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  • 151.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads: An empirical examination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Myhrén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Eawag, Dubendorf, Switzerland & Department of Business Administration, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Incremental and radical open service innovation2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the study's interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

  • 153.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the effects of experience and responsibilities on idea screening.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    First things first - think before you decide: The how, what and who of idea screening2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates decision-making activities leading to the initial selection of which new ideas should be selected for further development or rejected. This process, often referred to as idea screening, is described as being one of the most important, but also challenging, tasks to master during the entire innovation process. There are two main reasons for this: Firstly, not all ideas are good and secondly no firm has the resources to develop every single idea proposed to it. Thus, it is important to be careful when initially deciding which ideas are to be selected and developed into future possible innovations in order to eliminate weak ideas and retain those that have a substantial chance of becoming successful. 

    Two alternative decision-making approaches are explored in the thesis (the intuitive and rational approaches). In the thesis, the concept of intuition during the screening of product and service ideas is demystified. The empirical findings show that decision-makers utilize five main underlying criteria when intuitively assessing ideas. Of these, the findings indicate user-value to be the most important one, or at least the criterion that most assessors emphasize when making intuitive decisions. The findings presented in the thesis increase our understanding of the use of rational and holistic intuitive decision-making when screening ideas during the Front End Innovation phase, as well as questioning the traditional view of intuition, as a decision-making tool that is only reliable if applied by those with a vast amount of experience and expertise. The reported findings indicate that, for example, users with an understanding of the idea context are able to intuitively identify the ideas that decision-making experts identify as the top (best) ones. Hence, managers faced with a situation where they are being inundated with new ideas can turn to non-experts for help.

  • 155.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Frontline employees screening ideasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Netz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring the merits if internal outsourcing to increase effectiveness and efficiency in idea screening2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Product Development Management Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 14-16, 2015., Copenhagen, Denmark: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lycka och vardagligt resande2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 158.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Ettema, Dick
    Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Ståhl, Michael
    Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

  • 159.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Huck, J.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 160.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How Subjective Value Fluctuates Temporally: Effects of Framing Consumption as Materialistic or Experiential2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shanahan, Helena
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wåhlander, Heléne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH.
    EcoRunner: User Experiences of a Web Based Environmental Feedback Tool Addressing Household Consumption2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is generally used to monitor progress toward different goals and standards in life, and to adjust behaviour accordingly. EcoRunner was developed as a web-based feedback tool providing environmental and financial information about households’ daily consumption. This paper presents a user experience study of this feedback tool, and addresses the influences of goal-setting on the experience. The results show that people who more often set financial and pro-environmental goals in life find the tool more attractive, more useful, believing it to have influenced their current behaviour and believing it will be helpful when changing (regulating) future consumption behaviour. Conclusions are drawn that feedback tools like EcoRunner may have different effects for different subgroups in society. It is further suggested that EcoRunner could be used as a tool in education, at different levels in schools and higher education, for enlightening consumers about the relationship between household spending and environmental consequences.

  • 162.
    Olsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    In-Store Gamification: Testing a Location-Based Treasure Hunt App in a Real Retailing Environment2016In: 2016 49TH HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCES (HICSS), 2016, p. 1634-1641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional retailers are facing strong competition from e-commerce. One way to meet this challenge is to follow the marketing movement of focusing on customer experiences. This transformation is based on the notion of engaging customers and one way to drive this engagement is through gamification to support value creation. In this study, we have identified variables affecting intentions to use gamified services and in what ways. For this purpose, we developed an app that generated different levels of gamification by varying the number of game elements. The data from a survey distributed during a field experiment indicates that an increasing level of gamification and technology experience have direct positive associations with intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has a positive direct association with satisfaction, although this is partly mediated by mood. Finally, satisfaction has a positive direct relation with intention to use.

  • 163.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    A Shaken Self on Shopping: Consumer Threats and Compensatory Consumption2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of experiments, with a total sample of over 2,400 participants, this thesis investigates how various threats that customers may encounter influence the customers’ subsequent purchase and choice behaviors. Furthermore, this thesis examines whether individuals’ predicted behaviors in certain consumer contexts are congruent with customers’ actual behaviors in these very contexts.

    Paper I takes an evolutionary approach and investigates whether a status threat to male customers, induced by exposure to physically dominant men, results in compensatory consumption of products that signal status through price or size.

    Paper II takes a reactance-based approach and examines whether customers whose freedom to touch has been threatened compensate by touching, and ultimately purchasing, a larger number of products.

    Paper III investigates whether threats to customers’ self-control in one domain influence choice behavior and consumption preferences in another unrelated domain. More specifically, the paper examines whether exposure to attractive opposite-sex faces (and hence a subtle activation of sexual desire and its associated pleasure-seeking mindset) makes individuals more motivated to choose and consume unhealthy-but-rewarding foods.     

    The main findings of this work can be summarized as follows: Consumer threats result in compensatory consumption, not only in the specific domain under threat, but also in unrelated or only symbolically similar domains. Such compensatory responses are in direct contrast to consumer lay beliefs and even the predictions made by marketing professors and other scholars, which suggests that people are generally unaware of the impact that certain threats have on their behavior. These results should be as interesting for customers who want to make informed choices and resist various influence attempts as for marketers, advertisers, and retail managers who want to influence customers. 

  • 164.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Smile for a while: The effect of employee-displayed smiling on customer affect and satisfaction2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 284-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers' affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure. Design/methodology/approach - The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction. Findings - A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter. Practical implications - Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic. Originality/value - This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers' affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.

  • 165.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Touch forbidden, consumption allowed: Counter-intuitive effects of touch restrictions on customers' purchase behavior2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-store events are increasingly used to provide customers with unique shopping experiences. Although recent studies indicate that such events positively influence customers' purchase intentions and store choice decisions, little is known about how customers respond to various in-store events. This paper investigates one type of in-store event that is frequently used in several food and non-food contexts. Specifically, the study investigates how an in-store product demonstration influences customers' subsequent purchase behavior depending on whether they are restricted or encouraged to touch the products being demonstrated. An initial scenario-based experiment involving 35 undergraduates aimed to examine how people intuitively think that restricting (versus encouraging) touch during an in-store product demonstration would influence their subsequent purchase behavior. A two-way ANOVA with participant gender and experimental condition as the between-subjects factors consistently showed that people hold a lay theory that restricting touch should have a negative impact on the amount of money they spend and the number of products they purchase. A second field experiment involving 126 customers in a retail store aimed to investigate whether this lay belief is consistent with customers' actual purchase behavior. Counter-intuitively, a two-way ANOVA with customer gender and experimental condition (touch restriction, touch encouragement) as the between-subjects factors revealed that restricting touch during an in-store product demonstration resulted in significantly more money being spent, a larger number of products being purchased, and more expensive products being purchased. These findings show that consumer lay theory can directly contradict customers' actual purchase behavior. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 166.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ringler, Christine
    University of Alabama .
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    University of Alabama .
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    The Abercrombie & Fitch Effect: The Impact of Physical Dominance on Male Customers' Status-Signaling Consumption2018In: Journal of Marketing Research, ISSN 0022-2437, E-ISSN 1547-7193, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 69-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer lay theory suggests that women will spend more money than men in the presence of a physically dominant male employee, whereas theories of intrasexual competition from evolutionary psychology predict the opposite outcome. A retail field study demonstrates that male customers spend more money and purchase more expensive products than their female counterparts in the presence (vs. absence) of a physically dominant male employee. This effect has a more powerful impact on male customers who lack bodily markers of dominance (shorter stature or measures linked to lower levels of testosterone). When confronted with other physically dominant (vs. nondominant) men, these male customers are particularly prone to signal status through price or logo size. Their elevated feelings of intrasexual (male-to-male) competitiveness drive them to spend more money on status-signaling, but not functional, products and to prefer and draw larger brand logos. Because pictorial exposure is sufficient for the effect to occur, these findings are not limited to in-store interactions with dominant male employees but have broad implications for marketing and advertising.

  • 167.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wastlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, BI, Nydalsveien 37, NO-0442 Oslo, Norway..
    Eye-tracking customers' visual attention in the wild: Dynamic gaze behavior moderates the effect of store familiarity on navigational fluency2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 28, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A retail store is a multi-sensory environment filled with messages to tempt customers into making unplanned purchases. The purpose of this field study was to examine the interplay between three factors claimed to precede and influence unplanned purchases: store familiarity, visual attention, and navigational fluency (the subjective ease of navigating). Eye-tracking recordings and post-study questionnaires from 100 grocery store shoppers showed that store familiarity was positively associated with navigational fluency. However, customers' levels of dynamic gaze behavior (a frequent, widely distributed viewing pattern) moderated this effect. Dynamic gaze behavior significantly predicted navigational fluency among customers with low and moderate store familiarity, but not among customers familiar with the store. These findings challenge the formerly held assumption that store familiarity automatically implies navigational ease, and store unfamiliarity implies navigational difficulty. The results have implications for navigational aspects in stores. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 168.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Vision (im)possible: The effects of in-store signage on customers’ visual attention2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Pettersson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Uppsala University.
    From standardised offer to consumer adaptation: Challenges to the church of Sweden’s identity2013In: Religion in Consumer Society: Brands, Consumers and Markets, Ashgate, 2013, 1, p. 43-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 170. Rajagopal, Ss.
    et al.
    Guo, L
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Role of resource integration in adoption of medical toursim service2013In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 321-336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Roos, Inger
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer-Support Service from a Relationship Perspective: Best Practice for Telecom2013In: Management Research and Practice Journal (MRP), ISSN 2067-2462, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Rosenbaum, Mark
    et al.
    Northern Illinois University.
    Kelleher, C
    Cork University Business School, .
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Scherer, A
    Technology and Economics, ETH Zürich.
    Re-placing place in marketing: A resource-exchange place perspective2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study clarifies the marketing discipline's conceptualization of place by presenting a revised perspective and conceptual framework of place, referred to as REPLACE. Drawing from resource exchange theory and attention restoration theory, the framework problematizes the assumption that places are merely physical locales by foregrounding how places can become inseparable aspects of consumers' lives. We present an alternative resource-based perspective of place, namely as a repository of resources that are potentially available to consumers through exchange processes. These exchange processes, and the complexity of the offered resources, influence consumers' relationship with a locale as well as their sense of well-being. With this alternative perspective, we bridge the place concept to public health and extend the understanding of attachment in service settings.

  • 173.
    Rundh, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Delivering sport events: the arena concept in sports from a network perspective2015In: Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 785-794Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Quality Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Quality management systems and value creation2009In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 241-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of a quality management system (QMS) for the assurance and improvement of value in an inter‐organizational business relationship. The study is carried out in the public transportation industry where service provision has been outsourced.Design/methodology/approach – In‐depth interviews are conducted with 26 participants from two organizations involved in an inter‐organizational business relationship. From the interview material, the authors identified the drivers that create value for the inter‐organizational business relationship and for the customers of public transportation. All value drivers are categorized according to the central areas in a QMS.Findings – The results show that internal processes and management responsibility are central areas where value is destroyed. Since service provision has been outsourced, this means that the intended value is never experienced by the customer.Research limitations/implications – The identified value creators and destroyers originate from the suppliers' view and focus on how the different suppliers create value for customers.Practical implications – Managers should acquire knowledge about the value they create or destroy and focus on improving the value‐creation processes. The QMS can be used to assure and improve value creation in an inter‐organizational business relationship.Originality/value – The research sheds light on the difficulties and possibilities in value creation where service provision has been outsourced.

  • 175. Salomonson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Tricks and tactics used against troublesome travelers—Frontline staff's experiences from Swedish buses and trains2014In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 10, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is facing escalating problems with passengers who behave badly by threatening and assaulting both staff and other passengers. Troublesome customers are known to affect employees' health and work motivation adversely. However, employees also form strategies for handling the incidents that arise. Developing successful ways of dealing with customer misbehavior, on both an operational and a strategic level, represents a key challenge facing the public transport sector. The aim of this article is to investigate the nature of such negative situations in public transport; in particular, highlighting the practical strategies that are used by public transport staff to handle these kinds of incidents. An interview study consisting of 23 in-depth interviews was conducted both with conductors on regional trains and bus drivers on local buses in Sweden. Several instances of customer misbehavior were described by the respondents, e.g. verbal abuse, threats, and even physical violence. These alarming incidents were dealt with by staff using a range of individual strategies aimed at averting or controlling misbehaving customers. Our study clearly demonstrates the importance of the employees' appearance and their interactional abilities, in addition to their use of the physical environment, when handling incidents that included misbehavior.

  • 176. Selos, Erno
    et al.
    Teemu, Laine
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Suomala, Petri
    Pitkänen, Lauri
    Applying SPAT for understanding B-to-B supplier switching processes2013In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 321-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to focus on the switching path analysis technique (SPAT) application to enlarge the understanding of customer switching from the business to consumer (B-to-C) context to the processes of business-to-business (B-to-B) supplier switches. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a theory extension of SPAT, with nine (9) supplier switching cases in different B-to-B settings. The cases shed light also on the actual triggers and determinants of the B-to-B switches. Findings: The study proves the applicability of SPAT in B-to-B settings. The B-to-B context adds complexity, forming a relationship flow where many driving factors act for switching. Thus, the findings suggest that a comprehensive analysis of the triggers and determinants is required to understand the switching processes. In particular, the characteristics of the active/passive behaviour should be analysed separately in the customer and in the old and new suppliers. Research limitations/implications: The empirical findings are exploratory in nature. Further research should refine the characteristics of active and passive behaviour at the levels of the relationship, the companies and the individuals to comprehend the notion of the influential trigger in SPAT. Further research should also address the wider topic of the patterns of certain triggers and determinants that actually lead to unstable supplier relationships. Practical implications: The B-to-B supplier switches appear to be complex processes. The supplier should be able to be constantly aware of the major changes in the customer’s business. Based on this awareness, the supplier may actively affect the development of the relationship to avoid unwanted switches. Originality/value: The paper combines the relatively mature research stream of B-to-C supplier switches and access to B-to-B supplier-switching cases. The theory contribution of the paper is the extension of the theory to the B-to-B context, with relevant research implications.

  • 177.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    What Does it Take to Get your Attention?: The influence of In-Store and Out-of-Store Factors on Visual Attention and Decision Making for Fast-moving Consumer Goods2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making for fast-moving consumer goods involves a choice between numerous similar alternatives. Under such demanding circumstances, a decision is made for one product. The decision is dependent on the interaction between the environment and the mind of the consumer, both of which are filled with information that can influence the outcome. The aim of this dissertation is to explore how the mind and the environment guides attention towards considered and chosen products in consumer decision making at the point-of-purchase.

    Consumers are equipped with several effort reduction strategies to simplify complex decision making. The selection of strategies can be conscious or automatic and driven by information in the environment or the mind of the decision maker. The selected decision strategy reduces the set of options to one alternative in an iterative process of comparisons that are fast and rely on perceptual cues to quickly exclude irrelevant products. This thesis uses eye-tracking to explore this rapid processing that lacks conscious access or control. The purpose is to explore how product packaging and placement (as in-store factors), and recognition, preferences, and choice task (as out-of-store factors) influence the decision-making process through visual attention.

    The results of the 10 experiments in the five papers that comprise this thesis shed new light on the role of visual attention in the interaction between the environment and the mind, and its influence on the consumer. It is said that consumers choose with their eyes, which means that unseen is unsold. The results of this thesis show that it is just as important to be comprehended as it is to be seen. In split-second decision making, the ability to recognize and comprehend a product can significantly impact preferences. Comprehension stretches beyond perception as consumers infer value from memory structures that influence attention. Hence, the eye truly sees what the mind is prepared to comprehend.

  • 178.
    Siltaloppi, Jaakko
    et al.
    Aalto University School of Science.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
    Institutional Complexity as a Driver for Innovation in Service Ecosystems2016In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 333-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends research on innovation as institutional change within service science and service-dominant (S-D) logic by conceptualizing the emergence of novel solutions in service ecosystems. We pay particular attention to how actors (individuals and organizations) are able to create new solutions that change the very institutional arrangements that guide and constrain them. We propose that institutional complexity—the multiplicity of institutional arrangements confronting actors with conflicting prescriptions for action—drives the emergence of novelty. Institutional complexity reduces the influence of prevailing institutions by activating conscious problem solving and making available multiple institutional “toolkits.” These dynamic toolkits consist of the cultural norms and meanings, as well as material practices, associated with specific institutional arrangements, with which actors can jointly reconstruct and change value cocreation practices and advance change in the institutional arrangements of service ecosystems. This paper contributes to service science and S-D logic by providing a more comprehensive understanding of innovation driven by institutional complexity, in which the stability of institutional arrangements is reconciled with the actor-driven creation of novel solutions constitutive of institutional change. 

  • 179.
    Sjödin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Involving users in the development of new service experiences2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Skarin, Frida
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The household as an instrumental and affective trigger in intervention programs for travel behavior change2017In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 6, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The household plays an important role in behavior change in many lifestyle areas. Various intervention programshave been implemented in order to change travel behavior and it is well known that travel behavior is influenced bythese, and that the household plays an important role. Less research has gone into understanding the reasons forsuch behavior changes. With the aim of understanding more about household influences and triggers of travelbehavior change, two intervention studies were conducted which included free travel passes on public transport. InStudy 1 (n=108) questionnaires were sent out by e-mail to investigate whether or not household members’ influenceanother member participating in a voluntary change program, and to thus identify influential triggers. In Study 2(n=20), interviews were conducted to identify and understand influential triggers in travel behavior change. The resultsshow, in line with previous research, that household members influence each other’s behavior. In addition toinstrumental triggers, affective triggers were also identified as being of key importance. Although the householdenabled travel behavior change, it was predominantly perceived to hinder travel behavior change.

  • 181.
    Skålen, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gummerus, Johanna
    HANKEN, Finland.
    Koskull, Catharina
    HANKEN, Finland.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Exploring value propositions and service innovation: a service-dominant logic study2015In: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 137-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an eight-firm study, conducted from the service-dominant logic perspective, which makes a contribution regarding knowledge of the anatomy of value propositions and service innovation. The paper suggests that value propositions are configurations of several different practices and resources. The paper finds that ten common practices, organized in three main aggregates, constitute and fulfill value propositions: i.e. provision practices, representational practices, and management and organizational practices. Moreover, the paper suggests that service innovation can be equated with the creation of new value propositions by means of developing existing or creating new practices and/or resources, or by means of integrating practices and resources in new ways. It identifies four types of service innovation (adaptation, resource-based innovation, practice-based innovation, and combinative innovation) and three types of service innovation processes (practice-based, resource-based, and combinative). The key managerial insight provided by the paper is that service innovation must be conducted and value propositions must be evaluated from the perspective of the customers’ value creation, the service that the customer experiences. Successful service innovation is not only contingent on having the right resources, established methods and practices for integrating these resources into attractive value propositions are also needed.

  • 182.
    Skålén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Aal, Kotaiba Abdul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Cocreating the Arab Spring: Understanding Transformation of Service Systems in Contention2015In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 250-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the transformation of service systems through actors' resource integration and value cocreation in contention. It is based on a netnographic study focusing on the use of information and communications technology (ICT) tools by online activists during the Arab Spring. The transformation of service systems is conceptualized on the basis of existing service research and on the theory of strategic action fields. Focusing on Syria, the findings suggest that activists transformed four interdependent service systemsthe media, the social movement, health care, and the financial service systemsduring the Arab Spring by means of integrating resources and cocreating value within several ICT tools. A key contribution to transformative service research is the fact that the positive transformation of service systems derives from the conflict between two types of actors, namely, incumbents and challengers. This article also contributes to our knowledge of triggers of service system transformation, what motivates actors to transform service systems, how service system transformation is enabled by actors' integration and use of ICT tools serving as opportunity spaces, and the transformative roles actors adopt. In addition, this article contributes to the conceptualization of service systems and to the understanding of resource integration and value cocreation.

  • 183.
    Skålén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Engen, Marit
    Lillehammer Univ Coll, Gudbrandsdalsvegen 350, N-2624 Lillehammer, Norway..
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Public Service Innovation: A Public Service dominant logic view2016In: WHAT'S AHEAD IN SERVICE RESEARCH?: NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR BUSINESS AND SOCIETY / [ed] RussoSpena, T Mele, C, Neapel, Italien: UNIV NAPLES FEDERICO II, DEPT ECON MGMT & INST , 2016, p. 756-770Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper departs from research on Public Service Dominant Logic (PSDL) to advance a framework of service innovation for the public sector. It continues the incorporation of Service-Dominant Logic (SDL) concepts that has been initiated by PSDL research to the public management domain, in particular the notions of resource integration and value propositions is incorporated to PSDL, and builds a conceptual framework of Public Service Innovation (PSI). This framework consist of three resource integration processes, users value creation in use, users and personnel's' value cocreation in direct interaction and internal value facilitation, and suggest that these three processes contribute to service innovation by integrating resources into value propositions. Through an empirical study of primary care the paper finds that the framework describes how PSI is conducted in practice in the public management domain. The paper contributes to articulate a PSDL-based service innovation framework. It also contributes by grounding this framework in an empirical study. In addition, it contributes by elaborating PSDL in such a way that may be drawn on to study public service innovation.

  • 184.
    Skålén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Contextualization of Human Resource and Quality Management: A sensemaking perspective on everybody´s involvement2004In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 736-751Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Logist & Qual Management, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, HELIX Vinn Excellence Ctr, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fombelle, Paul
    Northeastern Univ, DAmore McKim Sch Business, Boston, MA USA..
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2401-2408Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation acts as society's engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector's economic growth. Despite service innovation's importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance. 

  • 186. Stanworth, J
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Hsu, R-Hu
    Internal Service: Drivers of (Dis)satisfaction in the Chinese Context2011In: 2011 International Joint Conference on Service Sciences (IJCSS 2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Strandvik, Tore
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics , Finland.
    Holmlund, Maria
    Hanken School of Economics , Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Customer needing: A challenge for the seller offering2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 1-2, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose-The present increasingly tough economic climate has uncovered the need to go beyond the prevailing seller-oriented models and company practices in order to capture the factors that essentially drive buyer companies. What is needed is a genuinely customer-side concept that corresponds to offering. The purpose of this study is to develop a new concept labeled "customer needing" which emerged from the material collected in an industrial service setting. Design/methodology/approach-The paper reports a case study of a typical high-technology industrial service with a strong outsourcing trend. The empirical data consist of interviews with eight representatives from the seller company and 16 interviews from different customer companies. Findings-A needing is based on the customers' mental models of their business and business strategies that affect their priorities, decisions, and actions. It is itself a mental model of how the customer conceives the fulfillment of a specific task. In this paper the needing is operationalized as a profile of three dimensions containing six functions that represent desired value in use for the customer: the doing dimension comprises a relieving and an enabling function; the experiencing dimension has an energizing and a sheltering function; and the scheduling dimension contains a time-framing and a timing function. Empirical data are presented to illustrate the new concept. Research limitations/implications-This is a case study but the ensuing concept provides a framework for further research on value in use and mental models in an industrial service setting. The studied offering was a complex business service representing an outsourced function and the buyers were functional experts and higher-level executives, all of them experts in the service in question. Practical implications-The concept of customer needing extends knowledge of value in use and consequently represents an important tool in developing successful seller offerings. The shift of focus from offering to needing can explain why some sales attempts fail and can thus reveal new business opportunities. Originality/value-In addition to highlighting the mental models driving companies' priorities and behavior, the study offers insights into value in use in an industrial service setting. The concept customer needing helps to analyze and describe value in use and provides a new buyer-side concept corresponding to the offering concept.

  • 188.
    Stålhammar, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Resource test-driving for service innovation: How ordinary employees innovate new value propositions2012In: Proceedings of the 15th QMOD-ICQSS conference / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Poznan, Poland: COMPRINT, Poznan Univ. of Technology , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ordinary employees in service innovation. Departing from the service-dominant (S-D) logic, service innovation is conceptualized as a resource integration process leading to the creation of value propositions.

    Methodology

    The paper reports on a case study of service development at three different organizations. Twenty ordinary employees were interviewed. Ordinary employees are defined as those lacking a formal innovation obligation, e.g. frontline employees. These normally have knowledge of both the customers’ needs and the firm’s ability to realize these.

    Findings

    The findings suggest that ordinary employees contribute to service innovation by test-driving resource integrations and potential value propositions. Specifically, the findings suggest that ordinary employees use three different ways of test-driving resources: Cognitive test-driving; Test-driving in practice, and Discursive test-driving. Although the findings suggest that these ways of test-driving resources are intertwined, they also suggest that parts of the innovation process are dominated by one of these.

    Research limitations/implications

    This article is based on a case study of three organizations, thus limiting the possibility of statistical generalization.

    Originality/value

    The study is novel in several respects: (i) it introduces the notion of resource test-driving; (ii) it provides a systematic empirical analysis of how ordinary employees contribute to service innovation through test-driving resource integrations and new value propositions; (iii) it offers an S-D logic informed service innovation model; (iv) it contributes to the S-D logic by detailing how resource integration takes place in practice.

  • 189.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The downside of ambiguity2015In: 22nd Innovation & Product Development Management Conference, Copenhagen, June 15-16, 2015: Improving Competitivness with Innovation and Product Development, EIASM , 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 190.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The role of perceived comprehension in idea evaluation2018In: Creativity and Innovation ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Idea evaluation is a vital stage in the front end of innovation, which helps managers decide the direction of future innovation projects. Often, idea evaluations are crowdsourced from users in order to know their preferences. However, since early ideas are incomplete, evaluations may be exposed to cognitive bias. Previous research suggests that people have a tendency to fill inthe gaps in idea descriptions and understand them implicitly, but this can lead to additional processing and result in the undervaluation of the idea. This study tests the relationship betweenidea completeness, the assessors’ subjective comprehension, and the perceived quality of early ideas for public transport services. The results show that there is no consistently direct effect between completeness and idea quality, which suggests that idea evaluations do not rely on informed decision‐making (i.e., decisions based on the provided information). In fact, people who think they comprehend an idea also perceive its quality more higher than people who do not comprehend it. An increase in completeness acts as an aid for comprehension. These findings have important implications for idea management, and point to the significant effect of incomprehension during evaluation, something which needs to be taken into account when using crowdsourcing.

  • 191.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    A conceptual model of the idea construct in innovation contexts: Laying the groundwork for a generative idea assessment approach2015In: Academy of Management Proceedings: Meeting Abstract Supplement / [ed] John Humphreys, academy of management , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 17256-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    innovation? What actually constitutes a new idea is seldom reflected upon by idea management literature. The lack of a unified understanding of what constitutes an idea might result in potentially good ideas being rejected due to not being elaborated enough to receive a fair assessment. Furthermore, the lack of solid definition of an idea has implications for research on idea management, as empirical studies on ideation and idea evaluation are difficult to compare when the studied object – the idea – is not defined. Based on a synthesis of psychology and management research, this paper contributes with a conceptual model of the idea construct. It identifies the need for ideas to possess a degree of completion before being assessed. The model assists a greater understanding of when an idea is ready to be assessed. We further discuss the models’ implications for idea management in the early phases of the idea management process with respect to two different aspects of idea nurturing. The idea definition presented in this paper has implications for reorganising the idea assessment process to incorporate value adding activates such as idea nurturing.

  • 192.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Rethinking idea assessment: the generative approach2015In: Innovation & Product Development Management Conference - IPDM, Copenhagen,: EIASM , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Sukhov, Alexandre
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The downside of ambiguity2015In: Innovation & Product Development Management Conference - IPDM, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Handledning för insatser riktade mot tjänsteverksamheter och tjänsteinnovation2012Report (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The effect of evaluation apprehension on creative performance at everyday workplaces.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Tarasi, Crina O
    et al.
    USA.
    Bolton, Ruth N
    USA.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway .
    Walker, Beth A
    Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway .
    Relationship Characteristics and Cash Flow Variability: Implications for Satisfaction, Loyalty and Customer Portfolio Management2013In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 121-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service firms seek customers with high revenues, profits, or lifetime value. However, they frequently ignore variations in consumption that lead to cash flow variability and adversely influence service operations and financial performance. This study shows that variation in individual customers' consumption or spending on services can be decreased in ways that are actionable by most managers, without decreasing revenues or profits. First, customer satisfaction has a ``double-whammy'' effect: lower cash flow variability and higher cash flow levels. This finding is important because firms can increase satisfaction in many ways. Second, customers who participate in loyalty programs have more variable cash flows, but not higher average cash flows. Hence, firms should design loyalty programs to improve customer satisfaction or intangible benefits (e.g., membership recognition), rather than offering economic incentives. Third, customers who purchase many different offerings, or allocate a large share of their purchases to the firm, have higher cash flow variability and higher average cash flows. Firms can optimize the customer portfolio by combining customers with high variability with customers who have different, offsetting cash flow patterns. Fourth, personal characteristics, such as age and income, also influence cash flow variability. Empirical findings are robust across two settings: telecommunications and financial services. The study describes sensitivity analyses of how different service and relationship marketing strategies influence a firm's business outcomes. The article concludes with insights into how to integrate service management principles, which emphasize consistency or low variability in processes, with customer relationship management principles that emphasize growing relationships and cash flows.

  • 197.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
    Griffith University.
    A conceptual co-design framework for transformative service research2017In: Proceedings of the QUIS15 International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management., Porto: FEUP - Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portuga , 2017, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scott, Don
    Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.
    Team diversity and its management in a co-design team2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 199.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Monitoring quality of service at Australian airports: A critical analysis2018In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 67, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of service monitoring forms a key element of the current light-handed regulation at Australian airports. The ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) evaluates and publicly reports the quality of service levels of the four largest airports on a yearly basis to pressure airports to maintain an acceptable service performance. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the methodology used by the ACCC. This analysis includes a critical review of the methodology based on secondary information in combination with primary research (i.e., data from 21 semi-structured interviews) that considers the current perception of the methodology among key stakeholder groups. The research finds that the methodology used by the ACCC is underpinned by some limitations, putting in question its effectiveness, reliability and validity. Particularly, its weak design does not allow for a comprehensive interpretation of the reported results or a reliable comparison across monitored airports, thus reduces transparency. Stakeholders pointed out that it is not possible to evaluate whether an airport undertakes infrastructure investments that ensure both the efficiency of ongoing airport operations and appropriate levels of service quality. These limitations add to the perception that the ACCC in its current function is not a 'credible threat' to airports with market power. Recommendations and future research directions are provided to address the identified limitations.

  • 200.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Pervan, Simon J.
    Swinburne University of Technology.
    Kelly, Stephen J.
    Massey University.
    Scott, Don R.
    Southern Cross University.
    The value of codesign: The effect of customer involvement in service design teams2018In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 75-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Codesign allows a design team to combine two sets of knowledge that are key to service design: Customer insights into latent user needs and in-house professionals’ conversion of promising new ideas into viable concepts. While some studies highlight the potential of codesign, others are more skeptical pointing to a lack of clarity over how the involvement of customers affects the design process and outcomes. This article addresses this knowledge gap by reporting on a real-world comparison of design concepts generated by codesign teams with those generated by an in-house professional team and a team solely made up of users in the course of a library service ideation contest. The comparison indicates that codesign teams generate concepts that score significantly higher in user benefit and novelty but lower in feasibility. However, these outcomes are only possible in cohesive teams that develop design concepts collaboratively. In contrast, in teams where individuals dominate, conflict, less collaboration, and diminished innovation outcomes are more likely. The findings add to a better understanding of the value of codesign and shed light on the complex relationship between design team composition, intrateam factors, and innovation outcomes. Service designers obtain recommendations for selecting customers, assembling teams, and managing intrateam dynamics to enhance codesign success.

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