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  • 151.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Markets as evolving institutional problem-solution configurations2016In: What's ahead in service research?: New perspectives for business and society / [ed] Russo-Spena, T & Mele, C, Naples: Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Econ Mgmt & Inst , 2016, p. 618-627Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to further the understanding of how markets function and evolve. We do so by elaborating and extending the recent conceptualization of markets as institutionalized solutions of value cocreation proposed by service-dominant (S-D) logic. To better understand how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve, we draw on literature that connects institutional change to the process of framing. We contribute by theorizing how micro-level changes - i.e. organization-specific differences in framing of e.g. a resource or a role - can become amplified and result in macro-level transformation such as market evolution. We develop a theoretical framework describing how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve as actors use institutional complexity - the existence of multiple institutional arrangements and the corresponding patterns of value cocreation - to create alternative frames to interpret situations and guide individual action and then diffuse the novel frames with the help of different types of frame alignment processes. We also describe how we plan to complement our theoretical inquiry with empirical research that we have recently begun.

  • 152.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu, Finland,.
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    Institutions as resource context2016In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 163-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of institutions and institutional complexity in the process through which resources-in-context get their “resourceness.”

    Design/methodology/approach – To shed light on the process of potential resources gaining their “resourceness,” the authors draw from two streams of literature: the service ecosystems perspective and institutional theory.

    Findings – The authors combine the process of resources “becoming” with the concept of institutions and conceptualize institutional arrangements, and the unique sets of practices, symbols and organizing principles they carry, as the sense-making frames of the “resourceness” of potential resources. In service ecosystems, numerous partially conflicting institutional arrangements co-exit and provide actors with alternative frames of sense-making and action, enabling the emergence of new instances of “resourceness”.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper suggests that “resourceness” is inseparable from the complex institutional context in which it arises. This conceptualization reveals the need for more holistic, systemic and multidisciplinary perspectives on understanding the implications of the process of resources “becoming” on value co creation, innovation and market formation.

    Practical implications – As the “resourceness” of potential resources arises due to the influence of institutions, managers need a more profound understanding of the complimentary and inhibiting institutional arrangements and the related practices, symbols and organizing principles that comprise the multidimensional context in which they operate.

    Originality/value – This paper is one of the first to focus specifically on the process of resources “becoming,” using a systemic and institutional perspective to grasp the complexity of the phenomenon.

    Paper type Conceptual paper 

  • 153.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Shidler College of BusinessUniversity of Hawai’i at Mānoa.
    Why Service-Dominant Logic?2018In: The SAGE Handbook of Service-Dominant Logic / [ed] Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F., London: Sage Publications, 2018, p. 40-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wieland, Heiko
    California State University, Monterey Bay.
    The role of institutions and interpretive flexibility in the perception and determination of value2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose – We investigate the tension between unique and collective value perceptions using an institutional perspective. In particular, we aim to provide a deeper understanding of value evaluation processes and point to the systemic nature of these processes by conceptually integrating the notions of interpretive flexibility and institutional work into a service ecosystems framework. 

    Design/Methodology/approach – The paper, based on recent developments in S-D logic, conceptually revisits the topic of value perceptions. More specifically, it draws on a service ecosystems framework and its inherent institutional view (Lusch and Vargo, 2014; Vargo and Akaka, 2012; Vargo and Lusch, 2011; Vargo et al. 2014), and the concepts of interpretive flexibility (Pinch, 2008; Pinch and Bijker, 1984) and institutional work (Lawrence and Suddaby, 2006; Lawrence et al., 2009) to provide a deeper understanding of determining value-in-context. 

    Findings – Service-dominant (S-D) logic describes value perceptions as contextual and phenomenologically determined (Chandler and Vargo, 2011; Vargo and Lusch, 2008). At the same time, value perceptions are neither random nor unstructured (Lusch and Vargo, 2014). Culture, for example, can greatly influence how value is perceived. More specifically, institutional configurations – socially constructed systems of norms, values, and beliefs – guide the evaluation of value outcomes in the same way that they enable and constrain the process of value co-creation (c.f. Edvardsson et al. 2011; Lusch and Vargo, 2014; Vargo et al. 2014). By integrating the concepts of interpretive flexibility and institutional work into the service ecosystem framework, we not only show how institutional configurations influence value perceptions, but how multiple actors co-create institutions that influence value perceptions through multiple iterations of institutional developments until common institutional templates become diffused. 

    Research implications – This paper highlights the importance of developing a more systemic and institutional understanding of the perception and determination of value. 

    Practical implications – The systemic view adopted in this paper points to the notion that nested contradictions and inconsistencies are foundational to all institutional configurations and, thus, to value perceptions. We will show that actors resolve these contradictions and inconsistencies through systemic and discursive processes, which means that market communication needs to be reconceptualized from unidirectional communication flows directed at customers to the co-creation of narrative infrastructures. 

    Originality/value – This paper is among the first to explicitly connect the notions of institutional work and interpretive flexibility with value perceptions and their change overtime.

    Key words – Value-in-context, Value evaluation, Institutions, Service ecosystems, Interpretive flexibility 

    Paper type – Conceptual paper

  • 155.
    Kotaiba, Aal
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Di Pietro, Laura
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Renzi, Maria Francesca
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Guglielmetti Mugion, Roberta
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Innovation in service ecosystems: An empirical study of the integration of values, brands, service systems and experience rooms2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 619-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend the understanding of innovation in service ecosystems by focussing on the role of values resonance in relation to the integration of brands, service systems and experience rooms.

    Design/methodology/approach – An empirical, explorative case study of an innovative service system is carried out using a narrative approach and presented in the form of a saga.

    Findings – Insights gleaned from the empirical study are used for conceptual developments. Analysis of the empirical case study is presented as four lessons linked to values, brands, service systems and experience rooms.

    Originality/value – The paper extends a conceptual framework of innovative resource integration in service ecosystems. The paper also contributes four propositions to inform theory: values resonance is a basis for service innovation, the innovative integration of brands based on values resonance can foster innovation, the integration of resources across service system boundaries grounded in values resonance can enable innovation and the integration of experience rooms into a coherent servicescape based on values resonance can support novel forms of resource integration and value co-creation efforts in service ecosystems.

    Keywords Service-dominant logic, Brands, Service innovation, Resource integration, Service ecosystem, Values resonance

    Paper type Research paper

  • 156.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kindstrom, Daniel
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Internalisation or externalisation?: Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services2011In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organises its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm. Design/methodology/approach - The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven manufacturing firms with different organisational arrangements for service provision. Findings - Contrary to certain explicit assumptions, few firms organise for service provision solely through an in-house organisation. Analysis of firms in a wide variety of industries has shown that the organisational arrangements (internal, external or hybrid configuration) are contingent on factors such as market strategy, customer relationships, product-service linkages, internal competences and market channel characteristics. Research limitations/implications - The paper is an initial attempt to understand the strategic choices that firms make in terms of inter-organisational arrangements for service provision. The research should be extended by way of a cross-sectional survey in order to test and further validate the importance of the determinants of the organisational arrangements for service provision. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the service marketing and management literature by examining factors that determine whether firms organise for service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid configuration. Prior research has not explicitly addressed this issue.

  • 157.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 158.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Affective forecasting of value creation: Professional nurses’ ability to predict and remember the experienced value of a telemedicine diagnostics ICT service2015In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 964-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New innovations that can transform societies and improve life for people are increasingly being asked for. Unfortunately, some avenues of research indicate that users of these new innovations may be inaccurate when they predict or remember the value of such new offerings. For example, the rapid development of new ICT services in areas such as health care may imply opportunities for better life conditions and well-being, but may also involve complicated predictions for users about the value they will create. New innovations may face adoption difficulties if users make inaccurate predictions or remember falsely the value that such innovations might have. In this study, 48 nurses predicted, experienced, and remembered the value of a new ICT service they used to diagnose an external skin lesion on a patient. Results showed significant differences between predicted and experienced value as well as between a service with high technical quality and the same service with lower technical quality; the value was underestimated at the time of prediction, as compared to actual experience, and the value of a high-quality ICT service was substantially more underestimated than the value of a low-quality ICT service. The results provide a novel and comprehensive understanding of how employees predict and experience the value of ICT service innovations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 159.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet .
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Dasselear, Manfred
    Ericsson, Sverige.
    Changing business models in manufacturing firms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gone are the times when companies could regard their business model as fixed and stable. Instead companies must work with multiple business logics and models in parallel due to changes in customers’ needs and new market opportunities. Accordingly, business model innovation tends to be as important as product and service innovation. Essentially, a business model tells the firm’s “story” regarding how to earn money, i.e. it defines how a company creates and capture value (Magretta, 2002, Zott & Amit, 2010). Successful business models are a often balance act trying to satisfy both the customers’ value-creating, and the company’s value-capturing, processes, i.e. balancing sufficient profit while maintaining satisfied customers.

    Based on, among others, Teece (2007) we regard business model innovation as a process where as firm introduces change into their business model. Technology becomes obsolete, customer demands change, and new value propositions emerge; triggers for change might emanate from different perspective and from different actors, with varying starting points. Active business model innovation can reduce the risk of being overtaken as new actors introduce, for example, innovative offerings, new operational processes or even new underlying business models (Bessant and Davies 2007).

    Based on a case study at Ericsson our research explores the business problem that arises when one part, or both, are dissatisfied with the current business situation, opening up for business model innovation. It proposes a generic framework, based on the Service-Dominant logic (SDL) (Vargo et al., 2010), which aims to guide actions to dissolve situations where the current business model has become obsolete. The paper proposes and discusses four possible approaches to overcome the unsatisfying situation; two based on a Goods-Dominant logic (GDL) and two based on a Service-Dominant logic. The GDL approaches tend to change the current business model based on transaction costs, i.e. raising or lowering the price leading to either party remaining dissatisfied. Whereas the SDL approach instead leads to a changed business model based on a value co-creation process, focusing on understanding the customer’s value creation. Our research indicates that sometimes involves a learning process enabling the customer to understand the actual value obtained from the business relationship. Hereby, the supplier can maintain sufficient profitability with satisfied customers.

    In conclusion, we find that innovation of a company’s business model can be understood as a marketing activity that emphasizes value-creation and value-capture as entities that needs to be balanced. Companies need to develop dynamic capabilities to address and systematically change business models that are malfunctioning. The proposed framework can support companies to become more efficient and effective in addressing needed changes and to understand when different business model innovation processes are needed.

  • 160.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Soderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Influencing consumers to choose environment friendly offerings: Evidence from field experiments2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 76, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to examine a set of ways to influence consumer behavior toward making more environmentally friendly choices. We conducted three different studies to investigate (1) what consumers think would influence their behavior, (2) how several question-based verbal influence strategies nudge consumer behavior in one direction or another, and (3) how question-based written influence strategies influence consumer behavior. The findings reveal a discrepancy between what consumers think would influence behavior and what actually does influence it. In addition, under all verbal and written experimental conditions, influence strategies led to consumer change toward environmentally friendly offerings compared with alternative non-environment friendly offerings. The discussion highlights possible explanations for the results, managerial implications, the study's limitations, and suggestions for future research, with a special emphasis on research into factors that can change consumer behavior.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-07-01 09:23
  • 161.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Söderlund, Magnus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Changing customer behavior towards the greener2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, consumers are becoming increasingly more positive toward ecological and ethical attitudes offered by means of eco-labels, reduced food waste, and fair trade (Mazar & Zhong, 2010). Consumer choice may, in this sense, reflect values and beliefs that wish for a transformation of consumption toward the more sustainable. When consumers engage in shopping, service, such as care for our planet, constitute an important value aside from the physical offering. Research shows that by choosing green offerings customers are sending altruistic signals, associated with status, allowing them to feel better (Griskevicious et al., 2012). Thus, these types of green purchases enable several service-related outcomes attractive for consumers and society.

    Somewhat surprisingly, real-time sales data, collected in a large and market leading grocery store in Sweden, reveal that only 20 % of the customers actually chose eco-labeled offerings on behalf of a non-labeled competitive brand. Thus, green attitudes seem to not equal green behavior. An important question therefore regard how society can change consumers to behave, i.e. choose, more environment-friendly products in line with their attitudes (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008). Drawing from this question, our research examines the effectiveness whereby different influence strategies (Cialdini, 2009) affect consumers to choose environment-friendly products on behalf of similar but competing products without label. According to the service-dominant logic, retail stores offer resources that can be integrated into a service (Vargo et al., 2010). Current directions within service management label this type of research as transformative (Anderson et al., 2013).

    In a field experiment, front-line employees were instructed to verbally use four different influence strategies when customers approached a fruit desk where bananas of ecological and regular brands where displayed. See table 1 for treatments and their respective theoretical background regarding influence strategy.  

     

    “many customers are currently buying eco-labeled bananas right now”

    Social proof (Cialdini, 2009)

    “our eco-labeled bananas are situated right next to our employee standing there”

    Signaling (Griskevicious et al, 2012)

    “you seem interested in eco-labeled products – you can find them here”

    Labelling (Tybout & Yalch, 1980)

    “our eco-labeled bananas are priced no higher than any competing brands without label”

    Price (Thaler, 1985)

     

    The results clearly show the impact of the influence strategies. First of all, in a control group, the mere presence of a front-line employee informing about the different banana alternatives doubled the proportion (from 20 to 40%, p<.01) of choices in favor of eco-labeled bananas. Secondly, the strategies social proof (from 40 to 65%, p<.01) and signaling (from 40 to 68%, p<.01) further raised the proportions approximately 15%. Lastly the influence strategies price (from 66 to 76%, p<.03) and labeling (from 66 to 76%, p<.04) made yet another 10% chose eco-labeled bananas. 

    In sum, our research is promising viewed in light of encouraging behavioral change to create a more sustainable society. 

  • 162. Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Andreassen, Tor W
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    If you break it, should I fix it?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 556-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand the process and, as a consequence, the phases of customer orientation; to investigate the relationships between the different phases of customer orientation and customer satisfaction; and to examine activities in the different phases of customer orientation that result in higher customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach– This study, combining quantitative and qualitative research, is based on a cross-sectional survey of 320 service firms and a multiple case study of 20 organisational units at a large service firm in the European telecom industry. Findings– The results show that customer orientation consists of a process that includes three phases: strategy, measurement and analysis and implementation. Contrary to previous research, implementation has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction. In turn, customer satisfaction influences financial results. In-depth interviews with managers provided insights into the specific activities that are key for turning customer-satisfaction measurements into action. Originality/value – This research contributes to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain what constitutes customer orientation and, in turn, influences customer satisfaction and financial results. Given the large amount of research on customer satisfaction, studies on how service firms collect and use customer-satisfaction data in practice are scarce.

  • 164.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet; VTI; K2.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lidestam, Björn
    VTI; Linköpings universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 69, no SI, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 165.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Licence to build, licence to charge? Market power, pricing and the financing of airport infrastructure development in Australia2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 59, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, airport privatisation in Australia reached a 20-year milestone, with its regulatory framework been shifted to a light-handed regulation in 2002. The light-handed regulation (LHR), as in place at Australia's top four airports, has been suggested as the ‘frontier of international policy’, leading to increasing interest among transport policymakers and researchers. This article offers an in-depth examination of the LHR with focus on a) the market-power of the regulated airports, b) the commercial price negotiations between airports and airlines, and c) the airports' behaviour towards infrastructure investment. The article reports on data from 21 semi-structured interviews conducted with key stakeholder groups affected by, or with expertise in, the LHR. Findings suggest that despite airports possessing significant market power, particularly in the domestic market, the light-handed approach seems to balance the forces in a market where an airline duopoly prevails (Qantas and Virgin Australia groups). In addition, both airports and airlines perceive that commercial price negotiations are improving and refrain from a return to a stronger regulation environment. For airlines, value-for-money is the primary concern in new infrastructure investments. Interviewees also outlined specific recommendations for improving the LHR framework, including a more accessible arbitrator and improved methodologies to monitor prices and quality of service. The findings point towards the significance of vertical relationships, long-term arrangements, and transparency as key aspects of the LHR and the development of airport infrastructure.

  • 166.
    Lusch, Robert F.
    et al.
    Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, 1130 East Helen St, Tucson, AZ 85745 USA..
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Shidler Coll Business, 2404 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Fostering a trans-disciplinary perspectives of service ecosystems2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2957-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a brief introduction and comments on the articles in this special issue on transdisciplinary perspectives of service-dominant logic. Insights are provided that draw on economics, ecosystems theory, philosophy, service science, sociology, strategic management and systems science. Collectively these articles enhance service-dominant logic as well as foster more transdisciplinary research. We also integrate some of the ideas presented and share some observations and suggestions on resource integration, value co-creation, institutions, and service ecosystems. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 167.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Book review: Planning for Public Transport Accessibility: an international sourcebook. By Curtis, C. and Scheurer, J. (2016). London: Routledge. £ 76.50 (hardback) £ 24.49 (e-book). ISBN: 978-1472447241.2017In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 62, p. 263-264Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Perceived Accessibility: Capturing the Traveller Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is introducing and proposing perceived accessibility as an important and so far overseen complement to conventional, objective accessibility in sustainable transport. Perceived accessibility is defined as the possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. Implications for sustainable transport planning along with possible social outcomes related to perceived accessibility are also discussed.

     

    The thesis comprises two empirical studies. In Study I a psychometric measure (PAC) that captures perceived accessibility was developed and validated in three different datasets by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. All data was collected in Karlstad, Sweden in 2013 and 2014 with a total of 750 participants (bus travelers). Perceived accessibility is suggested as a complement to objective accessibility by contributing with the traveler perspective.  Study II aimed at examining determinants of perceived accessibility focusing on service quality aspects, feelings of safety, age, and trip frequency. Study II used the same data as Study I in a conditional process model to look at the relations between perceived accessibility and its proposed determinants. Service quality and feelings of safety were found important predictors of perceived accessibility, and safety also explains part of the effect of quality on perceived accessibility. These relationships were not dependent on trip frequency (as in how often one travels by public transport). Age also predicted perceived accessibility, and a follow-up cluster analysis showed that elderly and people in their thirties experience significantly lower perceived accessibility than other age groups.

  • 169.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Perceived Accessibility: Living a satisfactory life with help of the transport system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis fills a gap in contemporary transport research and planning as it introduces perceived accessibility as a theoretical and methodological concept for incorporating the individual dimension of accessibility in current practice. Perceived accessibility is defined as “how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system”, and is proposed as a complement to objective measures and understandings of accessibility.

    The thesis includes three studies. Study I developed a measure for capturing perceived accessibility with a specific transport mode, based on theories and conceptualizations of accessibility. Study II looked at determinants of perceived accessibility, and Study III further developed the measure of perceived accessibility to include actual travel (combinations of transport modes), and explored the relation between perceived accessibility and objectively measured accessibility for the same geographical area in Sweden. In all, the thesis provides background ideas and theory on perceived accessibility, and a validated quantitative approach to capturing perceived accessibility in day-to-day travel. Empirical findings further support the complementary nature of the approach and results indicate that assessments of perceived accessibility may be helpful in determining where to direct interventions aiming at improving accessibility by evaluating different transport modes or different segments of individuals. The method developed for capturing perceived accessibility shows merit in contributing to further theory development on accessibility by its ability to identify determinants of perceived accessibility and its potential in identifying segments of the population that experience significantly lower accessibility than other groups, and thus are at risk of experiencing social exclusion or suffer from transport disadvantage.

  • 170.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion2016In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sus-tainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Un-like conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of en-gaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objec-tive standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety) increase the per-ceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750) focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Fri-man, 2015). More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that sub-jective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  • 171.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Development and test of the Perceived Accessibility Scale (PAC) in public transport.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility has conventionally been measured and evaluated ignoring user perceptions in favor of focusing on travel time and distance to a number of pre-determined destinations. Acknowledging this gap, we recently developed a scale for perceived accessibility PAC (Lättman, Friman, & Olsson 2016b) aimed at capturing the individual perspective of accessibility with a certain travel mode. In this paper, we 1) further develop the PAC measure of perceived accessibility in order to capture how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, 2) compare levels of perceived accessibility between residential areas and main travel modes, and 3) compare residents’ perceived accessibility to the objective accessibility level for the same residential area. Data from 2711 residents of Malmö, Sweden show that perceived accessibility is consistently different from objective accessibility across 13 residential areas, with minor differences in levels of perceived accessibility between areas. Surprisingly, bicycle users rate their accessibility significantly higher than those who mainly use the car or public transport for daily travel, contrary to objective accessibility assumptions. These differences point at the importance of including perceived accessibility as a complementary tool when planning for and evaluating transport systems.

  • 173.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 257-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service Orientation in Manufacturing Firms: Understanding Challenges with Service Business Logic2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation and competition from low-cost countries has pushed manufacturing firms towards offering services to remain competitive. However, increasing the service orientation of a manufacturing firm to find new ways of value (co-)creation has presented several challenges, such as the fact that services do not provide the expected revenues, and resistance from both the sales force and from customers towards services.

    The aim of this thesis is to understand challenges linked to increasing service orientation in manufacturing firms, by means of goods and service business logics. The thesis emphasises the three dimensions of business logics – value perspective, service business strategy, and service offering – and studies them empirically in service divisions in the pulp and paper industry and in the automotive industry.

    The findings show that firms with inconsistency between the three dimensions face certain challenges. Most often, the firms have a value perspective of goods business logic, but a service business strategy and a service offering of service business logic. Therefore, the most important and most difficult challenge to overcome in order to increase a manufacturing firm’s service orientation is the employees’ value perspective.

    Three service manoeuvres were key to overcoming this challenge: changing employees’ mind-sets, starting to value services, and separating products and services. Although separating products and services could be assessed as a service manoeuvre consistent with goods business logic, it facilitated an increased service orientation. The fact that goods business logic manoeuvres led to a higher degree of service orientation, whereas service business logic manoeuvres did not always do so, is discussed as a service orientation paradox.

     

     

     

  • 175.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Aichagui, Victor
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lagerholm, Barbro
    Swerea IVF.
    A longitudinal study of servitisation and dynamic capabilities in SMEs2016In: Spring servitization conference 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to identify servitisation routes of SMEs, and (2) to identify the microfoundations of dynamic capabilities that influence the different steps of a continuous servitisation model. Design/Methodology/Approach: In this longitudinal study, servitisation in three product-oriented small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been studied. During the past year, the SMEs have developed their service businesses according to an iterative servitisation model consisting of four states; Identify, Package, Sell, and Innovate. The servitisation processes were studied through action research. Findings: Three different routes of servitisation were identified; 1) a product-oriented route, (2) a service-oriented route, and (3) a solutions-oriented route. The dynamic capabilities developed within the companies throughout their servitisation processes differed based on their business logic and influenced the result of the processes. Originality/Value: The study contributes with knowledge on how servitisation can be performed in SMEs in practice. Moreover, it combines the research fields of servitisation and dynamic capabilities, which enrichens the servitisation literature with an important but sparsely researched perspective that focus on the change inherent in a servitisation process.

  • 176.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. bIndustrial Engineering and Management, Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service manoeuvres to overcome challenges of servitisation in a value network2015In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 26, no 14-15, p. 1188-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When manufacturing firms increase the share of service revenues, managing service provision becomes challenging. This study extends previous research on servitisation in individual firms by analysing the challenges service provision creates in a value network. The challenges are identified both within the firms and in the business relationships in the value network. In addition, the paper identifies and describes service manoeuvres firms use to address challenges resulting from servitisation. This case study of a value network is based on interviews carried out at 13 firms in the automotive industry, including suppliers, original equipment manufacturers and consultancies. The research shows that service manoeuvres, such as new types of resource integration and value constellations, are used to overcome challenges in the value network.

  • 177.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Creating a service platform: how to co-create value in a remote service context2018In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 768-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to further develop the construct of service platform and to clarify the definition of service platform in an industrial context. To do so, an understanding of the foundations for service platforms, based on a service perspective, is created. Design/methodology/approach The study has adopted a qualitative case study approach and builds on in-depth interviews with remote service teams in two multinational firms: one in the food processing and packaging industry and the other in the pulp and paper industry. Findings The foundations for successful service platforms consist of modularising resources, integrations and service processes to create value propositions. The value propositions could result in variations of a service or in variations of different services. When defining the concept service platform, the perspective of service needs to be made evident; therefore, the authors define service platform as: value proposition(s) consisting of a modular structure that invites to and facilitates value co-creation between resources, through integration opportunities in a continuous service process. Research limitations/implications The results are based on the perspective of two suppliers in similar industries; only remote services were studied. Firms from different types of industries and other types of services could add to the research on service modularity according to a service perspective. Moreover, information about customers and other actors' involvement on the platform was gathered from the firms studied, no customers or other actors were interviewed. Practical implications This study shows the importance of a firm involving itself in the value creation of the customer, that is, focusing on value co-creation. This implies a close cooperation between the manufacturer and its customer - not only at a given point in time but also over a longer period of cooperation. Through the different types of modules building up the service platform, value co-creation can take place in various ways. Originality/value This study offers original empirical contributions on platforms from a service perspective. The study contributes to servitisation, service modularity and service (dominant) logic research by developing an understanding of the foundations for service platforms based on a service perspective. It also contributes to platform research more specifically by developing a definition of service platform in an industrial context.

  • 178.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Davoudi, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Högström, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Customer satisfaction in public transit2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    BTU, Cottbus, Germany.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Defining Product: Service Concepts from a Manufacturing Firm Perspective2007In: XVII International RESER Conference, Tampere, Finland, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Understanding and Managing Product-Service Concepts from the perspective of a service logic in Manufacturing Companies2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Outsourcing idea screening: Exploring users’ appropriateness for judging new product/service ideas2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Martin, Drew
    et al.
    Univ Hawaii, Coll Business & Econ, 200 West Kawili St, Hilo, HI 96720 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Choi, Sunmee
    Yonsei Univ, Sch Business, 50 Yonsei Ro, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection in dynamic global contexts2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2397-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Journal of Business Research special section includes 7 articles selected from papers presented during the 2014 Global Marketing Conference held July 15-18, 2014. The Conference's theme was "Bridging Asia and the World: Globalization of Marketing and Management Theory and Practice." This special edition introduces current topics concerning researchers and practitioners about service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection research. Following the conference's theme, this special edition emphasizes the need for educators and business leaders to make sense, plan, and interpret outcomes accurately of implementing service innovations in dynamic global contexts. 

  • 183.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Mkt, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. ..
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Sch Econ, Turku, Finland..
    Klaus, Phil
    Brunel Univ, Sch Business, London, England..
    Radnor, Zoe Jane
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Business & Econ, Serv Operat Management, Loughborough, Leics, England..
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Business, Mkt, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fresh perspectives on customer experience2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 430-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide directions for future research on: broadening the role of customers in customer experience; taking a practice-based approach to customer experience; and recognizing the holistic, dynamic nature of customer experience across all touch points and over time. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is conceptual identifying current gaps in research on customer experience. Findings - The findings include a set of research questions and research agenda for future research on customer experience. Originality/value - This research suggests fresh perspectives for understanding the customer experience which can inspire future research and advance theory and managerial practice.

  • 184.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Hogan, Suellen J.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Cocreative customer practices: Effects of health care customer value cocreation practices on well-being2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 70, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on three studies using data from six separate samples of 1151 health care customers, the authors investigate cocreative customer practices, modeling the effects of customer value cocreation practices on well-being. Results highlight that while positive interactions with medical staff (doctors) lead to increased well-being through engaging in coproducing treatment options, interactions with friends and family and their associated cocreated activities have an even greater positive effect on well-being. Furthermore, several other customer directed activities have positive indirect effects. Interestingly, activities requiring change can have a negative effect on well-being, except in psychological illnesses, where the opposite is true. The authors conclude with theoretical and managerial implications, highlighting that if interactions and activities with medical professionals are supplemented with customer-directed activities, the positive effect on well-being is significantly enhanced.

  • 185.
    Molander, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Changing roles and new perspectives: towards market orientation in public transport2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1811-1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general international trend of increasingly subjecting the public transport industry to market principles has been concretized via various developments in many countries. In line with this trend, there is an increased interest in public procurement processes as a model for public service delivery. Sweden is one of the leading countries where public procurement is the prevailing model for delivering public services. In accordance with the general trend, efforts have been made to make Sweden's public transport more sensitive to passenger needs, and to stimulate a competitive public transport system. For instance, a new Act, which came into effect on 1 January 2012, is aimed at fostering a customer-centric public transport system, with increased role clarity for the public transport actors. Since market-oriented strategies and public procurement processes are both receiving increased interest from the public transport industry, the market orientation of both public authorities and service providers in Sweden's public transport has been studied. Since market orientation is a process of change, a longitudinal approach was whereby the first study was conducted in the spring of 2011 and the second in the spring of 2014. All of Sweden's public transport authorities and the service providers that they stated as their major contract holders were asked to participate. In total, 184 respondents participated in the studies. The findings show that the industry as a whole has increased its organizational and inter-organizational efforts to both acquire knowledge of and respond to passenger needs. In particular, the public service providers have increased their involvement in market-oriented activities.

  • 186.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market orientation in dyads2013In: Market orientation in dyads, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Market Orientation in Public Service: A comparison between buyers and providers2017In: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public services have been subjected to processes of deregulation, competition, and privatization in many countries worldwide. One popular reform has involved focusing on competitive procurement. This context, where public and private organizations jointly deliver the service in a dyad, makes the market orientation of public services highly complex. The main elements of market orientation – intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination and responsiveness– have shown themselves to be valid and of significance in both the private and public sectors. Nevertheless, the empirical context of the public sector involves a complexity that has been poorly addressed in market orientation research. In this study, we research the Swedish public transport industry and survey buyer and provider organizations in order to determine how market-orientated activities are approached in public-private service dyads. We present three theoretically-underpinned relationship types - buyer dominated, provider dominated and collaborative - which we suggest as having implications for market-oriented activities. A survey of public transport authorities’ (buyers, n = 48) and operators’ (providers, n = 49) market orientation activities reveals the concurrent prevalence of characteristics from all three relationship types, as both parties try to dominate the relationship while also engaging in collaborative efforts. Drawing on our theoretical framework and our empirical results, we conclude that there are legitimate differences in the perspectives of buyers and providers, and that these differences, if acknowledged and properly managed, can provide valuable resources in the development of a joint market orientation in complex public-private settings.

  • 188.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads: An empirical examination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Myhrén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Eawag, Dubendorf, Switzerland & Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Incremental and radical open service innovation2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

  • 191.
    Nam, Y.
    et al.
    Carson College of Business, Washington State University, US.
    Niblock, S. J.
    School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Sinnewe, Elisabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Jakob, K.
    College of Business, University of Montana, US.
    Do corporate directors ‘heap’ dividends?: Evidence on dividend rounding and information uncertainty in Australian firms2018In: Australian Journal of Management, ISSN 0312-8962, E-ISSN 1327-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the extent of dividend heaping in Australian firms between 1976 and 2015. Our findings show that 27.39% of dividends greater than or equal to 2.5-cents are heaped in 2.5-cent intervals, while 70.90% of dividends less than 2.5-cents are heaped in 0.25-cent intervals. We find that the heaping phenomenon decreases over time and average dividend size increases. We also show that when establishing the likelihood of dividend heaping, stock return volatility and firm size are consistent with the information uncertainty hypothesis. Dividend heaping also appears to be influenced by firm-level characteristics that are inconsistent with the hypothesis. For instance, the likelihood of heaping increases with dividend size and firm age. 

  • 192.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the effects of experience and responsibilities on idea screening.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    First things first - think before you decide: The how, what and who of idea screening2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates decision-making activities leading to the initial selection of which new ideas should be selected for further development or rejected. This process, often referred to as idea screening, is described as being one of the most important, but also challenging, tasks to master during the entire innovation process. There are two main reasons for this: Firstly, not all ideas are good and secondly no firm has the resources to develop every single idea proposed to it. Thus, it is important to be careful when initially deciding which ideas are to be selected and developed into future possible innovations in order to eliminate weak ideas and retain those that have a substantial chance of becoming successful. 

    Two alternative decision-making approaches are explored in the thesis (the intuitive and rational approaches). In the thesis, the concept of intuition during the screening of product and service ideas is demystified. The empirical findings show that decision-makers utilize five main underlying criteria when intuitively assessing ideas. Of these, the findings indicate user-value to be the most important one, or at least the criterion that most assessors emphasize when making intuitive decisions. The findings presented in the thesis increase our understanding of the use of rational and holistic intuitive decision-making when screening ideas during the Front End Innovation phase, as well as questioning the traditional view of intuition, as a decision-making tool that is only reliable if applied by those with a vast amount of experience and expertise. The reported findings indicate that, for example, users with an understanding of the idea context are able to intuitively identify the ideas that decision-making experts identify as the top (best) ones. Hence, managers faced with a situation where they are being inundated with new ideas can turn to non-experts for help.

  • 194.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Frontline employees screening ideasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the merits if internal outsourcing to increase effectiveness and efficiency in idea screening2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Product Development Management Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 14-16, 2015., Copenhagen, Denmark: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Daily Travel and Subjective Wellbeing2016In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 51, p. 1145-1145, article id SIArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lycka och vardagligt resande2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 198.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Applying A Stage-Based Approach to Study Effects of Temporary Free Public Transport on Psychological Mechanisms and Behavior.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Vad avgör om man samåker eller inte?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Ettema, Dick
    Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Ståhl, Michael
    Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

1234567 151 - 200 of 310
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