comprehensive understanding of how employees predict and experience the value of ICT service innovations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 153.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet .
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Dasselear, Manfred
    Ericsson, Sverige.
    Changing business models in manufacturing firms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gone are the times when companies could regard their business model as fixed and stable. Instead companies must work with multiple business logics and models in parallel due to changes in customers’ needs and new market opportunities. Accordingly, business model innovation tends to be as important as product and service innovation. Essentially, a business model tells the firm’s “story” regarding how to earn money, i.e. it defines how a company creates and capture value (Magretta, 2002, Zott & Amit, 2010). Successful business models are a often balance act trying to satisfy both the customers’ value-creating, and the company’s value-capturing, processes, i.e. balancing sufficient profit while maintaining satisfied customers.

    Based on, among others, Teece (2007) we regard business model innovation as a process where as firm introduces change into their business model. Technology becomes obsolete, customer demands change, and new value propositions emerge; triggers for change might emanate from different perspective and from different actors, with varying starting points. Active business model innovation can reduce the risk of being overtaken as new actors introduce, for example, innovative offerings, new operational processes or even new underlying business models (Bessant and Davies 2007).

    Based on a case study at Ericsson our research explores the business problem that arises when one part, or both, are dissatisfied with the current business situation, opening up for business model innovation. It proposes a generic framework, based on the Service-Dominant logic (SDL) (Vargo et al., 2010), which aims to guide actions to dissolve situations where the current business model has become obsolete. The paper proposes and discusses four possible approaches to overcome the unsatisfying situation; two based on a Goods-Dominant logic (GDL) and two based on a Service-Dominant logic. The GDL approaches tend to change the current business model based on transaction costs, i.e. raising or lowering the price leading to either party remaining dissatisfied. Whereas the SDL approach instead leads to a changed business model based on a value co-creation process, focusing on understanding the customer’s value creation. Our research indicates that sometimes involves a learning process enabling the customer to understand the actual value obtained from the business relationship. Hereby, the supplier can maintain sufficient profitability with satisfied customers.

    In conclusion, we find that innovation of a company’s business model can be understood as a marketing activity that emphasizes value-creation and value-capture as entities that needs to be balanced. Companies need to develop dynamic capabilities to address and systematically change business models that are malfunctioning. The proposed framework can support companies to become more efficient and effective in addressing needed changes and to understand when different business model innovation processes are needed.

  • 154.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Soderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Influencing consumers to choose environment friendly offerings: Evidence from field experiments2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 76, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to examine a set of ways to influence consumer behavior toward making more environmentally friendly choices. We conducted three different studies to investigate (1) what consumers think would influence their behavior, (2) how several question-based verbal influence strategies nudge consumer behavior in one direction or another, and (3) how question-based written influence strategies influence consumer behavior. The findings reveal a discrepancy between what consumers think would influence behavior and what actually does influence it. In addition, under all verbal and written experimental conditions, influence strategies led to consumer change toward environmentally friendly offerings compared with alternative non-environment friendly offerings. The discussion highlights possible explanations for the results, managerial implications, the study's limitations, and suggestions for future research, with a special emphasis on research into factors that can change consumer behavior.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-07-01 09:23
  • 155.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Söderlund, Magnus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Changing customer behavior towards the greener2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, consumers are becoming increasingly more positive toward ecological and ethical attitudes offered by means of eco-labels, reduced food waste, and fair trade (Mazar & Zhong, 2010). Consumer choice may, in this sense, reflect values and beliefs that wish for a transformation of consumption toward the more sustainable. When consumers engage in shopping, service, such as care for our planet, constitute an important value aside from the physical offering. Research shows that by choosing green offerings customers are sending altruistic signals, associated with status, allowing them to feel better (Griskevicious et al., 2012). Thus, these types of green purchases enable several service-related outcomes attractive for consumers and society.

    Somewhat surprisingly, real-time sales data, collected in a large and market leading grocery store in Sweden, reveal that only 20 % of the customers actually chose eco-labeled offerings on behalf of a non-labeled competitive brand. Thus, green attitudes seem to not equal green behavior. An important question therefore regard how society can change consumers to behave, i.e. choose, more environment-friendly products in line with their attitudes (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008). Drawing from this question, our research examines the effectiveness whereby different influence strategies (Cialdini, 2009) affect consumers to choose environment-friendly products on behalf of similar but competing products without label. According to the service-dominant logic, retail stores offer resources that can be integrated into a service (Vargo et al., 2010). Current directions within service management label this type of research as transformative (Anderson et al., 2013).

    In a field experiment, front-line employees were instructed to verbally use four different influence strategies when customers approached a fruit desk where bananas of ecological and regular brands where displayed. See table 1 for treatments and their respective theoretical background regarding influence strategy.  

     

    “many customers are currently buying eco-labeled bananas right now”

    Social proof (Cialdini, 2009)

    “our eco-labeled bananas are situated right next to our employee standing there”

    Signaling (Griskevicious et al, 2012)

    “you seem interested in eco-labeled products – you can find them here”

    Labelling (Tybout & Yalch, 1980)

    “our eco-labeled bananas are priced no higher than any competing brands without label”

    Price (Thaler, 1985)

     

    The results clearly show the impact of the influence strategies. First of all, in a control group, the mere presence of a front-line employee informing about the different banana alternatives doubled the proportion (from 20 to 40%, p<.01) of choices in favor of eco-labeled bananas. Secondly, the strategies social proof (from 40 to 65%, p<.01) and signaling (from 40 to 68%, p<.01) further raised the proportions approximately 15%. Lastly the influence strategies price (from 66 to 76%, p<.03) and labeling (from 66 to 76%, p<.04) made yet another 10% chose eco-labeled bananas. 

    In sum, our research is promising viewed in light of encouraging behavioral change to create a more sustainable society. 

  • 156. Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Andreassen, Tor W
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    If you break it, should I fix it?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 556-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand the process and, as a consequence, the phases of customer orientation; to investigate the relationships between the different phases of customer orientation and customer satisfaction; and to examine activities in the different phases of customer orientation that result in higher customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach– This study, combining quantitative and qualitative research, is based on a cross-sectional survey of 320 service firms and a multiple case study of 20 organisational units at a large service firm in the European telecom industry. Findings– The results show that customer orientation consists of a process that includes three phases: strategy, measurement and analysis and implementation. Contrary to previous research, implementation has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction. In turn, customer satisfaction influences financial results. In-depth interviews with managers provided insights into the specific activities that are key for turning customer-satisfaction measurements into action. Originality/value – This research contributes to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain what constitutes customer orientation and, in turn, influences customer satisfaction and financial results. Given the large amount of research on customer satisfaction, studies on how service firms collect and use customer-satisfaction data in practice are scarce.

  • 158.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet; VTI; K2.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lidestam, Björn
    VTI; Linköpings universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 159.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Licence to build, licence to charge? Market power, pricing and the financing of airport infrastructure development in Australia2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 59, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, airport privatisation in Australia reached a 20-year milestone, with its regulatory framework been shifted to a light-handed regulation in 2002. The light-handed regulation (LHR), as in place at Australia's top four airports, has been suggested as the ‘frontier of international policy’, leading to increasing interest among transport policymakers and researchers. This article offers an in-depth examination of the LHR with focus on a) the market-power of the regulated airports, b) the commercial price negotiations between airports and airlines, and c) the airports' behaviour towards infrastructure investment. The article reports on data from 21 semi-structured interviews conducted with key stakeholder groups affected by, or with expertise in, the LHR. Findings suggest that despite airports possessing significant market power, particularly in the domestic market, the light-handed approach seems to balance the forces in a market where an airline duopoly prevails (Qantas and Virgin Australia groups). In addition, both airports and airlines perceive that commercial price negotiations are improving and refrain from a return to a stronger regulation environment. For airlines, value-for-money is the primary concern in new infrastructure investments. Interviewees also outlined specific recommendations for improving the LHR framework, including a more accessible arbitrator and improved methodologies to monitor prices and quality of service. The findings point towards the significance of vertical relationships, long-term arrangements, and transparency as key aspects of the LHR and the development of airport infrastructure.

  • 160.
    Lusch, Robert F.
    et al.
    Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, 1130 East Helen St, Tucson, AZ 85745 USA..
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Shidler Coll Business, 2404 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Fostering a trans-disciplinary perspectives of service ecosystems2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2957-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a brief introduction and comments on the articles in this special issue on transdisciplinary perspectives of service-dominant logic. Insights are provided that draw on economics, ecosystems theory, philosophy, service science, sociology, strategic management and systems science. Collectively these articles enhance service-dominant logic as well as foster more transdisciplinary research. We also integrate some of the ideas presented and share some observations and suggestions on resource integration, value co-creation, institutions, and service ecosystems. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 161.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Book review: Planning for Public Transport Accessibility: an international sourcebook. By Curtis, C. and Scheurer, J. (2016). London: Routledge. £ 76.50 (hardback) £ 24.49 (e-book). ISBN: 978-1472447241.2017In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 62, p. 263-264Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Perceived Accessibility: Capturing the Traveller Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is introducing and proposing perceived accessibility as an important and so far overseen complement to conventional, objective accessibility in sustainable transport. Perceived accessibility is defined as the possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. Implications for sustainable transport planning along with possible social outcomes related to perceived accessibility are also discussed.

     

    The thesis comprises two empirical studies. In Study I a psychometric measure (PAC) that captures perceived accessibility was developed and validated in three different datasets by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. All data was collected in Karlstad, Sweden in 2013 and 2014 with a total of 750 participants (bus travelers). Perceived accessibility is suggested as a complement to objective accessibility by contributing with the traveler perspective.  Study II aimed at examining determinants of perceived accessibility focusing on service quality aspects, feelings of safety, age, and trip frequency. Study II used the same data as Study I in a conditional process model to look at the relations between perceived accessibility and its proposed determinants. Service quality and feelings of safety were found important predictors of perceived accessibility, and safety also explains part of the effect of quality on perceived accessibility. These relationships were not dependent on trip frequency (as in how often one travels by public transport). Age also predicted perceived accessibility, and a follow-up cluster analysis showed that elderly and people in their thirties experience significantly lower perceived accessibility than other age groups.

  • 163.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis fills a gap in contemporary transport research and planning as it introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for incorporating the individual dimension of accessibility in current practice. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

    The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, and a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel. Empirical findings further support the complementary nature of the approach and results indicate that assessments of perceived accessibility may be helpful in determining where to direct interventions aiming at improving accessibility by evaluating different transport modes or different segments of individuals. The method developed for capturing perceived accessibility shows merit in contributing to further theory development on accessibility by its ability to identify determinants of perceived accessibility and its potential in identifying segments of the population that experience significantly lower accessibility than other groups, and thus are at risk of experiencing social exclusion or suffer from transport disadvantage.

  • 164.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion2016In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sus-tainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Un-like conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of en-gaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objec-tive standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety) increase the per-ceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750) focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Fri-man, 2015). More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that sub-jective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  • 165.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Development and test of the Perceived Accessibility Scale (PAC) in public transport.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility has conventionally been measured and evaluated ignoring user perceptions in favor of focusing on travel time and distance to a number of pre-determined destinations. Acknowledging this gap, we recently developed a scale for perceived accessibility PAC (Lättman, Friman, & Olsson 2016b) aimed at capturing the individual perspective of accessibility with a certain travel mode. In this paper, we 1) further develop the PAC measure of perceived accessibility in order to capture how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, 2) compare levels of perceived accessibility between residential areas and main travel modes, and 3) compare residents’ perceived accessibility to the objective accessibility level for the same residential area. Data from 2711 residents of Malmö, Sweden show that perceived accessibility is consistently different from objective accessibility across 13 residential areas, with minor differences in levels of perceived accessibility between areas. Surprisingly, bicycle users rate their accessibility significantly higher than those who mainly use the car or public transport for daily travel, contrary to objective accessibility assumptions. These differences point at the importance of including perceived accessibility as a complementary tool when planning for and evaluating transport systems.

  • 167.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 257-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service Orientation in Manufacturing Firms: Understanding Challenges with Service Business Logic2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation and competition from low-cost countries has pushed manufacturing firms towards offering services to remain competitive. However, increasing the service orientation of a manufacturing firm to find new ways of value (co-)creation has presented several challenges, such as the fact that services do not provide the expected revenues, and resistance from both the sales force and from customers towards services.

    The aim of this thesis is to understand challenges linked to increasing service orientation in manufacturing firms, by means of goods and service business logics. The thesis emphasises the three dimensions of business logics – value perspective, service business strategy, and service offering – and studies them empirically in service divisions in the pulp and paper industry and in the automotive industry.

    The findings show that firms with inconsistency between the three dimensions face certain challenges. Most often, the firms have a value perspective of goods business logic, but a service business strategy and a service offering of service business logic. Therefore, the most important and most difficult challenge to overcome in order to increase a manufacturing firm’s service orientation is the employees’ value perspective.

    Three service manoeuvres were key to overcoming this challenge: changing employees’ mind-sets, starting to value services, and separating products and services. Although separating products and services could be assessed as a service manoeuvre consistent with goods business logic, it facilitated an increased service orientation. The fact that goods business logic manoeuvres led to a higher degree of service orientation, whereas service business logic manoeuvres did not always do so, is discussed as a service orientation paradox.

     

     

     

  • 169.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lagerholm, Barbro
    Swerea IVF.
    A longitudinal study of servitisation and dynamic capabilities in SMEs2016In: Spring servitization conference 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to identify servitisation routes of SMEs, and (2) to identify the microfoundations of dynamic capabilities that influence the different steps of a continuous servitisation model. Design/Methodology/Approach: In this longitudinal study, servitisation in three product-oriented small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been studied. During the past year, the SMEs have developed their service businesses according to an iterative servitisation model consisting of four states; Identify, Package, Sell, and Innovate. The servitisation processes were studied through action research. Findings: Three different routes of servitisation were identified; 1) a product-oriented route, (2) a service-oriented route, and (3) a solutions-oriented route. The dynamic capabilities developed within the companies throughout their servitisation processes differed based on their business logic and influenced the result of the processes. Originality/Value: The study contributes with knowledge on how servitisation can be performed in SMEs in practice. Moreover, it combines the research fields of servitisation and dynamic capabilities, which enrichens the servitisation literature with an important but sparsely researched perspective that focus on the change inherent in a servitisation process.

  • 170.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. bIndustrial Engineering and Management, Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service manoeuvres to overcome challenges of servitisation in a value network2015In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 26, no 14-15, p. 1188-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When manufacturing firms increase the share of service revenues, managing service provision becomes challenging. This study extends previous research on servitisation in individual firms by analysing the challenges service provision creates in a value network. The challenges are identified both within the firms and in the business relationships in the value network. In addition, the paper identifies and describes service manoeuvres firms use to address challenges resulting from servitisation. This case study of a value network is based on interviews carried out at 13 firms in the automotive industry, including suppliers, original equipment manufacturers and consultancies. The research shows that service manoeuvres, such as new types of resource integration and value constellations, are used to overcome challenges in the value network.

  • 171.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Creating a service platform: how to co-create value in a remote service context2018In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 768-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to further develop the construct of service platform and to clarify the definition of service platform in an industrial context. To do so, an understanding of the foundations for service platforms, based on a service perspective, is created. Design/methodology/approach The study has adopted a qualitative case study approach and builds on in-depth interviews with remote service teams in two multinational firms: one in the food processing and packaging industry and the other in the pulp and paper industry. Findings The foundations for successful service platforms consist of modularising resources, integrations and service processes to create value propositions. The value propositions could result in variations of a service or in variations of different services. When defining the concept service platform, the perspective of service needs to be made evident; therefore, the authors define service platform as: value proposition(s) consisting of a modular structure that invites to and facilitates value co-creation between resources, through integration opportunities in a continuous service process. Research limitations/implications The results are based on the perspective of two suppliers in similar industries; only remote services were studied. Firms from different types of industries and other types of services could add to the research on service modularity according to a service perspective. Moreover, information about customers and other actors' involvement on the platform was gathered from the firms studied, no customers or other actors were interviewed. Practical implications This study shows the importance of a firm involving itself in the value creation of the customer, that is, focusing on value co-creation. This implies a close cooperation between the manufacturer and its customer - not only at a given point in time but also over a longer period of cooperation. Through the different types of modules building up the service platform, value co-creation can take place in various ways. Originality/value This study offers original empirical contributions on platforms from a service perspective. The study contributes to servitisation, service modularity and service (dominant) logic research by developing an understanding of the foundations for service platforms based on a service perspective. It also contributes to platform research more specifically by developing a definition of service platform in an industrial context.

  • 172.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Davoudi, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Högström, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Customer satisfaction in public transit2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    BTU, Cottbus, Germany.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Defining Product: Service Concepts from a Manufacturing Firm Perspective2007In: XVII International RESER Conference, Tampere, Finland, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Understanding and Managing Product-Service Concepts from the perspective of a service logic in Manufacturing Companies2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Outsourcing idea screening: Exploring users’ appropriateness for judging new product/service ideas2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Martin, Drew
    et al.
    Univ Hawaii, Coll Business & Econ, 200 West Kawili St, Hilo, HI 96720 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Choi, Sunmee
    Yonsei Univ, Sch Business, 50 Yonsei Ro, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection in dynamic global contexts2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2397-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Journal of Business Research special section includes 7 articles selected from papers presented during the 2014 Global Marketing Conference held July 15-18, 2014. The Conference's theme was "Bridging Asia and the World: Globalization of Marketing and Management Theory and Practice." This special edition introduces current topics concerning researchers and practitioners about service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection research. Following the conference's theme, this special edition emphasizes the need for educators and business leaders to make sense, plan, and interpret outcomes accurately of implementing service innovations in dynamic global contexts. 

  • 177.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Mkt, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. ..
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Sch Econ, Turku, Finland..
    Klaus, Phil
    Brunel Univ, Sch Business, London, England..
    Radnor, Zoe Jane
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Business & Econ, Serv Operat Management, Loughborough, Leics, England..
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Business, Mkt, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fresh perspectives on customer experience2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 430-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide directions for future research on: broadening the role of customers in customer experience; taking a practice-based approach to customer experience; and recognizing the holistic, dynamic nature of customer experience across all touch points and over time. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is conceptual identifying current gaps in research on customer experience. Findings - The findings include a set of research questions and research agenda for future research on customer experience. Originality/value - This research suggests fresh perspectives for understanding the customer experience which can inspire future research and advance theory and managerial practice.

  • 178.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Hogan, Suellen J.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Cocreative customer practices: Effects of health care customer value cocreation practices on well-being2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 70, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on three studies using data from six separate samples of 1151 health care customers, the authors investigate cocreative customer practices, modeling the effects of customer value cocreation practices on well-being. Results highlight that while positive interactions with medical staff (doctors) lead to increased well-being through engaging in coproducing treatment options, interactions with friends and family and their associated cocreated activities have an even greater positive effect on well-being. Furthermore, several other customer directed activities have positive indirect effects. Interestingly, activities requiring change can have a negative effect on well-being, except in psychological illnesses, where the opposite is true. The authors conclude with theoretical and managerial implications, highlighting that if interactions and activities with medical professionals are supplemented with customer-directed activities, the positive effect on well-being is significantly enhanced.

  • 179.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market orientation in dyads2013In: Market orientation in dyads, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Market Orientation in Public Service: A comparison between buyers and providers2017In: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public services have been subjected to processes of deregulation, competition, and privatization in many countries worldwide. One popular reform has involved focusing on competitive procurement. This context, where public and private organizations jointly deliver the service in a dyad, makes the market orientation of public services highly complex. The main elements of market orientation – intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination and responsiveness– have shown themselves to be valid and of significance in both the private and public sectors. Nevertheless, the empirical context of the public sector involves a complexity that has been poorly addressed in market orientation research. In this study, we research the Swedish public transport industry and survey buyer and provider organizations in order to determine how market-orientated activities are approached in public-private service dyads. We present three theoretically-underpinned relationship types - buyer dominated, provider dominated and collaborative - which we suggest as having implications for market-oriented activities. A survey of public transport authorities’ (buyers, n = 48) and operators’ (providers, n = 49) market orientation activities reveals the concurrent prevalence of characteristics from all three relationship types, as both parties try to dominate the relationship while also engaging in collaborative efforts. Drawing on our theoretical framework and our empirical results, we conclude that there are legitimate differences in the perspectives of buyers and providers, and that these differences, if acknowledged and properly managed, can provide valuable resources in the development of a joint market orientation in complex public-private settings.

  • 181.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads: An empirical examination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Myhrén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Eawag, Dubendorf, Switzerland & Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Incremental and radical open service innovation2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

  • 184.
    Nam, Y.
    et al.
    Carson College of Business, Washington State University, US.
    Niblock, S. J.
    School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Sinnewe, Elisabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Jakob, K.
    College of Business, University of Montana, US.
    Do corporate directors ‘heap’ dividends?: Evidence on dividend rounding and information uncertainty in Australian firms2018In: Australian Journal of Management, ISSN 0312-8962, E-ISSN 1327-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the extent of dividend heaping in Australian firms between 1976 and 2015. Our findings show that 27.39% of dividends greater than or equal to 2.5-cents are heaped in 2.5-cent intervals, while 70.90% of dividends less than 2.5-cents are heaped in 0.25-cent intervals. We find that the heaping phenomenon decreases over time and average dividend size increases. We also show that when establishing the likelihood of dividend heaping, stock return volatility and firm size are consistent with the information uncertainty hypothesis. Dividend heaping also appears to be influenced by firm-level characteristics that are inconsistent with the hypothesis. For instance, the likelihood of heaping increases with dividend size and firm age. 

  • 185.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the effects of experience and responsibilities on idea screening.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    First things first - think before you decide: The how, what and who of idea screening2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates decision-making activities leading to the initial selection of which new ideas should be selected for further development or rejected. This process, often referred to as idea screening, is described as being one of the most important, but also challenging, tasks to master during the entire innovation process. There are two main reasons for this: Firstly, not all ideas are good and secondly no firm has the resources to develop every single idea proposed to it. Thus, it is important to be careful when initially deciding which ideas are to be selected and developed into future possible innovations in order to eliminate weak ideas and retain those that have a substantial chance of becoming successful. 

    Two alternative decision-making approaches are explored in the thesis (the intuitive and rational approaches). In the thesis, the concept of intuition during the screening of product and service ideas is demystified. The empirical findings show that decision-makers utilize five main underlying criteria when intuitively assessing ideas. Of these, the findings indicate user-value to be the most important one, or at least the criterion that most assessors emphasize when making intuitive decisions. The findings presented in the thesis increase our understanding of the use of rational and holistic intuitive decision-making when screening ideas during the Front End Innovation phase, as well as questioning the traditional view of intuition, as a decision-making tool that is only reliable if applied by those with a vast amount of experience and expertise. The reported findings indicate that, for example, users with an understanding of the idea context are able to intuitively identify the ideas that decision-making experts identify as the top (best) ones. Hence, managers faced with a situation where they are being inundated with new ideas can turn to non-experts for help.

  • 187.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Frontline employees screening ideasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the merits if internal outsourcing to increase effectiveness and efficiency in idea screening2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Product Development Management Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 14-16, 2015., Copenhagen, Denmark: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Daily Travel and Subjective Wellbeing2016In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 51, p. 1145-1145, article id SIArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lycka och vardagligt resande2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Ettema, Dick
    Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Ståhl, Michael
    Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

  • 192.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Huck, Jana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 193.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How Subjective Value Fluctuates Temporally: Effects of Framing Consumption as Materialistic or Experiential2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shanahan, Helena
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wåhlander, Heléne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH.
    EcoRunner: User Experiences of a Web Based Environmental Feedback Tool Addressing Household Consumption2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is generally used to monitor progress toward different goals and standards in life, and to adjust behaviour accordingly. EcoRunner was developed as a web-based feedback tool providing environmental and financial information about households’ daily consumption. This paper presents a user experience study of this feedback tool, and addresses the influences of goal-setting on the experience. The results show that people who more often set financial and pro-environmental goals in life find the tool more attractive, more useful, believing it to have influenced their current behaviour and believing it will be helpful when changing (regulating) future consumption behaviour. Conclusions are drawn that feedback tools like EcoRunner may have different effects for different subgroups in society. It is further suggested that EcoRunner could be used as a tool in education, at different levels in schools and higher education, for enlightening consumers about the relationship between household spending and environmental consequences.

  • 195.
    Olsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    In-Store Gamification: Testing a Location-Based Treasure Hunt App in a Real Retailing Environment2016In: 2016 49TH HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCES (HICSS), 2016, p. 1634-1641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional retailers are facing strong competition from e-commerce. One way to meet this challenge is to follow the marketing movement of focusing on customer experiences. This transformation is based on the notion of engaging customers and one way to drive this engagement is through gamification to support value creation. In this study, we have identified variables affecting intentions to use gamified services and in what ways. For this purpose, we developed an app that generated different levels of gamification by varying the number of game elements. The data from a survey distributed during a field experiment indicates that an increasing level of gamification and technology experience have direct positive associations with intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has a positive direct association with satisfaction, although this is partly mediated by mood. Finally, satisfaction has a positive direct relation with intention to use.

  • 196.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    A Shaken Self on Shopping: Consumer Threats and Compensatory Consumption2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of experiments, with a total sample of over 2,400 participants, this thesis investigates how various threats that customers may encounter influence the customers’ subsequent purchase and choice behaviors. Furthermore, this thesis examines whether individuals’ predicted behaviors in certain consumer contexts are congruent with customers’ actual behaviors in these very contexts.

    Paper I takes an evolutionary approach and investigates whether a status threat to male customers, induced by exposure to physically dominant men, results in compensatory consumption of products that signal status through price or size.

    Paper II takes a reactance-based approach and examines whether customers whose freedom to touch has been threatened compensate by touching, and ultimately purchasing, a larger number of products.

    Paper III investigates whether threats to customers’ self-control in one domain influence choice behavior and consumption preferences in another unrelated domain. More specifically, the paper examines whether exposure to attractive opposite-sex faces (and hence a subtle activation of sexual desire and its associated pleasure-seeking mindset) makes individuals more motivated to choose and consume unhealthy-but-rewarding foods.     

    The main findings of this work can be summarized as follows: Consumer threats result in compensatory consumption, not only in the specific domain under threat, but also in unrelated or only symbolically similar domains. Such compensatory responses are in direct contrast to consumer lay beliefs and even the predictions made by marketing professors and other scholars, which suggests that people are generally unaware of the impact that certain threats have on their behavior. These results should be as interesting for customers who want to make informed choices and resist various influence attempts as for marketers, advertisers, and retail managers who want to influence customers. 

  • 197.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University.
    Decompression zone deconstructed: Products located at the store entrance do have an impact on sales2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1108-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Researchers have hypothesized that products located at the decompression zone of a store (the entrance area where customers adjust to the retail environment) do not influence sales of these particular products, because customers do not register things that are too close to store entrances. The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of such a decompression zone account in actual field settings, and hence investigate whether or not placing products at the store entrance would increase customers’ likelihood to purchase these products. Design/methodology/approach: Two field studies with a total sample of 715 customers were conducted, in which the entrance area of a home goods store was manipulated using a two-group quasi-experimental design. In Study 1, customers were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance. In Study 2, an employee greeted customers at the store entrance with (vs without) the store’s products nearby. Findings: Study 1 found that customers who were (vs were not) exposed to candles and candle holders at the store entrance purchased a significantly larger number of both these products. Study 2 replicated and generalized these findings. Although customers in the employee + products condition spent less money than customers in the employee-alone condition, the former group still purchased a significantly larger number of candles and candle holders. These findings go directly against a decompression zone account, but are consistent with research on exposure effects. Originality/value: This paper is the first to empirically examine the validity of the decompression zone account in real retail settings. The paper also fills a more general gap in the store atmospherics literature, as only a very limited number of studies have dealt with the external parts of the retail environment, such as the store entrance area.

  • 198.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Smile for a while: The effect of employee-displayed smiling on customer affect and satisfaction2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 284-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers' affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure. Design/methodology/approach - The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction. Findings - A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter. Practical implications - Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic. Originality/value - This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers' affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.

  • 199.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Touch forbidden, consumption allowed: Counter-intuitive effects of touch restrictions on customers' purchase behavior2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-store events are increasingly used to provide customers with unique shopping experiences. Although recent studies indicate that such events positively influence customers' purchase intentions and store choice decisions, little is known about how customers respond to various in-store events. This paper investigates one type of in-store event that is frequently used in several food and non-food contexts. Specifically, the study investigates how an in-store product demonstration influences customers' subsequent purchase behavior depending on whether they are restricted or encouraged to touch the products being demonstrated. An initial scenario-based experiment involving 35 undergraduates aimed to examine how people intuitively think that restricting (versus encouraging) touch during an in-store product demonstration would influence their subsequent purchase behavior. A two-way ANOVA with participant gender and experimental condition as the between-subjects factors consistently showed that people hold a lay theory that restricting touch should have a negative impact on the amount of money they spend and the number of products they purchase. A second field experiment involving 126 customers in a retail store aimed to investigate whether this lay belief is consistent with customers' actual purchase behavior. Counter-intuitively, a two-way ANOVA with customer gender and experimental condition (touch restriction, touch encouragement) as the between-subjects factors revealed that restricting touch during an in-store product demonstration resulted in significantly more money being spent, a larger number of products being purchased, and more expensive products being purchased. These findings show that consumer lay theory can directly contradict customers' actual purchase behavior. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 200.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Lu, Chaoren
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Kunming Academy of Governance, Beijing, China.
    Clothes, condoms, and customer satisfaction: The effect of employee mere presence on customer satisfaction depends on the shopping situation2018In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how customers respond to the mere presence of others in the shopping environment, and only one article (Söderlund, 2017) has investigated the unique impact that employee presence has on key customer outcomes. Söderlund (2017) found that customers entering a store with an employee present (vs. absent) reported significantly higher levels of customer satisfaction, with their increased levels of pleasurable feelings mediating this effect. However, similar to the majority of theorizing on customer satisfaction, that article was restricted to data collected in a Western society. Given the rapid economic growth in many Asian regions, there is a need to examine the applicability of such Western-based findings from an Asian perspective, and hence include participants from Eastern societies. Accordingly, the present research investigated whether Söderlund's (2017) results could be replicated among Asian customers. The current work also sought to extend prior findings beyond pleasure and customer satisfaction while simultaneously documenting a boundary condition for the hitherto positive employee mere presence effects. To this end, two between-subjects experiments with a total sample of 498 Chinese customers were conducted. Study 1, which involved a shopping situation in a clothing store, replicated Söderlund's (2017) main results and further found that employee mere presence (vs. absence) had a significant positive impact on customers' loyalty intentions. These results were reversed in Study 2, in which the shopping situation involved the purchase of an embarrassing product. Under such circumstances, employee presence (vs. absence) consistently produced negative effects on customers' levels of pleasure, satisfaction, and loyalty intentions.

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